Science.gov

Sample records for energy efficiency improvements

  1. Improving aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, F. P.; Klineberg, J. M.; Kramer, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations conducted by a NASA task force concerning the development of aeronautical fuel-conservation technology are considered. The task force estimated the fuel savings potential, prospects for implementation in the civil air-transport fleet, and the impact of the technology on air-transport fuel use. Propulsion advances are related to existing engines in the fleet, to new production of current engine types, and to new engine designs. Studies aimed at the evolutionary improvement of aerodynamic design and a laminar flow control program are discussed and possibilities concerning the use of composite structural materials are examined.

  2. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) is available at no charge to help the petroleum refining and chemicals industries develop a cost-effective, plant-wide strategy for NOx reduction and energy efficiency improvements.

  3. Improving the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Christoph; Gladisch, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The energy consumption of telecommunication networks has gained increasing interest throughout the recent past: Besides its environmental implications it has been identified to be a major contributor to operational expenditures of network operators. Targeting at sustainable telecommunication networks, thus, it is important to find appropriate strategies for improving their energy efficiency before the background of rapidly increasing traffic volumes. Besides the obvious benefits of increasing energy efficiency of network elements by leveraging technology progress, load-adaptive network operation is a very promising option, i.e. using network resources only to an extent and for the time they are actually needed. In contrast, current network operation takes almost no advantage of the strongly time-variant behaviour of the network traffic load. Mechanisms for energy-aware load-adaptive network operation can be subdivided in techniques based on local autonomous or per-link decisions and in techniques relying on coordinated decisions incorporating information from several links. For the transformation from current network structures and operation paradigms towards energy-efficient and sustainable networks it will be essential to use energy-optimized network elements as well as including the overall energy consumption in network design and planning phases together with the energy-aware load-adaptive operation. In load-adaptive operation it will be important to establish the optimum balance between local and overarching power management concepts in telecommunication networks.

  4. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  5. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  6. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  7. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  9. USA: 11 years improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-27

    Energy efficiency of the US economy has improved steadily for 11 consecutive years, as shown with data processed by Energy Detente. Between 1970 and 1981, the energy required to produce one constant dollar of goods and services has been reduced by 25.2% and experts expect further reduction in 1982. The same thing is happening in all industrialized countries. If this trend continues and if the world economy recovers in 1983, the developed world will experience times of economic growth without a corresponding increase in energy consumption. If this happens, it would be several years before energy consumption in industrialized countries reaches 1979 levels. However, North America has been doing other things that are promising for OPEC's destiny: Canada's private sector not participating in the Alsands and Cold Lake megaprojects; the political undermining of the Synthetic Fuel Corp. in the US; retreat of Exxon from the Colony (oil shale) project; cancelling or delaying other lesser syncrude projects when oil prices dropped slightly; delay of the Alaskan gas pipeline; and possible extension of time for development of the Orinoco Oil Belt in Venezuela. Brief summaries of energy activities in several Latin American countries and Canada are included. Also, the fuel price/tax series is updated for Western Hemisphere countries.

  10. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  11. Impact of improved building thermal efficiency on residential energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.; Rockwood, A.D.

    1983-04-01

    The impact of improved building shell thermal efficiency on residential energy demand is explored in a theoretical framework. The important economic literature on estimating the price elasticity of residential energy demand is reviewed. The specification of the residential energy demand model is presented. The data used are described. The empirical estimation of the residential energy demand model is described. (MHR)

  12. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James G.; Hayden, H. Wayne; Angelini, Peter; Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. McKinley, David B. [R-WV-1

    2013-05-23

    03/06/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  15. Linking quality improvement and energy efficiency/waste reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Moore, N.L.

    1995-04-01

    For some time industry has recognized the importance of both energy efficiency/waste reduction (ee/wr) and quality/manufacturing improvement. However, industry has not particularly recognized that manufacturing efficiency is, in part, the result of a more efficient use of energy. For that reason, the energy efficiency efforts of most companies have involved admonishing employees to save energy. Few organizations have invested resources in training programs aimed at increasing energy efficiency and reducing waste. This describes a program to demonstrate how existing utility and government training and incentive programs can be leveraged to increase ee/wr and benefit both industry and consumers. Fortunately, there are a variety of training tools and resources that can be applied to educating workers on the benefits of energy efficiency and waste reduction. What is lacking is a method of integrating ee/wr training with other important organizational needs. The key, therefore, is to leverage ee/wr investments with other organizational improvement programs. There are significant strides to be made by training industry to recognize fully the contribution that energy efficiency gains make to the bottom line. The federal government stands in the unique position of being able to leverage the investments already made by states, utilities, and manufacturing associations by coordinating training programs and defining the contribution of energy-efficiency practices. These aims can be accomplished by: developing better measures of energy efficiency and waste reduction; promoting methods of leveraging manufacturing efficiency programs with energy efficiency concepts; helping industry understand how ee/wr investments can increase profits; promoting research on the needs of, and most effective ways to, reach the small and medium-sized businesses that so often lack the time, information, and finances to effectively use the hardware and training technologies available.

  16. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Improvements to Portable Classrooms in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Anello, Michael T.

    Findings are presented from a 2-year experiment exploring ways to reduce energy costs and improve the learning environment in Florida's 25,000 portable classrooms. Improvements were made in two highly instrumented portable classrooms in the following areas: installation of a T8 lighting system with electronic ballasts; a high efficiency heat pump…

  17. Wastewater treatment facilities: Energy efficient improvements and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkle, R.; Gray, R.; Delzel, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has worked with both the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance to local governments. Based on a recent study conducted by Ecotope for WSEO, local governments spend an estimated $45 million on utility bills statewide. Water and wastewater facilities account for almost a third of this cost. As a result, WSEO decided to focus its efforts on the energy intensive water and wastewater sector. The ultimate goal of this project was to develop mechanisms to incorporate energy efficiency improvements into wastewater treatment facilities in retrofits and during upgrades, remodels, and new construction. Project activities included the following: The review of the existing regulatory environment for treatment system construction, A summary of financing options for efficiency improvements in treatment facilities, A literature review of energy efficiency opportunities in treatment plants, Survey and site visits to characterize existing facilities in Washington State, Estimates of the energy efficiency and cogeneration potential in the sector, and A case study to illustrate the implementation of an efficiency improvement in a treatment facility.

  18. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  19. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    SciTech Connect

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  20. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  2. Energy Efficient Strategy for Throughput Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Sohail; Minhas, Abid Ali; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Shehzad; Saleem, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Network lifetime and throughput are one of the prime concerns while designing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most of the existing schemes are either geared towards prolonging network lifetime or improving throughput. This paper presents an energy efficient routing scheme for throughput improvement in WSN. The proposed scheme exploits multilayer cluster design for energy efficient forwarding node selection, cluster heads rotation and both inter- and intra-cluster routing. To improve throughput, we rotate the role of cluster head among various nodes based on two threshold levels which reduces the number of dropped packets. We conducted simulations in the NS2 simulator to validate the performance of the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the performance efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of various metrics compared to similar approaches published in the literature. PMID:25625902

  3. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  4. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation. PMID:24388133

  5. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation.

  6. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  7. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  8. Improving the Energy Efficiency of Pumped-Storage Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukh, S. F.; Galat, V. V.; Kuz’min, V. V.; Chervonenko, I. I.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Sokur, P. V.

    2015-01-15

    Possible ways to improve the energy efficiency of hydroelectric generating sets of pumped-storage power plants (PSPPs) are studied. The Kiev PSPP is used as an example to show how its generating sets can be upgraded. It is concluded based on studies conducted that synchronous motor-generators should be replaced with asynchronized motor-generators. The feasibility of changing over the turbine to variable-speed operation is shown.

  9. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  10. 76 FR 43287 - Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... 1904-AC18 Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in...) would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code, than the 2004 edition... Conservation and Production Act, as amended (ECPA), establishes requirements for the Building Energy...

  11. Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A.; Bohman, R.H.

    1995-04-01

    Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

  12. 7 CFR 4280.165 - Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements. 4280.165 Section 4280.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Combined Funding for Renewable...

  13. 7 CFR 4280.165 - Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements. 4280.165 Section 4280.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Combined Funding for Renewable...

  14. 7 CFR 4280.165 - Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combined funding for renewable energy systems and energy efficiency improvements. 4280.165 Section 4280.165 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Combined Funding for Renewable...

  15. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  16. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    European partners contributed to the attempt to develop the energy flow calculation model designed for said spa into a numerical planning tool with broad applicability to other technical boundary conditions. This aim could not yet be fully achieved with the given means, by virtue of the fact that huge differences exist among spas, regarding technical design (sometimes accumulations of ad-hoc solutions to past technical problems) as well as characteristic energy demand of the various functional units of the investigated facilities. What could be achieved, though, was a better understanding how the communication between clients and consultants shall be conducted and what steps have to be taken in order to reach the original goal in a subsequent project. Furthermore, it was the ideational aim of our work to set up a network of established players, capable of influencing national developments, and make it a proponent of the envisaged improvements in their home countries and beyond. Among the recommended measures to improve on the energy management of existing thermal spas, on the one hand, there are those that only specialized knowledge can reveal or the proper application of which only painstaking monitoring and calculation can ascertain and which, therefore, will not easily be at the hand of many planners. These include, for example, combining geothermal heat with advanced heating technology (gas condensing boiler, cogeneration plant) for peak load conditions, deciding on the kind of advanced technology to be used (condensing boiler or cogeneration plus heat pump), making consistent said technology with the temperature control system (e.g. substitution of bypass design of heat exchanger control by volume flow control); introducing solar energy, in particular, has to be carefully designed. On the other hand, there are some improvements to be called for, which are meaningful and applicable even as belated additions, and in cases would, on top of this, be obvious to most non

  17. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  18. Energy use from 1973 to 1980: The role of improved energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.; Barnes, R. W.; Cohn, S. M.; Corum, K. R.; Greene, D. L.; Hamblin, D. M.; Kulp, G.; Reister, D. B.; Vineyard, T. A.

    1981-12-01

    The post-embargo period is examined in terms of energy use in each of the major sectors: residential and commercial buildings, transportation, and industry. The analysis deals with two issues: what changes occurred in energy use during this period relative to pre-embargo trends, and why these changes occurred. Energy use in 1980 (76 Quads) was substantially lower than pre-embargo trends would suggest (by roughly 20 Quads). About half of this 20 Quad reduction was due to slower growth in economic activity. The remainder was due to improvements in energy efficiency, spurred primarily by rising fuel prices and also by government and utility conservation programs. The 1980 increase in overall energy efficiency (ten Quads) was due primarily to technical efficiency improvements (60%) and secondarily to operational changes (40%).

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Ferroelectric polymer networks with high energy density and improved discharged efficiency for dielectric energy storage.

    PubMed

    Khanchaitit, Paisan; Han, Kuo; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; Wang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers are being actively explored as dielectric materials for electrical energy storage applications. However, their high dielectric constants and outstanding energy densities are accompanied by large dielectric loss due to ferroelectric hysteresis and electrical conduction, resulting in poor charge-discharge efficiencies under high electric fields. To address this long-standing problem, here we report the ferroelectric polymer networks exhibiting significantly reduced dielectric loss, superior polarization and greatly improved breakdown strength and reliability, while maintaining their fast discharge capability at a rate of microseconds. These concurrent improvements lead to unprecedented charge-discharge efficiencies and large values of the discharged energy density and also enable the operation of the ferroelectric polymers at elevated temperatures, which clearly outperforms the melt-extruded ferroelectric polymer films that represents the state of the art in dielectric polymers. The simplicity and scalability of the described method further suggest their potential for high energy density capacitors.

  2. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    European partners contributed to the attempt to develop the energy flow calculation model designed for said spa into a numerical planning tool with broad applicability to other technical boundary conditions. This aim could not yet be fully achieved with the given means, by virtue of the fact that huge differences exist among spas, regarding technical design (sometimes accumulations of ad-hoc solutions to past technical problems) as well as characteristic energy demand of the various functional units of the investigated facilities. What could be achieved, though, was a better understanding how the communication between clients and consultants shall be conducted and what steps have to be taken in order to reach the original goal in a subsequent project. Furthermore, it was the ideational aim of our work to set up a network of established players, capable of influencing national developments, and make it a proponent of the envisaged improvements in their home countries and beyond. Among the recommended measures to improve on the energy management of existing thermal spas, on the one hand, there are those that only specialized knowledge can reveal or the proper application of which only painstaking monitoring and calculation can ascertain and which, therefore, will not easily be at the hand of many planners. These include, for example, combining geothermal heat with advanced heating technology (gas condensing boiler, cogeneration plant) for peak load conditions, deciding on the kind of advanced technology to be used (condensing boiler or cogeneration plus heat pump), making consistent said technology with the temperature control system (e.g. substitution of bypass design of heat exchanger control by volume flow control); introducing solar energy, in particular, has to be carefully designed. On the other hand, there are some improvements to be called for, which are meaningful and applicable even as belated additions, and in cases would, on top of this, be obvious to most non

  3. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this

  5. World population and energy growth: Impact on the Caribbean and the roles of energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes population and energy use trends and their consequences, particularly to the Caribbean region. Historical trends for transitional countries show a decrease in population growth rate as annual per capita commercial energy use increases. If trends continue, an increase in per capita energy will be important to stabilizing populations of transitional countries. Energy efficiency improvements, the role of fossil energy, and the use of alternative energy sources in Caribbean nations are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  7. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  8. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  9. Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt

    2014-04-01

    The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback.

  10. Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt

    2014-04-01

    The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback. PMID:24827219

  11. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  13. Low pressure drop wet scrubbers save energy and improve efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, M.L.; Phillips, N.D. )

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of wet scrubber design has responded to the need for increased efficiency without the traditional penalty of increased horsepower. This is accomplished by liquid power (ejector venturi) or a combination of gas power and air power (air atomized scrubber). For existing installations, a retrofit payback of 1-1/2 years or less is achievable. For new installations requiring a wet scrubber, an immediate realization of savings is possible.

  14. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  15. Improving energy efficiency in robot limbs through hydraulic dangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Julian S.; Meller, Mike; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2015-03-01

    Animals often allow their limbs to swing passively under their own inertia. For example, about 40% of a human walking gait consists of the primarily passive swing phase. Current hydraulic robots employ traditional actuation methods in which fluid power is expended for all limb movements, even when passive dynamics could be utilized. "Dangle" is the ability to allow a hydraulic actuator to freely sway in response to external loads, in which both sides of the actuator are disconnected from pressure and connected to the tank. Dangle offers the opportunity for efficiency gains by enabling the use of momentum, gravity, and external loads to move a limb without expending fluid power. To demonstrate these efficiency gains, this paper presents an experiment that compares the fluid power consumed to actuate a two degree of freedom hydraulic leg following a human walking gait cycle trajectory in both a traditional manner and utilizing dangle. It was shown that the use of dangle can decrease fluid power consumption by 20% by utilizing pendular dynamics during the swing phase. At speeds higher than the free dangling rate, more power must be used to maintain the desired trajectory due to damping inherent in the configuration. The use of dangle as a power saving method when driving hydraulic limbs could increase operation time for untethered hydraulic walking robots.

  16. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    1997-07-01

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually.

  17. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  18. Single-Step Ironmaking from Ore to Improve Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; B. Anamerie; T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    The pig iron nugget process was developed as an alternative to the traditional blast furnace process by Kobe Steel. The process aimed to produce pig iron nuggets, which have similar chemical and physical properties to blast furnace pig iron, in a single step. The pig iron nugget process utilizes coal instead of coke and self reducing and fluxing dried green balls instead of pellets and sinters. In this process the environmental emissions caused by coke and sinter production, and energy lost between pellet induration (heat hardening) and transportation to the blast furnace can be eliminated. The objectives of this research were to (1) produce pig iron nuggets in the laboratory, (2) characterize the pig iron nugget produced and compare them with blast furnace pig iron, (3) investigate the furnace temperature and residence time effects on the pig iron nugget production, and (4) optimize the operational furnace temperatures and residence times. The experiments involved heat treatment of self reducing and fluxing dried green balls at various furnace temperatures and residence times. Three chemically and physically different products were produced after the compete reduction of iron oxides to iron depending on the operational furnace temperatures and/or residence times. These products were direct reduced iron (DRI), transition direct reduced iron (TDRI), and pig iron nuggets. The increase in the carbon content of the system as a function of furnace temperature and/or residence time dictated the formation of these products. The direct reduced iron, transition direct reduced iron, and pig iron nuggets produced were analyzed for their chemical composition, degree of metallization, apparent density, microstructure and microhardness. In addition, the change in the carbon content of the system with the changing furnace temperature and/or residence time was detected by optical microscopy and Microhardness measurements. The sufficient carbon dissolution required for the

  19. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  2. A Survey of Methods for Analyzing and Improving GPU Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a phenomenal growth in the computational capabilities and applications of GPUs. However, this trend has also led to dramatic increase in their power consumption. This paper surveys research works on analyzing and improving energy efficiency of GPUs. It also provides a classification of these techniques on the basis of their main research idea. Further, it attempts to synthesize research works which compare energy efficiency of GPUs with other computing systems, e.g. FPGAs and CPUs. The aim of this survey is to provide researchers with knowledge of state-of-the-art in GPU power management and motivate them to architect highly energy-efficient GPUs of tomorrow.

  3. NASEO and Educational Associations Working with Members To Improve Energy Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts by the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA), and the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) to share information and explore joint opportunities for improving energy efficiency in higher education facilities. (EV)

  4. Use of GIS-based site-specific nitrogen management for improving energy efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is a significant energy component of in support of crop production but it can be highly variable within fields. To our knowledge, no efforts have been made to employ GIS-based site-specific N management (SSNM) to assess and improve energy costs and efficiency. We examine recent SSNM ca...

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.; Rutter, A.; Briggs, D.

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet its energy goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) has partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies. The scope of this project was to demonstrate tools and technologies to reduce energy use in military housing, with particular emphasis on measuring and reducing loads related to consumer electronics (commonly referred to as 'plug loads'), hot water, and whole-house cooling.

  6. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Mark D; Christopher, Timothy W; Oland, C Barry

    2011-06-01

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL

  7. Establishing strategic energy assessment indicators for Zimbabwe: A key to improving electrical energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Felix

    In Zimbabwe, there is still very little realization of the potential of demand side management (DSM) to increase industrial energy efficiency. Without clear guidelines that indicate the most economic energy efficiency strategies to implement, it is difficult for industry to easily evaluate the benefits of energy assessments. This research focused on establishing and evaluating indicators that guide correct implementation of energy assessments into Zimbabwean industry. This quantitative and qualitative study used a theoretic approach to develop indicators that identified industrial subsectors that should be targeted for DSM interventions. This may bring about reduction in energy demand in high power consuming Zimbabwean industrial companies, which were compared with energy utility performances of similar industrial companies in countries located in other parts of the world. This research used pattern-matching, categorical aggregation, and stochastic frontier regression analysis for data analysis. In maximizing electrical efficiency, the implications of this study may be used by individual companies in Zimbabwe to perform energy efficiency self-diagnoses, operational efficiency evaluations, and capital resource justifications. From a societal perspective, this study may benefit Zimbabwe because it provides opportunities for the alleviation of both shortages in power supply and the capital constraints of building new generating capacity. This study will also benefit ordinary Zimbabweans by lowering energy costs and providing reliable power. This promotes sustainable economic growth and lowers the need for foreign currency to import power.

  8. Making energy efficiency happen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-04-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  9. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  10. Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification to improve resource and energy efficiency in syngas production.

    PubMed

    Iaquaniello, G; Salladini, A; Palo, E; Centi, G

    2015-02-01

    Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification is a new process scheme to improve resource and energy efficiency in a well-established and large scale-process like syngas production. Experimentation in a semi industrial-scale unit (20 Nm(3)  h(-1) production) shows that a novel syngas production scheme based on a pre-reforming stage followed by a membrane for hydrogen separation, a catalytic partial oxidation step, and a further step of syngas purification by membrane allows the oxygen-to-carbon ratio to be decreased while maintaining levels of feed conversion. For a total feed conversion of 40 %, for example, the integrated novel architecture reduces oxygen consumption by over 50 %, with thus a corresponding improvement in resource efficiency and an improved energy efficiency and economics, these factors largely depending on the air separation stage used to produce pure oxygen.

  11. Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification to improve resource and energy efficiency in syngas production.

    PubMed

    Iaquaniello, G; Salladini, A; Palo, E; Centi, G

    2015-02-01

    Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification is a new process scheme to improve resource and energy efficiency in a well-established and large scale-process like syngas production. Experimentation in a semi industrial-scale unit (20 Nm(3)  h(-1) production) shows that a novel syngas production scheme based on a pre-reforming stage followed by a membrane for hydrogen separation, a catalytic partial oxidation step, and a further step of syngas purification by membrane allows the oxygen-to-carbon ratio to be decreased while maintaining levels of feed conversion. For a total feed conversion of 40 %, for example, the integrated novel architecture reduces oxygen consumption by over 50 %, with thus a corresponding improvement in resource efficiency and an improved energy efficiency and economics, these factors largely depending on the air separation stage used to produce pure oxygen. PMID:25571881

  12. Organic electroluminescent devices and method for improving energy efficiency and optical stability thereof

    DOEpatents

    Heller, Christian Maria

    2004-04-27

    An organic electroluminescent device ("OELD") has a controllable brightness, an improved energy efficiency, and stable optical output at low brightness. The OELD is activated with a series of voltage pulses, each of which has a maximum voltage value that corresponds to the maximum power efficiency when the OELD is activated. The frequency of the pulses, or the duty cycle, or both are chosen to provide the desired average brightness.

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  14. Improved Methods for Identifying, Applying, and Verifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Andrew Chase

    Energy efficiency is the least expensive source of additional energy capacity for today's global energy expansion. Energy efficiency offers additional benefits of cost savings for consumers, reduced environmental impacts, and enhanced energy security. The challenges of energy efficiency include identifying potential efficiency measures, quantifying savings, determining cost effectiveness, and verifying savings of installed measures. This thesis presents three separate chapters which address these challenges. The first is a paper presented at the 2014 industrial energy technology conference (IETC) that details a compressed air system project using the systems approach to identify cost effective measures, energy intensity to project savings, and proper measurement and verification (M&V) practices to prove that the savings were achieved. The second is a discussion of proper M&V techniques, how these apply to international M&V protocols, and how M&V professionals can improve the accuracy and efficacy of their M&V activities. The third is an energy intensity analysis of a poultry processing facility at a unit operations level, which details the M&V practices used to determine the intensities at each unit operation and compares these to previous works.

  15. Reducing Vehicle Weight and Improving U.S. Energy Efficiency Using Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joost, William J.

    2012-09-01

    Transportation accounts for approximately 28% of U.S. energy consumption with the majority of transportation energy derived from petroleum sources. Many technologies such as vehicle electrification, advanced combustion, and advanced fuels can reduce transportation energy consumption by improving the efficiency of cars and trucks. Lightweight materials are another important technology that can improve passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 6-8% for each 10% reduction in weight while also making electric and alternative vehicles more competitive. Despite the opportunities for improved efficiency, widespread deployment of lightweight materials for automotive structures is hampered by technology gaps most often associated with performance, manufacturability, and cost. In this report, the impact of reduced vehicle weight on energy efficiency is discussed with a particular emphasis on quantitative relationships determined by several researchers. The most promising lightweight materials systems are described along with a brief review of the most significant technical barriers to their implementation. For each material system, the development of accurate material models is critical to support simulation-intensive processing and structural design for vehicles; improved models also contribute to an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approach for addressing technical barriers and accelerating deployment. The value of computational techniques is described by considering recent ICME and computational materials science success stories with an emphasis on applying problem-specific methods.

  16. Improving Energy Efficiency and Enabling Water Recycle in Biorefineries Using Bioelectrochemical Cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P

    2010-01-01

    Improving biofuel yield and water reuse are two important issues in further development of biorefineries. The total energy content of liquid fuels (including ethanol and hydrocarbon) produced from cellulosic biomass via biochemical or hybrid bio-thermochemical routes can vary from 49% to 70% of the biomass entering the biorefinery, on an energy basis. Use of boiler for combustion of residual organics and lignin results in significant energy and water losses. An alternate process to improve energy recovery from the residual organic streams is via use of bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The potential advantages of this alternative scheme in a biorefinery include minimization of heat loss and generation of a higher value product, hydrogen. The need for 5-15 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol can be reduced significantly via recycle of water after MEC treatment. Removal of inhibitory byproducts such as furans, phenolics and acetate in MFC/MECs to generate energy, thus, has dual advantages including improvements in energy efficiency and ability to recycle water. Conversion of the sugar- and lignin- degradation products to hydrogen is synergistic with biorefinery hydrogen requirements for upgrading F-T liquids and other byproducts to high-octane fuels and/or high value products. Some of these products include sorbitol, succinic acid, furan and levulinate derivatives, glycols, polyols, 1,4-butenadiol, phenolics polymers, etc. Potential process alternatives utilizing MECs in biorefineries capable of improving energy efficiency by up to 30% are discussed.

