Science.gov

Sample records for energy efficiency process

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  2. Monitoring agricultural processing electrical energy use and efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy costs have become proportionately larger as cotton post-harvest processing facilities have utilized other inputs more efficiently. A discrepancy in energy consumption per unit processed between facilities suggests that energy could be utilized more efficiently. Cotton gin facilities were in...

  3. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James G.; Hayden, H. Wayne; Angelini, Peter; Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  4. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  5. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  6. Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

  7. External research and energy efficiency in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Foust, T.D.

    1997-07-01

    The process industries in the US are under enormous pressure. These industries, even more than US industry on average, face skyrocketing environmental costs, a rapidly changing electricity market, potential climate change policies, aging infrastructure and strong international competition. To be profitable they must reduce their costs and environmental impacts while increasing their product quality, turnaround time, productivity and output. Most of these industries have already cut costs and labor as much as possible. Therefore, to survive, these industries must innovate. History shows that industries that are the most innovative are the most successful. These industries are vital to the US economy. For example, the metals, pulp and paper, chemicals and the petroleum refining industries account for more than $800 billion in products shipped and employ more than three million workers. Although the US has shifted dramatically toward services with 77% of workers and 74% of GDP now in the service sector, what many have missed is that the process industries are important customers for many of these new services. ServOnly the last two years of NSF industrial R and D data provide any breakout of non-manufacturing R and D. This paper discusses the past, current and possible future role of eternal research and development (R and D)--much of which is now in the service sector--in fostering innovation and thus energy efficiency in these industries. The authors suggest that these industries are more innovative than previously thought because of external research.

  8. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  9. Integrating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures in the Air Quality Planning Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides state and local air quality officials with valuable information on how to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) measures into their air quality plan, also known as the State Implementation Plan (SIP).

  10. Integrating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures in the Air Quality Planning Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides state and local air quality officials with valuable information on how to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) measures into their air quality plan, also known as the State Implementation Plan (SIP).

  11. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  12. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  13. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.; Grodzka, Philomena G.; McCormick, Paul O.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  14. Energy efficient on-sensor processing in Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Marnane, W; Faul, S; Bleakley, C; Conway, R; Jones, E; Popovici, E; de la Guia Solaz, M; Morgan, F; Patel, K

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) have tremendous potential in facilitating the real-time monitoring of the health of an individual in their own environment. However to truly exploit this potential, the powerful signal processing and analysis techniques available in the hospital environment must also be deployed in BSNs. In this paper, techniques in algorithm development, communications, hardware architecture and circuit design are described that will achieve the necessary power savings to make intelligent BSNs a reality.

  15. Energy-efficient process for hot-dip batch galvanizing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Hot-dip galvanizing of steel sheets, pipes, and other fabrication items is a popular method of corrosion protection. Currently, steel articles are immersed in molten zinc at 860{degrees}F, thereby forming a {open_quotes}frozen{close_quotes} metal (interfacial zinc iron intermetallic layer) on the surface. Drawbacks to the current technology include the expense of heating parts at such a high temperature and the generation of by-products such as zinc alloys, zinc oxides, and smoke. Furthermore, new federal regulations have significantly reduced acceptable lead levels in coatings, because lead from galvanized, coated steel will dissolve in water. Such dissolved lead may accumulate in human bodies with deleterious results. Additionally, the use of a molten salt layer on top of zinc (top-flux) causes kettle smoke and ash evolution. Ferro Technologies, Inc. has proposed a lead-free batch technology that will significantly improve the galvanizing process. The new Thermo Prep{trademark} process protects steel surfaces with a thermally stable flux by preheating parts to 400{degrees}F to 450{degrees}F in a separate furnace, and then immersing them in molten, lead-free zinc for a short period of time. The use of a thermally stable pre-flux would eliminate the need for top-flux, thereby reducing associated wastes.

  16. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  17. Simulation based energy-resource efficient manufacturing integrated with in-process virtual management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katchasuwanmanee, Kanet; Cheng, Kai; Bateman, Richard

    2016-09-01

    As energy efficiency is one of the key essentials towards sustainability, the development of an energy-resource efficient manufacturing system is among the great challenges facing the current industry. Meanwhile, the availability of advanced technological innovation has created more complex manufacturing systems that involve a large variety of processes and machines serving different functions. To extend the limited knowledge on energy-efficient scheduling, the research presented in this paper attempts to model the production schedule at an operation process by considering the balance of energy consumption reduction in production, production work flow (productivity) and quality. An innovative systematic approach to manufacturing energy-resource efficiency is proposed with the virtual simulation as a predictive modelling enabler, which provides real-time manufacturing monitoring, virtual displays and decision-makings and consequentially an analytical and multidimensional correlation analysis on interdependent relationships among energy consumption, work flow and quality errors. The regression analysis results demonstrate positive relationships between the work flow and quality errors and the work flow and energy consumption. When production scheduling is controlled through optimization of work flow, quality errors and overall energy consumption, the energy-resource efficiency can be achieved in the production. Together, this proposed multidimensional modelling and analysis approach provides optimal conditions for the production scheduling at the manufacturing system by taking account of production quality, energy consumption and resource efficiency, which can lead to the key competitive advantages and sustainability of the system operations in the industry.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  19. On the enhancement of the efficiency of the energy complexes of crude hydrocarbon processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolotovskij, I. V.; Larin, E. A.; Dolotovskaja, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    A method for circuit-parametric analysis of the efficiency of the heat-and-power system of the energy complexes at gas and natural-gas condensate processing plants is proposed. An energy complex of an alternative structure with an independent source of thermal and electric energy integrated into the production line has been developed. The energy carriers are produced accompanied by recovery of the secondary energy resources, waste, and effluents. Using the developed information-analytical software, multicriterion assessment of the efficiency of the alternative energy complexes and its systems based on independent energy sources of the combined-cycle cogeneration plant type has been performed for the gas processing plant in Astrakhan and the most effective equipment composition variant has been determined. The effect of the basic technical and economic factors on the economic efficiency has been established. The investments in construction of the power- and water-supply system within the plant's energy complex pay off in 8-9 years.

  20. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Michael; Bryson, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  1. Improved Energy and Processing Efficiencies of Strawberry Drying Using Sequential Infrared Freeze-Drying Method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strawberries are rich in nutrients but highly perishable. Freeze-drying is an excellent dehydration method for strawberry preservation. However, freeze-drying is an expensive dehydration process due to slow drying rates, high capital operating costs and low energy efficiency. Strawberry slice wei...

  2. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid Removal Process

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient NGL recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale testing - so that it can be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization.

  3. Energy-efficient neural information processing in individual neurons and neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianchun; Yu, Yuguo

    2017-11-01

    Brains are composed of networks of an enormous number of neurons interconnected with synapses. Neural information is carried by the electrical signals within neurons and the chemical signals among neurons. Generating these electrical and chemical signals is metabolically expensive. The fundamental issue raised here is whether brains have evolved efficient ways of developing an energy-efficient neural code from the molecular level to the circuit level. Here, we summarize the factors and biophysical mechanisms that could contribute to the energy-efficient neural code for processing input signals. The factors range from ion channel kinetics, body temperature, axonal propagation of action potentials, low-probability release of synaptic neurotransmitters, optimal input and noise, the size of neurons and neuronal clusters, excitation/inhibition balance, coding strategy, cortical wiring, and the organization of functional connectivity. Both experimental and computational evidence suggests that neural systems may use these factors to maximize the efficiency of energy consumption in processing neural signals. Studies indicate that efficient energy utilization may be universal in neuronal systems as an evolutionary consequence of the pressure of limited energy. As a result, neuronal connections may be wired in a highly economical manner to lower energy costs and space. Individual neurons within a network may encode independent stimulus components to allow a minimal number of neurons to represent whole stimulus characteristics efficiently. This basic principle may fundamentally change our view of how billions of neurons organize themselves into complex circuits to operate and generate the most powerful intelligent cognition in nature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Distribution of electrical energy consumption for the efficient degradation control of THMs mixture in sonophotolytic process.

    PubMed

    Park, Beomguk; Cho, Eunju; Son, Younggyu; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2014-11-01

    Sonophotolytic degradation of THMs mixture with different electrical energy ratio was carried out for efficient design of process. The total consumed electrical energy was fixed around 50W, and five different energy conditions were applied. The maximum degradation rate showed in conditions of US:UV=1:3 and US:UV=0:4. This is because the photolytic degradation of bromate compounds is dominant degradation mechanism for THMs removal. However, the fastest degradation of total organic carbon was observed in a condition of US:UV=1:3. Because hydrogen peroxide generated by sonication was effectively dissociated to hydroxyl radicals by ultraviolet, the concentration of hydroxyl radical was maintained high. This mechanism provided additional degradation of organics. This result was supported by comparison between the concentration of hydrogen peroxide sole and combined process. Consequently, the optimal energy ratio was US:UV=1:3 for degradation of THMs in sonophotolytic process.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Adrian; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  7. Energy conversion in isothermal nonlinear irreversible processes - struggling for higher efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, W.; Feistel, R.

    2017-06-01

    First we discuss some early work of Ulrike Feudel on structure formation in nonlinear reactions including ions and the efficiency of the conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Then we give some survey about isothermal energy conversion from chemical to higher forms of energy like mechanical, electrical and ecological energy. Isothermal means here that there are no temperature gradients within the model systems. We consider examples of energy conversion in several natural processes and in some devices like fuel cells. Further, as an example, we study analytically the dynamics and efficiency of a simple "active circuit" converting chemical into electrical energy and driving currents which is roughly modeling fuel cells. Finally we investigate an analogous ecological system of Lotka-Volterra type consisting of an "active species" consuming some passive "chemical food". We show analytically for both these models that the efficiency increases with the load, reaches values higher then 50 percent in a narrow regime of optimal load and goes beyond some maximal load abruptly to zero.

  8. Metal and Glass Manufactures Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    Process heating plays a key role in producing steel, aluminum, and glass and in manufacturing products made from these materials. Faced with regulatory and competitive pressures to control emissions and reduce operating costs, metal and glass manufacturers are considering a variety of options for reducing overall energy consumption. As 38% of the energy used in U.S. industrial plants is consumed for process heating applications, metal and glass manufacturers are discovering that process heating technologies provide significant opportunities for improving industrial productivity, energy efficiency, and global competitiveness. This fact sheet is the first in a series to describe such opportunities that can be realized in industrial systems by conducting plant-wide assessments (PWA).

  9. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Michel Y.; Streicher, Wolfgang; Bales, Chris

    2010-06-15

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices. (author)

  10. Full report: Assessment and opportunity identification of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    US industry produces about 12 billion tons of waste a year, or two-thirds of the waste generated in the US. The costs of handling and disposing of these wastes are significant, estimated to be between $25 and $43 billion in 1991, and represent an increase of 66% since 1986. US industry also uses about one-third of all energy consumed in the nation, which adds to the environmental burden. Industrial wastes affect the environmental well-being of the nation and, because of their growing costs, the competitive abilities of US industry. As part of a national effort to reduce industrial wastes, the US Congress passed the Energy Policy Act (EPAct, P.L. 102-486). Section 2108, subsections (b) and (c), of EPAct requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify opportunities to demonstrate energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes; to assess their availability and the energy, environmental, and cost effects of such technologies; and to report the results. Work for this report clearly pointed to two things, that there is insufficient data on wastes and that there is great breadth and diversity in the US industrial sector. This report identifies: information currently available on industrial sector waste streams, opportunities for demonstration of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies in two industries that produce significant amounts of waste--chemicals and petroleum, characteristics of waste reducing and energy saving technologies identifiable in the public literature, and potential barriers to adoption of waste reducing technologies by industry.

  11. Influence of Thermal Processes on the Efficiency of the Energy Separation in a Ranque Vortex Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyutyuma, V. D.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of the model of a plane swirling flow in a Ranque vortex tube, in which this flow is represented in the form of a vortex consisting of a vortex flow at the periphery and a forced vortex in the central part, a theoretical analysis of the influence of the thermal processes in this tube on the efficiency of the energy separation in the vortex in it has been performed. The results of calculations were compared with experimental data.

  12. Plasma processing of III-V materials for energy efficient electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayne, Iain; Li, Xu; Millar, David; Fu, Yen-Chun; Peralagu, Uthayasankararan

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews some recent activity at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre in the University of Glasgow in the area of plasma processing for energy efficient compound semiconductor-based transistors. Atomic layer etching suitable for controllable recess etching in GaN power transistors will be discussed. In addition, plasma based surface passivation techniques will be reviewed for a variety of compound semiconductor materials ((100) and (110) oriented InGaAs and InGaSb).

  13. Optical amplification and optical filter based signal processing for cost and energy efficient spatial multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Krummrich, Peter M

    2011-08-15

    Spatial division multiplexing has been proposed as an option for further capacity increase of transmission fibers. Application of this concept is attractive only, if cost and energy efficient implementations can be found. In this work, optical amplification and optical filter based signal processing concepts are investigated. Deployment of multi mode fibers as the waveguide type for erbium doped fiber amplifiers potentially offers cost and energy efficiency advantages compared to using multi core fibers in preamplifier as well as booster stages. Additional advantages can be gained from optimization of the amplifier module design. Together with transponder design optimizations, they can increase the attractiveness of inverse spatial multiplexing, which is proposed as an intermediate step. Signal processing based on adaptive passive optical filters offers an alternative approach for the separation of channels at the receiver which have experienced mode coupling along the link. With this optical filter based approach, fiber capacity can potentially be increased faster and more energy efficiently than with solutions relying solely on electronic signal processing.

  14. A new strategy for efficient solar energy conversion: Parallel-processing with surface plasmons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces an advanced concept for direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, which aims at high efficiency by tailoring the conversion process to separate energy bands within the broad solar spectrum. The objective is to obtain a high level of spectrum-splitting without sequential losses or unique materials for each frequency band. In this concept, sunlight excites a spectrum of surface plasma waves which are processed in parallel on the same metal film. The surface plasmons transport energy to an array of metal-barrier-semiconductor diodes, where energy is extracted by inelastic tunneling. Diodes are tuned to different frequency bands by selecting the operating voltage and geometry, but all diodes share the same materials.

  15. Energy efficient motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

  16. Improvement of energy efficiency and filter technology in the electron beam dry scrubber process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paur, Hanns-R.; Baumann, Werner; Lindner, Wolfgang; Mätzing, Hartmut

    Energy efficiency of the simultaneous removal of NO x and SO 2 from flue gas by the EBDS process may be improved by applying multiple irradiation with intermediate product scrubbing. The product, which is a mixture of ammonium sulphate and nitrate, can be filtered using bag filters and gravel bed filters yielding a by-product which is suitable for agricultural purposes. Due to the recent development of high power accelerators the costs of the EBDS process are now competitive when compared to conventional flue gas treatment methods.

  17. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Stefan, Töpfl; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of biomass conversion is based on pulsed electric fields applications (PEF). Energy efficiency of PEF treatment is achieved by specific increase of cell membrane permeability, a phenomenon known as membrane electroporation. Here, we review the opportunities that PEF and electroporation provide for the development of sustainable biorefineries. We describe the use of PEF treatment in biomass engineering, drying, deconstruction, extraction of phytochemicals, improvement of fermentations, and biogas production. These applications show the potential of PEF and consequent membrane electroporation to enable the bioeconomy and sustainable development.

  18. Development of a low-pressure materials pre-treatment process for improved energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwanghee; You, Byung Don

    2017-09-01

    Low pressure materials pre-treatment process has been developed as an alternative to the existing high-temperature sludge drying, limestone calcination, and limonite dehydroxylation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium relationship between temperature and pressure represented by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the operational temperature of these reactions could be lowered at reduced pressure for increased energy efficiency. For industrial sludge drying, the evaporation rate was controlled by interfacial kinetics showing a constant rate with time and significant acceleration in the reaction could be observed with reduced pressure. At this modified reaction rate under low pressure, the rate was also partially controlled by mass transfer. Temperature of limestone calcination was lowered, but the reaction was limited at the calculated equilibrium temperature of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and slightly higher temperatures were required. The energy consumption during limestone calcination and limonite dehydroxylation were evaluated, where lower processing pressures could enhance the energy efficiency for limestone calcination, but limonite dehydroxylation could not achieve energy-savings due to the greater power consumption of the vacuum pump under lower pressure and reduced temperatures.

  19. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  20. Novel Approach to Increase the Energy-related Process Efficiency and Performance of Laser Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Radel, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Although laser brazing is well established, the energy-related efficiency of this joining method is quite low. That is because of low absorptivity of solid-state laser radiation, especially when copper base braze metals are used. Conventionally the laser beam is set close to the vertical axis and the filler wire is delivered under a flat angle. Therefore, the most of the utilized laser power is reflected and thus left unexploited. To address this situation an alternative processing concept for laser brazing, where the laser beam is leading the filler wire, has been investigated intending to make use of reflected shares of the laser radiation. Process monitoring shows, that the reflection of the laser beam can be used purposefully to preheat the substrate which is supporting the wetting and furthermore increasing the efficiency of the process. Experiments address a standard application from the automotive industry joining zinc coated steels using CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. Feasibility of the alternative processing concept is demonstrated, showing that higher processing speeds can be attained, reducing the required energy per unit length while maintaining joint properties.

  1. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  2. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  3. Method and apparatus for energy efficient self-aeration in chemical, biochemical, and wastewater treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-05-28

    The present invention is a pulse spilling self-aerator (PSSA) that has the potential to greatly lower the installation, operation, and maintenance cost associated with aerating and mixing aqueous solutions. Currently, large quantities of low-pressure air are required in aeration systems to support many biochemical production processes and wastewater treatment plants. Oxygen is traditionally supplied and mixed by a compressor or blower and a mechanical agitator. These systems have high-energy requirements and high installation and maintenance costs. The PSSA provides a mixing and aeration capability that can increase operational efficiency and reduce overall cost.

  4. Penrose photoproduction processes - A high efficiency energy mechanism for active galactic nuclei and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Kafatos, M.

    1979-01-01

    Recent observations of NGC 4151 and 3C273 suggest that the nuclei of active galaxies have very high gamma ray efficiencies. In addition, optical studies of M87 have indicated the possibility of a massive black hole in its central region. The above facts have led to study of a new physical mechanism, Penrose Photoproduction Processes, in the ergospheres of massive Kerr black holes, as a way to account for the fluctuating, high efficiency, energy production associated with active galaxies and quasars. Observational signatures, associated with this mechanism, occur in the form of approximately 2 MeV and approximately 2 GeV gamma ray cutoffs which might be corroborated by the observed spectra of NGC 4151 and 3C273, respectively.

  5. Penrose photoproduction processes - A high efficiency energy mechanism for active galactic nuclei and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Kafatos, M.

    1979-01-01

    Recent observations of NGC 4151 and 3C273 suggest that the nuclei of active galaxies have very high gamma ray efficiencies. In addition, optical studies of M87 have indicated the possibility of a massive black hole in its central region. The above facts have led to study of a new physical mechanism, Penrose Photoproduction Processes, in the ergospheres of massive Kerr black holes, as a way to account for the fluctuating, high efficiency, energy production associated with active galaxies and quasars. Observational signatures, associated with this mechanism, occur in the form of approximately 2 MeV and approximately 2 GeV gamma ray cutoffs which might be corroborated by the observed spectra of NGC 4151 and 3C273, respectively.

  6. California Enhances Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2011-11-01

    This article will discuss how my colleagues and I have promoted energy efficiency over the last 40 years. Our efforts have involved thousands of people from many different areas of expertise. The work has proceeded in several areas: • Investigating the science and engineering of energy end-use, • Assessing the potential and theoretical opportunities for energy efficiency, • Developing analytic and economic models to quantify opportunities, • Researching and developing new equipment and processes to bring these opportunities to fruition, • Participating in the development of California and later federal standards for energy performance in buildings and appliances, • Ensuring that market incentives were aligned with policies, and • Designing clear and convincing graphics to convey opportunities and results to all stakeholders.

  7. Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process.

    PubMed

    Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

    2008-04-15

    There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41-0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost

  8. Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production

  9. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  10. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  11. Electro-Fenton for control and removal of micropollutants - process optimization and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mousset, E; Wang, Z; Lefebvre, O

    2016-11-01

    The removal of micropollutants is an important environmental and health issue. Electro-Fenton offers an electrochemical advanced treatment that is particularly effective for the breakdown of aromatic contaminants. Due to the wide variety of chemicals, it is preferable to analyze model contaminants, such as phenol, when optimizing and assessing the efficacy of a novel treatment process. In this study, we therefore made use of innovative types of electrode material and optimized operating parameters (current density and aeration rate) for the removal of phenol by electro-Fenton, with a view to maximize the energy efficiency of the process. By determining the best current density (1.25 mA cm(-2)), frequency of aeration (continuous) and by using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, it was possible to achieve over 98.5% phenol (1 mM) removal within 1.5 h. BDD further outcompeted platinum as anode material in terms of mineralization rate and yield, and displayed low energy consumption of 0.08 kWh (g-TOC)(-1), about one order of magnitude lower than other advanced oxidation processes, such as UV/TiO2 and UV/O3. Furthermore, a carbon cloth anode proved even more cost-effective than BDD if the end goal is the removal of phenol by electro-Fenton instead of complete mineralization.

  12. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  13. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  14. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  15. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  16. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  17. Energy Efficiency in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Shows how libraries can save money and energy with energy-efficient technologies, improving maintenance, and encouraging staff efforts to conserve energy. Specific techniques such as life-cycle cost analysis and energy audits focusing on lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and water efficiency are described. Funding options and…

  18. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  19. Duluth Energy Efficiency Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Duluth developed the Duluth Energy Efficiency Program (DEEP) to create jobs, lessen the energy affordability gap faced by Duluth families, retain energy dollars currently exported from the city, and reduce Duluth's carbon footprint.

  20. Methods to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes - Review and theoretical comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Michel Y.; Streicher, Wolfgang; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2009-10-15

    This paper reviews different methods that have been proposed to characterize thermal stratification in energy storages from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, this paper focuses on the methods that can be used to determine the ability of a storage to promote and maintain stratification during charging, storing and discharging, and represent this ability with a single numerical value in terms of a stratification efficiency for a given experiment or under given boundary conditions. Existing methods for calculating stratification efficiencies have been applied to hypothetical storage processes of charging, discharging and storing, and compared with the rate of entropy production caused by mixing calculated for the same experiments. The results depict that only one of the applied methods is in qualitative agreement with the rate of entropy production, however, none of the applied methods is in agreement with the rate of entropy production and also able to distinguish between the entropy production caused by mixing and the entropy changes due to heat losses. (author)

  1. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (P<0.05) faster than that observed with synthetic wastewater (with similar CN concentration). A combined application of H(2)O(2)/O(3) was found to be the best option for maximum CN destruction. This treatment allows CN to reach the regional/international limit (of 0.02 mg/L) for safe industrial wastewater discharges to the receiving water bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  2. Making energy efficiency happen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-04-01

    Improving energy efficiency is the least expensive and most effective way to address simultaneously several national issues. Improving efficiency saves money for consumers, increases economic productivity and international competitiveness, enhances national security by lowering oil imports, and reduces the adverse environmental effects of energy production. This paper discusses some of the many opportunities to improve efficiency, emphasizing the roles of government and utilities.

  3. EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

  4. Surface and Interface Engineering of Noble-Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Efficient Energy Conversion Processes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun Pei; Guo, Chunxian; Zheng, Yao; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-04-18

    Developing cost-effective and high-performance electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion and storage is motivated by increasing concerns regarding global energy security and creating sustainable technologies dependent on inexpensive and abundant resources. Recent achievements in the design and synthesis of efficient non-precious-metal and even non-metal electrocatalysts make the replacement of noble metal counterparts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with earth-abundant elements, for example, C, N, Fe, Mn, and Co, a realistic possibility. It has been found that surface atomic engineering (e.g., heteroatom-doping) and interface atomic or molecular engineering (e.g., interfacial bonding) can induce novel physicochemical properties and strong synergistic effects for electrocatalysts, providing new and efficient strategies to greatly enhance the catalytic activities. In this Account, we discuss recent progress in the design and fabrication of efficient electrocatalysts based on carbon materials, graphitic carbon nitride, and transition metal oxides or hydroxides for efficient ORR, OER, and HER through surface and interfacial atomic and molecular engineering. Atomic and molecular engineering of carbon materials through heteroatom doping with one or more elements of noticeably different electronegativities can maximally tailor their electronic structures and induce a synergistic effect to increase electrochemical activity. Nonetheless, the electrocatalytic performance of chemically modified carbonaceous materials remains inferior to that of their metallic counterparts, which is mainly due to the relatively limited amount of electrocatalytic active sites induced by heteroatom doping. Accordingly, coupling carbon substrates with other active electrocatalysts to produce composite structures can impart novel physicochemical properties, thereby boosting the electroactivity even further

  5. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  6. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  7. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi , Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of

  8. Formation of the Integral Ecological Quality Index of the Technological Processes in Machine Building Based on Their Energy Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egorov, Sergey B.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Mitrofanov, Vladimir G.; Shvartsburg, Leonid E.; Ivanova, Natalia A.; Ryabov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article is to provide development of a unified assessment methodology in relation to various technological processes and the actual conditions of their implementation. To carry the energy efficiency analysis of the technological processes through comparison of the established power and the power consumed by the actual technological…

  9. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step...

  10. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  11. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step...

  12. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  13. Visual documentation process of historic building refurbishment "Improving energy efficiency by insulating wall cavity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennadji, A.

    2013-07-01

    The North East of Scotland's construction method is similar to most popular building typologies in the UK. This typology can vary in term of external material (Granite, brick or stone) but with a secondary, usually timber sub frame with a lining on its interior. Insulation was seldom a consideration when such buildings were completed. Statistics shows that 80% of existing buildings in the UK will need to be upgraded. The lack of knowledge in dealing with old building fabric's manipulation has a negative impact on buildings' integrity. The documentation of such process seems to be an important step that buildings' actors should undertake to communicate a practical knowledge that is still at incubation stage. We wanted for this documentation to be visual, as descriptions might mislead none specialised and specialised in the field due to the innovative approach our method was conducted with. For the Scottish context this research/experiment will concentrate on existing granite wall buildings with plastered lath internal wall. It is unfortunate to see the commonly beautiful interiors of Scottish buildings disappearing, when the internal linings are removed. Skips are filled with old Plaster and Lath and new linings have to be supplied and fitted. Excessive waste is created in this change. This paper is based on a historic building energy improvement case study financed by the European commission and the Scottish Government. The pilot study consists of insulating an 18th century house using an innovative product and method. The project was a response to a call by the CIC start (Construction Innovation Club), aiming to establish a link between SMEs and the Universities. The project saw the day in collaboration with Icynene Canada, KDL Kishorn (see full list in the acknowledgment). This paper describes the process through which the team went through to improve the building envelope without damaging the buildings original features (Loveday et all). The energy efficiency

  14. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  15. Development of Ultrafiltration Membrane-Separation Technology for Energy-Efficient Water Treatment and Desalination Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Woosoon; Bae, Chulsung

    2016-10-28

    The growing scarcity of fresh water is a major political and economic challenge in the 21st century. Compared to thermal-based distillation technique of water production, pressure driven membrane-based water purification process, such as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), can offer more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly solution to clean water production. Potential applications also include removal of hazardous chemicals (i.e., arsenic, pesticides, organics) from water. Although those membrane-separation technologies have been used to produce drinking water from seawater (desalination) and non-traditional water (i.e., municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater) over the last decades, they still have problems in order to be applied in large-scale operations. Currently, a major huddle of membrane-based water purification technology for large-scale commercialization is membrane fouling and its resulting increases in pressure and energy cost of filtration process. Membrane cleaning methods, which can restore the membrane properties to some degree, usually cause irreversible damage to the membranes. Considering that electricity for creating of pressure constitutes a majority of cost (~50%) in membrane-based water purification process, the development of new nano-porous membranes that are more resistant to degradation and less subject to fouling is highly desired. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer is one of the best known block copolymers that induces well defined morphologies. Due to the polarity difference of aromatic styrene unit and saturated ethylene/butylene unit, these two polymer chains self-assemble each other and form different phase-separated morphologies depending on the ratios of two polymer chain lengths. Because the surface of SEBS is hydrophobic which easily causes fouling of membrane, incorporation of ionic group (e,g, sulfonate) to the polymer is necessary to reduces fouling

  16. Research on an energy-efficient drying process. Interim report, September 24, 1982-November 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.J.

    1984-03-08

    Phase I of a program to investigate the feasibility of a membrane-based process for the recovery of energy from industrial dryer exhaust streams is covered. A Bend Research asymmetric cellulose acetate membrane was identified as being generally the most suitable membrane available for this application. Laboratory tests in a simulated drying unit demonstrated that a spiral-wound cellulose acetate membrane module is capable of recovering 40% of the water vapor in a 180/sup 0/F feed stream at 60% relative humidity while producing a permeate stream of 96 mol % water vapor. The water vapor flux through the membrane under these conditions was about 240 x 10/sup -4/cm/sup 3/ (STP)/cm/sup 2/-sec. A technical analysis indicates that this membrane-based process can be used to recover otherwise wasted heat from dryer exhaust streams. Specifically, the analysis shows that the retro-fit of this process to a typical paper dryer results in recovery of 13 times as much energy as is required to operate the necessary vacuum pumps. An economic analysis of this system indicates that, with modest improvement of membrane performance, energy recovery via this process is economically feasible. In addition, this membrane-based energy-recovery process would allow heating capacity to be added to an existing dryer without adding furnace capacity.

  17. A preferential design approach for energy-efficient and robust implantable neural signal processing hardware.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Chiel, Hillel J; Bhunia, Swarup

    2009-01-01

    For implantable neural interface applications, it is important to compress data and analyze spike patterns across multiple channels in real time. Such a computational task for online neural data processing requires an innovative circuit-architecture level design approach for low-power, robust and area-efficient hardware implementation. Conventional microprocessor or Digital Signal Processing (DSP) chips would dissipate too much power and are too large in size for an implantable system. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware design approach, referred to as "Preferential Design" that exploits the nature of the neural signal processing algorithm to achieve a low-voltage, robust and area-efficient implementation using nanoscale process technology. The basic idea is to isolate the critical components with respect to system performance and design them more conservatively compared to the noncritical ones. This allows aggressive voltage scaling for low power operation while ensuring robustness and area efficiency. We have applied the proposed approach to a neural signal processing algorithm using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and observed significant improvement in power and robustness over conventional design.

  18. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  19. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  20. Energy Efficient Supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Anypas, Katie

    2014-10-17

    Katie Anypas, Head of NERSC's Services Department discusses the Lab's research into developing increasingly powerful and energy efficient supercomputers at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  1. Energy Efficient Supercomputing

    ScienceCinema

    Anypas, Katie

    2016-07-12

    Katie Anypas, Head of NERSC's Services Department discusses the Lab's research into developing increasingly powerful and energy efficient supercomputers at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  2. Enabling technologies: Supporting the development and use of innovative, energy-efficient, and environmentally friendly products and processes

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This pamphlet describes the Office of Industrial Technologies cooperative efforts to address industry needs for advanced materials, sensors and controls, process energy and energy efficiency. US industry needs enabling materials that are stronger and lighter, with resistance to high-temperature fatigue and improved resistance to corrosion and wear. New industrial materials such as intermetallic alloys and advanced ceramics have the potential to meet the challenges of the Industries of the Future. The manufacturing industries obtain over 85% of their energy from the on-site combustion of fuels. Enhancements to burners, boilers, and process heating systems can lower energy costs, reduce emissions, enhance fuel options, and increase safety and reliability. Robust, integrated measurement devices linked to intelligent control systems will enable US industry to use resources more efficiently and improve product quality. Through constant process monitoring and adjustment of parameters, these systems can reduce energy use and labor, minimize waste and pollution, and boost productivity. The Enabling Technologies Program is designed to address the cross-cutting needs of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT). OIT partners with industry to promote the development and use of energy-efficient, pollution-preventing technologies. The Nation`s environment benefits from greater use of these technologies, and industries benefit from cost savings, improved productivity, and increased competitiveness.

  3. Modeling recombination processes and predicting energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Meng, Sheng

    2014-03-01

    We present a set of algorithms based on solo first principles calculations, to accurately calculate key properties of a DSC device including sunlight harvest, electron injection, electron-hole recombination, and open circuit voltages. Two series of D- π-A dyes are adopted as sample dyes. The short circuit current can be predicted by calculating the dyes' photo absorption, and the electron injection and recombination lifetime using real-time time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulations. Open circuit voltage can be reproduced by calculating energy difference between the quasi-Fermi level of electrons in the semiconductor and the electrolyte redox potential, considering the influence of electron recombination. Based on timescales obtained from real time TDDFT dynamics for excited states, the estimated power conversion efficiency of DSC fits nicely with the experiment, with deviation below 1-2%. Light harvesting efficiency, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and the current-voltage characteristics can also be well reproduced. The predicted efficiency can serve as either an ideal limit for optimizing photovoltaic performance of a given dye, or a virtual device that closely mimicking the performance of a real device under different experimental settings.

  4. Signal Processing and Its Effect on Scanning Efficiencies for a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-energy Radiation.

    PubMed

    Marianno, Craig M

    2015-07-01

    Signal processing within a radiation detector affects detection efficiency. Currently, organizations such as private industry, the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force are coupling some detector systems with data collection devices to survey large land areas for radioactive contamination. As detector technology has advanced and analog data collection has turned to digital, signal processing is becoming prevalent in some instruments. Using a NIST traceable (241)Am source, detection efficiency for a field instrument for detecting low-energy radiation (FIDLER) was examined for both a static and scanning mode. Experimental results were compared to Monte Carlo-generated efficiencies. Stationary data compared nicely to the theoretical results. Conversely, scanning detection efficiencies were considerably different from their theoretical counterparts. As speed increased, differences in detection efficiency approached two orders of magnitude. To account for these differences, a quasi time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation was created mimicking the signal processing undertaken by the FIDLER detection system. By including signal processing, experimental results fell within the bounds of the Monte Carlo-generated efficiencies, thus demonstrating the negative effects of such processing on detection efficiencies.

  5. Assessment of citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The cirtus industry was surveyed in order to assess the impact of two programs toward the goal of implementing energy conserving options and the development of new technologies. Six technologies were identified that have recently been implemented in the citrus industry, and a case history is summarized for each. Advanced technologies have been identified that could be applied in citrus processing plants and that would result in significant energy and operating cost savings. The industry sources indicated a need to prove these concepts in a research and development project such as a pilot plant before they will be implemented. (LEW)

  6. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

    2006-05-01

    For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.

  7. Alternate fluid to improve energy efficiency of supercritical water oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report discusses the replacement of water by carbon dioxide in both the quench stream and the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) reactor feed in order to reduce the energy utilization in the process. FLUENT was used to generate the input requirements and ASPEN PLUS was used to model the SCWO process. Simulations were made for normal MODAR operating conditions (baseline case) and two other cases replacing water by carbon dioxide. The basis for and assumptions used in the simulation are given. Economic evaluations were made and costs were compared with the baseline case and a case with 60% replacement of water by carbon dioxide. The equipment cost is almost the same. However, the case with replacement of water by carbon dioxide reduces the energy requirement in the end process by a factor of three, which is a significant energy savings in the operation. Also, the injection of carbon dioxide into the SCWO reactor feed is expected to reduce corrosion and makes salt particles non-sticky. However, these advantages need to be confirmed by experiment.

  8. Energy efficient building design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  9. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  10. Data-based robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes: energy efficiency case study in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Puya; Brown, Martin; Maciejowski, Jan; Wang, Hong

    2011-12-01

    Reducing energy consumption is a major challenge for "energy-intensive" industries such as papermaking. A commercially viable energy saving solution is to employ data-based optimization techniques to obtain a set of "optimized" operational settings that satisfy certain performance indices. The difficulties of this are: 1) the problems of this type are inherently multicriteria in the sense that improving one performance index might result in compromising the other important measures; 2) practical systems often exhibit unknown complex dynamics and several interconnections which make the modeling task difficult; and 3) as the models are acquired from the existing historical data, they are valid only locally and extrapolations incorporate risk of increasing process variability. To overcome these difficulties, this paper presents a new decision support system for robust multiobjective optimization of interconnected processes. The plant is first divided into serially connected units to model the process, product quality, energy consumption, and corresponding uncertainty measures. Then multiobjective gradient descent algorithm is used to solve the problem in line with user's preference information. Finally, the optimization results are visualized for analysis and decision making. In practice, if further iterations of the optimization algorithm are considered, validity of the local models must be checked prior to proceeding to further iterations. The method is implemented by a MATLAB-based interactive tool DataExplorer supporting a range of data analysis, modeling, and multiobjective optimization techniques. The proposed approach was tested in two U.K.-based commercial paper mills where the aim was reducing steam consumption and increasing productivity while maintaining the product quality by optimization of vacuum pressures in forming and press sections. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzisera, Steven; Brown, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  12. Development of a strategy for energy efficiency improvement in a Kraft process based on systems interactions analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos-Espejel, Enrique

    The objective of this thesis is to develop, validate, and apply a unified methodology for the energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process that addresses globally the interactions of the various process systems that affect its energy performance. An implementation strategy is the final result. An operating Kraft pulping mill situated in Eastern Canada with a production of 700 adt/d of high-grade bleached pulp was the case study. The Pulp and Paper industry is Canada's premier industry. It is characterized by large thermal energy and water consumption. Rising energy costs and more stringent environmental regulations have led the industry to refocus its efforts toward identifying ways to improve energy and water conservation. Energy and water aspects are usually analyzed independently, but in reality they are strongly interconnected. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated methodology, which considers energy and water aspects, as well as the optimal utilization and production of the utilities. The methodology consists of four successive stages. The first stage is the base case definition. The development of a focused, reliable and representative model of an operating process is a prerequisite to the optimization and fine tuning of its energy performance. A four-pronged procedure has been developed: data gathering, master diagram, utilities systems analysis, and simulation. The computer simulation has been focused on the energy and water systems. The second stage corresponds to the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking of the base case has the objectives of identifying the process inefficiencies and to establish guidelines for the development of effective enhancement measures. The studied process is evaluated by a comparison of its efficiency to the current practice of the industry and by the application of new energy and exergy content indicators. The minimum energy and water requirements of the process are also determined in this step. The third stage is

  13. Developing energy efficient lignin biomass processing - towards understanding mediator behaviour in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Eshtaya, Majd; Ejigu, Andinet; Stephens, Gill; Walsh, Darren A; Chen, George Z; Croft, Anna K

    2016-08-15

    Environmental concerns have brought attention to the requirement for more efficient and renewable processes for chemicals production. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer, and might serve as a sustainable resource for manufacturing fuels and aromatic derivatives for the chemicals industry after being depolymerised. In this work, the mediator 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), commonly used with enzyme degradation systems, has been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) for enhancing the oxidation of the non-phenolic lignin model compound veratryl alcohol and three types of lignin (organosolv, Kraft and lignosulfonate) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, ([C2mim][C2SO4]). The presence of either veratryl alcohol or organosolv lignin increased the second oxidation peak of ABTS under select conditions, indicating the ABTS-mediated oxidation of these molecules at high potentials in [C2mim][C2SO4]. Furthermore, CV was applied as a quick and efficient way to explore the impact of water in the ABTS-mediated oxidation of both organosolv and lignosulfonate lignin. Higher catalytic efficiencies of ABTS were observed for lignosulfonate solutions either in sodium acetate buffer or when [C2mim][C2SO4] (15 v/v%) was present in the buffer solution, whilst there was no change found in the catalytic efficiency of ABTS in [C2mim][C2SO4]-lignosulfonate mixtures relative to ABTS alone. In contrast, organosolv showed an initial increase in oxidation, followed by a significant decrease on increasing the water content of a [C2mim][C2SO4] solution.