  17. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  18. Improving the energy efficiency of sparse linear system solvers on multicore and manycore systems.

    PubMed

    Anzt, H; Quintana-Ortí, E S

    2014-06-28

    While most recent breakthroughs in scientific research rely on complex simulations carried out in large-scale supercomputers, the power draft and energy spent for this purpose is increasingly becoming a limiting factor to this trend. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current status in energy-efficient scientific computing by reviewing different technologies used to monitor power draft as well as power- and energy-saving mechanisms available in commodity hardware. For the particular domain of sparse linear algebra, we analyse the energy efficiency of a broad collection of hardware architectures and investigate how algorithmic and implementation modifications can improve the energy performance of sparse linear system solvers, without negatively impacting their performance. PMID:24842036

  19. Improving the energy efficiency of sparse linear system solvers on multicore and manycore systems.

    PubMed

    Anzt, H; Quintana-Ortí, E S

    2014-06-28

    While most recent breakthroughs in scientific research rely on complex simulations carried out in large-scale supercomputers, the power draft and energy spent for this purpose is increasingly becoming a limiting factor to this trend. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current status in energy-efficient scientific computing by reviewing different technologies used to monitor power draft as well as power- and energy-saving mechanisms available in commodity hardware. For the particular domain of sparse linear algebra, we analyse the energy efficiency of a broad collection of hardware architectures and investigate how algorithmic and implementation modifications can improve the energy performance of sparse linear system solvers, without negatively impacting their performance.

  20. Software augmented buildings: Exploiting existing infrastructure to improve energy efficiency and comfort in commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bharathan

    Commercial buildings consume 19% of energy in the US as of 2010, and traditionally, their energy use has been optimized through improved equipment efficiency and retrofits. Beyond improved hardware and infrastructure, there exists a tremendous potential in reducing energy use through better monitoring and operation. We present several applications that we developed and deployed to support our thesis that building energy use can be reduced through sensing, monitoring and optimization software that modulates use of building subsystems including HVAC. We focus on HVAC systems as these constitute 48-55% of building energy use. Specifically, in case of sensing, we describe an energy apportionment system that enables us to estimate real-time zonal HVAC power consumption by analyzing existing sensor information. With this energy breakdown, we can measure effectiveness of optimization solutions and identify inefficiencies. Central to energy efficiency improvement is determination of human occupancy in buildings. But this information is often unavailable or expensive to obtain using wide scale sensor deployment. We present our system that infers room level occupancy inexpensively by leveraging existing WiFi infrastructure. Occupancy information can be used not only to directly control HVAC but also to infer state of the building for predictive control. Building energy use is strongly influenced by human behaviors, and timely feedback mechanisms can encourage energy saving behavior. Occupants interact with HVAC using thermostats which has shown to be inadequate for thermal comfort. Building managers are responsible for incorporating energy efficiency measures, but our interviews reveal that they struggle to maintain efficiency due to lack of analytical tools and contextual information. We present our software services that provide energy feedback to occupants and building managers, improves comfort with personalized control and identifies energy wasting faults. For wide

  1. Estimating the impacts of federal efforts to improve energy efficiency: The case of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    LaMontagne, J; Jones, R; Nicholls, A; Shankle, S

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) has for more than a decade focused its efforts on research to develop new technologies for improving the efficiency of energy use and increasing the role of renewable energy; success has usually been measured in term of energy saved or displaced. Estimates of future energy savings remain an important factor in program planning and prioritization. A variety of internal and external factors are now radically changing the planning process, and in turn the composition and thrust of the EE program. The Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (and the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan), and concerns for the future of the economy (especially employment and international competitiveness) are increasing emphasis on technology deployment and near-term results. The Reinventing Government Initiative, the Government Performance and Results Act, and the Executive Order on Environmental Justice are all forcing Federal programs to demonstrate that they are producing desired results in a cost-effective manner. The application of Total Quality management principles has increased the scope and importance of producing quantified measures of benefit. EE has established a process for estimating the benefits of DOE`s energy efficiency and renewable energy programs called ``Quality Metrics`` (QM). The ``metrics`` are: energy, employment, equity, environment, risk, economics. This paper describes the approach taken by EE`s Office of Building Technologies to prepare estimates of program benefits in terms of these metrics, presents the estimates, discusses their implications, and explores possible improvements to the QM process as it is currently configured.

  2. Estimating the impacts of federal efforts to improve energy efficiency: The case of building

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolls, A.K.; Shankle, S.A.; LaMontagne, J.; Jones, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [EE] has for more than a decade focused its efforts on research to develop new technologies for improving the efficiency of energy use and increasing the role of renewable energy; success has usually been measured in terms of energy saved or displaced. Estimates of future energy savings remain an important factor in program planning and prioritization. A variety of internal and external factors are now radically changing the planning process, and in turn the composition and thrust of the EE program. The Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (and the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan), and concerns for the future of the economy (especially employment and international competitiveness) are increasing emphasis on technology deployment and near-term results. The Reinventing Government Initiative, the Government Performance and Results Act, and the Executive Order on Environmental Justice are all forcing Federal programs to demonstrate that they are producing desired results in a cost-effective manner. The application of Total Quality Management principles has increased the scope and importance of producing quantified measures of benefit. EE has established a process for estimating the benefits of DOE`s energy efficiency and renewable energy programs called `Quality Metrics` (QM). The ``metrics`` are: Energy; Environment; Employment; Risk; Equity; Economics. This paper describes the approach taken by EE`s Office of Building Technologies to prepare estimates of program benefits in terms of these metrics, presents the estimates, discusses their implications, and explores possible improvements to the QM process as it is currently configured.

  3. Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

  4. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Anglani, Norma; Einstein, Dan; Krushch, Marta; Price, Lynn

    2001-02-02

    This paper analyzes the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reductions potential of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, one of the largest energy users in the U.S. manufacturing sector. We examined over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures. The measures were characterized, and then ordered on the basis of cost-effectiveness. The report indicates that there still exists significant potential for energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in this industry. The cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement is defined as having a simple pay-back period of three years or less. Not including increased recycling the study identifies a cost-effective savings potential of 16% of the primary energy use in 1994. Including increased recycling leads to a higher potential for energy savings, i.e. a range of cost-effective savings between 16% and 24% of primary energy use. Future work is needed to further elaborate on key energy efficiency measures identified in the report including barriers and opportunities for increased recycling of waste paper.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes. PMID:26676001

  6. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  7. Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    2001-07-22

    Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  9. Investigation of design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally designed refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A.; Bohman, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Several design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally-designed, domestic refrigerator freezers (RFs) were incorporated into two 1990 production RF cabinets and refrigeration systems. The baseline performance of the original units and unit components were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. A detailed refrigerator system computer model which could simulate cycling behavior was used to evaluate the daily energy use impacts for each modification, and modeled versus experimental results are compared. The model was shown to track measured RF performance improvement sufficiently well that it was used with some confidence to investigate additional options that could not be experimentally investigated. Substantial improvements in RF efficiency were demonstrated with relatively minor changes in system components and refrigeration circuit design. However, each improvement exacts a penalty in terms of increased cost or system complexity/reliability. For RF sizes typically sold in the United States (18-22 ft{sup 3} [510--620 1]), alternative, more-elaborate, refrigeration cycles may be required to achieve the program goal (1.00 Kilowatt-hour per day for a 560 l, top mount RF.

  10. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  11. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs. PMID:24045354

  12. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Baker, J.; Brand, L.; Wells, J.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  13. An empirical study on energy efficiency improvement through photovoltaic systems and a LED lighting control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Kwan; Lee, Jae Hyeong

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a facility was constructed and its performance was analyzed to improve the energy efficiency of a vertical-type water treatment building. After the design and construction of a fixed tilt Photovoltaic in Building (PVIB) on the rooftop using a crystalline silicon solar cell module and photovoltaic generator integrated with the building by using a Building Integrated Photovoltaic System (BIPV), a thin-film module on the rooftop and outer wall of water treatment building, and the generation efficiency was analyzed. Also, a DC distribution was established for use of a brushless DC (BLDC) pump motor, and the existing lighting-facility-based manual on-off method was turned into a system for energy conservation by controlling light emitting diode (LED) through a wireless motion sensor and dimming control. In addition, a Building Energy Management System (BEMS) for a real-time analysis of the energy efficiency for a vertical0type water treatment building was prepared and tested. The vertical-type water treatment building developed in this study is currently operating the BEMS. The vertical-type water treatment building reported in this paper is expected to reduce energy consumption by about 30% compared to existing water treatment systems.

  14. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Sebastien; Spurlock, C. Anna

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  15. Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants - Practical Examples and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.

  16. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. We report experiments in which cultures of the algae Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments we tested hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  17. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems.

    PubMed

    Radmer, R; Cox, J; Lieberman, D; Behrens, P; Arnett, K

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. We report experiments in which cultures of the algae Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments we tested hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  18. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. Experiments are reported in which cultures of the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments, hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae were tested to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  19. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  20. Energy Efficient Florida Educational Facilities. Improvements to a Portable Classroom in a Volusia County School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.

    The Florida Department of Education is monitoring the energy use of two adjacent portable classrooms to compare their energy efficiency in a hot and humid climate and determine if they can be made more energy efficient either by retrofit or when the portables were constructed. This report provides the background of this research and describes the…

  1. Improving energy efficiency of Embedded DRAM Caches for High-end Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S; Li, Dong

    2014-01-01

    With increasing system core-count, the size of last level cache (LLC) has increased and since SRAM consumes high leakage power, power consumption of LLCs is becoming a significant fraction of processor power consumption. To address this, researchers have used embedded DRAM (eDRAM) LLCs which consume low-leakage power. However, eDRAM caches consume a significant amount of energy in the form of refresh energy. In this paper, we propose ESTEEM, an energy saving technique for embedded DRAM caches. ESTEEM uses dynamic cache reconfiguration to turn-off a portion of the cache to save both leakage and refresh energy. It logically divides the cache sets into multiple modules and turns-off possibly different number of ways in each module. Microarchitectural simulations confirm that ESTEEM is effective in improving performance and energy efficiency and provides better results compared to a recently-proposed eDRAM cache energy saving technique, namely Refrint. For single and dual-core simulations, the average saving in memory subsystem (LLC+main memory) on using ESTEEM is 25.8% and 32.6%, respectively and average weighted speedup are 1.09X and 1.22X, respectively. Additional experiments confirm that ESTEEM works well for a wide-range of system parameters.

  2. Batch uniformity and energy efficiency improvements on a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers.

    PubMed

    Precoppe, Marcelo; Janjai, Serm; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Müller, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Drying can add value, facilitate transport and extend the storage life of agro-products; therefore, in developing countries with poorly established cool-chains, drying is particularly effective. Furthermore, drying within small-scale village-based enterprises contributes to rural development. However, most equipment suitable to such operations yields a product of non-uniform quality and shows low levels of energy efficiency. The aim of this research was to improve the batch uniformity and the energy efficiency of a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers. Experiments were carried out with the cooperation of a dryer manufacturer and a group of users. On each trial 144.5 kg of peeled and deseeded litchis were placed at the dryer's 17 trays, that were stacked atop each other. Moisture content (wet basis) was reduced from 87 to 23 % in about 15.5 h. It was found that a low-cost modification to the dryer chamber's air inlet was able to improve heat distribution and increase the uniformity of the fruit's moisture content. In the original design, at the end of the drying process, moisture content of the fruits on the top tray was 38 % while at the bottom tray was 12 %. The modification to the dryer reduced this disparity and the final moisture content of the fruits placed at the top tray was 25 % while at the bottom tray was 21 %. In addition, the modification reduced the dryer's air mass flow from 0.3 to 0.1 kg s(-1) without jeopardizing drying forces, consequently the dryer energy efficiency increased from 33 to 42 %.

  3. Batch uniformity and energy efficiency improvements on a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers.

    PubMed

    Precoppe, Marcelo; Janjai, Serm; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Müller, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Drying can add value, facilitate transport and extend the storage life of agro-products; therefore, in developing countries with poorly established cool-chains, drying is particularly effective. Furthermore, drying within small-scale village-based enterprises contributes to rural development. However, most equipment suitable to such operations yields a product of non-uniform quality and shows low levels of energy efficiency. The aim of this research was to improve the batch uniformity and the energy efficiency of a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers. Experiments were carried out with the cooperation of a dryer manufacturer and a group of users. On each trial 144.5 kg of peeled and deseeded litchis were placed at the dryer's 17 trays, that were stacked atop each other. Moisture content (wet basis) was reduced from 87 to 23 % in about 15.5 h. It was found that a low-cost modification to the dryer chamber's air inlet was able to improve heat distribution and increase the uniformity of the fruit's moisture content. In the original design, at the end of the drying process, moisture content of the fruits on the top tray was 38 % while at the bottom tray was 12 %. The modification to the dryer reduced this disparity and the final moisture content of the fruits placed at the top tray was 25 % while at the bottom tray was 21 %. In addition, the modification reduced the dryer's air mass flow from 0.3 to 0.1 kg s(-1) without jeopardizing drying forces, consequently the dryer energy efficiency increased from 33 to 42 %. PMID:26243902

  4. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based onSystem Audit

    SciTech Connect

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2007-06-01

    Industrial electric motor systems consume more than 600billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China selectricity use. The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimizing motor systems results in an improvement of 20-25 percent,which is well-supported by experience in both the U.S. and China.Compressed air systems in China use 9.4 percent of all electricity.Compressed air use in China is growing rapidly, as new industrial plantsare built and the production processes of existing plants expand andchange. Most of these systems, whether existing or new, are not optimizedfor energy efficiency. This paper will present a practitioner'sperspective on theemergence of compressed air auditing services inChina, specifically as it pertains to Shanghai and surrounding areas.Both the methodology used and the market development of these compressedair system services will be addressed. Finally, the potential for energysaving opportunities will be described based on highlights from over 50compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghai EnergyConservation Service Center, both during the United Nations IndustrialDevelopment Organization (UNIDO) China Motor System Energy ConservationProgram, and after this training program was completed.

  6. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  7. Improving boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, L.

    1982-06-24

    Boilers and burners are designed to operate most efficiently at, or near, full load. This fact seems to indicate that on/off operation is more efficient; however, standby losses must be considered. This article examines various types of industrial boiler heat losses that reduce efficiency and discusses methods for improving operation.

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Use By Federal Agencies Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Carper, Thomas R. [D-DE

    2010-04-22

    06/15/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-699. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production

  10. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvements to Wundar Hall, a Historic Building on the Concordia Campus, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Karman, Nathan

    2012-11-29

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC or Community) implemented energy efficiency improvements to revitalize Wundar Hall, a 34,000 square foot (SF) building that was formerly used as a dormitory and is listed on the National Registry of Historic Places, into an office building. Wundar Hall is the first of many architecturally and historically significant buildings that the Community hopes to renovate at the former Concordia College campus, property on the near west side of Milwaukee that was taken into trust for the Community by the United States on July 10, 1990 (collectively, the Concordia Trust Property). As part of this project, which was conducted with assistance from the Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program (TEP), the Community updated and/or replaced the building envelope, mechanical systems, the plumbing system, the electrical infrastructure, and building control systems. The project is expected to reduce the building's natural gas consumption by 58% and the electricity consumption by 55%. In addition, the project was designed to act as a catalyst to further renovation of the Concordia Trust Property and the neighborhood. The City of Milwaukee has identified redevelopment of the Concordia Trust Property as a Catalytic Project for revitalizing the near west side. The Tribe envisions a revitalized, mixed-use campus of community services, education, and economic developmen-providing services to the Indian community and jobs to the neighborhood.

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  13. Analyzing Residential End-Use Energy Consumption Data to Inform Residential Consumer Decisions and Enable Energy Efficiency Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Derrick R.

    While renewable energy is in the process of maturing, energy efficiency improvements may provide an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and consequent greenhouse gas emissions to bridge the gap between current emissions and the reductions necessary to prevent serious effects of climate change and will continue to be an integral part of greenhouse gas emissions policy moving forward. Residential energy is a largely untapped source of energy reductions as consumers, who wish to reduce energy consumption for monetary, environmental, and other reasons, face barriers. One such barrier is a lack of knowledge or understanding of how energy is consumed in a home and how to reduce this consumption effectively through behavioral and technological changes. One way to improve understanding of residential energy consumption is through the creation of a model to predict which appliances and electronics will be present and significantly contribute to the electricity consumption of a home on the basis of various characteristics of that home. The basis of this model is publically available survey data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). By predicting how households are likely to consume energy, homeowners, policy makers, and other stakeholders have access to valuable data that enables reductions in energy consumption in the residential sector. This model can be used to select homes that may be ripe for energy reductions and to predict the appliances that are the basis of these potential reductions. This work suggests that most homes in the U.S. have about eight appliances that are responsible for about 80% of the electricity consumption in that home. Characteristics such as census region, floor space, income, and total electricity consumption affect which appliances are likely to be in a home, however the number of appliances is generally around 8. Generally it takes around 4 appliances to reach the 50% threshold and 12 appliances to reach 90% of electricity

  14. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  15. EnCache: A Dynamic Profiling Based Reconfiguration Technique for Improving Cache Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Zhang, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    With each CMOS technology generation, leakage energy consumption has been dramatically increasing and hence, managing leakage power consumption of large last-level caches (LLCs) has become a critical issue in modern processor design. In this paper, we present EnCache, a novel software-based technique which uses dynamic profiling-based cache reconfiguration for saving cache leakage energy. EnCache uses a simple hardware component called profiling cache, which dynamically predicts energy efficiency of an application for 32 possible cache configurations. Using these estimates, system software reconfigures the cache to the most energy efficient configuration. EnCache uses dynamic cache reconfiguration and hence, it does not require offline profiling or tuning the parameter for each application. Furthermore, EnCache optimizes directly for the overall memory subsystem (LLC and main memory) energy efficiency instead of the LLC energy efficiency alone. The experiments performed with an x86-64 simulator and workloads from SPEC2006 suite confirm that EnCache provides larger energy saving than a conventional energy saving scheme. For single core and dual-core system configurations, the average savings in memory subsystem energy over a shared baseline configuration are 30.0% and 27.3%, respectively.

  16. Energy transfer induced improvement of luminescent efficiency and thermal stability in phosphate phosphor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Lin, Chun Che; Wei, Yi; Chan, Ting-Shan; Li, Guogang

    2016-02-22

    Ce3+ and Eu2+/Tb3+/Mn2+ ions codoped Ca6BaP4O17 (CBPO) phosphors have been prepared via a high-temperature solid state reaction. The structural refinement indicates that the as-prepared phosphors crystallize in monoclinic phase (C2/m) and there are two Ca sites and one Ba site in host lattice. The doping ions are determined to occupy Ca sites and the emission of Ce3+ and Eu2+ ions at different Ca sites were identified and discussed. Since bright blue and yellow emissions were observed from Ce3+and Eu2+ ions monodoped CBPO under n-UV excitation, respectively. They were codoped into the CBPO for designing energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu2+ to improve the luminescence efficiency of Eu2+. In addition, Tb3+ ions were added into the CBPO:Ce3+ system for realizing highly efficient green emission. The energy transfer mechanisms from Ce3+ to Eu2+/Tb3+ ions were discussed. Interestingly, the incorporation of Mn2+ ions into the CBPO:Ce3+ system enhanced the blue emission of Ce3+ ions due to the modification of crystal lattice. Finally, the thermal stability of CBPO:Ce3+, Eu2+/Tb3+/Mn2+ phosphors were investigated systematically and corresponding mechanisms were proposed. Based on these results, the as-prepared CBPO:Ce3+, Eu2+/Tb3+/Mn2+ phosphors can act as potential blue, yellow, green, and emission-tunable phosphors for n-UV based white LEDs. PMID:26907078

  17. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  18. Visual documentation process of historic building refurbishment "Improving energy efficiency by insulating wall cavity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennadji, A.

    2013-07-01

    The North East of Scotland's construction method is similar to most popular building typologies in the UK. This typology can vary in term of external material (Granite, brick or stone) but with a secondary, usually timber sub frame with a lining on its interior. Insulation was seldom a consideration when such buildings were completed. Statistics shows that 80% of existing buildings in the UK will need to be upgraded. The lack of knowledge in dealing with old building fabric's manipulation has a negative impact on buildings' integrity. The documentation of such process seems to be an important step that buildings' actors should undertake to communicate a practical knowledge that is still at incubation stage. We wanted for this documentation to be visual, as descriptions might mislead none specialised and specialised in the field due to the innovative approach our method was conducted with. For the Scottish context this research/experiment will concentrate on existing granite wall buildings with plastered lath internal wall. It is unfortunate to see the commonly beautiful interiors of Scottish buildings disappearing, when the internal linings are removed. Skips are filled with old Plaster and Lath and new linings have to be supplied and fitted. Excessive waste is created in this change. This paper is based on a historic building energy improvement case study financed by the European commission and the Scottish Government. The pilot study consists of insulating an 18th century house using an innovative product and method. The project was a response to a call by the CIC start (Construction Innovation Club), aiming to establish a link between SMEs and the Universities. The project saw the day in collaboration with Icynene Canada, KDL Kishorn (see full list in the acknowledgment). This paper describes the process through which the team went through to improve the building envelope without damaging the buildings original features (Loveday et all). The energy efficiency

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  20. Analyzing Residential End-Use Energy Consumption Data to Inform Residential Consumer Decisions and Enable Energy Efficiency Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Derrick R.

    While renewable energy is in the process of maturing, energy efficiency improvements may provide an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and consequent greenhouse gas emissions to bridge the gap between current emissions and the reductions necessary to prevent serious effects of climate change and will continue to be an integral part of greenhouse gas emissions policy moving forward. Residential energy is a largely untapped source of energy reductions as consumers, who wish to reduce energy consumption for monetary, environmental, and other reasons, face barriers. One such barrier is a lack of knowledge or understanding of how energy is consumed in a home and how to reduce this consumption effectively through behavioral and technological changes. One way to improve understanding of residential energy consumption is through the creation of a model to predict which appliances and electronics will be present and significantly contribute to the electricity consumption of a home on the basis of various characteristics of that home. The basis of this model is publically available survey data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). By predicting how households are likely to consume energy, homeowners, policy makers, and other stakeholders have access to valuable data that enables reductions in energy consumption in the residential sector. This model can be used to select homes that may be ripe for energy reductions and to predict the appliances that are the basis of these potential reductions. This work suggests that most homes in the U.S. have about eight appliances that are responsible for about 80% of the electricity consumption in that home. Characteristics such as census region, floor space, income, and total electricity consumption affect which appliances are likely to be in a home, however the number of appliances is generally around 8. Generally it takes around 4 appliances to reach the 50% threshold and 12 appliances to reach 90% of electricity

  1. A socio-technical approach to improving retail energy efficiency behaviours.

    PubMed

    Christina, Sian; Waterson, Patrick; Dainty, Andrew; Daniels, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the UK retail sector has made a significant contribution to societal responses on carbon reduction. We provide a novel and timely examination of environmental sustainability from a systems perspective, exploring how energy-related technologies and strategies are incorporated into organisational life. We use a longitudinal case study approach, looking at behavioural energy efficiency from within one of the UK's leading retailers. Our data covers a two-year period, with qualitative data from a total of 131 participants gathered using phased interviews and focus groups. We introduce an adapted socio-technical framework approach in order to describe an existing organisational behavioural strategy to support retail energy efficiency. Our findings point to crucial socio-technical and goal-setting factors which both impede and/or enable energy efficient behaviours, these include: tensions linked to store level perception of energy management goals; an emphasis on the importance of technology for underpinning change processes; and, the need for feedback and incentives to support the completion of energy-related tasks. We also describe the evolution of a practical operational intervention designed to address issues raised in our findings. Our study provides fresh insights into how sustainable workplace behaviours can be achieved and sustained over time. Secondly, we discuss in detail a set of issues arising from goal conflict in the workplace; these include the development of a practical energy management strategy to facilitate secondary organisational goals through job redesign.

  2. A socio-technical approach to improving retail energy efficiency behaviours.

    PubMed

    Christina, Sian; Waterson, Patrick; Dainty, Andrew; Daniels, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the UK retail sector has made a significant contribution to societal responses on carbon reduction. We provide a novel and timely examination of environmental sustainability from a systems perspective, exploring how energy-related technologies and strategies are incorporated into organisational life. We use a longitudinal case study approach, looking at behavioural energy efficiency from within one of the UK's leading retailers. Our data covers a two-year period, with qualitative data from a total of 131 participants gathered using phased interviews and focus groups. We introduce an adapted socio-technical framework approach in order to describe an existing organisational behavioural strategy to support retail energy efficiency. Our findings point to crucial socio-technical and goal-setting factors which both impede and/or enable energy efficient behaviours, these include: tensions linked to store level perception of energy management goals; an emphasis on the importance of technology for underpinning change processes; and, the need for feedback and incentives to support the completion of energy-related tasks. We also describe the evolution of a practical operational intervention designed to address issues raised in our findings. Our study provides fresh insights into how sustainable workplace behaviours can be achieved and sustained over time. Secondly, we discuss in detail a set of issues arising from goal conflict in the workplace; these include the development of a practical energy management strategy to facilitate secondary organisational goals through job redesign. PMID:25261364

  3. The potential of value management (VM) to improve the consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Rajemi, Mohamad Farizal

    2016-08-01

    Energy demand and consumption in buildings will rise rapidly in the near future because of several social economics factors and this situation occurs not only in developed countries but also in developing countries such as Malaysia. There is demand towards building with energy efficiency features at this time, however most of the current buildings types are still being constructed with conventional designs, thus contribute to inefficient of energy consumption during the operation stage of the building. This paper presents the concept and the application of Value Management (VM) approach and its potential to improve consideration of energy efficiency within pre-construction process. Based on the relevant literatures, VM has provides an efficient and effective delivery system to fulfill the objectives and client's requirements. Generally in this paper, VM is discussed and scrutinized with reference to previous studies to see how these concepts contribute to better optimize the energy consumption in a building by seeking the best value energy efficiency through the design and construction process. This paper will not draw any conclusion but rather a preliminary research to propose the most energy efficiency measures to reliably accomplish a function that will meet the client's needs, desires and expectations. For further research in future, simple quantitative industry survey and VM workshops will be conducted to validate and further improve the research.

  4. Use of GIS-based Site-specific Nitrogen Management for Improving Energy Efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To our knowledge, geographical information system (GIS)-based site-specific nitrogen management (SSNM) techniques have not been used to assess agricultural energy costs and efficiency. This chapter uses SSNM case studies for corn (Zea mays L.) grown in Missouri and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) gro...

  5. Improved Energy and Processing Efficiencies of Strawberry Drying Using Sequential Infrared Freeze-Drying Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberries are rich in nutrients but highly perishable. Freeze-drying is an excellent dehydration method for strawberry preservation. However, freeze-drying is an expensive dehydration process due to slow drying rates, high capital operating costs and low energy efficiency. Strawberry slice wei...

  6. INTEGRATION OF HEAT PUMPS IN PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of organic compounds from water by pervaporation is highly energy efficient when the separation factor offered by the pervaporation process is high. In cases where the separation factor is relatively small, consequential amounts of water permeate the membrane per uni...

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  8. Fuzzy logic motor control for pollution prevention and improved energy efficiency. Report for October 1992-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Chappell, P.J.; Maxwell, M.A.; Cleland, J.G.; Bose, B.K.

    1993-10-01

    The paper discusses an EPA program investigating fuzzy logic motor control for improved pollution prevention and energy efficiency. Initial computer simulation and laboratory results have demonstrated that fuzzy logic energy optimizers can consistently improve motor operational efficiency over conventional adjustable-speed drive (ASD) operation. This is significant in terms of both potential U.S. pollution prevention and energy savings possibilities. The addition of a fuzzy logic energy optimizer microchip to an ASD is minimal in terms of cost because low-power microchips are very cheap when manufactured in volume. Thus, the energy savings and enhanced motor operation and lifespan should be regarded as almost free because cost payback is potentially so short.

  9. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  10. A New Cooperative MIMO Scheme Based on SM for Energy-Efficiency Improvement in Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yuyang; Choi, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN) has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM) technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system. PMID:24707224

  11. A new cooperative MIMO scheme based on SM for energy-efficiency improvement in wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuyang; Choi, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN) has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM) technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  13. Ten case history studies of energy efficiency improvements in pulp and paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The ten technologies chosen for case history development are: sonic sootblowing in boilers, boiler operation on oil-water emulsified fuel, energy efficient motors, computerized control of excess air for boilers, boiler control and load allocation, driving of waste-activated sludge by multiple effect evaporation, pre-drying of hog fuel, lime kiln computerization, heat wheel for process heat recovery, and organic Rankine bottoming cycle for thermomechanical pulping heat recovery. For each case study, there is given: the company name, employee contact, plant summary, a description of the energy consuming process and of the energy-saving action, an assessment of energy savings, and the decision process leading to the adoption of the measure. A data summary for discounted cash flow analysis is tabulated for each case. (LEW)

  14. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  15. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  16. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  17. Basic aspects for improving the energy conversion efficiency of hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Onoe, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hetero-junction organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells consisting of donor (D) and acceptor (A) layers have been regarded as next-generation PV cells, because of their fascinating advantages, such as lightweight, low fabrication cost, resource free, and flexibility, when compared to those of conventional PV cells based on silicon and semiconductor compounds. However, the power conversion efficiency (η) of the OPV cells has been still around 8%, though more than 10% efficiency has been required for their practical use. To fully optimize these OPV cells, it is necessary that the low mobility of carriers/excitons in the OPV cells and the open circuit voltage (V OC), of which origin has not been understood well, should be improved. In this review, we address an improvement of the mobility of carriers/excitons by controlling the crystal structure of a donor layer and address how to increase the V OC for zinc octaethylporphyrin [Zn(OEP)]/C60 hetero-junction OPV cells [ITO/Zn(OEP)/C60/Al]. It was found that crystallization of Zn(OEP) films increases the number of inter-molecular charge transfer (IMCT) excitons and enlarges the mobility of carriers and IMCT excitons, thus significantly improving the external quantum efficiency (EQE) under illumination of the photoabsorption band due to the IMCT excitons. Conversely, charge accumulation of photo-generated carriers in the vicinity of the donor/acceptor (D/A) interface was found to play a key role in determining the V OC for the OPV cells.

  18. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips No.4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    Operating your boiler with an optimum amount of excess air will minimize heat loss up the stack and improve combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiency is a measure of how effectively the heat content of a fuel is transferred into usable heat. The stack temperature and flue gas oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentrations are primary indicators of combustion efficiency. Given complete mixing, a precise or stoichiometric amount of air is required to completely react with a given quantity of fuel. In practice, combustion conditions are never ideal, and additional or ''excess'' air must be supplied to completely burn the fuel. The correct amount of excess air is determined from analyzing flue gas oxygen or carbon dioxide concentrations. Inadequate excess air results in unburned combustibles (fuel, soot, smoke, and carbon monoxide) while too much results in heat lost due to the increased flue gas flow--thus lowering the overall boiler fuel-to-steam efficiency. The table relates stack readings to boiler performance. On well-designed natural gas-fired systems, an excess air level of 10% is attainable. An often stated rule of thumb is that boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for each 15% reduction in excess air or 40 F reduction in stack gas temperature.

  19. New irrigation systems design for improving irrigation efficiencies and enhancing energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, W.M.; Bordovsky, J.P.

    1981-03-31

    A new concept in irrigation system design, which has the potential of significant savings in both water and energy requirements, has been developed and evaluated. The system is characterized by and has been labeled a low energy precision application (LEPA) system, which rather than spraying water into the air at moderate to high pressures, distributes it directly to the furrow at very low pressure through drop tubes and orifice controlled emitters. This occurs as the system continuously moves through the field in a rectilinear fashion. The system is used in conjunction with micro-basin land preparation designed to optimize the utilization of rainfall. The combined system minimizes the effect of soil and climatic variables which adversely influence furrow and sprinkler irrigation efficiencies. Significant savings of both water and energy resources are indicated from results of the testing to date. Operating pressure of the LEPA system is projected to range from 4.5 to 22 psi depending on length of system and flow rate. Distribution uniformities of 95 to 96% are also projected. Application efficiencies above 98% should be consistently possible. A 10% increase in rainfall retention is reported herein. However, the basin tillage aspect of the method offers potential savings much higher than this. Energy savings of 0.024 quad per year were estimated with conversion of present irrigation methods to LEPA irrigation.

  20. An improvement in the calculation of the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and rate of energy dissipation in mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafuri, Mohazabeh; Golfar, Bahareh; Nosrati, Mohsen; Hoseinkhani, Saman

    2014-12-01

    The process of ATP production is one of the most vital processes in living cells which happens with a high efficiency. Thermodynamic evaluation of this process and the factors involved in oxidative phosphorylation can provide a valuable guide for increasing the energy production efficiency in research and industry. Although energy transduction has been studied qualitatively in several researches, there are only few brief reviews based on mathematical models on this subject. In our previous work, we suggested a mathematical model for ATP production based on non-equilibrium thermodynamic principles. In the present study, based on the new discoveries on the respiratory chain of animal mitochondria, Golfar's model has been used to generate improved results for the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and the rate of energy loss. The results calculated from the modified coefficients for the proton pumps of the respiratory chain enzymes are closer to the experimental results and validate the model.

  1. Case histories of recently implemented technologies for citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    For each of six citrus industry sites where energy efficiency improvement technologies have been implemented, a case history is presented which describes the implemented technology, its investment cost, and the energy and cost savings. The technologies are: double pressing in feed mill operation; evaporator microprocessor controller; feed mill vent stack controller; addition of a waste heat evaporator to a feed mill; enhanced lime reaction for improved pressing and dewatering in a feed mill, and added effect to a temperature-accelerated short-time evaporator. (LEW)

  2. Efficiency improvements for ion chamber calculations in high energy photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, J.; Zink, K.; Kawrakow, I.

    2008-04-15

    This article presents the implementation of several variance reduction techniques that dramatically improve the simulation efficiency of ion chamber dose and perturbation factor calculations. The cavity user code for the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system is extended by photon cross-section enhancement (XCSE), an intermediate phase-space storage (IPSS) technique, and a correlated sampling (CS) scheme. XCSE increases the density of photon interaction sites inside and in the vicinity of the chamber and results - in combination with a Russian Roulette game for electrons that cannot reach the cavity volume - in an increased efficiency of up to a factor of 350 for calculating dose in a Farmer type chamber placed at 10 cm depth in a water phantom. In combination with the IPSS and CS techniques, the efficiency for the calculation of the central electrode perturbation factor P{sub cel} can be increased by up to three orders of magnitude for a single chamber location and by nearly four orders of magnitude when considering the P{sub cel} variation with depth or with distance from the central axis in a large field photon beam. The intermediate storage of the phase-space properties of particles entering a volume that contains many possible chamber locations leads to efficiency improvements by a factor larger than 500 when computing a profile of chamber doses in the field of a linear accelerator photon beam. All techniques are combined in a new EGSnrc user code egs{sub c}hamber. Optimum settings for the variance reduction parameters are investigated and are reported for a Farmer type ion chamber. A few example calculations illustrating the capabilities of the egs{sub c}hamber code are presented.

  3. Energy efficiency improvements for refrigerator/freezers using prototype doors containing gas-filled panel insulating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Arasteh, D.; Tuerler, D.

    1995-01-01

    Energy efficiency improvements in domestic refrigerator/freezers, are directly influenced by the overall thermal performance of the cabinet and doors. An advanced system for reducing heat gain is Gas-Filled Panel thermal insulation technology. Gas-Filled Panels contain a low-conductivity, inert gas at atmospheric pressure and employ a reflective baffle to suppress radiation and convection within the gas. This paper presents energy use test results for a 1993 model 500 liter top mount refrigerator/freezer operated with its original doors and with a series of alternative prototype doors. Gas-Filled Panel technology was used in two types of prototype refrigerator/freezer doors. In one design, panels were used in composite with foam in standard metal door pans; this design yielded no measurable energy savings. In the other design, special polymer door pans were fitted with panels that fill nearly all of the available insulation volume; this design yielded a 6.5% increase in energy efficiency for the entire refrigerator/freezer. The EPA Refrigerator Analysis computer program has been used to predict the change in daily energy consumption with the alternative doors. The computer model also projects a 25% energy efficiency improvement for a refrigerator/freezer that would use Gas-Filled Panel insulation throughout the cabinet as well as the doors.

  4. Basic aspects for improving the energy conversion efficiency of hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Onoe, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hetero-junction organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells consisting of donor (D) and acceptor (A) layers have been regarded as next-generation PV cells, because of their fascinating advantages, such as lightweight, low fabrication cost, resource free, and flexibility, when compared to those of conventional PV cells based on silicon and semiconductor compounds. However, the power conversion efficiency (η) of the OPV cells has been still around 8%, though more than 10% efficiency has been required for their practical use. To fully optimize these OPV cells, it is necessary that the low mobility of carriers/excitons in the OPV cells and the open circuit voltage (V OC), of which origin has not been understood well, should be improved. In this review, we address an improvement of the mobility of carriers/excitons by controlling the crystal structure of a donor layer and address how to increase the V OC for zinc octaethylporphyrin [Zn(OEP)]/C60 hetero-junction OPV cells [ITO/Zn(OEP)/C60/Al]. It was found that crystallization of Zn(OEP) films increases the number of inter-molecular charge transfer (IMCT) excitons and enlarges the mobility of carriers and IMCT excitons, thus significantly improving the external quantum efficiency (EQE) under illumination of the photoabsorption band due to the IMCT excitons. Conversely, charge accumulation of photo-generated carriers in the vicinity of the donor/acceptor (D/A) interface was found to play a key role in determining the V OC for the OPV cells. PMID:23853702

  5. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

    2006-05-01

    For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.

  6. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opachich, Y. P.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Chen, N.; Feng, J.; Gopal, A.; Hatch, B.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Huffman, E.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S. R.; Udin, S.

    2016-11-01

    We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1-12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not be affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.

  7. Energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Hafemeister, D.

    1988-04-01

    Since the 1973 oil famine the US has learned to save 45 billion dollars a year by making homes and offices more energy efficient. Now an oil glut has led to complacency. For 50 to 100 years the nation will be paying energy bills for buildings going up today. This paper discusses innovative technologies and policies can could cut 50 billion dollars a year from these energy bills. Some of these technologies are solar-assisted building designs, superinsulated houses, fluorescent lighting systems, insulated windows, home appliance improvements, and use of off-peak power.

  8. Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-11-15

    Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

  9. Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  10. Selection for Improved Energy Use Efficiency and Drought Tolerance in Canola Results in Distinct Transcriptome and Epigenome Changes.

    PubMed

    Verkest, Aurine; Byzova, Marina; Martens, Cindy; Willems, Patrick; Verwulgen, Tom; Slabbinck, Bram; Rombaut, Debbie; Van de Velde, Jan; Vandepoele, Klaas; Standaert, Evi; Peeters, Marrit; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Block, Marc

    2015-08-01

    To increase both the yield potential and stability of crops, integrated breeding strategies are used that have mostly a direct genetic basis, but the utility of epigenetics to improve complex traits is unclear. A better understanding of the status of the epigenome and its contribution to agronomic performance would help in developing approaches to incorporate the epigenetic component of complex traits into breeding programs. Starting from isogenic canola (Brassica napus) lines, epilines were generated by selecting, repeatedly for three generations, for increased energy use efficiency and drought tolerance. These epilines had an enhanced energy use efficiency, drought tolerance, and nitrogen use efficiency. Transcriptome analysis of the epilines and a line selected for its energy use efficiency solely revealed common differentially expressed genes related to the onset of stress tolerance-regulating signaling events. Genes related to responses to salt, osmotic, abscisic acid, and drought treatments were specifically differentially expressed in the drought-tolerant epilines. The status of the epigenome, scored as differential trimethylation of lysine-4 of histone 3, further supported the phenotype by targeting drought-responsive genes and facilitating the transcription of the differentially expressed genes. From these results, we conclude that the canola epigenome can be shaped by selection to increase energy use efficiency and stress tolerance. Hence, these findings warrant the further development of strategies to incorporate epigenetics into breeding. PMID:26082400

  11. Selection for Improved Energy Use Efficiency and Drought Tolerance in Canola Results in Distinct Transcriptome and Epigenome Changes.

    PubMed

    Verkest, Aurine; Byzova, Marina; Martens, Cindy; Willems, Patrick; Verwulgen, Tom; Slabbinck, Bram; Rombaut, Debbie; Van de Velde, Jan; Vandepoele, Klaas; Standaert, Evi; Peeters, Marrit; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Block, Marc

    2015-08-01

    To increase both the yield potential and stability of crops, integrated breeding strategies are used that have mostly a direct genetic basis, but the utility of epigenetics to improve complex traits is unclear. A better understanding of the status of the epigenome and its contribution to agronomic performance would help in developing approaches to incorporate the epigenetic component of complex traits into breeding programs. Starting from isogenic canola (Brassica napus) lines, epilines were generated by selecting, repeatedly for three generations, for increased energy use efficiency and drought tolerance. These epilines had an enhanced energy use efficiency, drought tolerance, and nitrogen use efficiency. Transcriptome analysis of the epilines and a line selected for its energy use efficiency solely revealed common differentially expressed genes related to the onset of stress tolerance-regulating signaling events. Genes related to responses to salt, osmotic, abscisic acid, and drought treatments were specifically differentially expressed in the drought-tolerant epilines. The status of the epigenome, scored as differential trimethylation of lysine-4 of histone 3, further supported the phenotype by targeting drought-responsive genes and facilitating the transcription of the differentially expressed genes. From these results, we conclude that the canola epigenome can be shaped by selection to increase energy use efficiency and stress tolerance. Hence, these findings warrant the further development of strategies to incorporate epigenetics into breeding.

  12. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency in the Production Floor Using SoA-Based Monitoring Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachapa, Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Colombo, Armando

    Modern manufacturing systems are struggling to remain competitive under the pressures of and increasingly demanding society. The advent of SoA-based production systems is presented as the solution to facing those difficulties. In order to support this new production paradigm, new tools have to be developed for the benefit of the production engineers of who will be implementing and deploying the SoA-based factory floor. This entails the development of Smart Devices, which while being autonomous are able to communicate and cooperate in an open and standardized way with other participants in the production system. These capabilities can be exploited in order to implement a next-generation production monitoring system that is not only able to monitor production status, but also energy usage, eventually leading to much greener and more efficient factories.

  14. Improving indoor air quality through botanical air filtration in energy efficient residences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newkirk, Daniel W.

    According to the U.S. EPA, the average American spends 90% of their time indoors where pollutants are two to five times more prevalent than outside. The consequences of these pollutants are estimated to cost the U.S. 125 billion dollars in lost health and productivity. Background literature suggests botanical air filtration may be able to solve this problem by leveraging the natural ability of plants to purify indoor air. By improving indoor air quality, energy consumption can also be reduced by bringing in less outside air to dilute contaminants within the space. A botanical air filter, called the Biowall, was designed and grown aeroponically in a sealed environmental chamber. Precise measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air quality and energy consumption were made under various lighting levels, plant species and watering strategies to optimize its performance. It was found to reduce indoor air pollutants 60 percent and has the potential to reduce heating and cooling energy consumption by 20 to 30 percent.

  15. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case

  16. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  17. The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement and energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; McClelland, J.D.; Ross, M.

    1995-12-31

    The research in this paper is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, in industry consultations with the Department of Energy for the Energy Policy Act Section 131(c) and Section 1605(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The paper present preliminary results from one of two industry case studies, integrated pulp and paper production (a second case study of integrated steel plants is still underway). These case studies have been undertaken to obtain a clearer understanding of the process in industry that gives rise to (potential) conflicts in compliance with environmental goals and constraints, improving productivity, and improving energy efficiency. The project consists of two phases, the industry consultation phase and the analytic phase. This paper present the framework and some results from the analytic phase. This study is still ongoing and interested persons can contact the authors for a more complete report of the study findings.

  18. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  19. Improvement of color conversion and efficiency droop in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing an efficient non-radiative resonant energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zhe; Dai, Jiangping; Liu, Bin; Guo, Xu; Li, Yi; Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Zhang, Guogang; Xie, Zili; Ge, Haixiong; Shi, Yi; Zheng, Youdou; Zhang, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Blue InGaN/GaN nanohole light-emitting diodes have been fabricated by soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography, filling with CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) as color conversion mediums. The excitonic recombination dynamics of hybrid nanohole light-emitting diodes were investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence, observing a significant reduction in the decay lifetime of excitons as a result of an efficient non-radiative resonant energy transfer, which leads to the improvement of color conversion and efficiency droop in these hybrid nanohole light-emitting diodes compared to hybrid nanocrystals/standard planar light-emitting diodes. The color-conversion efficiency and effective quantum yield of hybrid nanohole light-emitting diodes were nearly twice as much as those of hybrid standard light-emitting diodes. A model on the excitonic recombination process was proposed to explore this situation, explaining the advantages of non-radiative resonant energy transfer that avoiding energy loss associated with the intermediate light emission and conversion steps and transferring energy non-radiatively and resonantly to NCs with a higher quantum yield. The efficiency droop of hybrid nanohole light-emitting diodes was validly suppressed compared to the bare ones, even better than that of hybrid standard light-emitting diodes. It mainly results from the extraction of excess carrier concentrations in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via the rapid non-radiative resonant energy transfer process under the higher injection condition, revealing a great potential to realize efficient white light emitters in the future.

  20. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  1. Development of a strategy for energy efficiency improvement in a Kraft process based on systems interactions analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos-Espejel, Enrique

    The objective of this thesis is to develop, validate, and apply a unified methodology for the energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process that addresses globally the interactions of the various process systems that affect its energy performance. An implementation strategy is the final result. An operating Kraft pulping mill situated in Eastern Canada with a production of 700 adt/d of high-grade bleached pulp was the case study. The Pulp and Paper industry is Canada's premier industry. It is characterized by large thermal energy and water consumption. Rising energy costs and more stringent environmental regulations have led the industry to refocus its efforts toward identifying ways to improve energy and water conservation. Energy and water aspects are usually analyzed independently, but in reality they are strongly interconnected. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated methodology, which considers energy and water aspects, as well as the optimal utilization and production of the utilities. The methodology consists of four successive stages. The first stage is the base case definition. The development of a focused, reliable and representative model of an operating process is a prerequisite to the optimization and fine tuning of its energy performance. A four-pronged procedure has been developed: data gathering, master diagram, utilities systems analysis, and simulation. The computer simulation has been focused on the energy and water systems. The second stage corresponds to the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking of the base case has the objectives of identifying the process inefficiencies and to establish guidelines for the development of effective enhancement measures. The studied process is evaluated by a comparison of its efficiency to the current practice of the industry and by the application of new energy and exergy content indicators. The minimum energy and water requirements of the process are also determined in this step. The third stage is

  2. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  5. Fuel Efficiencies Through Airframe Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos-O'Connor, Gaudy M.; Mangelsdorf, Mark F.; Maliska, Heather A.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Wahls, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The factors of continuing strong growth in air traffic volume, the vital role of the air transport system on the economy, and concerns about the environmental impact of aviation have added focus to the National Aeronautics Research Policy. To address these concerns in the context of the National Policy, NASA has set aggressive goals in noise reduction, emissions, and energy consumption. With respect to the goal of reducing energy consumption in the fleet, the development of promising airframe technologies is required to realize the significant improvements that are desired. Furthermore, the combination of advances in materials and structures with aerodynamic technologies may lead to a paradigm shift in terms of potential configurations for the future. Some of these promising airframe technologies targeted at improved efficiency are highlighted.

  6. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 2 in support of doubling the global rate of energy efficiency improvement and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Kammen, Daniel; Jewell, Jessica

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force Two which is dedicated energy efficiency and renewable energy objectives. The report shows that doubling the rate of energy efficiency improvements and doubling the share of energy from renewable sources by 2030 is challenging but feasible if sufficient actions are implemented. Strong and well-informed government policies as well as extensive private investment should focus on the high impact areas identified by the task force.

  7. Incentives for Methane Mitigation and Energy-Efficiency Improvements in Case of Ukraine’s Natural Gas Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine. The Ukrainian transmission company, Ukrtransgaz, reduced its own system’s natural gas consumption by 68 percent in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine’s transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine’s natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of steep increases in the price of imported natural gas, and comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, regional integration policy, and international environmental agreements has created conditions for successful methane emission and combustion reductions. Learning about such case studies can help us design better policies elsewhere.

  8. Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency in Wide-Bandgap Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, M.; Mansfield, L.; Egaas, B.; Li, J.; Romero, M.; Noufi, R.; Rudiger-Voigt, E.; Mannstadt, W.

    2011-07-01

    This report outlines improvements to the energy conversion efficiency in wide bandgap (Eg>1.2 eV) solar cells based on CuIn1-xGaxSe2. Using (a) alkaline containing high temperature glass substrates, (b) elevated substrate temperatures 600˚C-650˚C and (c) high vacuum evaporation from elemental sources following NREL's three-stage process, we have been able to improve the performance of wider bandgap solar cells with 1.2efficiencies >18% for absorber bandgaps ~1.30 eV and efficiencies ~16% for bandgaps up to ~1.45 eV. In comparing J-V parameters in similar materials, we establish gains in the open-circuit voltage and, to a lesser degree, the fill factor value, as the reason for the improved performance. The higher voltages seen in these wide gap materials grown at high substrate temperatures may be due to reduced recombination at the grain boundary of such absorber films. Solar cell results, absorber materials characterization, and experimental details are reported.