  14. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  15. An extraction/separation process with extreme energy efficiency: Technical report, 1984/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The phases involved in the extraction process were experimentally determined for an ionic surfactant combination. The results showed transient appearance of thick layers of liquid crystals also for compositions, which did not contain such a structure in their final state. These observations revealed a potential for a new tertiary oil recovery process; the ramifications in that area are being explored. The fundamental calculations of the thermodynamics of the microemulsion formulation have been successful during this year and the model for microemulsion droplets which includes both bending and stretching components of the surface free energy has given results in excellent agreement with experimental finding. The efforts under this contract were an essential part of the basis for the ACS Award in Colloid and Surface Chemistry, the Kendall Award, being given to Stig Friberg for 1985. 2 refs.

  16. Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-11-15

    Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

  17. An energy-efficient process for decomposing perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctane sulfonic acids using dc plasmas generated within gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, K.; Sasaki, K.; Hayashi, R.

    2011-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are environmentally harmful and persistent substances. Their decomposition was investigated using dc plasmas generated within small gas bubbles in a solution. The plasma characteristics including discharge voltage, voltage drop in the liquid, plasma shape and the emission spectrum were examined with different gases. The decomposition rate and energy efficiency were evaluated by measuring the concentration of fluoride and sulfate ions released from PFOA/PFOS molecules. The concentration of fluoride ions and energy efficiency in the treatment of a PFOS solution were 17.7 mg l-1 (54.8% of the initial amount of fluorine atoms) and 26 mg kWh-1, respectively, after 240 min of operation. The addition of scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons showed little effect on the decomposition. The decomposition processes were analyzed with an assumption that positive species reacted with PFOA/PFOS molecules at the boundary of the plasma-solution surface. This type of plasma showed a much higher decomposition energy efficiency compared with energy efficiencies reported in other studies.

  18. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case

  19. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  20. Energy-efficient Images.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, Hadi

    2017-04-03

    In this paper, a novel method is presented for producing energy-efficient images, i.e., images that consume less electrical energy on energy-adaptive displays, yet have the same, or very similar perceptual quality to their original images. The proposed method relies on the fact the the energy consumption of pixels in modern energy-adaptive displays like OLED displays is directly proportional to the luminance of the pixels. Hence, in this paper to reduce the energy consumption of an image while at the same time preserving its perceptual quality, it is proposed to reduce the luminance of the pixels in the image by one just-noticeable-difference (JND) threshold. To determine the JND thresholds, an adaptive saliency-modulated JND (SJND) model is developed. In the proposed model, the JND thresholds of each block in the given image are elevated by two non-linear saliency modulation functions using the visual saliency of the block. The parameters of the saliency modulation functions are estimated through an adaptive optimization framework, which utilizes a state-of-the-art saliency-based objective image quality assessment (IQA) method. To evaluate the proposed methods, a set of subjective experiments were conducted, and the real energy consumption of the produced energy-efficient images were measured by an accurate power monitor equipment on an OLED display. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that, on average, the proposed method is able to reduce the energy consumption by about 14.1% while preserving the perceptual quality of the displayed images.

  1. Energy efficiency buildings program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    Progress is reported in developing techniques for auditing the energy performance of buildings. The ventilation of buildings and indoor air quality is discussed from the viewpoint of (1) combustion generated pollutants; (2) organic contaminants; (3) radon emanation, measurements, and control; (4) strategies for the field monitoring of indoor air quality; and (5) mechanical ventilation systems using air-to-air heat exchanges. The development of energy efficient windows to provide optimum daylight with minimal thermal losses in cold weather and minimum thermal gain in hot weather is considered as well as the production of high frequency solid state ballasts for fluorescent lights to provide more efficient lighting at a 25% savings over conventional core ballasts. Data compilation, analysis, and demonstration activities are summarized.

  2. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  3. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  4. Efficient energy use in manufacturing.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M

    1992-01-01

    The potential for improved industrial efficiency is great and a substantial part of that potential is being realized in the course of events. With new technology and increasing affluence, the composition of production is changing such that energy and materials consumption is growing more slowly than the economy. Through new technologies and appropriate public policies, the energy intensities of all production processes should also continue to decline. Potential difficulties facing this relatively rosy scenario are also discussed. PMID:11607261

  5. New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-06-05

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

  6. GPUmotif: An Ultra-Fast and Energy-Efficient Motif Analysis Program Using Graphics Processing Units

    PubMed Central

    Zandevakili, Pooya; Hu, Ming; Qin, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    Computational detection of TF binding patterns has become an indispensable tool in functional genomics research. With the rapid advance of new sequencing technologies, large amounts of protein-DNA interaction data have been produced. Analyzing this data can provide substantial insight into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. However, the massive amount of sequence data presents daunting challenges. In our previous work, we have developed a novel algorithm called Hybrid Motif Sampler (HMS) that enables more scalable and accurate motif analysis. Despite much improvement, HMS is still time-consuming due to the requirement to calculate matching probabilities position-by-position. Using the NVIDIA CUDA toolkit, we developed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated motif analysis program named GPUmotif. We proposed a “fragmentation" technique to hide data transfer time between memories. Performance comparison studies showed that commonly-used model-based motif scan and de novo motif finding procedures such as HMS can be dramatically accelerated when running GPUmotif on NVIDIA graphics cards. As a result, energy consumption can also be greatly reduced when running motif analysis using GPUmotif. The GPUmotif program is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gpumotif/ PMID:22662128

  7. Efficient and accurate evaluation of potential energy matrix elements for quantum dynamics using Gaussian process regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alborzpour, Jonathan P.; Tew, David P.; Habershon, Scott

    2016-11-01

    Solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using a linear combination of basis functions, such as Gaussian wavepackets (GWPs), requires costly evaluation of integrals over the entire potential energy surface (PES) of the system. The standard approach, motivated by computational tractability for direct dynamics, is to approximate the PES with a second order Taylor expansion, for example centred at each GWP. In this article, we propose an alternative method for approximating PES matrix elements based on PES interpolation using Gaussian process regression (GPR). Our GPR scheme requires only single-point evaluations of the PES at a limited number of configurations in each time-step; the necessity of performing often-expensive evaluations of the Hessian matrix is completely avoided. In applications to 2-, 5-, and 10-dimensional benchmark models describing a tunnelling coordinate coupled non-linearly to a set of harmonic oscillators, we find that our GPR method results in PES matrix elements for which the average error is, in the best case, two orders-of-magnitude smaller and, in the worst case, directly comparable to that determined by any other Taylor expansion method, without requiring additional PES evaluations or Hessian matrices. Given the computational simplicity of GPR, as well as the opportunities for further refinement of the procedure highlighted herein, we argue that our GPR methodology should replace methods for evaluating PES matrix elements using Taylor expansions in quantum dynamics simulations.

  8. GPUmotif: an ultra-fast and energy-efficient motif analysis program using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Zandevakili, Pooya; Hu, Ming; Qin, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    Computational detection of TF binding patterns has become an indispensable tool in functional genomics research. With the rapid advance of new sequencing technologies, large amounts of protein-DNA interaction data have been produced. Analyzing this data can provide substantial insight into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. However, the massive amount of sequence data presents daunting challenges. In our previous work, we have developed a novel algorithm called Hybrid Motif Sampler (HMS) that enables more scalable and accurate motif analysis. Despite much improvement, HMS is still time-consuming due to the requirement to calculate matching probabilities position-by-position. Using the NVIDIA CUDA toolkit, we developed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated motif analysis program named GPUmotif. We proposed a "fragmentation" technique to hide data transfer time between memories. Performance comparison studies showed that commonly-used model-based motif scan and de novo motif finding procedures such as HMS can be dramatically accelerated when running GPUmotif on NVIDIA graphics cards. As a result, energy consumption can also be greatly reduced when running motif analysis using GPUmotif. The GPUmotif program is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gpumotif/

  9. Kinetics and energy efficiency for the degradation of 1,4-dioxane by electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijiao; Bakheet, Belal; Yuan, Shi; Li, Xiang; Yu, Gang; Murayama, Seiichi; Wang, Yujue

    2015-08-30

    Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by ozonation, electrolysis, and their combined electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was investigated. The E-peroxone process used a carbon-polytetrafluorethylene cathode to electrocatalytically convert O2 in the sparged ozone generator effluent (O2 and O3 gas mixture) to H2O2. The electro-generated H2O2 then react with sparged O3 to yield aqueous OH, which can in turn oxidize pollutants rapidly in the bulk solution. Using p-chlorobenzoic acid as OH probe, the pseudo-steady concentration of OH was determined to be ∼0.744×10(-9)mM in the E-peroxone process, which is approximately 10 and 186 times of that in ozonation and electrolysis using a Pt anode. Thanks to its higher OH concentration, the E-peroxone process eliminated 96.6% total organic carbon (TOC) from a 1,4-dioxane solution after 2h treatment with a specific energy consumption (SEC) of 0.376kWhg(-1) TOCremoved. In comparison, ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode removed only ∼6.1% and 26.9% TOC with SEC of 2.43 and 0.558kWhg(-1) TOCremoved, respectively. The results indicate that the E-peroxone process can significantly improve the kinetics and energy efficiency for 1,4-dioxane mineralization as compared to the two individual processes. The E-peroxone process may thus offer a highly effective and energy-efficient alternative to treat 1,4-dioxane wastewater.

  10. High-Efficiency Perovskite Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Devices by Effective Washing Process and Interfacial Energy Level Alignment.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takayuki; Hoshi, Keigo; Pu, Yong-Jin; Takeda, Yuya; Hayashi, Yukihiro; Ohisa, Satoru; Kawata, So; Kido, Junji

    2017-05-31

    All inorganic perovskites quantum dots (PeQDs) have attracted much attention for used in thin film display applications and solid-state lighting applications, owing to their narrow band emission with high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs), color tunability, and solution processability. Here, we fabricated low-driving-voltage and high-efficiency CsPbBr3 PeQDs light-emitting devices (PeQD-LEDs) using a PeQDs washing process with an ester solvent containing butyl acetate (AcOBu) to remove excess ligands from the PeQDs. The CsPbBr3 PeQDs film washed with AcOBu exhibited a PLQY of 42%, and a narrow PL emission with a full width at half-maximum of 19 nm. We also demonstrated energy level alignment of the PeQD-LED in order to achieve effective hole injection into PeQDs from the adjacent hole injection layer. The PeQD-LED with AcOBu-washed PeQDs exhibited a maximum power efficiency of 31.7 lm W(-1) and EQE of 8.73%. Control of the interfacial PeQDs through ligand removal and energy level alignment in the device structure are promising methods for obtaining high PLQYs in film state and high device efficiency.

  11. Energy efficient engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Sabla, P. E.; Bahr, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of meeting or closely approaching the emissions goals established for the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Project with an advanced design, single annular combustor was determined. A total of nine sector combustor configurations and one full-annular-combustor configuration were evaluated. Acceptable levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were obtained with several of the sector combustor configurations tested, and several of the configurations tested demonstrated reduced levels of nitrogen oxides compared to conventional, single annular designs. None of the configurations tested demonstrated nitrogen oxide emission levels that meet the goal of the E3 Project.

  12. Efficient Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer processes in high phonon energy phosphate glasses for 1.0 μm Yb3+ laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-López, F.; Babu, P.; Basavapoornima, Ch.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.

    2011-06-01

    Efficient Nd3+→Yb3+ resonant and phonon-assisted energy transfer processes have been observed in phosphate glasses and have been studied using steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopies. Results indicate that the energy transfer occurs via nonradiative electric dipole-dipole processes and is enhanced with the concentration of Yb3+ acceptor ions, having an efficiency higher than 75% for the glass doped with 1 mol% of Nd2O3 and 4 mol% of Yb2O3. The luminescence decay curves show a nonexponential character and the energy transfer microscopic parameter calculated with the Inokuti-Hirayama model gives a value of 240 × 10-40 cm6 s-1, being one of the highest reported in the literature for Nd3+-Yb3+ co-doped matrices. From the steady-state experimental absorption and emission cross-sections, a general expression for estimating the microscopic energy transfer parameter is proposed based upon the theoretical methods developed by Miyakawa and Dexter and Tarelho et al. This expression takes into account all the resonant mechanisms involved in an energy transfer processes together with other phonon-assisted nonvanishing overlaps. The value of the Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer microscopic parameter has been calculated to be 200 × 10-40 cm6 s-1, which is in good agreement with that obtained from the Inokuti-Hirayama fitting. These results show the importance of the nonresonant phonon-assisted Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer processes and the great potential of these glasses as active matrices in the development of multiple-pump-channel Yb3+ lasers.

  13. Membrane processes for alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics and environmental impact of producing fuels and chemicals biologically can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol an...

  14. Membrane processes for alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics and environmental impact of producing fuels and chemicals biologically can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol an...

  15. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  16. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  17. Application of membrane processes to alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation • Membrane-based separation process • Not filtration Separation based on solution-diffusion transport through non-porous or “molecularly-porous” membrane Permeate is a vapor • Permeate contains only volatile compounds • Able to separate mixtures of mis...

  18. Application of membrane processes to alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation • Membrane-based separation process • Not filtration Separation based on solution-diffusion transport through non-porous or “molecularly-porous” membrane Permeate is a vapor • Permeate contains only volatile compounds • Able to separate mixtures of mis...

  19. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  20. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  1. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This seminal report includes the Action Plan recommendations, identifies key barriers, and summarizes methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking and revenue requirements, energy resource planning processes, rate design, and other best practices.

  2. C2R2. Compact Compound Recirculator/Recuperator for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficient Thermochemical Processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Ermanoski, Ivan; Orozco, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    In this report we present the development of a packed particle bed recirculator and heat exchanger. The device is intended to create countercurrent flows of packed particle beds and exchange heat between the flows. The project focused on the design, fabrication, demonstration, and modifications of a simple prototype, in order to attain high levels of heat exchange between particle flows while maintaining an effective particle conveying rate in a scalable package. Despite heat losses in a package not optimized for heat retention, 50% heat recovery was achieved, at a particle conveying efficiency of 40%.

  3. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.; Xiong, X.

    1988-07-15

    This report contains a detailed summary of all work performed to date. Task 10 involves a comprehensive review of drying theory. Proposed mass transfer mechanisms include liquid and vapor diffusion, capillary flow, surface diffusion, hydrodynamic flow, and evaporation/condensation processes. Pasta was chosen as a model system in this project since it is macroscopically homogenous and can be made under controlled conditions. Task 11 involves experimental drying studies. A high pressure drying apparatus is available for studies related to the revision of the fundamental drying model. The dryer will require two major modifications for the planned tests: installation of a pressure control valve and recirculation of exhaust gas. A tray dryer was used to measure the shrinkage coefficient of nonfat milk, and will be used for further tests on nonfat milk, as well as whey and tomato puree. A method of economic analysis regarding use of mechanical vapor recompression is presented. Task 12 involves food quality studies. A model of nonenzymatic browning (NEB) was developed based on NEB in skim milk samples containing 3.5--50% moisture, exposed to temperatures of 35--130{degrees}C. The browning rate was zero order after a lag period, and the temperature dependence fit an Arrhenius relation. The critical moisture occurs between 4% and 11% moisture. Task 13 addresses recommendations and strategies for dryer design and control. Moisture sensors were reviewed with specific reference to their on-line applicability. The IR sensor was found to be the most promising. Task 14 examined moisture mobility and interaction in foods. The BET adsorption method using nitrogen gas was applied to pasta, skim milk and egg albumin systems. The data obtained do not show good reproducibility, possibly due to an inadequate sample size. The possibility of using water vapor adsorption will be studied in future experiments. 210 refs., 30 figs., 22 tabs. (MHB)

  4. Magnetic Processing – A Pervasive Energy Efficient Technology for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Specialty Steel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G.M.; Ray, P.; Magee, J.

    2010-09-10

    Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing is an exceptionally fertile, pervasive and cross-cutting technology that is just now being recognized by several major industry leaders for its significant potential to increase energy efficiency and materials performance for a myriad of energy intensive industries in a variety of areas and applications. ORNL has pioneered the use and development of large magnetic fields in thermomagnetically processing (T-MP) materials for altering materials phase equilibria and transformation kinetics. ORNL has discovered that using magnetic fields, we can produce unique materials responses. T-MP can produce unique phase stabilities & microstructures with improved materials performance for structural and functional applications not achieved with traditional processing techniques. These results suggest that there are unprecedented opportunities to produce significantly enhanced materials properties via atomistic level (nano-) microstructural control and manipulation. ORNL (in addition to others) have shown that grain boundary chemistry and precipitation kinetics are also affected by large magnetic fields. This CRADA has taken advantage of ORNL’s unique, custom-designed thermo-magnetic, 9 Tesla superconducting magnet facility that enables rapid heating and cooling of metallic components within the magnet bore; as well as ORNL’s expertise in high magnetic field (HMF) research. Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is a a US-based industrial company, that provides enhanced performance alloys for the Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. In this CRADA, Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is focusing on applying ORNL’s Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing (TMP) technology to improve their current and future proprietary materials’ product performance and open up new markets for their Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. Unprecedented mechanical property performance improvements have been demonstrated for a high strength bainitic alloy industrial

  5. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette R; Raby, Eric Y; Brennan, Sean M; Kulathumani, Vinod; Rosten, Ed; Wolinski, Christophe; Wagner, Charles; Charot, Francois

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  6. Forget energy conservation - think energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}CONSERVE ENERGY: Please Turn Off The Lights!{close_quotes} Many buildings constructed before 1975 have the peeling remains of those green or orange stickers on light switches. They are the remnants of a U.S. energy policy gone bad. Twenty years ago, energy conservation meant telling employees to wear sweaters to work and applying stickers to remind people to turn off the lights. Neither worked. People who see those old stickers probably don`t know that a quiet revolution has taken place inside thousands of public and commercial buildings. Thanks to new technology and a new attitude about energy, you can forget sweaters and switches. For example... (1) Motion sensors automatically turn off fights when you leave the room. (2) Computers determine when energy rates go down to get the best value. (3) Personal environmental modules let office workers set their cubicle`s heating and lighting levels. These days, energy efficiency is equated with good business. It can increase productivity, create jobs, and reduce pollution -- all with very little effort. That`s why it`s called energy efficiency, not energy conservation. And energy efficiency is good government. If Congress truly is committed to lowering taxes and reducing the budget deficit, members should first look at ways to lower the nation`s energy bill through energy efficiency. It is in the best interests of the energy efficiency industry to work together and promote these benefits.

  7. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  8. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  9. Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-11

    Senate - 06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-11

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-11

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Efficient Charge Transfer and Fine-Tuned Energy Level Alignment in a THF-Processed Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cell with 11.3% Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Awartani, Omar M; Gautam, Bhoj; Liu, Delong; Qin, Yunpeng; Li, Wanning; Bataller, Alexander; Gundogdu, Kenan; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2017-02-01

    Fullerene-free organic solar cells show over 11% power conversion efficiency, processed by low toxic solvents. The applied donor and acceptor in the bulk heterojunction exhibit almost the same highest occupied molecular orbital level, yet exhibit very efficient charge creation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  14. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components—up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  15. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  16. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  17. Energy-efficient incandescent lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    The status of the Energy Efficient Light Bulb (EELB) development at the beginning of the subcontract was characterized by a newly introduced lamp construction based on an optimum optical quality envelope consisting of two hemispheres or hemi-ellipsoids bonded together. Considerable progress was made concerning the output of the continuous process heat mirror coating machine, the reproducibility of the film characteristics, and the durability of the coating over long periods of lamp operation. The bonding assembly processes were improved to the point where they are suitable for full mechanization and high speed production. A new concept for dimensioning the required compact and mechanically stable filaments was introduced by using diodes in series that reduce the effective operating voltage to 83 volts. This led to filament designs of greater stability and greater compactness than any obtained before.