  9. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  10. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, David; Marcio, Duffles

    2014-02-05

    The objective of this Stage Gate IV project was to test and substantiate the viability of an erosion-resistant nanocoating for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbines in both industrial power generation and commercial aviation applications. To effectively complete this project, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development teamed with MDS Coating Technologies Inc. (MCT), Delta Air Lines - Technical Operations Division (Delta Tech Ops), and Calpine Corporation. The coating targeted for this application was MCT’s Next Generation Coating, version 4 (NGC-v4 - with the new registered trademark name of BlackGold®). The coating is an erosion and corrosion resistant composite nanostructured coating. This coating is comprised of a proprietary ceramic-metallic nano-composite construction which provides enhanced erosion resistance and also retains the aerodynamic geometry of the airfoils. The objective of the commercial aviation portion of the project was to substantiate the coating properties to allow certification from the FAA to apply an erosion-resistant coating in a commercial aviation engine. The goal of the series of tests was to demonstrate that the durability of the airfoils is not affected negatively with the application of the NGC v4 coating. Tests included erosion, corrosion, vibration and fatigue. The results of the testing demonstrated that the application of the coating did not negatively impact the properties of the blades, especially fatigue performance – which is of importance in acceptance for commercial aviation applications. The objective of the industrial gas turbine element of the project was to evaluate the coating as an enabling technology for inlet fogging during the operation of industrial gas turbines. Fluid erosion laboratory scale tests were conducted to simulate inlet fogging conditions. Results of these tests indicated that the application of the erosion resistant NGC-v4 nanocoating improved the

  11. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  12. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Outokumpu Technology, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, and Process Engineering Resources Inc. At Cortez Gold Operations the shell and pulp lifters of the semiautogenous grinding mill was redesigned. The redesigned shell lifter has been in operation for over three years and the redesigned pulp lifter has been in operation for over nine months now. This report summarizes the dramatic reductions in energy consumption. Even though the energy reductions are very large, it is safe to say that a 20% minimum reduction would be achieved in any future installations of this technology.

  14. Efficient Use of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains efficiency in terms of thermodynamics, and states specific ways in which energy efficiency can be increased in the following areas: automobiles, industrial processes, and indoor use in the home. (MLH)

  15. Incentives for methane mitigation and energy-efficiency improvements in the case of Ukraine's natural gas transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of anthropogenic methane emissions into the atmosphere in Ukraine. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine's natural gas transmission company, Ukrtransgaz. The company's investments into system upgrades, along with a 34% fall in throughput, resulted in reduction of Ukrtransgaz system's own consumption of natural gas by 68% in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine's transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine's natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of the most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of several factors has created conditions for successful reductions in methane emissions and combustion. These factors include: an eightfold increase in the price of imported natural gas; comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, such as the Laws of Ukraine on Protecting the Natural Environment and on Air Protection; policies aimed at integration with European Union's energy market and accession to the Energy Community Treaty; and the country's participation in international cooperation on environment, such

  16. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  17. Membrane processes for alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics and environmental impact of producing fuels and chemicals biologically can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol an...

  18. Improving Laboratory Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Michael Jay

    1979-01-01

    Factors that influence the efficiency of laboratory experiences include: size of laboratory group, length of session, discussion, special tools, and applications of knowledge learned. It is suggested that these variables may be altered to insure that students gain from their time spent in the laboratory. (BH)

  19. Panel discussion on energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Heap, Brian; Kasemo, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The session on energy efficiency had no formal presentations and was organized as a panel discussion with four panelists. It was concluded that energy efficiency and saving measures on the short term is the most effective way to contribute to a sustainable energy system. Measures to improve and encourage energy efficiency should be implemented at all levels; municipal/local, national and super-national. Prices can be an effective instrument but need to be combined with systemic level measures. The transport sector was identified as the one with largest near future potential for increased energy efficiency. Agriculture and food is also an area with very large energy consumption and large potential for increased energy efficiency. The global population issue is yet another relevant, challenging and complex issue. It was noted that energy audits for end users in business and society increase awareness and insights into what they pay for, and they are likely to promote actions to save energy. Many measures are believed to suffer from Jevin's paradox, i.e., that more efficient use of energy just leads to more energy consumption somewhere else. Many examples were given, however, where this does not happen. Another point put forward was that measures to make the energy system more efficient do not only mean constraints and regulations but also create great opportunities for market actors and societies.

  20. Assessment of citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The cirtus industry was surveyed in order to assess the impact of two programs toward the goal of implementing energy conserving options and the development of new technologies. Six technologies were identified that have recently been implemented in the citrus industry, and a case history is summarized for each. Advanced technologies have been identified that could be applied in citrus processing plants and that would result in significant energy and operating cost savings. The industry sources indicated a need to prove these concepts in a research and development project such as a pilot plant before they will be implemented. (LEW)

  1. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  2. Improving energy efficiency in optical cloud networks by exploiting anycast routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysse, Jens; Cavdar, Cicek; De Leenheer, Marc; Dhoedt, Bart; Develder, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Exploiting anycast routing significantly reduces optical network and server energy usage. In this work we present a case study showing that intelligently selecting destinations and routes thereto, while switching off unused (network) elements, cuts power consumption by around 20% and saves network resources by 29%.

  3. Efficiency improvement of a cantilever-type energy harvester using torsional vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In-Ho; Jang, Seon-Jun; Koo, Jeong-Hoi; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric vibrational energy harvester utilizing coupled bending and torsional vibrations is investigated. The proposed system consists of a cantilever-type substrate covered by the piezoelectric ceramic and a proof mass which is perpendicularly connected to the free end of the cantilever beam by a rigid bar. While the natural frequency and output voltage of the conventional system are affected by bending deformation of the piezoelectric plate, the proposed system makes use of its twisting deformation. The natural frequency of the device can be significantly decreased by manipulating the location of the proof mass on the rigid bar. In order to validate the performance of the proposed energy harvester, numerical simulations and vertical shaker tests are carried out. It is demonstrated that the proposed energy harvester can shift down its resonant frequency considerably and generate much higher output power than the conventional system. It is, therefore, concluded that the proposed energy harvester utilizing the coupled bending and torsional vibrations can be effectively applied to low-frequency vibration situations.

  4. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  5. Improving OR Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vassell, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The high-cost/high-revenue environment of the OR requires special attention from managers to scrutinize and reduce costs. In the OR, nonlabor cost savings (ie, no staff member will be laid off or reclassified to realize cost savings) can typically be identified most readily. Operational costs in the OR are affected by start times, turnover times, cancellation rates, and adequate supplies, equipment, and staffing. Inefficiency in the OR can increase costs and lead to dissatisfied patients, physicians, and staff members. This article describes concepts that contribute to efficiency in the OR and illustrates the importance of staff member engagement in achieving desired outcomes. PMID:27472972

  6. Improving OR Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vassell, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The high-cost/high-revenue environment of the OR requires special attention from managers to scrutinize and reduce costs. In the OR, nonlabor cost savings (ie, no staff member will be laid off or reclassified to realize cost savings) can typically be identified most readily. Operational costs in the OR are affected by start times, turnover times, cancellation rates, and adequate supplies, equipment, and staffing. Inefficiency in the OR can increase costs and lead to dissatisfied patients, physicians, and staff members. This article describes concepts that contribute to efficiency in the OR and illustrates the importance of staff member engagement in achieving desired outcomes.

  7. Improving efficiency, securing savings.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The NHS in England could save £1 bn annually if all NHS acute Trustsachieved the median level of estates and facilities running costs, the second (and 'final') report by Lord Carter and his team into the 'productivity and efficiency' of acute NHS Trusts across England, published on 5 February,suggests. As HEJ, editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, Lord Carter's team'songoing recent discussions with senior personnel working in a range of disciplines at 32 NHS Trusts--which followed dialogue with an initial 22 Trusts--identified 'unwarranted variation' in the use of resources ranging from staff to land and buildings on such a scale that effectively addressing this 'variation' could, the DH-commissioned team says, potentially reduce by £5 bn annually the NHS in England's costs. PMID:27132300

  8. Backbone dependency further improves side chain prediction efficiency in the Energy-based Conformer Library (bEBL).

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Side chain optimization is an integral component of many protein modeling applications. In these applications, the conformational freedom of the side chains is often explored using libraries of discrete, frequently occurring conformations. Because side chain optimization can pose a computationally intensive combinatorial problem, the nature of these conformer libraries is important for ensuring efficiency and accuracy in side chain prediction. We have previously developed an innovative method to create a conformer library with enhanced performance. The Energy-based Library (EBL) was obtained by analyzing the energetic interactions between conformers and a large number of natural protein environments from crystal structures. This process guided the selection of conformers with the highest propensity to fit into spaces that should accommodate a side chain. Because the method requires a large crystallographic data-set, the EBL was created in a backbone-independent fashion. However, it is well established that side chain conformation is strongly dependent on the local backbone geometry, and that backbone-dependent libraries are more efficient in side chain optimization. Here we present the backbone-dependent EBL (bEBL), whose conformers are independently sorted for each populated region of Ramachandran space. The resulting library closely mirrors the local backbone-dependent distribution of side chain conformation. Compared to the EBL, we demonstrate that the bEBL uses fewer conformers to produce similar side chain prediction outcomes, thus further improving performance with respect to the already efficient backbone-independent version of the library.

  9. Improvements in the Low Energy Collection Efficiency of Si(Li) X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox,C.; Fischer, D.; Schwartz, W.; Song, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray beam-line applications are of fundamental importance to material research, and commonly employ high-resolution Si(Li) detectors for energy dispersive spectroscopy. However, the measurement of X-rays below 1 keV is compromised by absorption in the material layers in front of the active crystal and a dead layer at the crystal surface. Various Schottky barrier type contacts were investigated resulting in a 40% reduction of the dead-layer thickness and a factor of two increased sensitivity at carbon K{sub {alpha}} compared to the standard Si(Li) detector. Si(Li) detectors were tested on the U7A soft X-ray beam-line at the National Synchrotron Light Source and on a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  10. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, L.W.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1982-12-01

    Recent accomplishments in buildings energy research by the diverse groups in the Energy Efficient Buildings Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are summarized. We review technological progress in the areas of ventilation and indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computer modeling, windows, and artificial lighting. The need for actual consumption data to track accurately the improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL. We summarize results to date from our Building Energy Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) studies, which include time trends in the energy consumption of new commercial and new residential buildings, the measured savings being attained by both commercial and residential retrofits, and the cost-effectiveness of buildings energy conservation measures. We also examine recent comparisons of predicted vs. actual energy usage/savings, and present the case for building energy use labels.

  11. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  13. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  14. Energy Improvements in Barnstable County

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    A fact sheet that describes Barnstable County, Massachusetts, effort to improve energy efficiency through a public appliance trade-in program, installation of compact fluorescent light bulbs in public buildings, and public energy education.

  15. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  16. Energy Efficient Supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Anypas, Katie

    2014-10-17

    Katie Anypas, Head of NERSC's Services Department discusses the Lab's research into developing increasingly powerful and energy efficient supercomputers at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  17. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  18. Multi-Partner Demonstration of Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Improved Methods for the Production of Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Mark L. Listemann

    2006-03-08

    The work described was focused on commercializing a new energy-efficient, enabling technology silicon surfactants that will allow the flexible foam industry to utilize environmentally benign CO2 as a blowing agent. These new products provide the means for more cost-effective and energy-efficient production of foam in an industry that is under increasing threat from foreign competition and environmental regulation.

  19. Transcriptome-wide characterization of candidate genes for improving the water use efficiency of energy crops grown on semiarid land.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yangyang; Wang, Qian; Kang, Lifang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Qin; Xing, Shilai; Tao, Chengcheng; Song, Zhihong; Zhu, Caiyun; Lin, Cong; Yan, Juan; Li, Jianqiang; Sang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of water use efficiency (WUE) and its roles in plant adaptation to a drought environment is essential for the production of second-generation energy crops in water-deficit marginal land. In this study, RNA-Seq and WUE measurements were performed for 78 individuals of Miscanthus lutarioriparius grown in two common gardens, one located in warm and wet Central China near the native habitats of the species and the other located in the semiarid Loess Plateau, the domestication site of the energy crop. The field measurements showed that WUE of M. lutarioriparius in the semiarid location was significantly higher than that in the wet location. A matrix correlation analysis was conducted between gene expression levels and WUE to identify candidate genes involved in the improvement of WUE from the native to the domestication site. A total of 48 candidate genes were identified and assigned to functional categories, including photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, protein metabolism, and abiotic stress responses. Of these genes, nearly 73% were up-regulated in the semiarid site. It was also found that the relatively high expression variation of the WUE-related genes was affected to a larger extent by environment than by genetic variation. The study demonstrates that transcriptome-wide correlation between physiological phenotypes and expression levels offers an effective means for identifying candidate genes involved in the adaptation to environmental changes. PMID:26175351

  20. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  1. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components—up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  2. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components—up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  3. Improved regional mapping of carbon, water, and energy land-surface fluxes through indicators of canopy light use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schull, M. A.; Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Houborg, R.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that canopy-scale estimates of chlorophyll (Cab) can be useful for constraining canopy light-use-efficiency (LUE) parameters used in many models of carbon fluxes. LUE is the amount of carbon that a plant can assimilate for a given amount of absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), making it a key parameter for estimating carbon assimilation. Cab has been recognized as a vital pigment in the process of PAR absorption, and because of this radiative connection it is a quantity that can be estimated from remotely sensed data. The Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model has been modified with a LUE-based sub-model of canopy resistance to facilitate coupled simulations of transpiration and carbon assimilation. The TSEB uses a daily estimate of nominal canopy LUE (LUEn), modulated over the diurnal cycle by varying conditions in light, humidity, CO2 concentration and temperature. We investigate the ability of canopy level chlorophyll as a proxy for capturing seasonal trends in the canopy LUEn required as input to the TSEB. The study uses field measured Cab over rain-fed and irrigated fields of corn and soybean. Initial results show that field-measured canopy Cab is non-linearly related to LUEn, with variability primarily relating to phenological changes due to senescence. Allowing a seasonally varying LUEn, derived based on an empirical relationship with observed Cab, resulted in improvements in carbon flux estimates from TSEB, and adjustments to the partitioning of total latent flux between canopy transpiration and soil evaporation. The observed Cab-LUE relationship provides an avenue for integrating the remotely sensed Cab and the TSEB model, facilitating improved mapping of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes across vegetated landscapes.

  4. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  5. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    PubMed

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed.

  6. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    PubMed

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed. PMID:27087253

  7. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  8. Energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes energy efficient windows for the reduction of home heating and cooling energy consumption. It discusses controlling air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping and by replacing window frames. Reducing heat loss and condensation is discussed by describing the types of glazing materials, the number of glass and air spaces, frame and spacer materials, and the use of movable insulation (shutters, drapes, etc.). A resource list is provided for further information.

  9. Improvement of energy efficiency via spectrum optimization of excitation sequence for multichannel simultaneously triggered airborne sonar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yao, Zhen-Jing; Peng, Han-Yang

    2009-12-01

    Both the energy efficiency and correlation characteristics are important in airborne sonar systems to realize multichannel ultrasonic transducers working together. High energy efficiency can increase echo energy and measurement range, and sharp autocorrelation and flat cross correlation can help eliminate cross-talk among multichannel transducers. This paper addresses energy efficiency optimization under the premise that cross-talk between different sonar transducers can be avoided. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is applied to optimize both the spectrum and correlation characteristics of the excitation sequence. The central idea of the spectrum optimization is to distribute most of the energy of the excitation sequence within the frequency band of the sonar transducer; thus, less energy is filtered out by the transducers. Real experiments show that a sonar system consisting of eight-channel Polaroid 600 series electrostatic transducers excited with 2 ms optimized pulse-position-modulation sequences can work together without cross-talk and can measure distances up to 650 cm with maximal 1% relative error.

  10. Improvement of energy efficiency via spectrum optimization of excitation sequence for multichannel simultaneously triggered airborne sonar system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yao, Zhen-Jing; Peng, Han-Yang

    2009-12-01

    Both the energy efficiency and correlation characteristics are important in airborne sonar systems to realize multichannel ultrasonic transducers working together. High energy efficiency can increase echo energy and measurement range, and sharp autocorrelation and flat cross correlation can help eliminate cross-talk among multichannel transducers. This paper addresses energy efficiency optimization under the premise that cross-talk between different sonar transducers can be avoided. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is applied to optimize both the spectrum and correlation characteristics of the excitation sequence. The central idea of the spectrum optimization is to distribute most of the energy of the excitation sequence within the frequency band of the sonar transducer; thus, less energy is filtered out by the transducers. Real experiments show that a sonar system consisting of eight-channel Polaroid 600 series electrostatic transducers excited with 2 ms optimized pulse-position-modulation sequences can work together without cross-talk and can measure distances up to 650 cm with maximal 1% relative error.

  11. Efficient energy use in manufacturing.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M

    1992-01-01

    The potential for improved industrial efficiency is great and a substantial part of that potential is being realized in the course of events. With new technology and increasing affluence, the composition of production is changing such that energy and materials consumption is growing more slowly than the economy. Through new technologies and appropriate public policies, the energy intensities of all production processes should also continue to decline. Potential difficulties facing this relatively rosy scenario are also discussed. PMID:11607261

  12. Improved mapping carbon, water, and energy land-surface fluxes using remotely sensed indicators of canopy light use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A light-use-efficiency (LUE) based model of canopy resistance has been embedded into a thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model to facilitate coupled simulations of transpiration and carbon assimilation. The model assumes that deviations of the observed canopy LUE from a nominal stand-le...

  13. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  14. Mitigation of enteric methane emissions through improving efficiency of energy utilization and productivity in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Mayne, C S; Gordon, F G; Porter, M G; Agnew, R E; Patterson, D C; Ferris, C P; Kilpatrick, D J

    2010-06-01

    The data set used in the present study was obtained from 20 energy metabolism studies involving 579 lactating dairy cows (511 Holstein-Friesian, 36 Norwegian Red, and 32 Jersey-Holstein crossbreds) varying in genetic merit, lactation number, stage of lactation, and live weight. These cows were offered diets based on grass silage (n=550) or fresh grass (n=29), and their energy intake and outputs, including methane energy (CH(4)-E), were measured in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeter chambers. The objective was to use these data to evaluate relationships between CH(4)-E output and a range of factors in animal production and energetic efficiency in lactating dairy cows under normal feeding regimens. The CH(4)-E as a proportion of milk energy output (E(l)), E(l) adjusted to zero energy balance (E(l(0))), or intakes of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), or metabolizable energy (ME) was significantly related to a wide range of variables associated with milk production (E(l) and E(l(0))) and energy parameters (energy intake, metabolizability, partitioning, and utilization efficiencies). Three sets of linear relationships were developed with experimental effects removed. The CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.50-0.62) and CH(4)-E/E(l) (r(2)=0.41-0.68) were reduced with increasing feeding level, E(l)/metabolic body weight (MBW; kg(0.75)), E(l(0))/MBW, GE intake/MBW, DE intake/MBW, and ME intake/MBW. Increasing dietary ME/DE decreased CH(4)-E/E(l) (r(2)=0.46) and CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.72). Dietary ME concentration and ME/GE were also negatively related to CH(4)-E/GE intake (r(2)=0.47). However, increasing heat production/ME intake increased CH(4)-E as a proportion of E(l) (r(2)=0.41), E(l(0)) (r(2)=0.67) and energy intake (GE, DE, and ME; r(2)=0.62 and 0.70). These proportional CH(4)-E variables were reduced with increasing ratios of E(l)/ME intake and E(l(0))/ME intake and efficiency of ME use for lactation (r(2)=0.49-0.70). Fitting CH(4)-E/E(l) or CH(4)-E

  15. The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement and energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; McClelland, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a methodology and results for assessing the impact of production and energy efficiency, environmental regulation, and abatement capital expenditure constraints (e.g. capital rationing) on the productivity of energy and pollution intensive sectors. Energy is treated like any other production input when examining evidence of inefficiency. We find that capital rationing and environmental regulations do contribute to productivity and energy efficiency losses, but do not explain all of the production and energy inefficiencies observed in the paper industry. A summary of the energy source of production inefficiency found in the paper industry, is presented.. Each source is derived as the incremental contribution., i.e. the first is constraints on capital, the second in environmental regulation not accounted for by the first, and the final component is production inefficiency that is not accounted for my any of the- environmental analysis. While the methods are very data intensive, they reveal much more that analysis of aggregate data, 1835 since the only plant level data can provide the estimates of inefficiency that this methodology employs.

  16. Benchmarks for industrial energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Amarnath, K.R.; Kumana, J.D.; Shah, J.V.

    1996-12-31

    What are the standards for improving energy efficiency for industries such as petroleum refining, chemicals, and glass manufacture? How can different industries in emerging markets and developing accelerate the pace of improvements? This paper discusses several case studies and experiences relating to this subject emphasizing the use of energy efficiency benchmarks. Two important benchmarks are discussed. The first is based on a track record of outstanding performers in the related industry segment; the second benchmark is based on site specific factors. Using energy use reduction targets or benchmarks, projects have been implemented in Mexico, Poland, India, Venezuela, Brazil, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa and Russia. Improvements identified through these projects include a variety of recommendations. The use of oxy-fuel and electric furnaces in the glass industry in Poland; reconfiguration of process heat recovery systems for refineries in China, Malaysia, and Russia; recycling and reuse of process wastewater in Republic of South Africa; cogeneration plant in Venezuela. The paper will discuss three case studies of efforts undertaken in emerging market countries to improve energy efficiency.

  17. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and...

  18. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  19. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Andersson, B.

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such ``market barriers`` suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  20. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B. ); Andersson, B. )

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such market barriers'' suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  1. Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

  2. Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station Install Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet highlights the energy challenges faced by the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station (VIERS), the renewable energy and energy efficiency solutions implemented, the resulting energy efficiency savings, and other project benefits. In 2011, VIERS installed a 9.4 kW solar system funded by a $50,000 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant, which was administered by VIEO. To identify additional energy-saving opportunities, VIERS performed an energy audit of appliances, which resulted in the removal of two water coolers and the installation of a water meter to monitor water use and how it relates to electric pump use. VIERS also added an educational component to the project, developing a solar classroom near the original solar system. By building on previous energy conservation measures and making additional investments in renewable energy technology, VIERS has lowered its average monthly energy consumption nearly 30%, even with an increase in guests. The VIERS efforts are not limited to the technology installations, however. They also serve to impact the youth of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) by educating young people about energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and their energy and environmental impacts. VIERS solar system is connected to the Web via a live feed that posts solar output data in real time, increasing the VIERS solar classroom's potential educational impact exponentially.

  3. Do consumers buy energy efficiency?

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.R.

    1998-03-01

    After more than 30 years of energy efficiency regulations and standards, the USA still carries a heavier energy load per capita than any other industrialized country. However, consumers are buying more energy-efficient products for their homes and homes are more energy efficient. Besides a general overview, this article specifically discusses energy efficiency increases in cooling and heating systems and greater use of insulation. 2 tabs.

  4. Isothermal combustion for improved efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar N. R.

    1987-06-01

    This theoretical effort proposes, and explains in detail, the concept of isothermal combustion for vastly improved efficiencies. The concept involves combustion at constant total temperatures in order to realize isothermal heat addition to the working fluid in typical power plants; it is rendered practical by extracting a precise amount of work from the flowing/expanding gases; the heat addition due to combustion will be balanced out to keep the total temperature constant. (In an oversimplified description, it might be said that this involves burning in the turbine stages, or burning during the expansion stroke.) Isothermal heat addition enables the thermodynamic cycle to approach the Carnot cycle more closely than the state-of-the-art Brayton, Otto, or Diesel cycles. A closed-form analytical expression is derived to explicitly show the cycle efficiency in terms of the pressure ratio and the overall temperature ratio. Thirty- to forty-percent efficiency increases are seen over the Brayton efficiency for the same overall temperature ratio. Some practical issues such as limits to pressure ratios, blade cooling, and service life are qualitatively discussed.

  5. Energy efficient engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Sabla, P. E.; Bahr, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of meeting or closely approaching the emissions goals established for the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Project with an advanced design, single annular combustor was determined. A total of nine sector combustor configurations and one full-annular-combustor configuration were evaluated. Acceptable levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were obtained with several of the sector combustor configurations tested, and several of the configurations tested demonstrated reduced levels of nitrogen oxides compared to conventional, single annular designs. None of the configurations tested demonstrated nitrogen oxide emission levels that meet the goal of the E3 Project.

  6. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  7. Cogeneration improves thermal EOR efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Western, E.R. ); Nass, D.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports that the successful completion and operation of a cogeneration plant is a prime example of the multi-faceted use of cogeneration. Through high-efficiency operation, significant energy is saved by combining the two process of steam and electrical production. The 225-megawatt (mw) cogeneration plant provides 1,215 million lb/hr of steam for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) at the Midway-Sunset oil field in south-central California. Overall pollutant emissions as well as total electric and steam production costs have been reduced. The area's biological resources also have been protected.