  18. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  19. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  20. Guide to Resource Planning with Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a “how-to” guide that describes the key issues, best practices, and main process steps for integrating energy efficiency into resource planning on an equal basis with other resources.

  1. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L. ); Purcell, C.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  2. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Purcell, C.W.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  3. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  4. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  5. Case histories of recently implemented technologies for citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    For each of six citrus industry sites where energy efficiency improvement technologies have been implemented, a case history is presented which describes the implemented technology, its investment cost, and the energy and cost savings. The technologies are: double pressing in feed mill operation; evaporator microprocessor controller; feed mill vent stack controller; addition of a waste heat evaporator to a feed mill; enhanced lime reaction for improved pressing and dewatering in a feed mill, and added effect to a temperature-accelerated short-time evaporator. (LEW)

  6. Energy efficient house research project

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.A.; Nelson, G.D.; Hutchinson, M.

    1986-09-01

    The basis for this project was a set of energy efficient houses built in 1980 by the Energy Efficient Housing Demonstration Program of the Minnesota Housing Finance Agency. Under this programs, 144 detached and attached housing units were constructed throughout the State of Minnesota by 23 different builders. The research project utilized a simple data collection method involving homeowners in the field and utility data reports to establish a performance data base for the houses in the study. Data have been provided for addition to the BECA-A (new residential) data base on file at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, establishing a comprehensive data base for further analyses. The 112 houses for which there were good quality energy data performed very well, but analysis of these data showed few significant correlations between energy performance and design features. Detailed field investigation of 25 houses revealed many commonly practiced housing design and construction methods that degrade the energy performance of solar and other features of potentially energy efficient houses. Indoor air quality was investigated in 12 energy efficient houses and in an equal number of control houses. Air quality in the energy efficient houses was found to be as good as in houses of conventional construction. Radon mitigation using subfloor ventilation was investigated and found to be successful in reducing the concentration of this indoor air contaminate. Attempts to seal out radon in two control houses were not successful.

  7. Toward energy efficient neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chung-Ching; Xiao, Zhiming; Bashirullah, Rizwan

    2009-11-01

    This letter presents progress toward an energy efficient neural data acquisition transponder for brain-computer interfaces. The transponder utilizes a four-channel time-multiplexed analog front-end and an energy efficient short-range backscattering RF link to transmit digitized wireless data. In addition, a low-complexity autonomous and adaptive digital neural signal processor is proposed to minimize wireless bandwidth and overall power dissipation.

  8. Resale housing and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Campbell, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Residential Conservation Service Program (RCS), a new tool, the energy audit, has been identified as a potential benefit to the appraiser, underwriter, and resale home buyer. This paper examines the possible use of the RCS audit in the valuation process and transfer of real estate from seller to buyer. The use of the RCS audit upon resale should provide the appraiser with detailed weatherization information, leading to a more comprehensive appraisal. This paper explores complex problematical issues of logistics with the goal of managing backlogs, avoiding escrow delays, and providing for efficient zone planning. The issue of legal liability seems to loom as the largest barrier to this proposal. The potential legal liability of lenders and utilities is discussed. It is also important to consider the ramifications of the audit on substandard, low-income, minority, and senior citizen housing. A final problem area examined concerns attitude and acceptance.

  9. Worker productivity rises with energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, J.J. )

    1995-01-01

    Many American companies have found that saving energy and cutting pollution dramatically improves the bottom line. But beyond these gains, businesses that launch energy efficiency programs to save money are often astonished to discover unforeseen benefits: energy efficient lighting, heating, cooling, motors, and industrial processes can increase worker productivity, decrease absenteeism, and improve the quality of work performed. Profits created by the jump in worker productivity can exceed energy savings by a factor of ten. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention represent the next wave in manufacturing, following the quality revolution launched by the Japanese in the 1960s. Unless America leads the lean and clean revolution, economic health will be undermined as other countries develop clean processes and products and US companies suffer competitively. Also, developing countries will leapfrog their wasteful model and buy products and manufacturing processes from foreign firms already practicing lean and clean.

  10. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  11. Bright, Light and Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new Sharon Elementary School in Newburgh (Indiana) has a three-fuel plan that will allow selection of the most economical energy source for each heating season with an energy-efficient lighting system that includes skylights. (Author/MLF)

  12. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  13. New Orleans and Energy Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenburg, Zachary

    2016-07-12

    The Saint Bernard Project works tirelessly with volunteers, veterans and homeowners to continue the rebuilding. With the help of the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development they will be able to apply a greater energy efficiency strategy to help New Orleans and the country reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

  14. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  15. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes. PMID:26153768

  16. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-07-06

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes.

  17. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  18. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of

  19. Importance of energy efficiency in the design of the Process and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the design of the Process and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL) in FY97, an energy conservation report (ECR) was completed. The original energy baseline for the building, established in Title 1 design, was 595,000 BTU/sq. ft./yr, site energy use. Following the input of several reviewers and the incorporation of the various recommendations into the Title 2 design, the projected energy consumption was reduced to 341,000 BTU/sq. ft./yr. Of this reduction, it is estimated that about 150,000 BTU/sq. ft./yr resulted from inclusion of more energy efficient options into the design. The remaining reductions resulted from better accounting of energy consumption between Title 1 ECR and the final ECR. The energy efficient features selected by the outcome of the ECR were: (1) Energy Recovery system, with evaporative cooling assist, for the Exhaust/Make-up Air System; (2) Chilled Water Thermal Storage system; (3) Premium efficiency motors for large, year-round applications; (4) Variable frequency drives for all air handling fan motors; (4) Premium efficiency multiple boiler system; and (5) Lighting control system. The annual energy cost savings due to these measures will be about $165,000. The estimated annual energy savings are two million kWhrs electric, and 168,000 therms natural gas, the total of which is equivalent to 23,000 million BTUs per year. Put into the perspective of a typical office/light lab at SNL/NM, the annual energy savings is equal the consumption of a 125,000 square foot building. The reduced air emissions are approximately 2,500 tons annually.

  20. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase.

  1. Utilising biohydrogen to increase methane production, energy yields and process efficiency via two stage anaerobic digestion of grass.

    PubMed

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Shipley, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Real time measurement of gas production and composition were used to examine the benefits of two stage anaerobic digestion (AD) over a single stage AD, using pelletized grass as a feedstock. Controlled, parallel digestion experiments were performed in order to directly compare a two stage digestion system producing hydrogen and methane, with a single stage system producing just methane. The results indicated that as well as producing additional energy in the form of hydrogen, two stage digestion also resulted in significant increases to methane production, overall energy yields, and digester stability (as indicated by bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile fatty acid removal). Two stage AD resulted in an increase in energy yields from 10.36 MJ kg(-1) VS to 11.74 MJ kg(-1) VS, an increase of 13.4%. Using a two stage system also permitted a much shorter hydraulic retention time of 12 days whilst maintaining process stability.

  2. Energy efficient membrane processes for the separation of organic liquids: Part 2: Final report, September 28, 1982--December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cabasso, I.; Acharya, H.R.; Korngold, E.; Liu, Z.; Stern, S.A.; Li, W.; Makenzie, T.; Poda, E.

    1987-10-01

    The present report demonstrates the use of membrane technology for dehydration processes concentrating on two examples: azeotropic separation of isopropanol-water, and separation of ethanol-water mixtures (starting at 84.5 wt. % ethanol where separation by distillation begins to be progressively more energy intensive). The principles of the membrane separation processes employed in such separations were discussed in Part I of the report. The advantage of the membrane processes is that they do not require the addition of a third component and separation is a continuous process. Pervaporation, perstraction, and air-sweep pervaporation were thoroughly studied for these separations. An urgent need for the identification of the appropriate membrane was realized. This study has revealed that ion-exchange membranes are suited for these separations. Results are discussed. 9 refs., 68 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Energy efficient membrane processes for the separation of organic liquids: Part 1: Final report, September 28, 1982--December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cabasso, I.; Acharya, H.R.; Korngold, E.; Liu, Z.; Stern, S.A.; Li, W.; Makenzie, T.; Poda, E.

    1987-10-01

    The potential usefulness of two membrane processes, namely, pervaporation and perstraction, for separating azeotropic mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was studied theoretically and experimentally. A third membrane process, osmotic phase-separation, was investigated experimentally. The separation of an azeotropic mixture of benzene and cyclohexane was used as an example. Part II of this report will discuss membrane processes for the separation of alcohol/water mixtures. Mathematical models of pervaporation and perstraction were developed for computer simulations of the processes. The perstraction model presented herein is the first of its kind. Additionally, the energy requirements and capital investments costs for the separation of an azeotropic benzene/cyclohexane mixture were determined and compared with those for extractive distillation. 31 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Process for Magnesium Oxide Reduction: Experiment and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports a solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis experiment using an LSM(La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ)-Inconel inert anode current collector for production of magnesium and oxygen directly from magnesium oxide at 1423 K (1150 °C). The electrochemical performance of the SOM cell was evaluated by means of various electrochemical techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic scan, and electrolysis. Electronic transference numbers of the flux were measured to assess the magnesium dissolution in the flux during SOM electrolysis. The effects of magnesium solubility in the flux on the current efficiency and the SOM stability during electrolysis are discussed. An inverse correlation between the electronic transference number of the flux and the current efficiency of the SOM electrolysis was observed. Based on the experimental results, a new equivalent circuit of the SOM electrolysis process is presented. A general electrochemical polarization model of SOM process for magnesium and oxygen gas production is developed, and the maximum allowable applied potential to avoid zirconia dissociation is calculated as well. The modeling results suggest that a high electronic resistance of the flux and a relatively low electronic resistance of SOM are required to achieve membrane stability, high current efficiency, and high production rates of magnesium and oxygen.

  5. Energy Efficient Drivepower: An Overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This report examines energy efficiency in drivepower systems. Only systems where the prime movers are electrical motors are discussed. A systems approach is used to examine all major aspects of drivepower, including motors, controls, electrical tune-ups, mechanical efficiency, maintenance, and management. Potential annual savings to the US society of $25 to $50 billion are indicated. The report was written for readers with a semi-technical background.

  6. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  7. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  8. Energy efficient drivepower: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    Energy efficiency is a major concern to industry for a variety of reasons. Operating expenses and public relations are just two of these. While a lot of effort has been expended in the area of electrical energy efficiency, the area of concern in the report, most papers use a limited approach when examining the opportunities for efficiency improvement. However, use of a systems approach--examining the entire power train system from when electrical power first enters a facility to the final output is presented. This type of approach to electrical energy efficiency can improve the overall efficiency by a significant amount. There are many methods of driving mechanical loads such as waste steam (steam turbine), centralized hydraulic systems, and compressed air. Only electric-drive systems were analyzed. Depending on the application and facilities, these other methods may be a viable alternative to electric drivepower systems. The document assumes that the reader has an understanding of the basic concepts, practices, and terminology used in electrical and mechanical engineering. The reader should be familiar with terms such as voltage, current, dc power, ac power, power factor, horse power, torque, angular velocity, kilowatt-hours, efficiency, harmonics, and gear ratio.

  9. Tuning Phase Composition of Polymer Nanocomposites toward High Energy Density and High Discharge Efficiency by Nonequilibrium Processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianyong; Zhang, Xin; Dan, Zhenkang; Ma, Jing; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Ming; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2017-09-06

    Polymer nanocomposite dielectrics with high energy density and low loss are major enablers for a number of applications in modern electronic and electrical industry. Conventional fabrication of nanocomposites by solution routes involves equilibrium process, which is slow and results in structural imperfections, hence high leakage current and compromised reliability of the nanocomposites. We propose and demonstrate that a nonequilibrium process, which synergistically integrates electrospinning, hot-pressing and thermal quenching, is capable of yielding nanocomposites of very high quality. In the nonequilibrium nanocomposites of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) and BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BTO_nps), an ultrahigh Weibull modulus β of ∼30 is achieved, which is comparable to the quality of the bench-mark biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) fabricated with melt-extrusion process by much more sophisticated and expensive industrial apparatus. Favorable phase composition and small crystalline size are also induced by the nonequilibrium process, which leads to concomitant enhancement of electric displacement and breakdown strength of the nanocomposite hence a high energy density of ∼21 J/cm(3). Study on the polarization behavior and phase transformation at high electric field indicates that BTO_nps could facilitate the phase transformation from α- to β-polymorph at low electric field.

  10. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  11. Tomorrow's energy today: Energy efficiency and renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, A.

    1992-04-01

    This broad overview of energy programs of the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy of the U.S. DOE emphasizes means of promoting energy efficiency for the next generation. Current research goals to reduce energy consumption in industry, buildings, and the transportation sector are presented. A doubling of economic growth without depleting fossil fuels by the year 2030 is conceivable.

  12. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a...: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  13. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to..., Office of Energy and Environmental Technologies Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration,...

  14. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing.

  15. Energy Efficiency: Transportation and Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, Michael S.; Richter, Burton

    2011-11-01

    We present a condensed version of the American Physical Society's 2008 analysis of energy efficiency in the transportation and buildings sectors in the United States with updated numbers. In addition to presenting technical findings, we include the report's recommendations for policy makers that we believe are in the best interests of the nation.

  16. Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

  17. Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

  18. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  19. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  20. Laser ablation of silver in aqueous ambient: effect of laser pulse wavelength and energy on efficiency of the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smejkal, P.; Pfleger, J.; Vlcková, B.; Dammer, O.

    2007-04-01

    Laser ablation (LA) of a Ag target in ultrapure water has been performed with nanosecond laser pulses of 355, 532 and 1064 nm in the range of fluences achievable for the particular wavelength. Efficiency of LA process was quantified in terms of the amount of ablated Ag as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) as well as of the area of the surface plasmon extinction (SPE) band of the resulting Ag nanoparticle hydrosol, and a fairly good agreement between the results produced by the two methods was obtained. Sigmoidally shaped plots of the LA efficiency as a function of laser fluence were obtained for LA with all wavelengths of laser pulses examined. Nevertheless, the maximum amount of Ag transferred from the target into the aqueous medium (yielding Ag nanoparticle hydrosol) is substantially (at least 6.5 x) larger for LA performed with 1064 nm pulses than that with 532 nm and 355 nm pulses. On the other hand, polydispersity of the hydrosol ablated with 1064 nm pulses is higher than that of the sols obtained with 532 and 355 nm pulses, most probably due to a limited extent of Ag nanoparticle fragmentation.

  1. Get Started: Energy Efficiency Makes More Sense Than Ever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alban, Josh; Drabick, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of making school building more energy efficient. Provides examples of physical retrofits and behavioral changes to save energy costs. Describes four-step process to create an energy efficiency plan. Includes resources and information such as U.S. Department of Energy's Energy STAR program (www.energystar.gov). (PKP)

  2. Get Started: Energy Efficiency Makes More Sense Than Ever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alban, Josh; Drabick, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of making school building more energy efficient. Provides examples of physical retrofits and behavioral changes to save energy costs. Describes four-step process to create an energy efficiency plan. Includes resources and information such as U.S. Department of Energy's Energy STAR program (www.energystar.gov). (PKP)

  3. No maintenance -- no energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Schliesing, J.S.; Winiarski, D.W.

    1994-12-01

    Field investigations illustrate that it is not realistic to expect new high-tech equipment to function for a full life expectancy at high efficiency without significant operations and maintenance (O&M). A simple walk through inspection of most buildings reveals extensive equipment that is being operated on manual override, is incorrectly adjusted and operating inefficiently, or is simply inoperative. This point is illustrated with two examples at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. The first describes development of a comprehensive, base-wide, steam trap maintenance program. The second describes a measured evaluation from a typical office building. The objective of both examples was to assess the importance of proper O&M. The proposed ``O&M First`` philosophy will result in more efficient building HVAC operation, provide improved services to the building occupants, and reduce energy consumption and unscheduled equipment repair/replacement. Implementation of a comprehensive O&M program will result in a 15--25% energy savings. The O&M foundation that is established will allow other energy conservation activities such is demand side management or energy management and control systems, to achieve and maintain their expected energy savings.

  4. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  5. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  6. Reliability and energy efficiency of zero energy homes (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being installed increasingly on residential homes to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix. The ultimate goal is to attain sustainability without subsidy. The prices of PV modules and systems have declined substantially during the recent years. They will be reduced further to reach grid parity. Additionally the total consumed energy must be reduced by making the homes more energy efficient. FSEC/UCF Researchers have carried out research on development of PV cells and systems and on reducing the energy consumption in homes and by small businesses. Additionally, they have provided guidance on PV module and system installation and to make the homes energy efficient. The produced energy is fed into the utility grid and the consumed energy is obtained from the utility grid, thus the grid is assisting in the storage. Currently the State of Florida permits net metering leading to equal charge for the produced and consumed electricity. This paper describes the installation of 5.29 KW crystalline silicon PV system on a south-facing tilt at approximately latitude tilt on a single-story, three-bedroom house. It also describes the computer program on Building Energy Efficiency and the processes that were employed for reducing the energy consumption of the house by improving the insulation, air circulation and windows, etc. Finally it describes actual consumption and production of electricity and the installation of additional crystalline silicon PV modules and balance of system to make it a zero energy home.

  7. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  8. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  9. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  10. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Berst, Kara; Howeth, Maria

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  11. Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel

    These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction…

  12. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Cheifetz, D. Magnus

    2014-07-15

    The SEED platform is expected to be a building energy performance data management tool that provides federal, state and local governments, building owners and operators with an easy, flexible and cost-effective method to collect information about groups of buildings, oversee compliance with energy disclosure laws and demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency. It will allow users to leverage a local application to manage data disclosure and large data sets without the IT investment of developing custom applications. The first users of SEED will be agencies that need to collect, store, and report/share large data sets generated by benchmarking, energy auditing, retro-commissioning or retrofitting of many buildings. Similarly, building owners and operators will use SEED to manage their own energy data in a common format and centralized location. SEED users will also control the disclosure of their information for compliance requirements, recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR, or data sharing with the Buildings Performance Database and/or other third parties at their discretion.

  13. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  14. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00...

  15. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries,...

  16. Versatile and efficient catalysts for energy and environmental processes: Mesoporous silica containing Au, Pd and Au-Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Anderson G. M.; Fajardo, Humberto V.; Balzer, Rosana; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Lovón, Adriana S. P.; Lovón-Quintana, Juan J.; Valença, Gustavo P.; Schreine, Wido H.; Robles-Dutenhefner, Patrícia A.

    2015-07-01

    We described a versatile approach for the synthesis of Au/MCM-41, Pd/MCM-41 and Au-Pd/MCM-41 by the direct incorporation of the noble metals into the MCM-41 framework. The structural, textural and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), N2-adsorption (BET and BJH methods), H2-chemisorption, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanomaterials, being comprised of Au, Pd and Au-Pd nanoparticles and possessing high surface areas were applied as versatile and efficient catalysts in benzene, toluene and o-xylene (BTX) oxidation and in the steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production. The results revealed that the catalytic behavior in both processes was influenced by the experimental conditions and the nature of the catalyst employed. The Au-Pd/MCM-41 catalyst was the most active in the BTX total oxidation. On the basis of characterization data, it was proposed that the close contact between Pd and Au and the higher dispersion of Pd may be responsible for the enhanced activity of the bimetallic catalyst. However, the strong interaction between the noble metals did not improve the performance of the bimetallic catalyst in ethanol steam reforming, the Pd/MCM-41 catalyst being the most active and selective for hydrogen production.

  17. High efficiency solar cell processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, F.; Iles, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, cells made by several groups are approaching 19% efficiency. General aspects of the processing required for such cells are discussed. Most processing used for high efficiency cells is derived from space-cell or concentrator cell technology, and recent advances have been obtained from improved techniques rather than from better understanding of the limiting mechanisms. Theory and modeling are fairly well developed, and adequate to guide further asymptotic increases in performance of near conventional cells. There are several competitive cell designs with promise of higher performance ( 20%) but for these designs further improvements are required. The available cell processing technology to fabricate high efficiency cells is examined.

  18. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if not more important in many cases) in influencing

  19. Impact of hydrodynamics on pollutant degradation and energy efficiency of VUV/UV and H2O2/UV oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mehdi; Mohseni, Madjid

    2015-12-01

    The Vacuum-UV/UV process, an incipient catalyst/chemical-free advanced oxidation process (AOP), is potentially a cost-effective solution for the removal of harmful micropollutants from water. Utilizing a novel mechanistic numerical model, this work aimed to establish a thorough understanding of the degradation mechanisms in the VUV/UV process operating under continuous flow conditions, when compared with the widely applied H2O2/UV AOP. Of particular interest was the examination of the impact of flow characteristics (hydrodynamics) on the degradation efficacy of a target micropollutant during the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs. While hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation was the dominant degradation pathway in both processes, the degradation efficacy of the VUV/UV process showed much stronger correlation with the extent of mixing in the photoreactor. Under a uniform flow regime, the degradation efficiency of the target pollutant achieved by the H2O2/UV process with 2- and 5 ppm H2O2 was greater than that provided by the VUV/UV process. Nonetheless, introduction of mixing and circulation zones to the VUV/UV reactor resulted in superior performance compared with the H2O2/UV AOP. Based on the electrical energy-per-order (EEO) analysis, incorporation of circulation zones resulted in a reduction of up to 50% in the overall energy cost of the VUV/UV AOP, while the corresponding reduction for the 5-ppm H2O2/UV system was less than 5%. Furthermore, the extent of OH scavenging of natural organic matter (NOM) on energy efficiency of the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs under continuous flow conditions was assessed using the EEO analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  1. The energy efficient engine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macioce, L. E.; Schaefer, J. W.; Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine Project is directed at providing, by 1984, the advanced technologies which could be used for a generation of fuel conservative turbofan engines. The project is conducted through contracts with the General Electric Company and Pratt and Whitney Aircraft. The scope of the entire project and the current status of these efforts are summarized. A description of the preliminary designs of the fully developed engines is included and the potential benefits of these advanced engines, as well as highlights of some of the component technology efforts conducted to date, are discussed.

  2. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    generation. • Utility bill limits and constraints exemplify the ability to conserve energy resources. • Replicable examples teach lessons on conservation. • Via an understanding of the water-energy nexus, water conservation lessons transfer to energy saving lessons. • Passive design exemplifies how a shift in thinking can conserve energy resources through informed efficient decision-making. • Societal shifts in energy consumption are evident at home. • Efficient homes provide applicable examples of social and technological innovations. • The home is the environment in which memorable lessons on energy are passed through cultures. • Home energy consumption comparisons are a popular and effective social innovation, but people have mixed emotions about their usefulness. • A utility bill communicates that utility companies are monitoring energy use to calculate cost. • Interactivity enhances feedback from energy monitors. • Calculating and monitoring energy use is perceived as a complex mathematical process. • Energy consumption feedback at the appliance level is desired to inform decisions. • There is a separation between personal energy monitoring and public monitoring. Implications of this research are that an energy literate society will have the knowledge that is a prerequisite for the motivation to address energy and climate issues. Educators, policy makers, engineers, and designers all play a role in creating a built environment that encourages energy saving behavior.

  3. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, Tiffany L.; Sorter, Andy

    2014-09-01

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  4. Process energy management

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In many facilities, energy management is simply a matter of managing the energy required for lighting and space conditioning. In many others, however, energy management is much more complex and involves large motors and controls, industrial insulation, complex combustion monitoring, unique steam distribution problems, significant amounts of waste heat, etc. Typical facilities offering large energy management opportunities include industrial facilities, large office and commercial operations, government institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons. Such facilities generally have specialized industrial, commercial or institutional processes that incorporate many of the concepts covered in other chapters. These processes require thorough analytical evaluations to determine the appropriate energy-saving measures. This chapter provides some examples. In this chapter the authors present a suggested procedure for process energy improvement. Then, motors and controls are discussed since they form an integral part of most processes. Next, some sample case studies of process energy management opportunities are provided. Finally, the authors outline some common process activities where better energy management can be practiced. Air compressors are also discussed.

  5. Industrial energy efficiency opportunities in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, S.; Parker, S.; Evans, M.; Brown, D.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the energy assistance program to help Ukraine shut down the Chornobyl nuclear reactors, The US Department of Energy (DOE) asked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to identify and appraise industrial energy efficiency projects in Ukraine. The industrial sector currently accounts for over 60% of Ukraine's energy consumption. Most industrial enterprises in Ukraine use energy very inefficiently because the former Communist system provided few incentives to conserve energy or even account for its cost. Since 1994, however, the country's energy prices have risen close to world levels, and Ukraine finds itself saddled with very high energy costs. The Ukrainian Government is also under pressure to lower natural gas imports and reduce the country's trade imbalance with Russia. As a result, incentives to save energy in Ukraine are now great, and the market for energy efficiency products is growing. The Ukrainian Government estimates that this market will generate from $700 million to $1 billion worth of new product sales by the year 2000. However, few industrial enterprises have the money necessary for large-scale energy efficiency improvements. Therefore, one of the main goals of this project is to help the most promising enterprises obtain financing for energy efficiency projects form a variety of financial institutions, or through new, creative financing mechanisms. The project has involved several site visits to different industrial plants in Ukraine to gather preliminary data on the facilities. Most of these plants are in the process of being privatized or have been recently privatized and are financially sound. Among the plants visited have been a glass manufacturing plant, a coke-chemical plant, a paper mill, an alumina plant, a tire factory, a food processing plant, an iron mine, a metallurgical firm, and a steel cable factory. Following a preliminary analysis of the site-specific data obtained during the first visit, a limited number of

  6. 7 CFR 1710.255 - Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.255 Energy efficiency work plans—energy efficiency borrowers. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain...

  7. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  8. Building America Case Study: Apartment Compartmentalization with an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process - Queens, NY; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Air sealing of building enclosures is a difficult and time-consuming process. Current methods in new construction require laborers to physically locate small and sometimes large holes in multiple assemblies and then manually seal each of them. The innovation demonstrated under this research study was the automated air sealing and compartmentalization of buildings through the use of an aerosolized sealant, developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at University of California Davis.
    CARB sought to demonstrate this new technology application in a multifamily building in Queens, NY. The effectiveness of the sealing process was evaluated by three methods: air leakage testing of overall apartment before and after sealing, point-source testing of individual leaks, and pressure measurements in the walls of the target apartment during sealing. Aerosolized sealing was successful by several measures in this study. Many individual leaks that are labor-intensive to address separately were well sealed by the aerosol particles. In addition, many diffuse leaks that are difficult to identify and treat were also sealed. The aerosol-based sealing process resulted in an average reduction of 71% in air leakage across three apartments and an average apartment airtightness of 0.08 CFM50/SF of enclosure area.

  9. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  10. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY:...

  11. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy...

  12. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  13. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  14. Guide for Conducting Energy Efficiency Potential Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guide for Conducting Energy Efficiency Potential Studies is provided to assist state officials, regulators, legislators, and others in implementing the recommendations of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency.

  15. Energy efficient motors reference guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, N. D.; Eltom, A. H.

    1992-03-01

    The motor reference guide is the result of data and information collected and organized by the Industrial and Large Commercial staff of the Tennessee Valley Authority. The information was collected over several months from motor manufacturers, technical papers, textbooks, and files of former TVA engineers. Additionally, computer simulations were performed to develop data not currently available in literature. The guide is not intended to be a textbook on motors, but a quick and ready reference for the TVA field staff to assist in the technical and economic evaluation of energy-efficient motors versus standard motors. However, chapters on motor related topics such as rotating fields, power factor correction, and impact of power quality on motor performances have also been included to complement the text.

  16. Energy-efficient skylight structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dame, J.V.

    1988-03-29

    This patent describes an energy-efficient skylight structure for attaching to a ceiling having a hole therein. The structure includes a roof membrane of light translucent material. The improvement comprises: a framework being larger in size than the hole in the ceiling, the framework adapted to receive a light-diffusing panel; means for attaching the framework over the hole in the ceiling to support beams for the ceiling; gasket means between the framework and the ceiling for sealing the framework to the ceiling around the hole; a light-diffusing panel held by the framework; sealing means between the light-diffusing panel and the framework for sealing the perimeter of the light diffusing panel to the framework; and a light-channeling means attached at one end to the ceiling around the opening on the side opposite the framework and at the other end around the light translucent material of the roof membrane.

  17. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  18. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the

  19. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light...

  20. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... designed to: Reduce fossil fuel emissions; Reduce the total energy use of the eligible entities; and... manage energy efficiency and conservation projects and programs designed to: Reduce fossil fuel emissions...

  1. Teaching the Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Alan

    2010-02-01

    A course on energy efficiency is a surprisingly valuable complement to a student's education in physics and many other disciplines. The Univ. of California, Davis, offers a 1-quarter course on ``understanding the other side of the meter.'' Lectures begin by giving students a demand-side perspective on how, where, and why energy is used. Students measure energy use of appliances in their homes and then report results. This gives students a practical sense of the difference between energy and power and learn how appliances transform energy into useful services. Lectures introduce the types of direct conservation measures--reducing demand, reducing fixed consumptions, and increasing efficiency. Practical examples draw upon simple concepts in heat transfer, thermodynamics, and mechanics. Graphical techniques, strengthened through problem sets, explain the interdependence of conservation measures. Lectures then examine indirect energy savings from measures and consider questions like ``where can one achieve the greatest fuel savings in a car by removing one gram of mass?'' Finally, students learn about conservation measures that circumvent physical limits by adopting new processes. By the end of the course, students have a gained a new perspective on energy consumption and the opportunities to reduce it. )

  2. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  3. Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushe, S.

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED) developed in collaboration by the United States Department of Energy and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. IREEED provides succinct summaries of India's central and state government policies and incentives related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The online, public database was developed under the U.S.- India Energy Dialogue and the Clean Energy Solution Center.

  4. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  5. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  6. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-14

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  7. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy...

  8. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  9. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on May 1, 2013. The... NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy...

  10. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and...

  11. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver 11... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  12. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...

  13. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013... NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy...

  14. Application of membrane processes to alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production(Singapore)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The prospect of dwindling oil supplies, concern over the carbon balance of the planet, and the availability of waste and non-waste biomass materials has generated renewed interest in the use of fermentation processes to produce commodity chemicals and fuels. The economics of fer...

  15. Application of membrane processes to alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production(Singapore)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The prospect of dwindling oil supplies, concern over the carbon balance of the planet, and the availability of waste and non-waste biomass materials has generated renewed interest in the use of fermentation processes to produce commodity chemicals and fuels. The economics of fer...

  16. Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

  17. Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  18. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... collection process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for commercial packaged boilers... Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for Commercial Packaged Boilers, Docket No....

  19. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  20. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    PubMed Central

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  1. A novel energy-efficient pyrolysis process: self-pyrolysis of oil shale triggered by topochemical heat in a horizontal fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-06

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  2. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  3. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp.

    PubMed

    Barta, Zsolt; Kreuger, Emma; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2013-04-22

    The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103-128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with higher value products are

  4. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  5. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  6. Energy-efficient process-stacking multiplexing access for 60-GHz mm-wave wireless personal area networks.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Claudio; Kailas, Aravind

    2012-01-01

    Millimeter-wave technology shows high potential for future wireless personal area networks, reaching over 1 Gbps transmissions using simple modulation techniques. Current specifications consider dividing the spectrum into effortlessly separable spectrum ranges. These low requirements open a research area in time and space multiplexing techniques for millimeter-waves. In this work a process-stacking multiplexing access algorithm is designed for single channel operation. The concept is intuitive, but its implementation is not trivial. The key to stacking single channel events is to operate while simultaneously obtaining and handling a-posteriori time-frame information of scheduled events. This information is used to shift a global time pointer that the wireless access point manages and uses to synchronize all serviced nodes. The performance of the proposed multiplexing access technique is lower bounded by the performance of legacy TDMA and can significantly improve the effective throughput. Work is validated by simulation results.

  7. Membrane-controlled processes for the energy-efficient conversion of sludges to fuels and marketable chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Studies were carried out on the concentration of primary and secondary sludges by ultrafiltration, and the operation of a membrane-assisted anaerobic digester to treat these sludges. Auxiliary devices including water-spilling and membrane solvent extraction were tested for their feasibility in the ehhancement of digester operations and the recovery of valuable byproducts. It was shown that membrane-facilitated digestion can increase the rate of these processes by a factor of ten, together with a substantial decrease in the amount going to waste, and with the ultrafiltration permeate containing appreciable concentrations of valuable byproducts which could be concentrated and recovered using a combination of other membrane technologies. The utility of electrodialytic water-splitting and membrane solvent extraction was demonstrated. All of this was accomplished with a small three-liter bench-scale digester, the operation of which presented many problems because of its very small size and the difficulty in handling real sewage sludges.

  8. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    ScienceCinema

    Ajay Mathur

    2016-07-12

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  9. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ajay Mathur

    2010-05-20

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  10. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  11. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  12. International industrial sector energy efficiency policies

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Over 40 percent of the energy consumed globally is used in the industrial sector. In China, this sector consumes an even larger proportion, reaching nearly 70 percent in 1997. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been instituted in both industrialized and developing countries in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of the industrial sector. There are very few comprehensive evaluations of these industrial sector energy efficiency policies; however a number of recent workshops and conferences have included a focus on these policies. Three important meetings were the International Energy Agency's Industrial Energy Efficiency: Policies and Programs Conference in 1994, Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure - A Workshop Organized by the International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector in 1998, and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 1999 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Man y articles from these meetings are included as attachments to this memo. This paper provides a brief description of each of seven categories of individual industrial energy efficiency policies and programs, discuss which industrial sectors or types of equipment they apply to, and provide references for articles and reports that discuss each policy or program in more detail. We begin with mandatory-type policies and move to more voluntary-type policies. We then provide a brief description of four integrated industrial energy efficiency policies and provide references for articles and reports that describe these policies in greater detail.

  13. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear... of Commerce on efforts to address issues that affect the competitiveness of U.S. renewable ]...

  14. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards... data collection process to consider establishing new energy conservation standards or energy use....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part A of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA...

  15. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  16. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  17. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  18. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.-S.

    2007-03-01

    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  19. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  20. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  1. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  2. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.

  3. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.

  4. Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series provides a comprehensive, straightforward overview of green-house gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies for local governments. Developing and implementing energy efficiency improvements in water an

  5. Energy efficiency: Building labels lead to savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Various programmes have been introduced to increase energy efficiency in buildings. A study of commercial buildings in Los Angeles, USA, now finds that voluntary certification programmes have been effective at lowering energy use, bringing savings of up to 30%.

  6. Alcoa Lafayette Operations Energy Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    The energy efficiency assessment performed at Alcoa's Lafayette Operations aluminum extrusion plant identified potential annual savings of $1,974,300 in eight high-energy-use areas with an estimated initial capital requirement of $2,308,500.

  7. Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series provides a comprehensive, straightforward overview of green-house gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies for local governments. Developing and implementing energy efficiency improvements in water an

  8. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  9. Advanced, Energy Efficient Shelter Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-02

    Development Analysis, M&S Thermal Barriers Large Shelter Efficiency System Integration Follow-On Demonstrations Lessons Learned from Initial...UNCLASSIFIED 13 Technology Development: Thermal Barriers Objective: Address the enduring challenge of developing a thermal insulation for shelter systems

  10. The fine tuning of carotenoid-chlorophyll interactions in light-harvesting complexes: an important requisite to guarantee efficient photoprotection via triplet-triplet energy transfer in the complex balance of the energy transfer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentin, Marilena; Carbonera, Donatella

    2017-08-01

    Triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) from the chlorophyll to the carotenoid triplet state is the process exploited by photosynthetic systems to protect themselves from singlet oxygen formation under light-stress conditions. A deep comprehension of the molecular strategies adopted to guarantee TTET efficiency, while at the same time maintaining minimal energy loss and efficient light-harvesting capability, is still lacking. The paramagnetic nature of the triplet state makes electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) the method of choice when investigating TTET. In this review, we focus on our extended comparative study of two photosynthetic antenna complexes, the Peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein of dinoflagellates and the light-harvesting complex II of higher plants, in order to point out important aspects of the molecular design adopted in the photoprotection strategy. We have demonstrated that a proper analysis of the EPR data allows one to identify the pigments involved in TTET and, consequently, gain an insight into the structure of the photoprotective sites. The structural information has been complemented by a detailed description of the electronic structure provided by hyperfine spectroscopy. All these elements represent the fundamental building blocks toward a deeper understanding of the requirements for efficient photoprotection, which is fundamental to guarantee the prolonged energy conversion action of photosynthesis.

  11. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  12. Efficiency of cellular information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo

    2014-10-01

    We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the Escherichia coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium in an environment that changes at a very slow time-scale is quite inefficient, dissipating much more than it learns. Using the concept of a coarse-grained learning rate, we show for the model with adaptation that while the activity learns about the external signal the option of changing the methylation level increases the concentration range for which the learning rate is substantial.

  13. Energy efficiency in new buildings: Implementing the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Stockmeyer, M.K.

    1994-03-01

    The Building Energy Standards Program (Program) is conducted for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, within the Office of Building Technologies. The Program seeks to facilitate the construction of energy efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound new buildings through the application of energy efficiency codes and standards. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires that the Department of Energy support the voluntary energy standards development process, advocate the use of model energy codes, and provide technical support to states and the federal government in adopting energy efficiency standards for new buildings. In meeting these requirements, Program staff work with a wide variety of stakeholders - particularly designers, builders and code officials - to base codes and standards on the application of sound scientific principles. Further, Program staff work with individuals in the federal government, states, code development organizations, and the buildings community to deploy energy efficient technologies and encourage complementary practices throughout the design and construction processes.

  14. Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: Geomorphic patterns and stability of forest catchment water, energy and nitrogen use efficiency in the southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.; Hwang, T.; Hales, T. C.; Ford, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the classic work by Hack in Goodlett in 1960, it has been recognized that there is a close coupling of geomorphic, forest ecosystem and soil development in humid mountainous catchments, with the magnitude and frequency of mass wasting events. In the southern Appalachians of the southeast United States, dense forest cover limits erosion and sediment transport during moderate events in undisturbed catchments, with most sediment delivery to streams by mass wasting processes, including the interaction of diffusive processes (soil creep) and debris avalanches. We hypothesize that debris avalanches are frequently triggered in a zone with moderate concavity at the head or just above hollows where a critical combination of sufficient gradient, colluvial soil accumulation, storm throughflow convergence and canopy root strength are achieved. The forest ecosystem adjusts patterns of foliar and root biomass in response to accessible light, water and nutrient resources, which are in turn conditioned by hydroclimate and geomorphically mediated flowpath and transport dynamics. Long term adjustment of drainage network form and density by colluvial and fluvial transport mass budgets provide slowly varying boundary conditions to hillslope hydrologic and geomorphic dynamics. We use a combination of detailed empirical observations and simulation modeling of coupled ecosystem, hydroclimate and geomorphic systems to derive the co-evolution of patterns of forest catchment water, energy and nutrient use efficiency, and the stability and response catchment form to long and short term climate perturbations.