  8. Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Wang, Liang; Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2011-03-15

    Data from a series of phosphorescent blue organic light emitting devices OLEDs with emissive layers consisting of either CBP:6% Firpic or mCP:6% FIrpic show that the triplet energy of the hole and electron transport layers can have a larger influence on the external quantum efficiency of an operating OLED than the triplet energy of the host material. These results are important and insightful given the commonly held view that host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs must have a triplet energy higher than that of the emitter in order to obtain high external quantum efficiency (EQE). A new host material, 4-(di-ptolylaminophenyl)diphenylphosphine oxide (DHM-A2), which has a triplet energy less than that of FIrpic is also reported. OLEDs fabricated using DHM-A2 show improved performance (lower drive voltage and higher external quantum efficiency) over OLEDs using 4- (diphenylphosphoryl)-N,N-diphenylaniline (HMA1), a high performance ambipolar DHM-A2 analogue with a triplet energy greater than FIrpic. Our results suggest modified design rules for the development of new, high performance host materials., ames, more focus can be placed on molecular structures that provide good charge transport (i.e., ambipolarity for charge balance) and good molecular stability (for long lifetimes). This improved understanding provides additional flexibility in order to generate OLEDs with lower operating voltage and longer lifetime, while still providing high EQE.

  9. Improving radiation dose efficiency of X-ray differential phase contrast imaging using an energy-resolving grating interferometer and a novel rank constraint.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-06-13

    In this paper, a novel method was developed to improve the radiation dose efficiency, viz., contrast to noise ratio normalized by dose (CNRD), of the grating-based X-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging system that is integrated with an energy-resolving photon counting detector. The method exploits the low-dimensionality of the spatial-spectral DPC image matrix acquired from different energy windows. A low rank approximation of the spatial-spectral image matrix was developed to reduce image noise while retaining the DPC signal accuracy for every energy window. Numerical simulations and experimental phantom studies have been performed to validate the proposed method by showing noise reduction and CNRD improvement for each energy window.

  10. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  11. Energy efficiency today.

    PubMed

    Oliver, B C

    1989-03-01

    These initiatives sponsored by the DH in concert with the NHS, have taken place since the issue of ENCODE 1 in November 1985, and have received very favourable reaction. A user survey carried out on ENCODE 1 and 2 in 1988, has consolidated this view and we are continuing to learn what those at the sharp end have been able to gain from it. On-going feed back is considered essential for the work to be fully effective. Evaluation and training has been done by SETRHA and South East Kent Health Authority at their training centre and these results will be fed back into ENCODE and to the National Training Centre at Falfield. One particular aspect apparent from these training sessions is the need for a structured approach to the use of ENCODE with special attention being given to the user of the computer software. ENCODES 1 and 2 have been sponsored by the DH/NHS and published by HMSO, and are the only comprehensive documents on energy efficiency in buildings available from Government Departments and as such they are now offered for sale world-wide. The Strategic Management Guide is due for publication this Spring as is also a complete revision of the ENCODE Computer Software. ENCODE software is compatible with the WIMS suite of software. A current joint venture with the WIMS Consortium is the development of a revised WIMS Energy Module to be called ENMATS (Energy Monitoring and Targeting System). An initial version will be available Mid 1989.

  12. Photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency: setting a baseline for gauging future improvements in important food and biofuel crops.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Rebecca A; Ort, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency (ε(c)) of absorbed radiation into biomass (MJ of dry matter per MJ of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) is a component of yield potential that has been estimated at less than half the theoretical maximum. Various strategies have been proposed to improve ε(c), but a statistical analysis to establish baseline ε(c) levels across different crop functional types is lacking. Data from 164 published ε(c) studies conducted in relatively unstressed growth conditions were used to determine the means, greatest contributors to variation, and genetic trends in ε(c )across important food and biofuel crop species. ε(c) was greatest in biofuel crops (0.049-0.066), followed by C4 food crops (0.046-0.049), C3 nonlegumes (0.036-0.041), and finally C3 legumes (0.028-0.035). Despite confining our analysis to relatively unstressed growth conditions, total incident solar radiation and average growing season temperature most often accounted for the largest portion of ε(c) variability. Genetic improvements in ε(c), when present, were less than 0.7% per year, revealing the unrealized potential of improving ε(c) as a promising contributing strategy to meet projected future agricultural demand.

  13. Photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency: setting a baseline for gauging future improvements in important food and biofuel crops.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Rebecca A; Ort, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency (ε(c)) of absorbed radiation into biomass (MJ of dry matter per MJ of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) is a component of yield potential that has been estimated at less than half the theoretical maximum. Various strategies have been proposed to improve ε(c), but a statistical analysis to establish baseline ε(c) levels across different crop functional types is lacking. Data from 164 published ε(c) studies conducted in relatively unstressed growth conditions were used to determine the means, greatest contributors to variation, and genetic trends in ε(c )across important food and biofuel crop species. ε(c) was greatest in biofuel crops (0.049-0.066), followed by C4 food crops (0.046-0.049), C3 nonlegumes (0.036-0.041), and finally C3 legumes (0.028-0.035). Despite confining our analysis to relatively unstressed growth conditions, total incident solar radiation and average growing season temperature most often accounted for the largest portion of ε(c) variability. Genetic improvements in ε(c), when present, were less than 0.7% per year, revealing the unrealized potential of improving ε(c) as a promising contributing strategy to meet projected future agricultural demand. PMID:25829463

  14. Improving the energy efficiency of refrigeration plants by decreasing the temperature difference in air-cooled condensers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishov, V. V.; Talyzin, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The electric energy consumption efficiency is estimated in comparing the real refrigeration machine cycle with the theoretical inverse Carnot cycle. The potential for saving electricity in using aircooled condensers with different values of temperature difference is shown. A procedure for calculating a refrigerating system with the evaporation temperature equal to -10°C, which corresponds at this temperature level to the thermal load of a standard supermarket, is described. The calculation was carried out taking into account the annual profile of temperatures in the indicated locality and based on the possibility of adjusting the condenser capacity for maintaining constant condensation temperature. The payback period in case of using condensers with different values of temperature difference is calculated; for example, in using condensers with a temperature difference of less than 15 K, the payback period will be less than one year. Decreasing the temperature difference results, on one hand, in a larger annual consumption of electric energy by the condenser fans, and on the other hand, it results in a lower condensation pressure, which leads to a smaller annual consumption of energy by the compressor unit. As a result, the total amount of energy consumed by the refrigeration system decreases so that despite a higher cost of condensers designed to operate at lower values of temperature difference, it becomes possible to achieve the above-mentioned payback period. Additionally, the payback period in case of using an air-cooled microchannel aluminum condenser was calculated: in case of using such a condenser with a temperature difference of 8 K instead of the condenser with the temperature difference equal to 15 K, the payback period will be less than half a year. Recommendations for designing new refrigeration systems equipped with air-cooled condensers are given.

  15. Improvement of energy efficiency: the use of thermography and air-tightness test in verification of thermal performance of school buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppinen, Timo; Siikanen, Sami

    2011-05-01

    The improvement of energy efficiency is the key issue after the energy performance of buildings directive came into the force in European Union countries. The city of Kuopio participate a project, in which different tools will be used, generated and tested to improve the energy efficiency of public buildings. In this project there are 2 schools, the other consuming much more heating energy than the other same type of school. In this paper the results of the thermography in normal conditions and under 50 Pa pressure drop will be presented; as well as the results of remote controlled air tightness test of the buildings. Thermography combined with air tightness test showed clearly the reasons of specific consumption differences of heating energy - also in the other hand, the measurements showed the problems in the performance of ventilation system. Thermography, air tightness test and other supporting measurements can be used together to solve energy loss problems - if these measurements will be carried out by proper way.

  16. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  17. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  18. Something Special from SEED: Energy Efficiency for Educators and Students. SEED: Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneco, Inc., Houston, TX.

    The goal of the Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration (SEED) was to assist schools in reducing the impact of the rising cost of energy by defining good energy management programs and by implementing quick-fix, low-cost energy efficiency improvements. Twenty schools in 15 states participated in the demonstration program. This report covers…

  19. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  20. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  1. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.

  2. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - State Energy Program Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    State energy offices use SEP funds to develop state plans that identify opportunities for adopting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, and implementing programs to improve energy sustainability.

  3. Improving Electrical Efficiency of Edm Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Emanoil; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    This paper briefly presents the principal types of Pulse Generators for Electrical Discharge Machining and ways to improve electrical efficiency. A resonant converter with series-parallel LCC circuit, for EDM applications, was analyzed by PSpice simulation. The performances of EDM Power Supply were improved by adding an energy recovering - voltage limiter circuit. The shape of current pulse was changed by adding a supplementary MOSFET Switch in parallel with the gap. Two or more converters can be parallelized, in this way output current can be changed. A bloc-schema was conceived for EDM experimental set up

  4. Barriers and opportunities for improving energy efficiency in the social housing sector: Case study of E4C's Division of Housing and Mental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand-Smith, Patrick

    Energy efficiency improvements in the social housing sector have the potential to produce a range of environmental and social benefits. These improvements can be produced through retrofits that deliver energy savings or new construction built to a high standard of energetic efficiency. However, implementation of these approaches is hindered by economic and organizational constraints affecting the agencies that provide society with social housing and the governments that support the provision of these services. This thesis builds on the work of other researchers studying these constraints by supplying an in-depth case study from Alberta and a discussion based on its findings. The case study focuses on E4C, a social service agency with several housing projects. Overall, findings matched important themes identified in the academic literature. The in-depth nature of the case study added additional insight to many of these themes. Most barriers are economic in nature and related to a lack of sufficient funding or the up-front costs of energy-saving retrofits. The recommendations presented are based on consideration of the multiple barriers and opportunities faced. Most of these require a considerable investment of time on the part of agencies and would be followed up by capital investments to implement energy-saving changes. Therefore it is important to note that the most significant barrier is commitment, which is one of E4C's central values. This thesis showed that commitment cannot exceed capacity to act. Greater commitment on the part of governments, agencies or society at large could have significant impacts in improving the energy efficiency of buildings in the Albertan, and Canadian, social housing sector.

  5. Energy efficient desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    An energy efficient seawater desalination plant, which produces pure distilled water at an operating cost 30 to 90 percent lower than that of other desalination plants, and which is large enough to serve a city of at least 55,000, has been constructed in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. The St. Thomas plant consists of two units, each capable of producing up to 1.45 million gallons of water per day, nearly 16 percent more than specifications. A third identical unit is located on St. Croix. The three units were designed and built by Israel Desalination Engineering (IDE), of Tel-Aviv, at a total cost of $15 million. They are located next to generating units which supply low grade (low pressure) steam for the desalting operation. Both the generating and desalination units belong to the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority. The plants are low temperature operation (70/sup 0/C) which allows use of low grade or spent steam from the power plant. The cost of such low pressure steam is lower than the cost of high pressure steam or electric power required by other desalination processes. Low temperature operation has other advantages. It reduces problems of corrosion and scale formation and allows the use of totally non-corrosive plastic tubing and large low cost aluminum alloy heat transfer surfaces.

  6. The Energy-Efficient Quarry: Towards improved understanding and optimisation of energy use and minimisation of CO2 generation in the aggregates industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ian; White, Toby; Owen, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    Extraction and processing of rock materials to produce aggregates is carried out at some 20,000 quarries across the EU. All stages of the processing and transport of hard and dense materials inevitably consume high levels of energy and have consequent significant carbon footprints. The FP7 project "the Energy Efficient Quarry" (EE-Quarry) has been addressing this problem and has devised strategies, supported by modelling software, to assist the quarrying industry to assess and optimise its energy use, and to minimise its carbon footprint. Aggregate quarries across Europe vary enormously in the scale of the quarrying operations, the nature of the worked mineral, and the processing to produce a final market product. Nevertheless most quarries involve most or all of a series of essential stages; deposit assessment, drilling and blasting, loading and hauling, and crushing and screening. The process of determining the energy-efficiency of each stage is complex, but is broadly understood in principle and there are numerous sources of information and guidance available in the literature and on-line. More complex still is the interaction between each of these stages. For example, using a little more energy in blasting to increase fragmentation may save much greater energy in later crushing and screening, but also generate more fines material which is discarded as waste and the embedded energy in this material is lost. Thus the calculation of the embedded energy in the waste material becomes an input to the determination of the blasting strategy. Such feedback loops abound in the overall quarry optimisation. The project has involved research and demonstration operations at a number of quarries distributed across Europe carried out by all partners in the EE-Quarry project, working in collaboration with many of the major quarrying companies operating in the EU. The EE-Quarry project is developing a sophisticated modelling tool, the "EE-Quarry Model" available to the quarrying

  7. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  8. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  9. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  10. Energy-efficient lubricants reduce plant energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, C.; Lockett, A.

    1997-09-01

    This article describes how specially formulated synthetic lubricants can improve gear drive efficiency, extend maintenance cycles and enhance equipment durability. Energy-efficient synthetic gear oils, formulated to optimize viscometric and friction characteristics, can significantly reduce the power-consumption requirements of gear-driven equipment, while enhancing gear drive durability and significantly lowering energy costs. Unfortunately energy-efficient lubricants are not widely understood and appreciated.

  11. Improving the efficiency of cadmium sulfide-sensitized titanium dioxide/indium tin oxide glass photoelectrodes using silver sulfide as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanocrystals are deposited on the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystalline film on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate to prepare CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO photoelectrodes through a new method known as the molecular precursor decomposition method. The Ag2S is interposed between the TiO2 nanocrystal film and CdS nanocrystals as an energy barrier layer and a light absorber. As a consequence, the energy conversion efficiency of the CdS/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrodes is significantly improved. Under AM 1.5 G sunlight irradiation, the maximum efficiency achieved for the CdS(4)/Ag2S/TiO2/ITO electrode is 3.46%, corresponding to an increase of about 150% as compared to the CdS(4)/TiO2/ITO electrode without the Ag2S layer. Our experimental results show that the improved efficiency is mainly due to the formation of Ag2S layer that may increase the light absorbance and reduce the recombination of photogenerated electrons with redox ions from the electrolyte. PMID:25411566

  12. The Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Victoria

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency. The report covers critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  14. Energy efficient building design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  15. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  16. New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-06-05

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

  17. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  18. Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-11

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  20. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the

  1. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then

  2. China's CO and CO2 emissions estimated from the bottom up: Recent trends, uncertainties, and implications of improved energy efficiency and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    China's emissions of anthropogenic CO and CO2 from 2005 to 2010 are estimated using a bottom-up emission inventory framework based on a detailed categorization of economic sectors and provincial economic and energy data. It includes a newly compiled database of emission factors employing the latest field study results from China. The CO emission factors for major sectors declined to varying degrees for the past years, attributed to improved energy efficiency and/or emission control regulations. The national CO emissions are estimated at 173 Tg for 2005 and have been relatively stable for subsequent years, despite fast growth of energy consumption and industrial production. While industry and transportation dominated CO emissions in developed eastern and north-central China, residential combustion played a greater role in the less developed western provinces. Total CO2 emissions are estimated to have risen from 7126 to 10152 Tg from 2005 to 2010. Recent policies to conserve energy and reduce emissions have been effective in limiting CO2 emissions from power and iron & steel plants, but have had little effect on those from cement production. The uncertainties of China's CO and CO2 emissions are quantified for the first time using Monte Carlo simulation, producing the 95% confidence intervals of -20% to +45% and -9% to +11% for emissions in 2005, respectively. Due to poor understanding of emission factors and activity levels for combustion of solid fuels, the largest uncertainties are found for emissions from the residential sector. Emission factors are identified as the most important parameters contributing to the uncertainties of CO emissions for all the sectors, while the largest contributors to uncertainties of CO2 are emission factors for most industrial sources and activity levels for power plants, transportation, and residential sources. The trends of bottom-up emissions compare reasonably to ground observations of CO2-CO correlation slopes, as shown in Table

  3. Progress on Enabling an Interactive Conversation Between Commercial Building Occupants and Their Building To Improve Comfort and Energy Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, M.; Scheib, J.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Benne, K.; Brackney, L.

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have reported energy savings after installing a dashboard, but dashboards provide neither individual feedback to the occupant nor the ability to report individual comfort. The Building Agent (BA) provides an interface to engage the occupant in a conversation with the building control system and the building engineer. Preliminary outcomes of the BA-enabled feedback loop are presented, and the effectiveness of the three display modes will be compared to other dashboard studies to baseline energy savings in future research.

  4. Opportunities and prospects for demand-side efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Kuliasha, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    Substantial progress has been made over the last 20 years in improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the US economy. Although there remains a large potential for further efficiency gains, progress in improving energy efficiency has slowed recently. A combination of low energy prices, environmental challenges, and life-style changes have caused energy consumption to resume rising. Both new policies and technologies will be necessary to achieve cost-effective levels of energy efficiency. This paper describes some of the promising new demand-side technologies that are currently being implemented, nearing commercialization, or in advanced stages of development. The topics discussed include finding replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), new building equipment and envelope technologies, lessons learned about conservation program implementation, and the role of utilities in promoting the efficient use of energy.

  5. Aircraft energy efficiency. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Six advanced technology development projects that could cut fuel consumption of future civil air transports by as much as 50 percent are highlighted. These include improved engine components; better engine design; thin short blades for turboprop aircaft; using composite primary structures for weight reduction; the use of supercritical wings, higher aspect ratio, and winglets for improved aerodynamics; active controls; and laminar flow control. The time span of each of the six efforts and NASA's expected expenditures are also discussed.

  6. Forget energy conservation - think energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}CONSERVE ENERGY: Please Turn Off The Lights!{close_quotes} Many buildings constructed before 1975 have the peeling remains of those green or orange stickers on light switches. They are the remnants of a U.S. energy policy gone bad. Twenty years ago, energy conservation meant telling employees to wear sweaters to work and applying stickers to remind people to turn off the lights. Neither worked. People who see those old stickers probably don`t know that a quiet revolution has taken place inside thousands of public and commercial buildings. Thanks to new technology and a new attitude about energy, you can forget sweaters and switches. For example... (1) Motion sensors automatically turn off fights when you leave the room. (2) Computers determine when energy rates go down to get the best value. (3) Personal environmental modules let office workers set their cubicle`s heating and lighting levels. These days, energy efficiency is equated with good business. It can increase productivity, create jobs, and reduce pollution -- all with very little effort. That`s why it`s called energy efficiency, not energy conservation. And energy efficiency is good government. If Congress truly is committed to lowering taxes and reducing the budget deficit, members should first look at ways to lower the nation`s energy bill through energy efficiency. It is in the best interests of the energy efficiency industry to work together and promote these benefits.

  7. Combined cycles which improved efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Colosimo, D.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the limitations to the design of Rankine bottoming cycles for hot exhaust gas sources such as diesel and Brayton engines and to provide a description of an approach being developed for a gas turbine application which offers the potential of high efficiency, good economics and accepted machinery practice. 5 refs.

  8. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  9. Worker productivity rises with energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, J.J. )

    1995-01-01

    Many American companies have found that saving energy and cutting pollution dramatically improves the bottom line. But beyond these gains, businesses that launch energy efficiency programs to save money are often astonished to discover unforeseen benefits: energy efficient lighting, heating, cooling, motors, and industrial processes can increase worker productivity, decrease absenteeism, and improve the quality of work performed. Profits created by the jump in worker productivity can exceed energy savings by a factor of ten. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention represent the next wave in manufacturing, following the quality revolution launched by the Japanese in the 1960s. Unless America leads the lean and clean revolution, economic health will be undermined as other countries develop clean processes and products and US companies suffer competitively. Also, developing countries will leapfrog their wasteful model and buy products and manufacturing processes from foreign firms already practicing lean and clean.

  10. Positioning Your Library for Solar (and Financial) Gain. Improving Energy Efficiency, Lighting, and Ventilation with Primarily Passive Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of building design above technology as a relatively inexpensive way to reduce energy costs for a library. Emphasis is placed on passive solar design for heat and daylighting, but also examines passive ventilation and cooling, green roofs, and building materials. Passive design is weighed against technologies…

  11. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  12. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  13. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  14. The National Fuel End-Use Efficiency Field Test: Energy Savings and Performance of an Improved Energy Conservation Measure Selection Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs that are cost effective in the building envelope, space-heating system, and water-heating system. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) for each ECM is determined and cost-effective ECMs (BCR > 1.0) are selected once interactions between ECMs are taken into account. Eighty-nine houses with the following characteristics were monitored for the duration of the field test: occupants were low-income, houses were single-family detached houses but not mobile homes, and primary space- and water-heating systems were gas-fired. Forty-five houses received a mix of ECMs as selected by the measure selection technique (audit houses) and 44 served as a control group. Pre-weatherization data were collected from January to April 1988 and post-weatherization data were collected from December 1988 to April 1989. Space- and waterheating gas consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the two winters. A house energy consumption model and regression analysis were employed to normalize the space-heating energy savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and a 68 F indoor temperature. Space and water-heating energy savings for the audit houses were adjusted by the savings for the control houses. The average savings of 257 therms/year for the audit houses was 17% of the average pre-weatherization house gas consumption and 78% of that predicted. Average space-heating energy savings was 252 therms/year (25% of pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption and 85% of the predicted value) and average water-heating savings was 5 therms/year (2% of pre

  15. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  16. Design and optimization of personalized ventilation for overall improvement of thermal comfort, air quality, and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Ian Dominic

    This paper presents a simple and repeatable CFD-based method that can accurately predict the optimal operating conditions of personalized ventilation systems. In contrast to previous studies, the optimal performance of the PV system includes the influences of various operation characteristics (supply air velocity, PV flow rate, PV temperature, PV distance from face, turbulence intensity, relative humidity, central system flow rate, central system temperature, central system type, and PV on/off operation) on three critical performance factors: thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy savings. This method is able to predict more achievable and comprehensive operating performance of PV systems. It is found for the computer perimeter grill air terminal device that supply temperatures, central flow rate, and PV flow rate are the most influential factors on performance in terms of thermal comfort, IAQ, and energy. Using the Taguchi design of experiment and optimal performance prediction method, the computer perimeter grill personalized ventilation system is optimized in conjunction with under-floor and overhead central systems, separately.

  17. Sasa borealis Extract Efficiently Enhanced Swimming Capacity by Improving Energy Metabolism and the Antioxidant Defense System in Mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of 50% ethanolic extract from Sasa borealis leaves (SBE) on swimming capacity and oxidative metabolism in mice. The mice were divided into 2 groups with similar swimming times and body weights; Ex-Control and Ex-SBE were orally administered with distilled water and 250 mg/kg body weight/d of SBE. Exhaustive swimming times were prolonged by 1.5-fold in the Ex-SBE group compared to the Ex-Control. The Ex-SBE group displayed lower lactate and higher non-esterified fatty acid levels 15 min after swimming and the hepatic and muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher than that in the Ex-Control. SBE potentially enhanced mRNA expression of citrate synthase (CS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), and β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (β-HAD) in skeletal muscle. The activities and mRNA expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated in the Ex-SBE compared with the Ex-Control after exhaustive swimming. These results suggest that SBE might be used as an effective agent to enhance swimming capacity by utilization of energy substrates and might ameliorate physical exhaustion by facilitating energy-generating metabolic genes and enhancing endogenous antioxidants. PMID:26875491

  18. Improvement of ethanol productivity and energy efficiency by degradation of inhibitors using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis (pHW20a-fdh).

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Wei; Fan, Li-Qiang; Luo, Zichen; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Ryu, Dewey D Y; Bao, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Toxic compounds, such as formic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) generated during pretreatment of corn stover (CS) at high temperature and low pH, inhibit growth of Zymomonas mobilis and lower the conversion efficiency of CS to biofuel and other products. The inhibition of toxic compounds is considered as one of the major technical barriers in the lignocellulose bioconversion. In order to detoxify and/or degrade these toxic compounds by the model ethanologenic strain Z. mobilis itself in situ the fermentation medium, we constructed a recombinant Z. mobilis ZM4 (pHW20a-fdh) strain that is capable of degrading toxic inhibitor, formate. This is accomplished by cloning heterologous formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and by coupling this reaction of NADH regeneration reaction system with furfural and HMF degradation in the recombinant Z. mobilis strain. The NADH regeneration reaction also improved both the energy efficiency and cell physiological activity of the recombinant organism, which were definitely confirmed by the improved cell growth, ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity during fermentation with CS hydrolysate.