  15. Jcpenney Buying into Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  16. RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Dave Wall; Jamal Zughbi

    2007-06-30

    This is the final technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project (REEP). The report summarizes, in a comprehensive manner, all the work performed during the award period extending between July 12, 2002 and June 30, 2007. This report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines and summarizes all of the activities that occurred during the award period. The RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project, under development by the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA), is comprised of a series of full-scale demonstration projects that will showcase innovative combinations of primary and secondary generation systems using methane gas derived from local processing of biosolids, dairy manure and other organic material. The goal of the project is to create renewable energy-based generation systems with energy efficiencies 65% or more. The project was constructed at the 15 MGD Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 5 located in the City of Chino in California where the Agency has constructed its new energy-efficient (platinum-LEED rating) headquarters building. Technologies that were featured in the project include internal combustion engines (ICE), absorption chillers, treatment plant secondary effluent cooling systems, heat recovery systems, thermal energy storage (TES), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) secondary power generation system, the integration of a future fuel cell system, gas cleaning requirements, and other state-of-the-art design combinations. The RP-5 REEP biogas source is coming from three manure digesters which are located within the RP-5 Complex and are joined with the RP-5 REEP through gas conveyance pipelines. Food waste is being injected into the manure digesters for digester gas production enhancement. The RP-5 REEP clearly demonstrates the biogas production and power generation viability, specifically when dealing with renewable and variable heating value (Btu) fuel. The RP-5 REEP was challenged with meeting

  17. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  18. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  19. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  20. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  1. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible

  2. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  3. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This brief explores how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  4. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  5. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  6. Toward an energy efficient community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, M.

    1980-10-01

    The current oil policy of the OPEC countries means that a substantial oil shortage may be expected in the future. Conservative estimates indicate an oil shortage of 65 billion tons in the year 2000. The results of numerous new studies show that (from the technological point of view) the savings potential is high enough to achieve an absolute decrease in total energy consumption by the year 2000, provided better use is made of secondary energy sources in the form of electric power, gas, and solar heat.

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  8. Creating Energy-Efficient Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Donald F.

    This paper was presented during the time the author was president of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, (CEFP/I). The presentation begins with a summary of the state of the world's natural gas and petroleum supplies and states that since one-third of all energy consumed in the United States is to heat and cool buildings,…

  9. Creating Energy-Efficient Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Donald F.

    This paper was presented during the time the author was president of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, (CEFP/I). The presentation begins with a summary of the state of the world's natural gas and petroleum supplies and states that since one-third of all energy consumed in the United States is to heat and cool buildings,…

  10. Energy-efficient water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

  11. Energy efficiency increase in a chemical production site.

    PubMed

    Keller, Urs; Jucker, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key factor for the chemical industry. One element of sustainability is energy efficiency in manufacturing processes. This article illustrates the strategic energy initiatives of a leading global operating company and the implementation of its elements into practice. Some successful energy-saving projects are highlighted.

  12. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D.

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  13. Energy Efficiency for Architectural Drafting Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in architectural drafting. The following topics are examined: energy conservation awareness (residential energy use and audit procedures); residential…

  14. Financial Planning for Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Financing options for energy efficiency investments by colleges are outlined by the Energy Task Force of three higher education associations. It is suggested that alternative financing techniques generate a positive cash flow and allow campuses to implement conservation despite fiscal constraints. Since energy conservation saves money, the savings…

  15. Financial Planning for Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Financing options for energy efficiency investments by colleges are outlined by the Energy Task Force of three higher education associations. It is suggested that alternative financing techniques generate a positive cash flow and allow campuses to implement conservation despite fiscal constraints. Since energy conservation saves money, the savings…

  16. Energy Efficiency for Architectural Drafting Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in architectural drafting. The following topics are examined: energy conservation awareness (residential energy use and audit procedures); residential…

  17. Energy-Efficient Renovation of Educational Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhorn-Kluttig, Heike; Morck, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Case studies demonstrating energy-efficient renovation of educational buildings collected by the International Energy Agency (IEA) provide information on retrofit technologies, energy-saving approaches and ventilation strategies. Some general findings are presented here along with one case study, Egebjerg School in Denmark, which shows how natural…

  18. State Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Inventory

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this inventory, some of which has been placed into a searchable spreadsheet, is to support the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and to research cost information in state-mandated energy efficiency program evaluations – e.g., for use in updating analytic and modeling assumptions used by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  19. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Martin

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  20. Efficiencies of thermodynamics when temperature-dependent energy levels exist.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Takuya

    2016-03-14

    Based on a generalized form of the second law of thermodynamics, in which the temperature-dependent energy levels of a system are appropriately included in entropy generation, we show that the effect reasonably appears in efficiencies of thermodynamic processes.

  1. Energy-efficient quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Joni; Salmilehto, Juha; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-04-01

    In the near future, one of the major challenges in the realization of large-scale quantum computers operating at low temperatures is the management of harmful heat loads owing to thermal conduction of cabling and dissipation at cryogenic components. This naturally raises the question that what are the fundamental limitations of energy consumption in scalable quantum computing. In this work, we derive the greatest lower bound for the gate error induced by a single application of a bosonic drive mode of given energy. Previously, such an error type has been considered to be inversely proportional to the total driving power, but we show that this limitation can be circumvented by introducing a qubit driving scheme which reuses and corrects drive pulses. Specifically, our method serves to reduce the average energy consumption per gate operation without increasing the average gate error. Thus our work shows that precise, scalable control of quantum systems can, in principle, be implemented without the introduction of excessive heat or decoherence.

  2. Optimization of the Energy Level Alignment between the Photoactive Layer and the Cathode Contact Utilizing Solution-Processed Hafnium Acetylacetonate as Buffer Layer for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Li, Qiuxiang; Shi, Zhenzhen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Songyuan; Lin, Jun; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2016-01-13

    The insertion of an appropriate interfacial buffer layer between the photoactive layer and the contact electrodes makes a great impact on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ideal interfacial buffer layers could minimize the interfacial traps and the interfacial barriers caused by the incompatibility between the photoactive layer and the electrodes. In this work, we utilized solution-processed hafnium(IV) acetylacetonate (Hf(acac)4) as an effective cathode buffer layer (CBL) in PSCs to optimize the energy level alignment between the photoactive layer and the cathode contact, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and fill factor (FF) all simultaneously improved with Hf(acac)4 CBL, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) were performed to confirm that the interfacial dipoles were formed with the same orientation direction as the built-in potential between the photoactive layer and Hf(acac)4 CBL, benefiting the exciton separation and electron transport/extraction. In addition, the optical characteristics and surface morphology of the Hf(acac)4 CBL were also investigated.

  3. Improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass by a three-stage process comprising dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    The effects of pre-treatment methods on saccharification and hydrogen fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass were investigated. When raw biomass and biomass pre-treated by steam heating, by microwave heating, and by ultrasonication were used as feedstock, the hydrogen yields were only 8.8-12.7 ml/g total volatile solids (TVS) during dark fermentation. When biomass was pre-treated by steam heating with diluted acid and by microwave heating with diluted acid, the dark hydrogen yields significantly increased to 75.6 ml/g TVS and 83.3 ml/g TVS, respectively. Steam heating with diluted acid is the preferred pre-treatment method of C. pyrenoidosa biomass to improve hydrogen yield during dark fermentation and photofermentation, which is followed by methanogenesis to increase energy conversion efficiency (ECE). A total hydrogen yield of 198.3 ml/g TVS and a methane yield of 186.2 ml/g TVS corresponding to an overall ECE of 34.0% were obtained through the three-stage process (dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis).

  4. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  5. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and

  6. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  7. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  8. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  9. Something Special from SEED: Energy Efficiency for Educators and Students. SEED: Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneco, Inc., Houston, TX.

    The goal of the Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration (SEED) was to assist schools in reducing the impact of the rising cost of energy by defining good energy management programs and by implementing quick-fix, low-cost energy efficiency improvements. Twenty schools in 15 states participated in the demonstration program. This report covers…

  10. Electrokinetic energy conversion efficiency in nanofluidic channels.

    PubMed

    van der Heyden, Frank H J; Bonthuis, Douwe Jan; Stein, Derek; Meyer, Christine; Dekker, Cees

    2006-10-01

    We theoretically evaluate the prospect of using electrokinetic phenomena to convert hydrostatic energy to electrical power. An expression is derived for the energy conversion efficiency of a two-terminal fluidic device in terms of its linear electrokinetic response properties. For a slitlike nanochannel of constant surface charge density, we predict that the maximum energy conversion efficiency occurs at low salt concentrations. An analytic expression for the regime of strong double-layer overlap reveals that the efficiency depends only on the ratio of the channel height to the Gouy-Chapman length, and the product of the viscosity and the counterion mobility. We estimate that an electrokinetic energy conversion device could achieve a maximum efficiency of 12% for simple monovalent ions in aqueous solution.

  11. High efficiency flat plate solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R. F.

    1985-04-30

    A concentrating flat plate collector for the high efficiency collection of solar energy. Through an arrangement of reflector elements, incoming solar radiation, either directly or after reflection from the reflector elements, impinges upon both surfaces of a collector element.

  12. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  13. Junior High Gets Energy Efficient VAV System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Minnesota's Isanti Junior High, designed with an energy efficient variable air volume system, is an innovative school selected for display at the 1977 Exhibition of School Architecture in Las Vegas. (Author/MLF)

  14. Energy Efficient School Designed for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    When completed, the planned Greeley Elementary School will be able to accommodate any future changes in enrollment and technological developments, while maintaining a constant energy efficient heating and cooling operation. (Author/MLF)

  15. Energy Efficiency in Local Government Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes how local governments can lead by example and achieve multiple benefits by improving the energy efficiency of their new, existing, and renovated facilities and their day-to-day operations.

  16. Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes how water and wastewater facilities can lead by example and achieve multiple benefits by improving the energy efficiency of their new, existing, and renovated buildings and their day-to-day operations.

  17. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  18. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  19. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  20. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  1. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Feustel, Helmut E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  2. Efficient hybrid electric and thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X. Winston; Parfenov, Alexander V.; Aye, Tin M.; Shih, Min-Yi

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a novel hybrid solar photovoltaic electrical and thermal energy cogeneration system with high efficiency, at potentially reduced overall weight and size compared with current solar energy systems. The new system is based on highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells and tubular water thermal receivers, incorporating holographic spectral beam light guide concentrators resulting in a more cost-effective solution. Details of fabrication and preliminary experimental testing results are presented.

  3. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliot, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2005-05-05

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of thenation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly,society is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, moresustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing globalcompetitiveness. Technology is essential in achieving these challenges.We report on a recent analysis of emerging energy-efficient technologiesfor industry, focusing on over 50 selected technologies. The technologiesare characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics andenvironmental performance. This paper provides an overview of theresults, demonstrating that we are not running out of technologies toimprove energy efficiency, economic and environmental performance, andneither will we in the future. The study shows that many of thetechnologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reducedenvironmental impact to improved productivity, and reduced capital costscompared to current technologies.

  4. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorne, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, society is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology is essential in achieving these challenges. We report on a recent analysis of emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry, focusing on over 50 selected technologies. The technologies are characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics and environmental performance. This paper provides an overview of the results, demonstrating that we are not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency, economic and environmental performance, and neither will we in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity, and reduced capital costs compared to current technologies.

  5. What works for energy efficiency in large industry

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, H.G.; Bonnyman, C.E.; Ghislain, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    In recent years it has become clear that various groups interested in energy efficiency, including state energy agencies, utilities, and advocacy groups do not know how energy efficiency efforts are conceived and carried out within global industrial corporations. There are vast energy efficiency efforts underway of which almost no one knows, except those directly involved. Nevertheless, the criteria employed, the viewpoint on efficiency, the constraints, and the methods of evaluation are all either somewhat or even quite different in an industrial setting. This paper reports on work underway at Ford Motor Company. Ford Motor Company has demonstrated a major commitment to energy efficiency. This paper illustrates the ways energy efficiency is approached, explains something of how the internal process works. and provides examples of the types of projects recently completed and underway. This paper first reviews certain organizational features of large industrial Demand Side Management (DSM). Second, it explores the model provided by ISO 14001. Third, specific experience of Ford Motor Company, General Motors, and Chrysler in working cooperatively with the Detroit Edison electric utility is reported. Finally, the broader scope of energy efficiency at Ford is indicated, and the ethical nature of energy efficiency is asserted.

  6. Curriculum for Commissioning Energy Efficient Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Lia

    2012-12-27

    In July 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded funding to PECI to develop training curriculum in commercial energy auditing and building commissioning. This program was created in response to the high demand for auditing and commissioning services in the U.S. commercial buildings market and to bridge gaps and barriers in existing training programs. Obstacles addressed included: lack of focus on entry level candidates; prohibitive cost and time required for training; lack of hands-on training; trainings that focus on certifications & process overviews; and lack of comprehensive training. PECI organized several other industry players to create a co-funded project sponsored by DOE, PECI, New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), California Energy Commission (CEC), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and California Commissioning Collaborative (CCC). After awarded, PECI teamed with another DOE awardee, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), to work collaboratively to create one comprehensive program featuring two training tracks. NJIT’s Center for Building Knowledge is a research and training institute affiliated with the College of Architecture and Design, and provided e-learning and video enhancements. This project designed and developed two training programs with a comprehensive, energy-focused curriculum to prepare new entrants to become energy auditors or commissioning authorities (CxAs). The following are the key elements of the developed trainings, which is depicted graphically in Figure 1: • Online classes are self-paced, and can be completed anywhere, any time • Commissioning Authority track includes 3 online modules made up of 24 courses delivered in 104 individual lessons, followed by a 40 hour hands-on lab. Total time required is between 75 and 100 hours, depending on the pace of the independent learner. • Energy Auditor track includes 3 online modules made up of 18 courses delivered in 72 individual

  7. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  8. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-14

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  9. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  10. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  11. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil—Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  12. Energy-Efficient Routes for the Production of Gasoline from Biogas and Pyrolysis Oil-Process Design and Life-Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Smitha; Kolb, Gunther; Hessel, Volker; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-29

    Two novel routes for the production of gasoline from pyrolysis oil (from timber pine) and biogas (from ley grass) are simulated, followed by a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of the two production routes. The main aim of this work is to conduct a holistic evaluation of the proposed routes and benchmark them against the conventional route of producing gasoline from natural gas. A previously commercialized method of synthesizing gasoline involves conversion of natural gas to syngas, which is further converted to methanol, and then as a last step, the methanol is converted to gasoline. In the new proposed routes, the syngas production step is different; syngas is produced from a mixture of pyrolysis oil and biogas in the following two ways: (i) autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil and biogas, in which there are two reactions in one reactor (ATR) and (ii) steam reforming of pyrolysis oil and catalytic partial oxidation of biogas, in which there are separated but thermally coupled reactions and reactors (CR). The other two steps to produce methanol from syngas, and gasoline from methanol, remain the same. The purpose of this simulation is to have an ex-ante comparison of the performance of the new routes against a reference, in terms of energy and sustainability. Thus, at this stage of simulations, nonrigorous, equilibrium-based models have been used for reactors, which will give the best case conversions for each step. For the conventional production route, conversion and yield data available in the literature have been used, wherever available.The results of the process design showed that the second method (separate, but thermally coupled reforming) has a carbon efficiency of 0.53, compared to the conventional route (0.48), as well as the first route (0.40). The life-cycle assessment results revealed that the newly proposed processes have a clear advantage over the conventional process in some categories, particularly the global warming potential and primary

  13. Energy modeling for aviation fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The fuel consumption and path profile description of an aircraft can be related by an energy balanced concept. Application of this concept has produced an equation set that can be utilized to analyze the energy efficiency of propeller and turbojet aircraft during various operating conditions. Analytical methods, results and aircraft specific constants are presented and discussed along with proposed extensions. 10 refs.

  14. Energy Efficiency for Building Construction Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units of materials on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in building construction. The following topics are examined: conservation measures (residential energy use and methods for reducing…

  15. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  16. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  17. GLIDES – Efficient Energy Storage from ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Momen, Ayyoub M.; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Odukomaiya, Wale; Akinina, Alla

    2016-03-01

    The research shown in this video features the GLIDES (Ground-Level Integrated Diverse Energy Storage) project, which has been under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2013. GLIDES can store energy via combined inputs of electricity and heat, and deliver dispatchable electricity. Supported by ORNL’s Laboratory Director’s Research and Development (LDRD) fund, this energy storage system is low-cost, and hybridizes compressed air and pumped-hydro approaches to allow for storage of intermittent renewable energy at high efficiency. A U.S. patent application for this novel energy storage concept has been submitted, and research findings suggest it has the potential to be a flexible, low-cost, scalable, high-efficiency option for energy storage, especially useful in residential and commercial buildings.

  18. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  19. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  20. Influence of silver nanoparticles on relaxation processes and efficiency of dipole – dipole energy transfer between dye molecules in polymethylmethacrylate films

    SciTech Connect

    Bryukhanov, V V; Borkunov, R Yu; Tsarkov, M V; Konstantinova, E I; Slezhkin, V A

    2015-10-31

    The fluorescence and phosphorescence of dyes in thin polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films in the presence of ablated silver nanoparticles has been investigated in a wide temperature range by methods of femtosecond and picosecond laser photoexcitation. The fluorescence and phosphorescence times, as well as spectral and kinetic characteristics of rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules in PMMA films are measured in a temperature range of 80 – 330 K. The temperature quenching activation energy of the fluorescence of R6G molecules in the presence of ablated silver nanoparticles is found. The vibrational relaxation rate of R6G in PMMA films is estimated, the efficiency of the dipole – dipole electron energy transfer between R6G and brilliant green molecules (enhanced by plasmonic interaction with ablated silver nanoparticles) is analysed, and the constants of this energy transfer are determined. (nanophotonics)

  1. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  2. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  3. Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1976 NASA initiated the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program to assist in the development of technology for more fuel-efficient aircraft for commercial airline use. The Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project of the ACEE program is intended to lay the advanced-technology foundation for a new generation of turbofan engines. This project, planned as a seven-year cooperative government-industry effort, is aimed at developing and demonstrating advanced component and systems technologies for engines that could be introduced into airline service by the late 1980s or early 1990s. In addition to fuel savings, new engines must offer potential for being economically attractive to the airline users and environmentally acceptable. A description is presented of conceptual energy-efficient engine designs which offer potential for achieving all of the goals established for the EEE Project.

  4. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Kazakevicius, E.

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  5. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  6. Implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zīgurs, A.; Sarma, U.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions in Latvia are ongoing regarding the optimum solution to implementing Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC (Directive 2012/27/EU). Without a doubt, increased energy efficiency contributes significantly to energy supply security, competitive performance, increased quality of life, reduced energy dependence and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, Directive 2012/27/EU should be implemented with careful planning, evaluating every aspect of the process. This study analyses a scenario, where a significant fraction of target energy efficiency is achieved by obliging energy utilities to implement user-end energy efficiency measures. With implementation of this scheme towards energy end-use savings, user payments for energy should be reduced; on the other hand, these measures will require considerable investment. The energy efficiency obligation scheme stipulates that these investments must be paid by energy utilities; however, they will actually be covered by users, because the source of energy utilities' income is user payments for energy. Thus, expenses on such measures will be included in energy prices and service tariffs. The authors analyse the ways to achieve a balance between user gains from energy end-use savings and increased energy prices and tariffs as a result of obligations imposed upon energy utilities. Similarly, the suitability of the current regulatory regime for effective implementation of Directive 2012/27/EU is analysed in the energy supply sectors, where supply tariffs are regulated.