  19. Improving photosynthetic efficiency for greater yield.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising food supply over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Whereas improved photosynthetic efficiency has played only a minor role in the remarkable increases in productivity achieved in the last half century, further increases in yield potential will rely in large part on improved photosynthesis. Here we examine inefficiencies in photosynthetic energy transduction in crops from light interception to carbohydrate synthesis, and how classical breeding, systems biology, and synthetic biology are providing new opportunities to develop more productive germplasm. Near-term opportunities include improving the display of leaves in crop canopies to avoid light saturation of individual leaves and further investigation of a photorespiratory bypass that has already improved the productivity of model species. Longer-term opportunities include engineering into plants carboxylases that are better adapted to current and forthcoming CO(2) concentrations, and the use of modeling to guide molecular optimization of resource investment among the components of the photosynthetic apparatus, to maximize carbon gain without increasing crop inputs. Collectively, these changes have the potential to more than double the yield potential of our major crops. PMID:20192734

  20. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  1. New Orleans and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenburg, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    The Saint Bernard Project works tirelessly with volunteers, veterans and homeowners to continue the rebuilding. With the help of the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development they will be able to apply a greater energy efficiency strategy to help New Orleans and the country reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

  2. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  3. Bright, Light and Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new Sharon Elementary School in Newburgh (Indiana) has a three-fuel plan that will allow selection of the most economical energy source for each heating season with an energy-efficient lighting system that includes skylights. (Author/MLF)

  4. New Orleans and Energy Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenburg, Zachary

    2016-07-12

    The Saint Bernard Project works tirelessly with volunteers, veterans and homeowners to continue the rebuilding. With the help of the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development they will be able to apply a greater energy efficiency strategy to help New Orleans and the country reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

  5. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  6. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the

  7. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  8. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  9. EVA thin film with thermo- and moisture-stable luminescent copolymer beads composed of Eu(III) complexes for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Hisataka; Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2015-04-01

    Luminescent beads composed of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2 (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, TPPO: triphenylphosphine oxide) in PMMA copolymer (polymethylmethacrylate- styrene and polymethylmethacrylate-trifluoromethylmethacrylate copolymers), PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu have been reported for improvement of energy conversion efficiency on silicon solar cell. The PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu beads are prepared using radical initiator AIBN (2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile) without BPO (Benzoyl peroxide) which promotes decomposition of Eu(hfa)3(TPPO)2. The emission properties of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) film with PMMA-St-Eu or PMMA-TF-Eu beads are characterized by the emission spectra and lifetimes. Thermo- and moisture-stabilities of the EVA films are performed under high temperature and high moisture condition (85°C85%RH). Increase percentage the solar cell short circuit current efficiency in the solar cell modulation using with EVA film containing PMMA-St-Eu beads with size in 70 μm was estimated to 1.2%. Thermo- and moisture-stable PMMA-St-Eu and PMMA-TF-Eu beads for solar sealing film are demonstrated for the first time.

  10. Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-04-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

  11. Technical note: Optimization for improved tube-loading efficiency in the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: This article describes the spectral optimization of dual-energy computed tomography using balanced filters (bf-DECT) to reduce the tube loadings and dose by dedicating to the acquisition of electron density information, which is essential for treatment planning in radiotherapy. Methods: For the spectral optimization of bf-DECT, the author calculated the beam-hardening error and air kerma required to achieve a desired noise level in an electron density image of a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical water phantom. The calculation enables the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage, balanced filter material, and its thickness. Results: The optimal combination of tube voltages was 80 kV/140 kV in conjunction with Tb/Hf and Bi/Mo filter pairs; this combination agrees with that obtained in a previous study [M. Saito, ''Spectral optimization for measuring electron density by the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method,'' Med. Phys. 36, 3631-3642 (2009)], although the thicknesses of the filters that yielded a minimum tube output were slightly different from those obtained in the previous study. The resultant tube loading of a low-energy scan of the present bf-DECT significantly decreased from 57.5 to 4.5 times that of a high-energy scan for conventional DECT. Furthermore, the air kerma of bf-DECT could be reduced to less than that of conventional DECT, while obtaining the same figure of merit for the measurement of electron density and effective atomic number. Conclusions: The tube-loading and dose efficiencies of bf-DECT were considerably improved by sacrificing the quality of the noise level in the images of effective atomic number.

  12. Energy Efficient Drivepower: An Overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This report examines energy efficiency in drivepower systems. Only systems where the prime movers are electrical motors are discussed. A systems approach is used to examine all major aspects of drivepower, including motors, controls, electrical tune-ups, mechanical efficiency, maintenance, and management. Potential annual savings to the US society of $25 to $50 billion are indicated. The report was written for readers with a semi-technical background.

  13. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  14. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  15. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has

  16. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and

  17. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  18. Simultaneous improvement of emission color, singlet-triplet energy gap, and quantum efficiency of blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters using a 1-carbazolylcarbazole based donor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mounggon; Choi, Jeong Min; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-08-21

    Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitters having 1-carbazolylcarbazole based donor moieties were developed to resolve the low quantum efficiency and large singlet-triplet energy splitting issues of the linker free TADF emitters. Investigation of the 1-carbazolylcarbazole derived donors as the donor units of two blue TADF emitters in comparison with 3-carbazolylcarbazole demonstrated that the 1-carbazolylcarbazole based donors increased the triplet energy, decreased the singlet-triplet energy gap, blue-shifted the emission color, and enhanced the quantum efficiency of the blue TADF devices.

  19. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  20. Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

  1. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    the decision on whether to adopt an emerging technology. The technologies were characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics, and environmental performance. The results demonstrate that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. We show that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity and worker safety, and reduced capital costs.

  2. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  3. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  4. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries.

  5. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  6. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  7. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  8. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  9. Dynamic culture improves cell reprogramming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sia, Junren; Sun, Raymond; Chu, Julia; Li, Song

    2016-06-01

    Cell reprogramming to pluripotency is an inefficient process and various approaches have been devised to improve the yield of induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the effect of biophysical factors on cell reprogramming is not well understood. Here we showed that, for the first time, dynamic culture with orbital shaking significantly improved the reprogramming efficiency in adherent cells. Manipulating the viscosity of the culture medium suggested that the improved efficiency is mainly attributed to convective mixing rather than hydrodynamic shear stress. Temporal studies demonstrated that the enhancement of reprogramming efficiency required the dynamic culture in the middle but not early phase. In the early phase, fibroblasts had a high proliferation rate, but as the culture became over-confluent in the middle phase, expression of p57 was upregulated to inhibit cell proliferation and consequently, cell reprogramming. Subjecting the over confluent culture to orbital shaking prevented the upregulation of p57, thus improving reprogramming efficiency. Seeding cells at low densities to avoid over-confluency resulted in a lower efficiency, and optimal reprogramming efficiency was attained at a high seeding density with dynamic culture. Our findings provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of how dynamic culture condition regulate cell reprogramming, and will have broad impact on cell engineering for regenerative medicine and disease modeling.

  10. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to..., Office of Energy and Environmental Technologies Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration,...

  11. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a...: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  12. Carrier Localization Effects in InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Wells LED Nanowires: Luminescence Quantum Efficiency Improvement and “Negative” Thermal Activation Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wei; Su, Zhicheng; Zheng, Changcheng; Ning, Jiqiang; Xu, Shijie

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells (MQW) LED structure was nanotextured into quasi-one-dimensional nanowires (NWs) with different average diameters with a combination approach of Ni nanoislands as mask + dry etching. Such nanotexturing bring out several appealing effects including deeper localization of carriers and significant improvement in quantum efficiency (e.g., from 4.76% of the planar MQW structure to 12.5% of the 160 nm MQW NWs) of light emission in the whole interested temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. With the aid of localized-state ensemble (LSE) luminescence model, the photoluminescence spectra of the samples are quantitatively interpreted in the entire temperature range. In terms of distinctive temperature dependence of photoluminescence from these samples, a concept of “negative” thermal activation energy is tentatively proposed for the MQW NWs samples. These findings could lead to a deeper insight into the physical nature of localization and luminescence mechanism of excitons in InGaN/GaN nanowires.

  13. Improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass by a three-stage process comprising dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    The effects of pre-treatment methods on saccharification and hydrogen fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass were investigated. When raw biomass and biomass pre-treated by steam heating, by microwave heating, and by ultrasonication were used as feedstock, the hydrogen yields were only 8.8-12.7 ml/g total volatile solids (TVS) during dark fermentation. When biomass was pre-treated by steam heating with diluted acid and by microwave heating with diluted acid, the dark hydrogen yields significantly increased to 75.6 ml/g TVS and 83.3 ml/g TVS, respectively. Steam heating with diluted acid is the preferred pre-treatment method of C. pyrenoidosa biomass to improve hydrogen yield during dark fermentation and photofermentation, which is followed by methanogenesis to increase energy conversion efficiency (ECE). A total hydrogen yield of 198.3 ml/g TVS and a methane yield of 186.2 ml/g TVS corresponding to an overall ECE of 34.0% were obtained through the three-stage process (dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis).

  14. Carrier Localization Effects in InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Wells LED Nanowires: Luminescence Quantum Efficiency Improvement and “Negative” Thermal Activation Energy

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wei; Su, Zhicheng; Zheng, Changcheng; Ning, Jiqiang; Xu, Shijie

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells (MQW) LED structure was nanotextured into quasi-one-dimensional nanowires (NWs) with different average diameters with a combination approach of Ni nanoislands as mask + dry etching. Such nanotexturing bring out several appealing effects including deeper localization of carriers and significant improvement in quantum efficiency (e.g., from 4.76% of the planar MQW structure to 12.5% of the 160 nm MQW NWs) of light emission in the whole interested temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. With the aid of localized-state ensemble (LSE) luminescence model, the photoluminescence spectra of the samples are quantitatively interpreted in the entire temperature range. In terms of distinctive temperature dependence of photoluminescence from these samples, a concept of “negative” thermal activation energy is tentatively proposed for the MQW NWs samples. These findings could lead to a deeper insight into the physical nature of localization and luminescence mechanism of excitons in InGaN/GaN nanowires. PMID:27686154

  15. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  16. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  17. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered. PMID:27557100

  18. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  19. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  20. Large efficiency improvements in BEAMnrc using directional bremsstrahlung splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Kawrakow, I.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Walters, B.R.B.

    2004-10-01

    The introduction into the BEAMnrc code of a new variance reduction technique, called directional bremsstrahlung splitting (DBS), is described. DBS uses a combination of interaction splitting for bremsstrahlung, annihilation, Compton scattering, pair production and photoabsorption, and Russian Roulette to achieve a much better efficiency of photon beam treatment head simulations compared to the splitting techniques already available in BEAMnrc (selective bremsstrahlung splitting, SBS, and uniform bremsstrahlung splitting, UBS). In a simulated 6 MV photon beam (10x10 cm{sup 2} field) photon fluence efficiency in the beam using DBS is over 8 times higher than with optimized SBS and over 20 times higher than with UBS, with a similar improvement in electron fluence efficiency in the beam. Total dose efficiency in a central-axis depth-dose curve improves by a factor of 6.4 over SBS at all depths in the phantom. The performance of DBS depends on the details of the accelerator being simulated. At higher energies, the relative improvement in efficiency due to DBS decreases somewhat, but is still a factor of 3.5 improvement over SBS for total dose efficiency using DBS in a simulated 18 MV photon beam. Increasing the field size of the simulated 6 MV beam to 40x40 cm{sup 2} (broad beam) causes the relative efficiency improvement of DBS to decrease by a factor of {approx_equal}1.7 but is still up to 7 times more efficient than with SBS.

  1. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Berst, Kara; Howeth, Maria

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  2. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform

    2014-07-15

    The SEED platform is expected to be a building energy performance data management tool that provides federal, state and local governments, building owners and operators with an easy, flexible and cost-effective method to collect information about groups of buildings, oversee compliance with energy disclosure laws and demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency. It will allow users to leverage a local application to manage data disclosure and large data sets without the ITmore » investment of developing custom applications. The first users of SEED will be agencies that need to collect, store, and report/share large data sets generated by benchmarking, energy auditing, retro-commissioning or retrofitting of many buildings. Similarly, building owners and operators will use SEED to manage their own energy data in a common format and centralized location. SEED users will also control the disclosure of their information for compliance requirements, recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR, or data sharing with the Buildings Performance Database and/or other third parties at their discretion.« less

  3. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Cheifetz, D. Magnus

    2014-07-15

    The SEED platform is expected to be a building energy performance data management tool that provides federal, state and local governments, building owners and operators with an easy, flexible and cost-effective method to collect information about groups of buildings, oversee compliance with energy disclosure laws and demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency. It will allow users to leverage a local application to manage data disclosure and large data sets without the IT investment of developing custom applications. The first users of SEED will be agencies that need to collect, store, and report/share large data sets generated by benchmarking, energy auditing, retro-commissioning or retrofitting of many buildings. Similarly, building owners and operators will use SEED to manage their own energy data in a common format and centralized location. SEED users will also control the disclosure of their information for compliance requirements, recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR, or data sharing with the Buildings Performance Database and/or other third parties at their discretion.

  4. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  5. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... 1904-AC17 Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes AGENCY: Department of Energy... to improve and implement State residential building energy efficiency codes, including increasing and... incorporated into the ICC and the MEC was renamed to the IECC. A previous Federal Register notice, 59 FR...

  6. Shared Savings Financing for College and University Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Shared savings arrangements for campus energy efficient investments are discussed. Shared savings is a term for an agreement in which a private company offers to implement an energy efficiency program, including capital improvements, in exchange for a portion of the energy cost savings. Attention is directed to: types of shared savings…

  7. Energy efficient Buildings, A Neglected Solution to the Energy Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Leon

    2007-04-01

    Many institutions, such as policymakers in Washington, have concentrated on the energy problem from the supply side. It makes more sense to have a balanced approach that also emphasizes means to limit consumption by improving the efficiency of energy use. Residential and commercial buildings constitute the largest energy consumption sector of the U.S. Buildings use almost 40 percent of our total energy, and are larger than the transportation sector by far. Buildings also consume two-thirds of our total electricity. The issue of efficient buildings is particularly acute in the developing world where there is a massive construction effort underway. Proper actions in the urban and regional environment here and abroad can yield substantial immediate as well as long term results. Major advances in energy efficiency in the built environment require a broad approach to building research and development. No one ``silver bullet'' will make a major impact by itself. Rather, substantial improvements in energy efficiency require the development of advanced technologies and an integrated approach to planning, design, optimization, and operation.

  8. 7 CFR 1710.255 - Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.255 Energy efficiency work plans—energy efficiency borrowers. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain...

  9. Topological insulator-based energy efficient devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have emerged as a new class of quantum materials with many novel and unusual properties. In this article, we will give a brief review of the key electronic properties of topological insulators, including the signatures for the unusual electronic transport properties of their characteristic topological surface states (TSS). We will then discuss how these novel properties and physics may be utilized for TI-based energy efficient devices, such as lowpower- consumption electronics and high performance thermo-electrics. Furthermore, going beyond conventional singleparticle, charge-based transport, to utilize coherent many-body coherent ground states such as excitonic condensates (EC), new and intriguing functionalities previously unexplored in electronic and energy devices may be realized with the potential to dramatically improve the energy efficiency.

  10. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D.

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  11. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00...

  12. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries,...

  13. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette R; Raby, Eric Y; Brennan, Sean M; Kulathumani, Vinod; Rosten, Ed; Wolinski, Christophe; Wagner, Charles; Charot, Francois

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  14. Energy-efficient buildings: Does the marketplace work?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. households, businesses, manufacturers, and government agencies all fail to take full advantage of cost-effective, energy-efficiency opportunities. Despite a growing environmental ethic among Americans and a concern for energy independence, consumers in this country are underinvesting in technologies, products, and practices that would cut their energy bills. The result is a large untapped potential for improving energy productivity, economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and energy security. The thesis of this paper is that the marketplace for energy efficiency, in general, is not operating perfectly, and the marketplace for energy-efficient buildings, in particular, is flawed. The reasons for underinvestments in cost-effective, energy efficiency are numerous and complicated. They also vary from sector to sector: the principal causes of energy inefficiencies in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation are not the same as the causes of inefficiencies in homes and office buildings, although there are some similarities. One of the reasons for these differences is that the structure of marketplace for delivering new technologies and products in each sector differs. Energy-efficiency improvements in the buildings sector is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since most of the energy consumed in buildings comes from the burning of fossil fuels. This paper therefore begins by describing energy use and energy trends in the U.S. buildings sector. Characteristics of the marketplace for delivering energy efficiency technologies and products are then described in detail, arguing that this marketplace structure significantly inhibits rapid efficiency improvements.

  15. Improving Engine Efficiency Through Core Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project and Fundamental Aeronautics Projects are supporting compressor and turbine research with the goal of reducing aircraft engine fuel burn and greenhouse gas emissions. The primary goals of this work are to increase aircraft propulsion system fuel efficiency for a given mission by increasing the overall pressure ratio (OPR) of the engine while maintaining or improving aerodynamic efficiency of these components. An additional area of work involves reducing the amount of cooling air required to cool the turbine blades while increasing the turbine inlet temperature. This is complicated by the fact that the cooling air is becoming hotter due to the increases in OPR. Various methods are being investigated to achieve these goals, ranging from improved compressor three-dimensional blade designs to improved turbine cooling hole shapes and methods. Finally, a complementary effort in improving the accuracy, range, and speed of computational fluid mechanics (CFD) methods is proceeding to better capture the physical mechanisms underlying all these problems, for the purpose of improving understanding and future designs.

  16. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  17. Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brennan T; Zhang, Qin Fen; March, Patrick; Cones, Marvin; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

  18. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  19. A strategy to improve the energy conversion efficiency and stability of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells using manganese-doped cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, M; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-01-14

    This article describes the effect of manganese (Mn) doping in CdS to improve the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The performances of the QDSSCs are examined in detail using a polysulfide electrolyte with a copper sulfide (CuS) counter electrode. Under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm(-2)), 10 molar% Mn-doped CdS QDSSCs exhibit a power conversion efficiency (η) of 2.85%, which is higher than the value of 2.11% obtained with bare CdS. The improved photovoltaic performance is due to the impurities from Mn(2+) doping of CdS, which have an impact on the structure of the host material and decrease the surface roughness. The surface roughness and morphology of Mn-doped CdS nanoparticles can be characterised from atomic force microscopy images. Furthermore, the cell device based on the Mn-CdS electrode shows superior stability in the sulfide/polysulfide electrolyte in a working state for over 10 h, resulting in a highly reproducible performance, which is a serious challenge for the Mn-doped solar cell. Our finding provides an effective method for the fabrication of Mn-doped CdS QDs, which can pave the way to further improve the efficiency of future QDSSCs.

  20. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  1. Analysis on energy efficiency in healthcare buildings.

    PubMed

    García-Sanz-Calcedo, Justo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze and quantify the average healthcare centres' energy behavior and estimate the possibilities of savings through the use of concrete measures to reduce their energy demand in Extremadura, Spain. It provides the average energy consumption of 55 healthcare centres sized between 500 and 3,500 m². The analysis evaluated data of electricity and fossil fuel energy consumption as well as water use and other energy-consuming devices. The energy solutions proposed to improve the efficiency are quantified and listed. The average annual energy consumption of a healthcare centre is 86.01 kWh/m², with a standard deviation of 16.8 kWh/m². The results show that an annual savings of €4.77/m² is possible. The potential to reduce the energy consumption of a healthcare centre of size 1,000 m² is 10,801 kWh by making an average investment of €11,601, thus saving €2,961/year with an average payback of 3.92 years.

  2. Improving resource efficiency through management science.

    PubMed

    Revere, Lee; Roberts, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Optimal management of resources is a very complex and difficult task for healthcare systems. Nevertheless, healthcare providers can employ data-driven methodologies and management science tools, coupled with managerial insights, to significantly improve both their resource effectiveness and efficiency. Understanding the full technical complexities of management science models is a daunting task for healthcare managers, but they can be aided by the increased availability of management science software. Readily available software does not require extensive technical competencies and is easily adaptable to resource changes. This article reports how a large healthcare system improved the cost effectiveness and service efficiency of its laboratory courier service through the use of management science techniques and readily available software. The laboratory courier system existed to serve a large multihospital healthcare system located in a major Texas metropolis. The routing and scheduling solution reported in this article yielded a very substantial 16.4 percent reduction in annual laboratory courier costs and a significant improvement in service levels. This study indicates that management science techniques and software are readily adaptable to the healthcare environment and are amenable to use by healthcare administrators. PMID:15499806

  3. Energy efficiency means no regrets

    SciTech Connect

    Assenza, M.P.

    1996-12-31

    Should we wait and see how hot it`s going to get, or should we act not to prevent global warming caused by greenhouse gases? Marit P. Assenza, a management consultant in Oslo, Norway, says many economists support a {open_quotes}no regrets{close_quotes} policy that, in the absence of certainty about the future, allows for economic savings while curbing emissions at the same time. Many countries, including Norway, {open_quotes}have already committed themselves to investing in such preventative policies,{close_quotes} Assenza says. In the early 1990s, Norway {open_quotes}launched a program aimed at giving private companies incentives to make investments in energy efficiency,{close_quotes} Assenza notes. Bakeries, for example, used fund provided by the program to apply a technology already in use in metal-processing: heat from the ovens was rerouted to help heat the rest of the plant, resulting in significant energy savings. To encourage company executives to adapt to change, {open_quotes}public policies aimed at dismantling barriers, increasing information flows, and enhancing the diffusion of new innovations make sense,{close_quotes} Assenza says.

  4. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  5. Improving the efficiency of smaller transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Considered apart from its propulsive system the high altitude airplane itself adapted to higher flight altitudes than those in current use. Scaling on the assumption of constant aircraft density indicates that this conclusion applies most importantly to smaller transport aircraft. Climb to 60,000 ft could save time and energy for trips as short as 500 miles. A discussion of the effect of winglets on aircraft efficiency is presented. A 10% reduction of induced drag below that of a comparable elliptic wing can be achieved either by horizontal or vertical wing tip extensions.

  6. Improving the efficiency of smaller transport aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.T.

    1984-07-01

    Considered apart from its propulsive system the high altitude airplane itself adapted to higher flight altitudes than those in current use. Scaling on the assumption of constant aircraft density indicates that this conclusion applies most importantly to smaller transport aircraft. Climb to 60,000 ft could save time and energy for trips as short as 500 miles. A discussion of the effect of winglets on aircraft efficiency is presented. A 10% reduction of induced drag below that of a comparable elliptic wing can be achieved either by horizontal or vertical wing tip extensions.

  7. Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

  8. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy...

  9. Soft Magnetic Materials for Improved Energy Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    A main focus of sustainable energy research has been development of renewable energy technologies (e.g. from wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, etc.) to decrease our dependence on non-renewable energy resources (e.g. fossil fuels). By focusing on renewable energy sources now, we hope to provide enough energy resources for future generations. In parallel with this focus, it is essential to develop technologies that improve the efficiency of energy production, distribution, and consumption, to get the most from these renewable resources. Soft magnetic materials play a central role in power generation, conditioning, and conversion technologies and therefore promoting improvements in the efficiency of these materials is essential for our future energy needs. The losses generated by the magnetic core materials by hysteretic, acoustic, and/or eddy currents have a great impact on efficiency. A survey of soft magnetic materials for energy applications will be discussed with a focus on improvement in performance using novel soft magnetic materials designed for these power applications. A group of premiere soft magnetic materials -- nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys -- will be highlighted for their potential in addressing energy efficiency. These materials are made up of nanocrystalline magnetic transition metal-rich grains embedded within an intergranular amorphous matrix, obtained by partial devitrification of melt-spun amorphous ribbons. The nanoscale grain size results in a desirable combination of large saturation induction, low coercivity, and moderate resistivity unobtainable in conventional soft magnetic alloys. The random distribution of these fine grains causes a reduction in the net magnetocrystalline anisotropy, contributing to the excellent magnetic properties. Recently developed (Fe,Co,Ni)88Zr7B4Cu1 alloys will be discussed with a focus on the microstructure/magnetic property relationship and their effects on the energy efficiency of these materials for AC

  10. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  11. Drug efficiency indices for improvement of molecular docking scoring functions.

    PubMed

    García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Hetényi, Csaba; Maran, Uko

    2010-01-15

    A dataset of protein-drug complexes with experimental binding energy and crystal structure were analyzed and the performance of different docking engines and scoring functions (as well as components of these) for predicting the free energy of binding and several ligand efficiency indices were compared. The aim was not to evaluate the best docking method, but to determine the effect of different efficiency indices on the experimental and predicted free energy. Some ligand efficiency indices, such as DeltaG/W (Wiener index), DeltaG/NoC (number of carbons), and DeltaG/P (partition coefficient), improve the correlation between experimental and calculated values. This effect was shown to be valid across the different scoring functions and docking programs. It also removes the common bias of scoring functions in favor of larger ligands. For all scoring functions, the efficiency indices effectively normalize the free energy derived indices, to give values closer to experiment. Compound collection filtering can be done prior or after docking, using pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic profiles. Achieving these better correlations with experiment can improve the ability of docking scoring functions to predict active molecules in virtual screening.

  12. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  13. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    ScienceCinema

    Ajay Mathur

    2016-07-12

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  14. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ajay Mathur

    2010-05-20

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  15. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Sathaye, Jayant; Masanet, Eric; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-05-15

    China’s annual crude steel production in 2010 was 638.7 Mt accounting for nearly half of the world’s annual crude steel production in the same year. Around 461 TWh of electricity and 14,872 PJ of fuel were consumed to produce this quantity of steel in 2010. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 416 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 139 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 237 Mt CO2. The FCSC model for the iron and steel industry shows cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 11,999 PJ, and the total technical fuel saving potential is 12,139. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective and technical fuel savings is 1,191 Mt CO2 and 1,205 Mt CO2, respectively. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  16. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  17. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  18. Energy-efficient hospitals: DOE-assisted retrofit projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Features of energy conservation programs at hospitals to improve energy efficiency are described. The DOE Institutional Conservation Program provides matching grants to hospitals and other public institutions to develop, implement, and manage projects to improve energy efficiency within their facilities. Information on DOE grants awarded to the hospitals, measures implemented by the hospitals for energy recovery and energy conservation, savings accomplished, project costs, estimated annual savings, and approximate payback period are discussed for the following hospitals: Saint Joseph, Towson, Maryland; Bronson Methodist, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Albany General Hospital, Albany, Oregon; Saint Vincent's Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida; DePaul Community Health Center, Bridgeton, Missouri; Woodland Memorial Hospital, Woodland, California. (MCW)

  19. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  20. Improving Vehicle Efficiency, Reducing Dependence on Foreign Oil (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. Today, the United States spends about $400 billion each year on imported oil. To realize a secure energy future, America must break its dependence on imported oil and its volatile costs. The transportation sector accounts for about 70% of U.S. oil demand and holds tremendous opportunity to increase America's energy security by reducing oil consumption. That's why the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research and development (R and D) on vehicle technologies which can stem America's dependence on oil, strengthen the economy, and protect the environment. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles can significantly improve fuel economy, displacing petroleum. Researchers are making batteries more affordable and recyclable, while enhancing battery range, performance, and life. This research supports President Obama's goal of putting 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. The program is also working with businesses to develop domestic battery and electric-drive component plants to improve America's economic competitiveness globally. The program facilitates deployment of alternative fuels (ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, electricity, propane, and natural gas) and fuel infrastructures by partnering with state and local governments, universities, and industry. Reducing vehicle weight directly improves vehicle efficiency and fuel economy, and can potentially reduce vehicle operating costs. Cost-effective, lightweight, high-strength materials can significantly reduce vehicle weight without compromising safety. Improved combustion technologies and optimized fuel systems can improve near-and mid-term fuel economy by 25% for passenger vehicles and 20% for commercial vehicles by 2015, compared to 2009 vehicles. Reducing the use of oil-based fuels and lubricants in vehicles has more potential to improve the nation's energy security than any other action

  1. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2015-06-02

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  2. Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushe, S.

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED) developed in collaboration by the United States Department of Energy and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. IREEED provides succinct summaries of India's central and state government policies and incentives related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The online, public database was developed under the U.S.- India Energy Dialogue and the Clean Energy Solution Center.

  3. Towards energy-efficient photonic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Yigit; Hardavellas, Nikos

    2015-03-01

    Silicon photonics have emerged as a promising solution to meet the growing demand for high-bandwidth, low-latency, and energy-efficient on-chip and off-chip communication in many-core processors. However, current silicon-photonic interconnect designs for many-core processors waste a significant amount of power because (a) lasers are always on, even during periods of interconnect inactivity, and (b) microring resonators employ heaters which consume a significant amount of power just to overcome thermal variations and maintain communication on the photonic links, especially in a 3D-stacked design. The problem of high laser power consumption is particularly important as lasers typically have very low energy efficiency, and photonic interconnects often remain underutilized both in scientific computing (compute-intensive execution phases underutilize the interconnect), and in server computing (servers in Google-scale datacenters have a typical utilization of less than 30%). We address the high laser power consumption by proposing EcoLaser+, which is a laser control scheme that saves energy by predicting the interconnect activity and opportunistically turning the on-chip laser off when possible, and also by scaling the width of the communication link based on a runtime prediction of the expected message length. Our laser control scheme can save up to 62 - 92% of the laser energy, and improve the energy efficiency of a manycore processor with negligible performance penalty. We address the high trimming (heating) power consumption of the microrings by proposing insulation methods that reduce the impact of localized heating induced by highly-active components on the 3D-stacked logic die.

  4. An overview of energy efficiency techniques in cluster computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Giorgio Luigi; Lassonde, Walter; Khan, Samee Ullah; Min-Allah, Nasro; Madani, Sajjad A.; Li, Juan; Zhang, Limin; Wang, Lizhe; Ghani, Nasir; Kolodziej, Joanna; Li, Hongxiang; Zomaya, Albert Y.; Xu, Cheng-Zhong; Balaji, Pavan; Vishnu, Abhinav; Pinel, Fredric; Pecero, Johnatan E.; Kliazovich, Dzmitry; Bouvry, Pascal

    2011-09-10

    Two major constraints demand more consideration for energy efficiency in cluster computing: (a) operational costs, and (b) system reliability. Increasing energy efficiency in cluster systems will reduce energy consumption, excess heat, lower operational costs, and improve system reliability. Based on the energy-power relationship, and the fact that energy consumption can be reduced with strategic power management, we focus in this survey on the characteristic of two main power management technologies: (a) static power management (SPM) systems that utilize low-power components to save the energy, and (b) dynamic power management (DPM) systems that utilize software and power-scalable components to optimize the energy consumption. We present the current state of the art in both of the SPM and DPM techniques, citing representative examples. The survey is concluded with a brief discussion and some assumptions about the possible future directions that could be explored to improve the energy efficiency in cluster computing.

  5. Improvement of Sweep Efficiency in Gasflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty

    2008-12-31

    Miscible and near-miscible gasflooding has proven to be one of the few cost effective enhance oil recovery techniques in the past twenty years. As the scope of gas flooding is being expanded to medium viscosity oils in shallow sands in Alaska and shallower reservoirs in the lower 48, there are questions about sweep efficiency in near-miscible regions. The goal of this research is to evaluate sweep efficiency of various gas flooding processes in a laboratory model and develop numerical tools to estimate their effectiveness in the field-scale. Quarter 5-spot experiments were conducted at reservoir pressure to evaluate the sweep efficiency of gas, WAG and foam floods. The quarter 5-spot model was used to model vapor extraction (VAPEX) experiments at the lab scale. A streamline-based compositional simulator and a commercial simulator (GEM) were used to model laboratory scale miscible floods and field-scale pattern floods. An equimolar mixture of NGL and lean gas is multicontact miscible with oil A at 1500 psi; ethane is a multicontact miscible solvent for oil B at pressures higher than 607 psi. WAG improves the microscopic displacement efficiency over continuous gas injection followed by waterflood in corefloods. WAG improves the oil recovery in the quarter 5-spot over the continuous gas injection followed by waterflood. As the WAG ratio increases from 1:2 to 2:1, the sweep efficiency in the 5-spot increases, from 39.6% to 65.9%. A decrease in the solvent amount lowers the oil recovery in WAG floods, but significantly higher amount of oil can be recovered with just 0.1 PV solvent injection over just waterflood. Use of a horizontal production well lowers the oil recovery over the vertical production well during WAG injection phase in this homogeneous 5-spot model. Estimated sweep efficiency decreases from 61.5% to 50.5%. In foam floods, as surfactant to gas slug size ratio increases from 1:10 to 1:1, oil recovery increases. In continuous gasflood VAPEX processes, as the

  6. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear presentations from the Departments of Energy and Commerce on how their programs support the competitiveness of...

  7. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013... NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy...

  8. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver 11... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  9. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  10. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...

  11. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on May 1, 2013. The... NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy...

  12. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy...

  13. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy... Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP) is planning a workshop to exchange information... 15, 2012. Jose Zayas, Wind and Water Power Program Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  14. Advanced Energy Efficiency and Distributed Renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovins, Amory

    2007-04-01

    The US now wrings twice the GDP from each unit of energy that it did in 1975. Reduced energy intensity since then now provides more than twice as much service as burning oil does. Yet still more efficient end-use of energy -- explained more fully in a companion workshop offered at 1245 -- is the largest, fastest, cheapest, most benign, least understood, and least harnessed energy resource available. For example, existing technologies could save half of 2000 US oil and gas and three-fourths of US electricity, at lower cost than producing and delivering that energy from existing facilities. Saving half the oil through efficiency and replacing the other half with saved natural gas and advanced biofuels would cost an average of only 15/barrel and could eliminate US oil use by the 2040s, led by business for profit. Efficiency techniques and ways to combine and apply them continue to improve faster than they're applied, so the ``efficiency resource'' is becoming ever larger and cheaper. As for electricity, ``micropower'' (distributed renewables plus low-carbon cogeneration) is growing so quickly that by 2005 it provided a sixth of the world's electricity and a third of its new electricity, and was adding annually 4x the capacity and 11x the capacity added by nuclear power, which it surpassed in capacity in 2002 and in output in 2006. Together, micropower and ``negawatts'' (saved electricity) now provide upwards half the world's new electrical services, due to their far lower cost and lower financial risk than the central thermal power stations that still dominate policy discussions. For oil and electricity, each of which adds about two-fifths of the world's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, efficiency plus competitive alternative supplies can stabilize the earth's climate at a profit, as well as solving the oil and (largely) the nuclear proliferation problems. Conversely, costlier and slower options, notably nuclear power, would displace less carbon emission per

  15. Improving the efficiency of high purity water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bukay, M.; Youngberg, D.

    1994-05-01

    High purity water (HPW) production involves the consumption of substantial amounts of energy, precious potable water, harsh/hazardous chemicals, and other environmental/impact materials. The discharge of some of the waste products from HPW systems is also a concern. The purpose of this paper is to discuss techniques to improve the efficiency of HPW production and thereby reduce any negative effects on the environment. It provides specific examples of how end-users and equipment suppliers are increasing the efficiency of their pretreatment, reverse osmosis, ion-exchange, and sanitization technology while frequently citing capital and operating cost reductions.

  16. High Energy-Efficiency Retrofits to Baltimore's Row Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chalk, J.; Johnson, A.L.; Lipscomb, L.; Wendt, R.

    1999-04-19

    The purpose of the research project is to develop high-perfommnce, energy-eflicient retrofits of existing row homes in Baltimore, Maryland. These efficiency enhancements are to optimize building envelope improvements, mechanical equipment improvements and operational improvements to the highest cost-effective level. Furthermore, this project is to investigate and demonstrate the impact of high-performance energy-efficiency retrofit improvements on row homes in the Historic East area of Baltimore. Three homes awaiting renovation are planned to receive building envelope, mechanical system, and electrical system improvements that will improve their energy petiormance. An incremental additional cost ceiling of $4000 for the energy eftlciency improvements, beyond those normally installed, has been set by the project.

  17. IMPROVED FURNACE EFFICIENCY THROUGH THE USE OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,; Smith, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes efforts performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturers, refractory users, and academic institutions, to improve energy efficiency of U.S. industry through increased furnace efficiency brought about by the employment of novel refractory systems and techniques. Work in furnace applications related to aluminum, gasification, and lime are discussed. The energy savings strategies discussed are achieved through reduction of chemical reactions, elimination of mechanical degradation caused by the service environment, reduction of temperature limitations of materials, and elimination of costly installation and repair needs. Key results of several case studies resulting from a US Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program are discussed with emphasis on applicability of these results to high temperature furnace applications.

  18. Improve pumping efficiency with PSZ ceramic balls

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, J. )

    1989-04-01

    partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) ceramic balls used today in downhole pumps improve both the efficiency and run time of sucker rod pumping systems. Recent field tests showed the balls increased the average run time of downhole pumps by 440%. While there are other types of stabilizers, only magnesia PSZ is appropriate for downhole pumps. The more commonly found alloy balls and carbide balls have been found to deform and not seal under these conditions. PSZ is most notable for its resistance to breaking from impact. A nonductile material, it will make a perfect seal on the seat despite any impact, enhancing its use in fluid pound situations. Other PSZ applications in downhole pumps and related equipment include plunger inserts, discharge inserts, plunger rings, choke parts, pressure relief valve components, and triplex pump plungers.

  19. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further.

  20. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  1. Considerations of Methods of Improving Helicopter Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingeldein, Richard C.

    1961-01-01

    Recent NASA helicopter research indicates that significant improvements in hovering efficiency, up to 7 percent, are available from the use of a special airfoil section formed by combining an NACA 632A015 thickness distribution with an NACA 230 mean line. This airfoil should be considered for flying-crane-type helicopters. Application of standard leading-edge roughness causes a large drop in efficiency; however, the cambered rotor is shown to retain its superiority over a rotor having a symmetrical airfoil when both rotors have leading-edge roughness. A simple analysis of available rotor static-thrust data indicates a greatly reduced effect of compressibility effects on the rotor profile-drag power than predicted from calculations. Preliminary results of an experimental study of helicopter parasite drag indicate the practicability of achieving an equivalent flat-plate parasite-drag area of less than 4 square feet for a rotor-head-pylon-fuselage configuration (landing gear retracted) in the 2,000-pound minimum-flying-weight class. The large drag penalty of a conventional skid-type landing (3.6 square feet) can be reduced by two-thirds by careful design. Clean, fair, and smooth fuselages that tend to have narrow, deep cross sections are shown to have advantages from the standpoint of drag and download. A ferry range of the order of 1,500 miles is indicated to be practicable for the small helicopter considered.

  2. Brandon RHA recognized for energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Kent; Neal, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    In a recent national competition recognizing leadership in energy efficiency and greenhouse gas education, Brandon Regional Health Authority was recognized for conscientious use of resources. PMID:12357581

  3. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  4. Energy efficiency of optical grooming of QAM optical transmission channels.

    PubMed

    Bhopalwala, Mariya; Rastegarfar, Houman; Kilper, Daniel C; Wang, Michael; Bergman, Keren

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the energy use for optical grooming of quadrature amplitude modulated signals in optical transmission systems is used to determine the potential efficiency benefits. An energy model is developed for both optical and electronic grooming and used to study the relative efficiency for three different network scenarios. The energy efficiency is evaluated considering both coherent and direct detection transceivers including power management strategies. Results indicate efficiency improvements up to an order of magnitude may be possible for 100 GBaud rates and 25-30 GBaud is a critical point at which optical grooming becomes the more efficient approach. These results are further shown to apply for the case of projected efficiency improvements in the underlying device technologies.

  5. The electric utility as investment bank for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, S. )

    1991-05-01

    The author feels that regulators have the opportunity to direct electric utility companies to serve as investment bankers for cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements. If they do this, a number of serious barriers to an economically efficient energy services market would disappear. Capital would be widely available for investment in efficiency devices and systems. Better life-cycle cost information would be available to customers. Building contractors and landlords would be less reluctant to install energy-efficiency improvements. Manufacturers would have greater incentive to introduce better energy-efficiency features sooner. And investment imbalances caused by the gap between public and private investment discount rates would not longer exist. Electric utilities could even guarantee the performance of the installed demand-management measures. Additionally, utility companies would not longer have an economic preference for investment in traditional sources of supply. They would become able to earn their authorized rate of return on large amounts of investment in demand management.

  6. Integrated Circuit Chip Improves Network Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Prior to 1999 and the development of SpaceWire, a standard for high-speed links for computer networks managed by the European Space Agency (ESA), there was no high-speed communications protocol for flight electronics. Onboard computers, processing units, and other electronics had to be designed for individual projects and then redesigned for subsequent projects, which increased development periods, costs, and risks. After adopting the SpaceWire protocol in 2000, NASA implemented the standard on the Swift mission, a gamma ray burst-alert telescope launched in November 2004. Scientists and developers on the James Webb Space Telescope further developed the network version of SpaceWire. In essence, SpaceWire enables more science missions at a lower cost, because it provides a standard interface between flight electronics components; new systems need not be custom built to accommodate individual missions, so electronics can be reused. New protocols are helping to standardize higher layers of computer communication. Goddard Space Flight Center improved on the ESA-developed SpaceWire by enabling standard protocols, which included defining quality of service and supporting plug-and-play capabilities. Goddard upgraded SpaceWire to make the routers more efficient and reliable, with features including redundant cables, simultaneous discrete broadcast pulses, prevention of network blockage, and improved verification. Redundant cables simplify management because the user does not need to worry about which connection is available, and simultaneous broadcast signals allow multiple users to broadcast low-latency side-band signal pulses across the network using the same resources for data communication. Additional features have been added to the SpaceWire switch to prevent network blockage so that more robust networks can be designed. Goddard s verification environment for the link-and-switch implementation continuously randomizes and tests different parts, constantly anticipating

  7. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  8. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-14

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  9. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  10. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  11. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  12. Energy-efficient refrigeration and the reduction of chlorofluorocarbon use

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Levine, M.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Two recent actions by the US Congress, passage of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) and ratification of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, have affected several large industries in the United States. Under NAECA, manufacturers of residential appliances must meet minimum energy-efficiency standards by specified dates. According to the Montreal Protocol, producers of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) must reduce the quantities of CFCs that they manufacture. CFCs have been identified as a cause of ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Since CFCs are used to improve the energy-efficiency of several appliance products, there is a potential conflict between the goals of reducing CFC use and improving energy-efficiency. In this article, the authors discuss the issues of CFC use, ozone depletions, energy-efficiency, and global climate change as they relate to residential refrigerators and freezers.

  13. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear... of Commerce on efforts to address issues that affect the competitiveness of U.S. renewable ]...

  14. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.V.; Henderson, D.P.

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  15. 78 FR 31916 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Supplemental Agenda Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software... improved software. A detailed agenda with the list of times for the selected speakers and presentation... diverse experts from public utilities, the software industry, government, research centers and...

  16. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  17. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts.

  18. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  19. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  20. Improving the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aribisala, Henry A.

    As the local and national clamor for foreign energy independent United States continues to grow unabated; renewable energy has been receiving increased focus and it's widely believed that it's not only the answer to ever increasing demand for energy in this country, but also the environmentally friendly means of meeting such demand. During the spring of 2010, I was involved with a 5KW solar power system design project; the project involved designing and building solar panels and associated accessories like the solar array mounts and Solar Inverter system. One of the key issues we ran into during the initial stage of the project was how to select efficient solar cells for panel building at a reasonable cost. While we were able to purchase good solar cells within our allocated budget, the issue of design for efficiency was not fully understood , not just in the contest of solar cells performance , but also in the overall system efficiency of the whole solar power system, hence the door was opened for this thesis. My thesis explored and expanded beyond the scope of the aforementioned project to research different avenues for improving the efficiency of solar photo-voltaic power system from the solar cell level to the solar array mounting, array tracking and DC-AC inversion system techniques.

  1. 76 FR 41790 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice Establishing Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... discuss opportunities for increasing real-time and day- ahead market efficiency through improved software... improved software, 76 Fed. Reg. 28,022 (2011). Parties wishing to submit written comments regarding...

  2. Improving Design Efficiency for Large-Scale Heterogeneous Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregerson, Anthony

    Despite increases in logic density, many Big Data applications must still be partitioned across multiple computing devices in order to meet their strict performance requirements. Among the most demanding of these applications is high-energy physics (HEP), which uses complex computing systems consisting of thousands of FPGAs and ASICs to process the sensor data created by experiments at particles accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Designing such computing systems is challenging due to the scale of the systems, the exceptionally high-throughput and low-latency performance constraints that necessitate application-specific hardware implementations, the requirement that algorithms are efficiently partitioned across many devices, and the possible need to update the implemented algorithms during the lifetime of the system. In this work, we describe our research to develop flexible architectures for implementing such large-scale circuits on FPGAs. In particular, this work is motivated by (but not limited in scope to) high-energy physics algorithms for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC. To make efficient use of logic resources in multi-FPGA systems, we introduce Multi-Personality Partitioning, a novel form of the graph partitioning problem, and present partitioning algorithms that can significantly improve resource utilization on heterogeneous devices while also reducing inter-chip connections. To reduce the high communication costs of Big Data applications, we also introduce Information-Aware Partitioning, a partitioning method that analyzes the data content of application-specific circuits, characterizes their entropy, and selects circuit partitions that enable efficient compression of data between chips. We employ our information-aware partitioning method to improve the performance of the hardware validation platform for evaluating new algorithms for the CMS experiment. Together, these research efforts help to improve the efficiency

  3. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS

  4. International energy efficiency and renewable energy resources on the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Meyer, R.D.

    1996-10-01

    A variety of sources of information on energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. These resources are sponsored and maintained by a myriad of organizations across the country and world. One expeditious way to access these resources is by using the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN). This network is a user-friendly computer link to Internet based information on energy conservation and renewable energy technologies and techniques. Numerous international sources of information can be accessed through EREN including the International Energy Agency`s Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) and the Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE). CADDET`s Register of demonstrated energy technologies provides an extensive guide to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, and GREENTIE`s Directory of supplier information helps users access technology providers and experts.

  5. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  6. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  7. Jcpenney Buying into Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  8. Financing Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Rebuild America Guides Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelinski, Richard W.; Gatlin, Douglas R.

    The Rebuild America Program, a network of community partnerships of local businesses and governments organized to save money by saving energy through improvements in building energy efficiencies, provides technical and business manuals designed to meet the real-life needs of these partnerships. This document, written for organizations considering…

  9. Industrial Technologies Program - A Clean, Secure Energy Future via Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) leads the national effort to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the largest energy-using sector of the U.S. economy. ITP drives energy efficiency improvements and carbon dioxide reductions throughout the manufacturing supply chain, helping develop and deploy innovative technologies that transform the way industry uses energy.

  10. Energy-efficient water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

  11. Energy Efficiency for Architectural Drafting Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in architectural drafting. The following topics are examined: energy conservation awareness (residential energy use and audit procedures); residential…

  12. Energy-Efficient Renovation of Educational Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhorn-Kluttig, Heike; Morck, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Case studies demonstrating energy-efficient renovation of educational buildings collected by the International Energy Agency (IEA) provide information on retrofit technologies, energy-saving approaches and ventilation strategies. Some general findings are presented here along with one case study, Egebjerg School in Denmark, which shows how natural…

  13. Financial Planning for Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Financing options for energy efficiency investments by colleges are outlined by the Energy Task Force of three higher education associations. It is suggested that alternative financing techniques generate a positive cash flow and allow campuses to implement conservation despite fiscal constraints. Since energy conservation saves money, the savings…

  14. State Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Inventory

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this inventory, some of which has been placed into a searchable spreadsheet, is to support the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and to research cost information in state-mandated energy efficiency program evaluations – e.g., for use in updating analytic and modeling assumptions used by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  15. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  16. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bozeman, Jeffrey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  17. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  18. Toward an energy efficient community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, M.

    1980-10-01

    The current oil policy of the OPEC countries means that a substantial oil shortage may be expected in the future. Conservative estimates indicate an oil shortage of 65 billion tons in the year 2000. The results of numerous new studies show that (from the technological point of view) the savings potential is high enough to achieve an absolute decrease in total energy consumption by the year 2000, provided better use is made of secondary energy sources in the form of electric power, gas, and solar heat.

  19. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  20. Creating Energy-Efficient Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Donald F.

    This paper was presented during the time the author was president of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, (CEFP/I). The presentation begins with a summary of the state of the world's natural gas and petroleum supplies and states that since one-third of all energy consumed in the United States is to heat and cool buildings,…

  1. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  2. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  3. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    SciTech Connect

    Lollini, R.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  4. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  5. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  6. Design of spur gears for improved efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A method to calculate spur gear system power loss for a wide range of gear geometries and operating conditions is used to determine design requirements for an efficient gearset. The effects of spur gear size, pitch, ratio, pitch-line-velocity and load on efficiency are shown. A design example is given to illustrate how the method is to be applied. In general, peak efficiencies were found to be greater for larger diameter and fine pitched gears and tare (no-load) losses were found to be significant.

  7. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-03-31

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths ({lambda}=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range ({lambda}=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution.

  8. Capital Improvements for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan C.

    1981-01-01

    Although colleges and universities have been aggressive in making capital improvements to conserve energy, their efforts have been hampered by limited capital funds. Decisions about capital investments tend to be complex because of the interrelatedness of conservation strategies and the need to consider the cost advantage of alternatives.…

  9. An Energy Efficient Instruction Prefetching Scheme for Embedded Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ji; Guo, Hui

    Existing instruction prefetching schemes improve performance with significant energy sacrifice, making them unsuitable for embedded and ubiquitous systems where high performance and low energy consumption are all demanded. In this paper, we reduce energy overhead in instruction prefetching by using a simple prefetching hardware/software design and an efficient prefetching operation scheme. Two approaches are investigated: one, Decoded Loop Instruction Cache based Prefetching (DLICP) that is most effective for loop intensive applications; two, enhanced DLICP with the popular existing Next Line Prefetching (NLP) for applications of a moderate number of loops. Our experimental results show that both DLICP and enhanced DLICP deliver improved performance at greatly reduced energy overhead. Up to 21% performance can be improved by the enhanced DLICP at about 3.5% energy overhead, as in comparison to the maximal 11% performance improvement and 49% energy overhead from NLP.