  7. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  8. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  9. Research and energy efficiency: Selected success stories

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, P.W.; Garland, R.W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic {open_quotes}curiosity-driven{close_quotes} research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  10. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant

  11. Energy-Efficient Design for Florida Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral.

    This manual provides a detailed simulation analysis of a variety of energy conservation measures (ECMs) with the intent of giving educational facility design teams in Florida a basis for decision making. The manual's three sections cover energy efficiency design considerations that appear throughout the following design processes: schematic…

  12. Sharing the savings to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Destribats, A.; Schultz, D.

    1992-04-01

    Shared-savings incentives offer a new way for regulated utilities to improve earnings by encouraging customer energy efficiency. Benefits of cost-effective energy efficiency measures can be shared explicitly among customers participating in an utility demand-side management (DSM) program, all utility ratepayers, and the utility itself. For participating customers, electricity bills are lowered directly; for ratepayers, the costs of providing electric services are reduced; and for utility shareholders, they are allowed to retain a fraction of the net benefits as additional earnings. In this study, we define the basic elements of shared-savings arrangements for utility demandside resources. Next, we compare and contrast specific details of the arrangements approved for three different utilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E), San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG E), and two operating subsidiaries of the New England Electric System (NEES). Our analysis suggests that the percentage share of net benefits on which utilities are allowed to earn is a relatively poor indicator of the incentive mechanism's overall affect on utility earnings. Earnings opportunities and potential are also significantly influenced by particular incentive features. These include the definition and measurement of load reductions, program costs, and program benefits; program cost recovery and the timing of incentive recovery; performance thresholds; program spending and earnings caps; program eligibility criteria; treatment of lost revenues; and for NEES, a complementary, non-shared-savings incentive. We conclude that the collaborative'' processes used to develop incentives for each utility proved extremely useful in allowing parties to negotiate trade-offs inherent between various program design features.

  13. Sharing the savings to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Destribats, A.; Schultz, D.

    1992-04-01

    Shared-savings incentives offer a new way for regulated utilities to improve earnings by encouraging customer energy efficiency. Benefits of cost-effective energy efficiency measures can be shared explicitly among customers participating in an utility demand-side management (DSM) program, all utility ratepayers, and the utility itself. For participating customers, electricity bills are lowered directly; for ratepayers, the costs of providing electric services are reduced; and for utility shareholders, they are allowed to retain a fraction of the net benefits as additional earnings. In this study, we define the basic elements of shared-savings arrangements for utility demandside resources. Next, we compare and contrast specific details of the arrangements approved for three different utilities: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG&E), and two operating subsidiaries of the New England Electric System (NEES). Our analysis suggests that the percentage share of net benefits on which utilities are allowed to earn is a relatively poor indicator of the incentive mechanism`s overall affect on utility earnings. Earnings opportunities and potential are also significantly influenced by particular incentive features. These include the definition and measurement of load reductions, program costs, and program benefits; program cost recovery and the timing of incentive recovery; performance thresholds; program spending and earnings caps; program eligibility criteria; treatment of lost revenues; and for NEES, a complementary, non-shared-savings incentive. We conclude that the ``collaborative`` processes used to develop incentives for each utility proved extremely useful in allowing parties to negotiate trade-offs inherent between various program design features.

  14. Improving Energy Efficiency in Federal Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Nasseri, Cyrus H.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Winiarski, David W.

    2004-08-27

    This paper is an overview of various activities underway in the Federal sector to help improve the energy efficiency in new and existing Federal commercial buildings. The two main drivers for the energy efficiency upgrades within the Federal sector are Executive Orders (E.O.) from the Executive branch and the legislative requirements passed by the legislative branch and then signed into law by the Executive branch of the U.S. Federal Government. The recent Executive Orders pertaining to this discussion are the E.O. 12902 (1994) and the E.O. 13123 (1999). The legislative requirements are contained in the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992 which amended the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) and the pending Energy Policy Act of 2003.

  15. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  16. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  17. Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

    2005-04-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will

  18. Energy Implications of Materials Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1976-01-01

    Processing of materials could become energy-limited rather than resource-limited. Methods to extract metals, industrial minerals, and energy materials and convert them to useful states requires more than one-fifth of the United States energy budget. Energy accounting by industries must include a total systems analysis of costs to insure net energy…

  19. Cost-effective energy efficiency in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.; Secrest, T.J.; Zemen, Z.; Popelka, A.

    1994-08-01

    Energy efficiency is a particularly important issue in the emerging economies of Eastern Europe. Much of the energy used in the Czech Republic is supplied by lignite, a soft brown form of coal. Its combustion is largely responsible for an extreme acid rain problem and other forms of air pollution and land use complications. Additionally, inefficient energy use is prevalent, placing additional stresses on an already fragile economy. This paper reports on a project in the mid-sized (250,000 residents) and industrial city of Plzen, in the Czech Republic. The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) process, developed by PNL for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), was applied to the city to determine the level of cost-effective energy efficiency potential in the city. Significant potential was found to exist, primarily in large, cooperatively owned apartment buildings heated by district systems.

  20. Energy efficiency: Perspectives on individual behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, W.; Neiman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A collection of research papers on the personal behavior and attitudes that affect residential energy use. Articles in the first section address the factors that affect decision-making by consumers; convenience and personal opinions often override rational economic choices. The research in the second section uses aggregate survey data to gain insight into energy behavior. Papers in the third section use detailed monitoring of individual households to analyze personal behavior and home energy management, and the fourth section includes papers on the interaction of building systems with occupants. These papers demonstrate that, to be successful, energy conservation programs must consider the ''human factor'' in addition to the conventional energy parameters (e.g. weather, insulation, and appliance efficiencies). Main emphasis was given to: energy conservation; consumers; personal behavior; economic decision-making; buildings; energy policy; hot water use; thermostats; attitudes; applied anthropology.

  1. Energy from biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This assessment responds to a request by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation for an evaluation of the energy potential of various sources of plant and animal matter (biomass). This report complements an earlier OTA report on the Application of Solar Technology to Today's Energy Needs in evaluating the major solar energy resources available to the United States. The findings also will serve as part of the material to be used in an upcoming OTA assessment of synthetic fuels for transportation. This volume presents analyses of prominent biomass issues, summaries of four biomass fuel cycles, a description of biomass' place in two plausible energy futures, and discussions of policy options for promoting energy from biomass. The four fuel cycles - wood, alcohol fuels, grasses and crop residues, and animal wastes - were chosen because of their near- to mid-term energy potential and because of the public interest in them. A second volume presents technical analyses of the resource base, conversion technologies, and end uses that provide a basis for the discussion in this volume. Also included in Volume II are various unconventional approaches to bioenergy production as well as the use of biomass to produce chemicals.

  2. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, G. B.; Currie, J. W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at Federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and other Federal agencies.

  3. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  4. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G B; Currie, J W

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  5. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide is designed to help state and local governments connect with EPA programs that can help them expand or develop their own energy efficiency/renewable energy (EE/RE) and climate initiatives in ways that benefit low-income communities.

  6. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide is designed to help state and local governments connect with EPA programs that can help them expand or develop their own energy efficiency/renewable energy (EE/RE) and climate initiatives in ways that benefit low-income communities.

  7. Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Kulcinski, Gerald L; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-03-15

    The combination of wind energy generation and energy storage can produce a source of electricity that is functionally equivalent to a baseload coal or nuclear power plant. A model was developed to assess the technical and environmental performance of baseload wind energy systems using compressed air energy storage. The analysis examined several systems that could be operated in the midwestern United States under a variety of operating conditions. The systems can produce substantially more energy than is required from fossil or other primary sources to construct and operate them. By operation at a capacity factor of 80%, each evaluated system achieves an effective primary energy efficiency of at least five times greater than the most efficient fossil combustion technology, with greenhouse gas emission rates less than 20% of the least emitting fossil technology currently available. Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems.

  8. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    efficiency programs administered by state energy offices: the State Energy Program (SEP) formula grants, the portion of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) formula funds administered directly by states, and the State Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program (SEEARP). Since these ARRA programs devote significant monies to energy efficiency and serve similar markets as utility customer-funded programs, there are frequent interactions between programs. We exclude the DOE low-income weatherization program and EECBG funding awarded directly to the over 2,200 cities, counties and tribes from our study to keep its scope manageable. We summarize the energy efficiency program design and funding choices made by the 50 state energy offices, 5 territories and the District of Columbia. We then focus on the specific choices made in 12 case study states. These states were selected based on the level of utility customer program funding, diversity of program administrator models, and geographic diversity. Based on interviews with more than 80 energy efficiency actors in those 12 states, we draw observations about states strategies for use of Recovery Act funds. We examine interactions between ARRA programs and utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs in terms of program planning, program design and implementation, policy issues, and potential long-term impacts. We consider how the existing regulatory policy framework and energy efficiency programs in these 12 states may have impacted development of these selected ARRA programs. Finally, we summarize key trends and highlight issues that evaluators of these ARRA programs may want to examine in more depth in their process and impact evaluations.

  9. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Malik

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  10. The energy efficiency initiative: Framework for an effective national energy efficiency policy

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Unander, F.; Lebot, B; Nielsen, L.; Hammar, T.

    1998-07-01

    All countries have a common obligation regarding environmental issues. Mature market economies still have problems with market imperfections and countries with markets in transition have not yet fully developed the institutions to make use of the market mechanisms. Both market function, institutions and policies must develop to achieve market transformation both in a national and an international context. An initiative from several International Institutions has lead to a set of recommendations aimed at designing an effective energy efficiency policy with implications for different kinds of economies and for the trade of goods and services related to energy efficiency. The paper will present the European context in which this 18-month project took place. It explores the most favorable conditions for an energy efficient economy. The paper then highlights what is believed to be the key steps of a successful energy efficiency policy: (1) organize a global open energy market; (2) set the energy price at the right level (avoiding any subsidies on energy cost); (3) develop a qualified expertise on energy efficiency issues; and (4) integrate energy efficiency in sectorial policies (housing, transportation, urban planning....). The product of the Energy Efficiency Initiative is a book designed for policy makers and governments of developing nations. Many developed countries can also benefit from it. The paper concludes with some lessons learned by the experts involved from this intensive effort.

  11. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  12. Experiments to Determine the Efficiency of Various Energy Conversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, D.; Goodwin, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are experiments used in the "Physical Science and Man" course at Hartley CAE which enable determinations of efficiencies of two energy conversion processes, namely, electricity into heat and burning gas to produce heat. Activities for comparing the processes are suggested. (DS)

  13. Experiments to Determine the Efficiency of Various Energy Conversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, D.; Goodwin, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are experiments used in the "Physical Science and Man" course at Hartley CAE which enable determinations of efficiencies of two energy conversion processes, namely, electricity into heat and burning gas to produce heat. Activities for comparing the processes are suggested. (DS)

  14. Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, T.

    1994-12-31

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESP-IP) was created in 1991 to support the Department of Energy`s (DOE) weapons complex cleanup effort. The Office within DOE responsible for the cleanup is the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The goal of EM is to minimize risks to human health and the environment, and bring DOE sites in regulatory compliance by the year 2019. EM established the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to develop new technologies that are safer, faster, more effective and less expensive than current methods. In an effort to focus resources and address opportunities, OTD has developed Integrated Programs (IPs) to support applied research activities in key application areas required in each stage of the remediation process (e.g. characterization, treatment, disposal). The mission of the ESP-IP is to identify, develop, and coordinate technologies for economical separation of toxic components from wastes that have accumulated at DOE sites since the mid-1940s. These wastes and environmental problems, located at more than 100 contaminated installations in 36 states and territories, are the result of half a century of nuclear processing activities by DOE and its predecessor organizations. These wastes include: high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks, transuranic wastes, low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes buried in landfills, contaminated soils, and contaminated groundwater.

  15. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    SciTech Connect

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  16. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, James; LoVullo, David; Kandt, Alicen

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  17. Save Money and the Planet: Make Your School Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; Weltman, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Examines ways in which schools can cut their energy costs. Suggestions are provided for making school lighting more efficient, conducting a life-cycle cost analysis to facilitate energy efficiency, and developing funding for implementing energy-efficient projects. (GLR)

  18. Save Money and the Planet: Make Your School Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; Weltman, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Examines ways in which schools can cut their energy costs. Suggestions are provided for making school lighting more efficient, conducting a life-cycle cost analysis to facilitate energy efficiency, and developing funding for implementing energy-efficient projects. (GLR)

  19. Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-04-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

  20. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  1. 76 FR 6605 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of... of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, 86...

  2. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  3. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  4. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  5. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  6. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  7. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  8. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  9. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  10. Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen L.

    2003-05-01

    The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.

  11. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  12. Energy efficient Buildings, A Neglected Solution to the Energy Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Leon

    2007-04-01

    Many institutions, such as policymakers in Washington, have concentrated on the energy problem from the supply side. It makes more sense to have a balanced approach that also emphasizes means to limit consumption by improving the efficiency of energy use. Residential and commercial buildings constitute the largest energy consumption sector of the U.S. Buildings use almost 40 percent of our total energy, and are larger than the transportation sector by far. Buildings also consume two-thirds of our total electricity. The issue of efficient buildings is particularly acute in the developing world where there is a massive construction effort underway. Proper actions in the urban and regional environment here and abroad can yield substantial immediate as well as long term results. Major advances in energy efficiency in the built environment require a broad approach to building research and development. No one ``silver bullet'' will make a major impact by itself. Rather, substantial improvements in energy efficiency require the development of advanced technologies and an integrated approach to planning, design, optimization, and operation.

  13. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Dan

    2014-04-09

    The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by Nunamiut Corporation in Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The upgrades mentioned will include lighting, heating system, insulation and smart control units designed to increase the energy efficiency of Village Corporation owned buildings.

  14. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform®

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    The Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform® (SEED Platform) provides public agencies and other organizations with a standardized but flexible, cost-effective, secure, enterprise data platform to manage portfolio scale building performance data from a variety of sources. The SEED Platform streamlines the administrative effort required by public agencies implementing building performance and transparency programs.

  15. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by...

  16. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  17. Engineering intelligent structures for energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strojnik, M.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Scholl, M. K.; Kranjc, T.

    2016-09-01

    The current philosophy of designing intelligent buildings emphasizes the use of materials whose performance is compatible with thermal environment that changes daily and seasonally. Ideally, engineering designs should incorporate features to reflect as much energy as feasible and store excess thermal energy. This may be for usage during periods when thermal energy is needed for heating. We show that current construction design methods may be improved for energy efficiency, by incorporating an attic as an transitional space for energy storage during summer, and by employing roof materials with high reflectivity in the visible and in the near IR (up to about 1.9 μm). Thus, traditional red or pink brick roofs, potentially glazed or covered with low reflectivity coating, would likely remain (become again) the preferred construction material.

  18. Photon energy conversion efficiency in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Švec, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Photon energy conversion efficiency coefficient is presented as the ratio of total energy registered in the collected spectrum to the emitted photon energy. This parameter is calculated from the conventional gamma-ray histogram and in principle is not affected by coincidence phenomena. This feature makes it particularly useful for calibration and measurement of radionuclide samples at close geometries. It complements the number of efficiency parameters used in gamma-ray spectrometry and can partly change the view as to how the gamma-ray spectra are displayed and processed.

  19. (ACEEE summer study on energy efficiency in buildings)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The ACEEE Summer Study is a biennial conference that aims to bring together the foremost researchers, practitioners and policy makers involved in research on energy efficiency in buildings. The 1990 Summer Study had the objective to facilitate the exchange of research and implementation results and encourage the advancement of knowledge in the field of energy efficiency in buildings. The research papers presented at the conference published and distributed. Two hundred seventy two papers were presented. These individual papers, published in ten volumes, have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  20. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  1. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  2. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  3. Who should administer energy efficiency programs?

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen

    2003-08-01

    The restructuring of the U.S. electricity industry created a crisis for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. This paper briefly describes the reasons for the crisis and some of its consequences. Then the paper focuses on issues related to program administration and discusses the relative merits of entities-utilities, state agencies, and non-profit corporations-that might be administrators. Four criteria are developed for choosing among program administration options: Compatibility with public policy goals, effectiveness of the incentive structure, ability to realize economies of scale and scope, and contribution to the development of an energy-efficiency infrastructure. We examine one region, the Pacific Northwest, and three states, New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, which have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved.We observe that no single administrative structure for energy-efficiency programs has yet emerged in the US that is clearly superior to all of the other alternatives. We conclude that this is not likely to happen soon for three reasons. First, policy environments differ significantly among the states. Second, the structure and regulation of the electric utility industry differs among the regions of the US. Third, market transformation and resource acquisition, two program strategies that were once seen as alternatives, are increasingly coming to be seen as complements. Energy-efficiency programs going forward are likely to include elements of both strategies. But, the administrative arrangements that are best suited to support market transformation may be different from the arrangements that are best for resource acquisition.

  4. Industrial energy-efficiency improvement program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies is described. Practices which will improve energy efficiency, encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels, and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams are enumerated. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. A summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix is presented.

  5. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  6. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  8. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  9. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-06-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  10. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  11. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Lisa; Wei, Max; Morrow, William; Deason, Jeff; Schiller, Steven R.; Leventis, Greg; Smith, Sarah; Leow, Woei Ling; Levin, Todd; Plotkin, Steven; Zhou, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  12. Energy issues in desalination processes.

    PubMed

    Semiat, Raphael

    2008-11-15

    Water, energy, and environmental issues are closely related. New water techniques consume energy, and innovative renewable energy techniques using biofuels and biodiesel consume an incredible amount of water. Different desalination techniques that consume different energy levels from different sources are in use today. Some people, environmentalists, decision makers, and even scientists, mainly in nonscientific publications, consider energy consumption in desalination to be too high and are seeking new ways of reducing it, which often involves increasing capital investment. Efforts should be directed at reducing not only energy consumption but also total water cost. A competent grasp of thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer theory, as well as a proper understanding of current desalination processes, is essential for ensuring beneficial improvements in desalination processes. Thermodynamics sets the absolute minimum limit of the work energy required to separate water from a salt solution. Unavoidable irreversibilities augment the actual energy consumption, yet modern desalination techniques have succeeded in considerably narrowing the gap between actual and limiting energy levels. The implication of this smaller gap is that only marginal energy reductions are possible. The current energy consumption of different desalination processes is reviewed in this paper. A comparison with other common energy-consuming ventures leads to some interesting conclusions.

  13. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  14. RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

    2003-07-28

    This is the fourth quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. However, IEUA is preparing a Supplemental report that will be mailed to the Department of Energy (DOE) by August 1, 2003, that provides additional information regarding IEUA's plan to expedite certain project activities. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings, discussions, and engineering and design activities that took place to finalize the project scope of work and complete the Request for Proposal (RFP) for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. IEUA has decided to invite three more consulting engineering firms besides CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, to submit proposals for the design of the energy efficiency project. The proposals are currently in the evaluation phase and a decision is expected by the end of July. IEUA moved to its new headquarters building on June 13, 2003. The central plant is the system that supplies cooling and heating water to the headquarters building, and it primarily consists of equipment listed in the cooperative agreement under ''Chiller and Heater''. The central plant equipment was successfully installed and started. Other activities include gas analysis of three sources of low quality digester gas and foul air which could be used as fuel for an innovative flex microturbine. IEUA is also working with Stirling Energy Systems to determine if the Agency should be a host site for their equipment for testing the engine's operation on digester and natural gas. A matching funds update is also included in the Results and Discussion section, which presents the work effort performed by the PIER Consultant and the associated costs that serve as matching funds for the RP-5 Project during

  15. Marine Corps Energy: Instilling an Ethos of Energy Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Colonel David Dworak Department of Military Strategy, Planning , and...show Marines how planning and using energy more efficiently translates into greater combat effectiveness on the battlefield. For example, the E2O...their lack of expertise in energy planning and integration at all levels. To fill that gap, the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) developed a new program

  16. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    , it is either impossible or more costly to improve the energy efficiency. Therefore, by not expanding or upgrading energy efficiency standards, opportunities for saving energy would be lost. In the past two decades, standards have significantly raised the level of energy efficiency for new products. How much more might be gained by making standards more stringent on products already subject to them, or by extending standards to products not yet covered? The main goal of this study is to estimate key national impacts of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment. These impacts approximate the opportunity for national benefits that may be lost if standards are not upgraded and expanded from current levels. This study also identifies the end uses where the largest opportunities exist. This analysis was prepared for the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP). It uses an analytical approach that is similar in concept to that used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to set standard levels. It relies on much less data and uses more simplified assumptions than the detailed and complex formulations used in DOE's standard-setting process. The results of this analysis should thus be viewed as a first approximation of the impacts that would actually be achieved by new standards. All monetary values in this report are in 2002 dollars.