  10. Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications.

  11. Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications. PMID:25874756

  12. Biohydrogen Production: Strategies to Improve Process Efficiency through Microbial Routes

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications. PMID:25874756

  13. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Purcell, C.W.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  14. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L. ); Purcell, C.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  15. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  16. H.R. 1510: A Bill to the Department of Energy Laboratories Efficiency Improvement Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report discusses a bill to prohibit the Department of Energy from acting as the agency of implementation, with respect to nondefense Department of Energy laboratories, for certain environmental, safety, and health regulations, and to require reduction in personnel at such laboratories.

  17. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  18. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  19. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-14

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  20. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  1. Target Improves Efficiency in New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Target Corporation partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  3. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, E.; Knoepfel, I.

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  4. Wireless Sensor Networks Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijuan, Du; Yuanpeng, Wang; WeiPeng, Jing

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor network energy-efficient MAC protocol, ES-MAC protocol, and shows the results of simulation experiments. During the transmission the nodes do not send ACK packages while use a small amount of new information packets, so they can reduce unnecessary energy loss and wasted time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that ES-MAC protocol reduces energy consumption while reducing network latency and improving network throughput.

  5. Sharing the savings to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Destribats, A.; Schultz, D.

    1992-04-01

    Shared-savings incentives offer a new way for regulated utilities to improve earnings by encouraging customer energy efficiency. Benefits of cost-effective energy efficiency measures can be shared explicitly among customers participating in an utility demand-side management (DSM) program, all utility ratepayers, and the utility itself. For participating customers, electricity bills are lowered directly; for ratepayers, the costs of providing electric services are reduced; and for utility shareholders, they are allowed to retain a fraction of the net benefits as additional earnings. In this study, we define the basic elements of shared-savings arrangements for utility demandside resources. Next, we compare and contrast specific details of the arrangements approved for three different utilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG&E), and two operating subsidiaries of the New England Electric System (NEES). Our analysis suggests that the percentage share of net benefits on which utilities are allowed to earn is a relatively poor indicator of the incentive mechanism`s overall affect on utility earnings. Earnings opportunities and potential are also significantly influenced by particular incentive features. These include the definition and measurement of load reductions, program costs, and program benefits; program cost recovery and the timing of incentive recovery; performance thresholds; program spending and earnings caps; program eligibility criteria; treatment of lost revenues; and for NEES, a complementary, non-shared-savings incentive. We conclude that the ``collaborative`` processes used to develop incentives for each utility proved extremely useful in allowing parties to negotiate trade-offs inherent between various program design features.

  6. Sharing the savings to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Destribats, A.; Schultz, D.

    1992-04-01

    Shared-savings incentives offer a new way for regulated utilities to improve earnings by encouraging customer energy efficiency. Benefits of cost-effective energy efficiency measures can be shared explicitly among customers participating in an utility demand-side management (DSM) program, all utility ratepayers, and the utility itself. For participating customers, electricity bills are lowered directly; for ratepayers, the costs of providing electric services are reduced; and for utility shareholders, they are allowed to retain a fraction of the net benefits as additional earnings. In this study, we define the basic elements of shared-savings arrangements for utility demandside resources. Next, we compare and contrast specific details of the arrangements approved for three different utilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E), San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG E), and two operating subsidiaries of the New England Electric System (NEES). Our analysis suggests that the percentage share of net benefits on which utilities are allowed to earn is a relatively poor indicator of the incentive mechanism's overall affect on utility earnings. Earnings opportunities and potential are also significantly influenced by particular incentive features. These include the definition and measurement of load reductions, program costs, and program benefits; program cost recovery and the timing of incentive recovery; performance thresholds; program spending and earnings caps; program eligibility criteria; treatment of lost revenues; and for NEES, a complementary, non-shared-savings incentive. We conclude that the collaborative'' processes used to develop incentives for each utility proved extremely useful in allowing parties to negotiate trade-offs inherent between various program design features.

  7. Improving the global efficiency in small hydropower practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razurel, P.; Gorla, L.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global increase in energy production from renewable sources has seen river exploitation for small hydropower plants to also grow considerably in the last decade. River intakes used to divert water from the main course to the power plant are at the base of such practice. A key issue concern with finding innovative concepts to both design and manage such structures in order to improve classic operational rules. Among these, the Minimal Flow Release (MFR) concept has long been used in spite of its environmental inconsistency.In this work, we show that the economical and ecological efficiency of diverting water for energy production in small hydropower plants can be improved towards sustainability by engineering a novel class of flow-redistribution policies. We use the mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to define non-proportional dynamic flow-redistribution rules, which broadens the spectrum of dynamic flow releases based on proportional redistribution. The theoretical background as well as the economic interpretation is presented and applied to three case studies in order to systematically test the global performance of such policies. Out of numerical simulations, a Pareto frontier emerges in the economic vs environmental efficiency plot, which show that non-proportional distribution policies improve both efficiencies with respect to those obtained from some traditional MFR and proportional policies. This picture is shown also for long term climatic scenarios affecting water availability and the natural flow regime.In a time of intense and increasing exploitation close to resource saturation, preserving natural river reaches requires to abandon inappropriate static release policies in favor of non-proportional ones towards a sustainable use of the water resource.

  8. Energy baseline and energy efficiency resource opportunities for the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Richman, E.E.; Parker, G.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides recommendations to improve the energy use efficiency at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. The assessment focuses upon the four largest buildings and central heating plant at the facility comprising a total of approximately 287,000 square feet. The analysis is comprehensive in nature, intended primarily to determine what if any energy efficiency improvements are warranted based upon the potential for cost-effective energy savings. Because of this breadth, not all opportunities are developed in detail; however, baseline energy consumption data and energy savings concepts are described to provide a foundation for detailed investigation and project design where warranted.

  9. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  12. 76 FR 28022 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Notice... Software Take notice that Commission staff will convene a technical conference on June 28-30, 2011, from 8... efficiency through improved software. This conference will bring together diverse experts from ISOs/RTOs,...

  13. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Feustel, Helmut E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  14. Managing air to improve combustion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, R.F.; Storm, S.K.; Hall, S.G.

    2007-10-15

    Managing the air flow first and then the fuel flow can obtain the best combustion results possible given the constraints of the boiler design. A case study for a typical 500 MW pulverised coal boiler is given where a set of best practices to measure, balance and control furnace inputs to achieve higher combustion efficiencies and lower NOx emissions is applied. 10 figs.

  15. Improving the Efficiency of Dialogue in Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Britt, M. Anne; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    The current studies investigated the efficient use of dialogue in intelligent tutoring systems that use natural language interaction. Such dialogues can be relatively time-consuming. This work addresses the question of how much dialogue is needed to produce significant learning gains. In Experiment 1, a full dialogue condition and a read-only…

  16. Approaches of Improving University Assets Management Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingliang

    2015-01-01

    University assets management, as an important content of modern university management, is generally confronted with the issue of low efficiency. Currently, to address the problems exposed in university assets management and take appropriate modification measures is an urgent issue in front of Chinese university assets management sectors. In this…

  17. Efficient incorporation of silver to improve superconducting fibers

    DOEpatents

    Gleixner, Richard A.; LaCount, Dale F.; Finnemore, Douglas K.

    1994-04-26

    An improved method for the efficient incorporation of a metal such as silver in a superconducting material includes blending the metal with a high temperature superconductor or precursor powder and consolidating the same into pellets. The pellets are charged directly into a heating assembly where it is melted and heated sufficiently to a uniform temperature prior to fiberization. Droplets of the melted blend fall through a collar into a nozzle where they are subjected to a high velocity gas to break the melted material into ligaments which solidify into improved flexible fibers having the metal homogeneously dis This invention was made with Government support under a contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) and Ames Laboratory, Contract No. SC-91-225, our reference No. CRD-1272. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  18. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L.E.; Kanemasu, E.T.

    1982-09-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  19. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  20. Method and apparatus for transferring cold seawater upward from the lower depths of the ocean to improve the efficiency of ocean thermal energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, W.T.

    1982-01-19

    A method and apparatus for transferring cold seawater from lower ocean depths upward toward sea level for use in ocean thermal energy conversion systems is disclosed wherein an in situ desalination process is utilized to create a density differential between the desalinated water and the surrounding seawater. The desalinated water being of a lesser density than the surrounding seawater, rises naturally upward through a conduit and is utilized as a heat transfer medium in the ocean thermal energy conversion system. The desalinated water, which is a byproduct of the energy conversion system, may be utilized for domestic consumption or alternatively dispersed into the near surface region (Photic zone) of the ocean to increase the nutrient concentration therein.

  1. Energy Efficient America Act of 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A draft of the Energy Efficient America Act of 1984 was prepared by the Energy Conservation Coalition as a way to promote energy conservation and eliminate waste. The Act is divided into four titles dealing with low-income weatherization, a solar and conservation bank, applicance efficiency, and automobile fuel economy. The sponsors of this initiative describe specific provisions, the background, and the program they would include under the Act. The report includes a form for comment and an opportunity to contribute financial support to the effort.

  2. How energy efficient is your car?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roura, Pere; Oliu, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    A detailed energy balance indicating how fuel energy is transferred from the engine to the wheels of a commercial car is obtained using non-specialized experiments that can be readily understood using elementary mechanics. These experiments allow us to determine the engine's thermal efficiency, its mechanical losses, and the rolling (friction) and aerodynamic (drag) coefficients. We find that approximately 28% of the fuel energy is transferred to the wheels.

  3. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  4. The role of energy efficiency and renewable energies in the future world energy market

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1996-05-01

    The world population is rising rapidly, notably in the developing countries. Historical trends suggest that increased annual energy use per capita is a good surrogate for the standard of living factors which promote a decrease in population growth rate. If these trends continue, stabilization of the world`s population will require the increased use of all sources of energy as cheap oil and gas are depleted. Improved efficiency of energy use and renewable energy sources will be essential to stabilizing population,while providing a decent standard all over the world.

  5. Haiti: energy efficiency in the sugar and manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, A.

    1985-03-28

    A review of energy use in Haiti, aimed at identifying possible projects to complement current A.I.D. support for institution building and energy planning within the Ministry of Mines and Energy Resources (MMRE), is presented. Key findings are that: (1) the sugar and manufacturing industries rely heavily on biomass fuels - wood, charcoal, and bagasse (sugar cane residue); and (2) demand for commercial energy and for electricity is growing rapidly despite supply constraints. The report calls for A.I.D. to: initiate a program to reduce biomass consumption (which is causing severe soil erosion and deforestation), especially in the small distilleries called guildives; collaborate with MMRE and the World Bank to develop a detailed workplan to promote energy efficiency in the guildives, focusing on technology development; help MMRE and the private sector to project Haiti's industrial energy and electricity needs through the year 2000; and sponsor a program of energy audits and efficiency improvements in the manufacturing sector.

  6. Energy Efficiency: Information Sources for New and Emerging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven A.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to share a list of useful organizations that provide reliable information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies based on research and experience. Experienced energy managers may use the information provided by these organizations to enhance their knowledge and understanding, thereby improving their energy management programs. The scope is limited to publicly-available and open-membership organizations that deal with new and emerging, energy-efficient technologies, strategies, and products. The sources identified should not be considered exhaustive but rather a first step “go to” list suggested by the author when searching for useful information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies.

  7. EPA's Energy Star Buildings Provides a Road Map to Energy Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele

    1997-01-01

    Several colleges and universities participate in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Energy Star Buildings program, in which institutions commit to improving their buildings' energy efficiency and reducing energy costs. All participants must also be a Green Lights Program participant or agree to specific building-wide lighting upgrades. The…

  8. Energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A report on the nation`s progress

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C.; Eckert, J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes progress throughout the nation in establishing voluntary programs linking home energy rating systems (HERS) and energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). These programs use methods for rating the energy efficiency of new and existing homes and predicting energy cost savings so lenders can factor in energy cost savings when underwriting mortgages. The programs also encourage lenders to finance cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes with low-interest mortgages or other instruments. The money saved on utility bills over the long term can more than offset the cost of such energy-efficiency improvements. The National Collaborative on HERS and EEMs recommended that this report be prepared.

  9. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  10. New Lighting Fixtures: Combining Creativity and Style with Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Foster, Rebecca; McGowan, Terry

    2004-10-01

    This article for a building trade magazine describes a national design competition for energy efficient lighting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the American Lighting Association, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, with winners announced at ALA's Annual Conference May 14, 2004, in Tucson. The Lighting for Tomorrow competition was the first national lighting fixture design competition focusing on energy-efficient residential lighting. The competition invited fixture manufacturers and designers to come up with beautiful, functional lighting fixtures that also happen to be energy efficient. Fixtures were required to use a ''dedicated'' energy-efficient light source, such as a pin-based fluorescent lamp that cannot be replaced with a screw-in incandescent bulb. Fixtures also had to meet a minimum energy efficiency level that eliminated use of incandescent and halogen lamps, leaving the door open only to fluorescent sources and LEDs. More than 150 paper designs were submitted in the first phase of the competition, in 2003. Of those, 24 finalists were invited to submit working prototypes in 2004, and the winners were announced in May. The Grand Prize of $10,000 went to American Fluorescent of Waukegan, Illinois, for its ''Salem'' chandelier. Some winning fixtures are already available through Lowe's Home Improvement Centers.

  11. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  12. Utility-subsidized energy-efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the end, the rise of large utility-subsidized energy-efficiency programs in the US in the late 1980s and early 1990s can best be understood from the perspective of political economy rather than from the perspective of neoclassical market economics. These programs represent a partially successful effort to capture the regulatory process and to use the institution of regulated monopoly to raise funds to pursue certain social ends. In the process, many of the interesting issues raised about the imperfections associated with the markets through which energy-efficiency decisions are made, the nature and causes of these imperfections, and the effectiveness of alternative public policies to ameliorate them have largely been ignored. The ability to use utilities in this way depends critically on the continuation of the institution of regulated monopoly electricity suppliers insulated from competition at the retail level. As competition spreads in the electric power sector, it is creating major conflicts between increasing competitive opportunities for customers vs continued reliance on utilities to pursue energy-efficiency programs that raise prices within the context of highly politicized IRP programs that embody a centralized planning philosophy. As competition intensifies, new ways will have to be found to achieve the energy-efficiency and environmental goals that motivate utility-subsidized energy-efficiency programs.

  13. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  14. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  15. Effect of aircraft technology improvements on intercity energy use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An examination of the growth or decline in energy consumption in short haul, high density intercity transportation is made in relation to changes in aeronautical technology. Improvements or changes in the technology of competitive modes are also included. Certain improvements in air traffic control procedures were included to determine their effectiveness in saving energy along with a fuel efficient turboprop short haul aircraft concept.

  16. Final technical report. A sodium-cycle based organism with improved membrane resistance aimed at increasing the efficiency of energy biotransformations

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Kim

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the project was to express in E. coli components that would allow a formation of oxidative phosphorylation based on a sodium cycle. This would improve the resistance of cells to organic solvents, detergents and other toxins. The author cloned and expressed the nqr operon from H. influenzae in E. coli. Experiments with membrane vesicles indicated the presence of the functional recombinant sodium pumping NADH dehydrogenase. A gene for a hybrid E. coli/P.modestum ATPase was constructed which will enable one to co-express a sodium ATPsynthase together with a sodium NADH dehydrogenase.

  17. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  18. 75 FR 35450 - Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for Member Nominations AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and request member nominations. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  19. Rebuilding your flooded home: Guidelines for incorporating energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Repairs to your flood-damaged home can add energy efficiency at the same time you address pressing structural needs, mainly by replacing and upgrading insulation in walls and floors, and checking your foundation for flood damage. Many energy efficiency options are available to you today that may not have been widely available when you built your house even if that was only a few years ago. Cost-effectiveness depends on several factors, including cost of fuel and materials, efficiency levels of the structure and components, and climate. This booklet offers some general tips to improve the efficiency of your home`s shell and equipment. Additional information on any issue covered in this booklet is available from various agencies within or near your community, including your state energy office, local community action agency, utilities, Red Cross and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) offices.

  20. Energy efficiency: Perspectives on individual behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, W.; Neiman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A collection of research papers on the personal behavior and attitudes that affect residential energy use. Articles in the first section address the factors that affect decision-making by consumers; convenience and personal opinions often override rational economic choices. The research in the second section uses aggregate survey data to gain insight into energy behavior. Papers in the third section use detailed monitoring of individual households to analyze personal behavior and home energy management, and the fourth section includes papers on the interaction of building systems with occupants. These papers demonstrate that, to be successful, energy conservation programs must consider the ''human factor'' in addition to the conventional energy parameters (e.g. weather, insulation, and appliance efficiencies). Main emphasis was given to: energy conservation; consumers; personal behavior; economic decision-making; buildings; energy policy; hot water use; thermostats; attitudes; applied anthropology.

  1. Energy efficient engine: High pressure turbine uncooled rig technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained from testing five performance builds (three vane cascades and two rotating rigs of the Energy Efficient Engine uncooled rig have established the uncooled aerodynamic efficiency of the high-pressure turbine at 91.1 percent. This efficiency level was attained by increasing the rim speed and annulus area (AN(2)), and by increasing the turbine reaction level. The increase in AN(2) resulted in a performance improvement of 1.15 percent. At the design point pressure ratio, the increased reaction level rig demonstrated an efficiency of 91.1 percent. The results of this program have verified the aerodynamic design assumptions established for the Energy Efficient Engine high-pressure turbine component.

  2. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  3. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  4. Residential energy efficiency and fuel choice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.; Harkreader, S.

    1989-08-01

    This evaluation involved the Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville's) Early Adopter Program (EAP), which promotes early adoption of the Northwest Model Conservation Standard (MCS) for new residential buildings heated with electricity. The energy efficiency improvements required by the MCS are likely to increase construction costs and possible reduce demand for new electrically heated homes. The purpose of the evaluation was to provide a preliminary assessment of fuel preferences and how the MCS affects residential fuel choice. A survey of households in two EAP regions was conducted and analyzed. Housing sales price data were collected in Tacoma, Washington, and hedonic price analysis was used to determine the effect of the MCS and different fuel types on housing price. Focus groups were held with Tacoma builders, and conjoint analysis was used to determine what factors most influenced the installation of specific fuel. The results showed that homeowners consider several fuel characteristics to be important in their fuel choice. Analysis of sales price data in Tacoma showed that buyers had paid more for gas-heated homes in recent years, probably reflecting recent sharp increases in the relative price of electricity. In addition, it appeared that buyers in Tacoma had paid considerably more for homes built to the MCS than electrically heated homes built to previous standards. Builder information suggested that buyer preferences were the main factor determining what fuel a builder would install. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The status of NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Project, a comparative government-industry effort aimed at advancing the technology base for the next generation of large turbofan engines for civil aircraft transports is summarized. Results of recently completed studies are reviewed. These studies involved selection of engine cycles and configurations that offer potential for at least 12% lower fuel consumption than current engines and also are economically attractive and environmentally acceptable. Emphasis is on the advancements required in component technologies and systems design concepts to permit future development of these more energy efficient engines.

  6. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  7. Energy Efficiency of Higher Education Buildings: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Nelson; Pereira, Luísa Dias; Ferreira, João; Conceição, Pedro; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose an energy efficiency plan (with technical and behavioural improvement measures) for a Portuguese higher education building--the Teaching Building of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra (FEUC). Design/methodology/approach: The study was developed in the context of both the "Green…

  8. 78 FR 73355 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ..., RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements...,'' 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993), and has been determined to be ``economically significant'' by the Office..., 2011 (76 FR 3281, Jan. 21, 2011). EO 13563 is supplemental to and explicitly reaffirms the...

  9. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of the technology to improve energy efficiency of propulsion systems for subsonic commercial aircrafts was examined. Goals established include: (1) fuel consumption, reduction in flight propulsion system; (2) direct operation cost; (3) noise, with provision for engine growth corresponding to future engine application; and (4) emissions, EPA new engine standards.

  10. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  11. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  12. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  13. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  14. Improving computational efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations with variance reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, A.

    2013-07-01

    CCFE perform Monte-Carlo transport simulations on large and complex tokamak models such as ITER. Such simulations are challenging since streaming and deep penetration effects are equally important. In order to make such simulations tractable, both variance reduction (VR) techniques and parallel computing are used. It has been found that the application of VR techniques in such models significantly reduces the efficiency of parallel computation due to 'long histories'. VR in MCNP can be accomplished using energy-dependent weight windows. The weight window represents an 'average behaviour' of particles, and large deviations in the arriving weight of a particle give rise to extreme amounts of splitting being performed and a long history. When running on parallel clusters, a long history can have a detrimental effect on the parallel efficiency - if one process is computing the long history, the other CPUs complete their batch of histories and wait idle. Furthermore some long histories have been found to be effectively intractable. To combat this effect, CCFE has developed an adaptation of MCNP which dynamically adjusts the WW where a large weight deviation is encountered. The method effectively 'de-optimises' the WW, reducing the VR performance but this is offset by a significant increase in parallel efficiency. Testing with a simple geometry has shown the method does not bias the result. This 'long history method' has enabled CCFE to significantly improve the performance of MCNP calculations for ITER on parallel clusters, and will be beneficial for any geometry combining streaming and deep penetration effects. (authors)

  15. Kyiv institutional buildings energy efficiency program: Draft procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Kyiv Institutional Buildings Energy Efficiency (KIBA) Project is being conducted to support the development of a program to improve the energy efficiency for heat and hot water provided by district heat in institutional (education, healthcare, and cultural) buildings owned and operated by State and Municipal Organizations in the City of Kyiv, Ukraine. KIBA is funded by the US Department of Energy and is being conducted in cooperation with the World Bank and the Ukrainian State Committee for Energy Conservation. This document provides a set of draft procedures for the installation of the efficiency measures to ensure that the quality of the installations is maximized and that cost is minimized. The procedures were developed as an integrated package to reflect the linkages that exist throughout the installation process.

  16. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation. Bolling Air Force Base. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy-efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide.

  17. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  18. IMPROVING THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL CLOTHESDRYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hekmat, D.; Fisk, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate four techniques to improve the energy efficiency of electrically-heated domestic clothes dryers. Reduced air flow rate and heater input led to energy savings around 8%, while recirculation of a portion of the exhaust air back into the clothes dryer reduced energy consumption by approximately 18%. These two measures are attractive because of their low cost. Two modes of using an air-to-air heat exchanger for heat recovery were considered. The first is to preheat the inlet air with heat from the exhaust air, which resulted in 20 to 26% energy savings. The second mode is 100% recirculation of air through the dryer and a heat exchanger and condensation of water from this air in the heat exchanger by using indoor air. as a heat sink. This resulted in 100% heat recovery (i.e., all heat was rejected to indoors) but the energy consumption of the dryer was increased by up to 6%. To maximize energy savings, a clothes dryer with a heat exchanger can be equipped to operate in the preheating mode in the summer and in the recirculation/condensation mode in the winter. The last measure investigated recirculation, through a heat pump (i.e., dehumidifier), also resulted in a 100% heat recovery and, in addition, up to a 33% reduction in dryer energy consumption, but this technique also yielded long drying times.

  19. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  20. Efficient energy transfer from inserted CdTe quantum dots to YVO₄:Eu³⁺ inverse opals: a novel strategy to improve and expand visible excitation of rare earth ions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Cui, Shaobo; Chen, Xu; Xu, Wen; Zhou, Pingwei; Wang, Yunfeng; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei

    2014-07-21

    Rare earth (RE)-based phosphors demonstrate sharp emission lines, long lifetimes and high luminescence quantum yields; thus, they have been employed in various photoelectric devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar spectral converters. However, their applications are largely confined by their narrow excitation bands and small absorption cross sections of 4f-4f transitions. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel strategy to improve and expand the visible excitation bands of Eu(3+) ions through the interface energy transfer (ET) from CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to YVO₄:Eu(3+) inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs). The significant effects observed in the CdTe QDs/YVO₄:Eu(3+) IOPCs composites were that the excitation of Eu(3+) ions was continuously extended from 450 to 590 nm and that the emission intensity of the (5)D₀-(7)FJ transitions was enhanced ∼20-fold, corresponding to the intrinsic (7)F₁-(5)D₁ excitation at 538 nm. Furthermore, in the IOPC network, the ET efficiency from the QDs to YVO₄:Eu(3+) was greatly improved because of the suppression of energy migration among the CdTe QDs, which gave an optimum ET efficiency as high as 47%. Besides, the modulation of photonic stop bands (PSBs) on the radiative transition rates of the QDs and Eu(3+) ions was studied, which showed that the decay lifetime constants for Eu(3+) ions were independent of PSBs, while those of QDs demonstrated a suppression in the PSBs. Their physical nature was explained theoretically. PMID:24913251