  17. 75 FR 12743 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Request for Information; Weatherization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Request for Information; Weatherization Assistance Program; Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Grants AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Program for residential buildings to include materials, benefits, and renewable and domestic energy...

  18. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO sub 2 laser beam welding

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Our previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals' absorptivity, the surface finish, and the laser wavelength, all play an important role in affecting the energy transfer efficiency, but the extent of their influence and our understanding of the influence of other process variables is not well understood. In addition, it is widely thought that only the LBW or EBW processes can be selected for applications where thermal damage and distortion from the welding process must be kept to a minimum. For these reasons, we have looked forward to performing these calorimetric experiments since they potentially can answer such important questions as: whether or not the melting efficiency of the LBW process is superior to that obtainable with conventional GTAW and PAW welding processes This study was prompted by poor production yields on switching device due to cracking of the ceramic header after final closure welding with the CO{sub 2} LBW process. This calorimetric study was begun in hopes of determining if allowed variations in production process control variables were responsible for increases in heat input and the resulting thermal stresses. By measuring the net heat input to the workpiece with the calorimeter and by measuring the laser output energy and the weld fusion zone size it was possible to determine the magnitudes of both the energy transfer efficiency and the melting efficiency as well as observe their dependence on the process variables. 3 refs.

  19. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power.

  20. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs—a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power. PMID:24043800

  1. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amy

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  2. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  3. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  4. Increasing the Energy Efficiency of the Process of Oscillating Vacuum-Conductive Drying of Wood by Means of a Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Khakimzyanov, I. F.; Mukhametzyanov, Sh. R.; Kainov, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    The article presents the results of investigations of the energy-saving technology of oscillating vacuum-conductive drying of wood in which the heat of the moisture evaporated from the material in the stage of vacuum treatment is fed by a heat pump for raising the temperature of the material in the stage of heating. A method for calculating the rate of moisture removal from a heated wood in the process of vacuum treatment depending on the vacuum depth, temperature, moisture content, and of the material thickness has been developed.

  5. Analysis on energy efficiency in healthcare buildings.

    PubMed

    García-Sanz-Calcedo, Justo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze and quantify the average healthcare centres' energy behavior and estimate the possibilities of savings through the use of concrete measures to reduce their energy demand in Extremadura, Spain. It provides the average energy consumption of 55 healthcare centres sized between 500 and 3,500 m². The analysis evaluated data of electricity and fossil fuel energy consumption as well as water use and other energy-consuming devices. The energy solutions proposed to improve the efficiency are quantified and listed. The average annual energy consumption of a healthcare centre is 86.01 kWh/m², with a standard deviation of 16.8 kWh/m². The results show that an annual savings of €4.77/m² is possible. The potential to reduce the energy consumption of a healthcare centre of size 1,000 m² is 10,801 kWh by making an average investment of €11,601, thus saving €2,961/year with an average payback of 3.92 years.

  6. Research on the energy and ecological efficiency of mechanical equipment remanufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Cheng, Jinshi; Ma, Qinyi; Wang, Yajun

    2017-08-01

    According to the characteristics of mechanical equipment remanufacturing system, the dynamic performance of energy consumption and emission is explored, the equipment energy efficiency and emission analysis model is established firstly, and then energy and ecological efficiency analysis method of the remanufacturing system is put forward, at last, the energy and ecological efficiency of WD615.87 automotive diesel engine remanufacturing system as an example is analyzed, the way of energy efficiency improvementnt and environmental friendly mechanism of remanufacturing process is put forward.

  7. Kyiv institutional buildings energy efficiency program: Draft procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Kyiv Institutional Buildings Energy Efficiency (KIBA) Project is being conducted to support the development of a program to improve the energy efficiency for heat and hot water provided by district heat in institutional (education, healthcare, and cultural) buildings owned and operated by State and Municipal Organizations in the City of Kyiv, Ukraine. KIBA is funded by the US Department of Energy and is being conducted in cooperation with the World Bank and the Ukrainian State Committee for Energy Conservation. This document provides a set of draft procedures for the installation of the efficiency measures to ensure that the quality of the installations is maximized and that cost is minimized. The procedures were developed as an integrated package to reflect the linkages that exist throughout the installation process.

  8. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

  9. Energy conversion and storage process

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, O.N.

    1982-01-26

    An energy conversion process is described for converting thermal energy into stored electrochemical energy and then into electrical energy comprising heating a first FeCl2-containing electrolyte melt to produce gaseous FeCl3 and a reductant product in a first chemical reaction, these reaction products being separated, cooled, optionally stored, and combined in a second FeCl2-containing electrolyte melt to cause a reaction to take place which is the reverse of said first reaction, thereby regenerating said first melt and producing heat and electrical energy.

  10. Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

  11. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  12. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    PubMed

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  13. Energy Efficient Engine acoustic supporting technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, S. P.; Ho, P. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic development of the Energy Efficient Engine combined testing and analysis using scale model rigs and an integrated Core/Low Spool demonstration engine. The scale model tests show that a cut-on blade/vane ratio fan with a large spacing (S/C = 2.3) is as quiet as a cut-off blade/vane ratio with a tighter spacing (S/C = 1.27). Scale model mixer tests show that separate flow nozzles are the noisiest, conic nozzles the quietest, with forced mixers in between. Based on projections of ICLS data the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) has FAR 36 margins of 3.7 EPNdB at approach, 4.5 EPNdB at full power takeoff, and 7.2 EPNdB at sideline conditions.

  14. New Methods of Energy Efficient Radon Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Wooley, J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Riley, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    Two new radon mitigation techniques are introduced and their evaluation in a field study complemented by numerical model predictions is described. Based on numerical predictions, installation of a sub gravel membrane at the study site resulted in a factor of two reduction in indoor radon concentrations. Experimental data indicated that installation of 'short-circuit' pipes extending between the subslab gravel and outdoors, caused an additional factor of two decrease in the radon concentration. Consequently, the combination of these two passive radon mitigation features, called the membrane and short-circuit (MASC) technique, was associated with a factor of four reduction in indoor radon concentration. The energy-efficient active radon mitigation method, called efficient active subslab pressurization (EASP), required only 20% of the fan energy of conventional active subslab depressurization and reduced the indoor radon concentration by approximately a factor of 15, including the numerically-predicted impact of the sub-gravel membrane.

  15. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  16. Results of NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciepluch, Carl C.; Davis, Donald Y.; Gray, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The major activity undertaken in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program has been completed. This paper reports on the progress made toward achieving the program goal of developing advanced technology to significantly reduce fuel consumption and operating costs of future subsonic transport-type propulsion systems. An additional goal was that the advanced concepts be compatible with future environmental regulations. Along with the results obtained, a brief overview of the design details of both the General Electric and Pratt and Whitney energy efficient engines and the overall program scope are presented. Overall, this program has been highly successful; the technology developed during its course is, and will continue to be, effectively employed in both current and future advance transport aircraft engine designs.

  17. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  18. Energy efficient membrane processes for the separation of organic liquids: Part 3 (Supplement report): Final report, September 28, 1982--December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cabasso, I.; Acharya, H.R.; Korngold, E.; Liu, Z.; Stern, S.A.; Li, W.; Makenzie, T.; Poda, E.

    1987-10-01

    In this supplemental report, two pilot plants are described. The first is air purge pervaporation (or air sweep pervaporation hollow fiber system) for the separation of azeotropic aqueous liquids. The second describes pilot plant construction and operation for the perstraction process. Several configurations for the air purge pervaporation process were studied and were shown to yield high purity products e.g., isopropanol from the azeotropic mixture with water was enriched to 99.9%. Parallel and U-module configuration were used and durability experiments up to 120 days were carried out successfully. The report describes the first successful low scale pilot plant unit and elements for perstraction process. The conclusion and outcome of this study are two fold. First, membrane systems in a pilot plant unit proved to be very efficient in upgrading nonpermeable components in a membrane system and especially when dealing with azeotropic mixtures. For example, more than 99% isopropanol can be produced from a feed liquid which is 88% i-PrOH (azeotropic mixture with water). The membrane system proved to be durable within the time limit of the experiments (120 days). Second, all parameters including the various configurations of the pilot plants (which are still being studied) are available for chemical, petroleum, and other US industries. 3 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  20. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  1. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2001-03-20

    For this study, we identified about 175 emerging energy-efficient technologies in industry, of which we characterized 54 in detail. While many profiles of individual emerging technologies are available, few reports have attempted to impose a standardized approach to the evaluation of the technologies. This study provides a way to review technologies in an independent manner, based on information on energy savings, economic, non-energy benefits, major market barriers, likelihood of success, and suggested next steps to accelerate deployment of each of the analyzed technologies. There are many interesting lessons to be learned from further investigation of technologies identified in our preliminary screening analysis. The detailed assessments of the 54 technologies are useful to evaluate claims made by developers, as well as to evaluate market potentials for the United States or specific regions. In this report we show that many new technologies are ready to enter the market place, or are currently under development, demonstrating that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity. Several technologies have reduced capital costs compared to the current technology used by those industries. Non-energy benefits such as these are frequently a motivating factor in bringing technologies such as these to market. Further evaluation of the profiled technologies is still needed. In particular, further quantifying the non-energy benefits based on the experience from technology users in the field is important. Interactive effects and inter-technology competition have not been accounted for and ideally should be included in any type of integrated technology scenario, for it may help to better evaluate market

  2. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  3. The Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Victoria

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency. The report covers critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  4. Energy Efficient Approach in RFID Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal; Salwani Yaacob, Siti

    2016-11-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is among the key technology of Internet of Things (IOT). It is a sensor device that can monitor, identify, locate and tracking physical objects via its tag. The energy in RFID is commonly being used unwisely because they do repeated readings on the same tag as long it resides in the reader vicinity. Repeated readings are unnecessary because it only generate duplicate data that does not contain new information. The reading process need to be schedule accordingly to minimize the chances of repeated readings to save the energy. This will reduce operational cost and can prolong the tag's battery lifetime that cannot be replaced. In this paper, we propose an approach named SELECT to minimize energy spent during reading processes. Experiments conducted shows that proposed algorithm contribute towards significant energy savings in RFID compared to other approaches.

  5. Energy Level Alignment in PCDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: Solution Processed NiOx for Improved Hole Collection and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, E. L.; Meyer, J.; Steirer, K. X.; Armstrong, N. R.; Olson, D.; Kahn, A.

    2012-05-01

    Solution-based NiO{sub x} outperforms PEDOT:PSS in device performance and stability when used as a hole-collection layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells formed with poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and PC70BM. The origin of the enhancement is clarified by studying the interfacial energy level alignment between PCDTBT or the 1:4 blended heterojunctions and PEDOT:PSS or NiO{sub x} using ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. The 1.6 eV electronic gap of PEDOT:PSS and energy level alignment with the BHJ result in poor hole selectivity of PEDOT:PSS and allows electron recombination at the PEDOT:PSS/BHJ interface. Conversely, the large band gap (3.7 eV) of NiO{sub x} and interfacial dipole (0.6 eV) with the organic active layer leads to a hole-selective interface. This interfacial dipole yields enhanced electron blocking properties by increasing the barrier to electron injection. The presence of such a strong dipole is predicted to further promote hole collection from the organic layer into the oxide, resulting in increased fill factor and short circuit current. An overall decrease in recombination is manifested in an increase in open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the device on NiO{sub x} versus PEDOT:PSS interlayers.

  6. Towards energy-efficient photonic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Yigit; Hardavellas, Nikos

    2015-03-01

    Silicon photonics have emerged as a promising solution to meet the growing demand for high-bandwidth, low-latency, and energy-efficient on-chip and off-chip communication in many-core processors. However, current silicon-photonic interconnect designs for many-core processors waste a significant amount of power because (a) lasers are always on, even during periods of interconnect inactivity, and (b) microring resonators employ heaters which consume a significant amount of power just to overcome thermal variations and maintain communication on the photonic links, especially in a 3D-stacked design. The problem of high laser power consumption is particularly important as lasers typically have very low energy efficiency, and photonic interconnects often remain underutilized both in scientific computing (compute-intensive execution phases underutilize the interconnect), and in server computing (servers in Google-scale datacenters have a typical utilization of less than 30%). We address the high laser power consumption by proposing EcoLaser+, which is a laser control scheme that saves energy by predicting the interconnect activity and opportunistically turning the on-chip laser off when possible, and also by scaling the width of the communication link based on a runtime prediction of the expected message length. Our laser control scheme can save up to 62 - 92% of the laser energy, and improve the energy efficiency of a manycore processor with negligible performance penalty. We address the high trimming (heating) power consumption of the microrings by proposing insulation methods that reduce the impact of localized heating induced by highly-active components on the 3D-stacked logic die.

  7. Saturation and energy-conversion efficiency of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Tsai, S. T.; Xu, M. J.; Shen, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-linear theory is used to study the saturation level of the auroral kilometric radiation. The investigation is based on the assumption that the emission is due to a cyclotron maser instability as suggested by Wu and Lee and Lee et al. The thermodynamic bound on the radiation energy is also estimated separately. The energy-conversion efficiency of the radiation process is discussed. The results are consistent with observations.

  8. Saturation and energy-conversion efficiency of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Tsai, S. T.; Xu, M. J.; Shen, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-linear theory is used to study the saturation level of the auroral kilometric radiation. The investigation is based on the assumption that the emission is due to a cyclotron maser instability as suggested by Wu and Lee and Lee et al. The thermodynamic bound on the radiation energy is also estimated separately. The energy-conversion efficiency of the radiation process is discussed. The results are consistent with observations.

  9. New Energy-efficient Snow production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyner, H.

    2009-04-01

    Artificial snow making is widely used in the Alps, mainly to compensate for missing snow cover. Since snow production requires both water and energy, it is necessary to develop new technologies in this field that optimise the production process. In particular in terms of energy consumption, new technologies are developed to minimize the use of energy and costs. The aims of this paper are to model the process of artificial snow making in the Swiss Alps. Several field and laboratory campaigns will be presented. The actual process of snow produciton, as it exits the snow canons and snow hoses and acummulates on the ground is modelled and validated with field and laboratory experiments. Amongst other techniques, infra-red meausurements show detailed temperature distributions. Techniques are demonstrated on how snow-making can be optimised.

  10. Thermal efficiency of arc welding processes

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    A study was conducted on the arc and melting efficiency of the plasma arc, gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, and submerged arc welding processes. The results of this work are extended to develop a quantitative method for estimating weld metal dilution in a companion paper. Arc efficiency was determined as a function of current for each process using A36 steel base metal. Melting efficiency was evaluated with variations in arc power and travel speed during deposition of austenitic stainless steel filler metal onto A36 steel substrates. The arc efficiency did not vary significantly within a given process over the range of currents investigated. A semi-empirical relation was developed for the melting efficiency as a function of net arc power and travel speed, which described the experimental data well. An interaction was observed between the arc and melting efficiency. A low arc efficiency factor limits the power delivered to the substrate which, in turn, limits the maximum travel speed for a given set of conditions. High melting efficiency is favored by high arc powers and travel speeds. As a result, a low arc efficiency can limit the maximum obtainable melting efficiency.

  11. Home financing for new and existing energy efficient homes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The video describes how the home federal savings and loan association in Rockford, IL, has developed lending standards for new conventional and solar homes. The nine standards are illustrated. The video follows the customer through the loan process, including an appraisal of energy efficient items, loan closing, and continuing education. The primary audience is savings and loan management personnel.

  12. Energy efficient industrial technology in Europe: A compendium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, A. G.; McGee, M. J.

    1982-05-01

    Energy efficient industrial technologies currently in use in Europe are described. Gas-fired equipment in West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom is emphasized. Some of these technologies are unique and some are currently available in the United States. Load management, cogeneration, heat recovery, and various industrial processes are discussed.

  13. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  14. Transportation energy use and efficiency in Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Hu, P.S.; Rose, A.B.

    1984-08-01

    This document constitutes a final report of research by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in collaboration with staff of the Ministry of National Economy, Government of Tunisia toward a complete evaluation of transportation energy use and efficiency in Tunisia. The report includes chapters on highway passenger, marine, and rail transportation which are substantially complete. Additional data on taxis, louages (intercity taxis) and privately owned large trucks remain to be gathered. Some key tables have been included. Data for an analysis of the air and pipeline modes were not collected. The major achievement of this report is a detailed analysis of the National Survey of Vehicle Energy Use, an extensive survey of automobiles and light trucks under 3.5 tonnes. Though the data have some significant shortcomings they provide valuable insights into the energy use and efficiencies of this most important transport mode. This study by no means exhausts the usefulness of this data base for energy use and conservation analysis. The National Survey will very likely serve as a valuable resource for research studies for years to come.

  15. Energy efficient alternatives to halogen torchieres

    SciTech Connect

    Siminovitch, M.; Marr, L.; Mitchell, J.; Page, E.

    1997-03-01

    A series of novel energy efficient torchiere systems have been developed using compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). These systems were studied photometrically and compared with the performance of traditional commercially available tungsten halogen sources. Gonio-photometric data and power assessments indicate that significant lighting energy savings can be obtained by utilizing CFL sources instead of standard tungsten halogen sources. This energy savings is jointly due to the higher source efficacy of the CFLs and the surprisingly poor performance of the imported 300 Watt halogen lamps. Experimental data shows that a 50 to 60 Watt CFL will effectively lumen match a variety of 300 Watt tungsten halogen sources with 5 to 10 times the efficacy. CFL torchieres have additional benefits of higher power quality and cooler lamp operating temperature, making them safer fixtures.

  16. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  17. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The.../energy, building on the Energy Star for Small Business Program, to assist small business concerns...

  18. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  19. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  20. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  1. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  2. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The.../energy, building on the Energy Star for Small Business Program, to assist small business concerns...

  3. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The.../energy, building on the Energy Star for Small Business Program, to assist small business concerns...

  4. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The.../energy, building on the Energy Star for Small Business Program, to assist small business concerns...

  5. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The.../energy, building on the Energy Star for Small Business Program, to assist small business concerns...

  6. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... model system of enforcement for DOE's energy efficiency standards. (4) Suggested sources, studies, and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 460 [Docket No. EERE-2009-BT-BC-0021] RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  7. Field study of energy-efficient showerheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, S.A.; Warwick, W.M.; Lauhala, A.J.; Hickman, C.H.; Dent, C.L.

    1992-09-01

    In August 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) initiated an energy-efficient showerhead performance assessment project. Approximately 98 homes are participating in this study. All are metered under the Regional End-Use Metering Program (REMP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Bonneville. Hourly pre- and post-retrofit electrical water heating consumption data will be analyzed using the REMP data archive. The goal of this study is to identify factors affecting energy savings from retrofit of energy-efficient shower heads which will be used to develop an ``algorithm`` to credit participants in retrofit programs with savings. This algorithm must be easy to apply, credible, and adoptable to conditions which may vary among utilities in Bonneville`s Pacific Northwest service area. This field data collection project was designed to collect information about site and occupant characteristics that may affect participation and performance. These data are used to verify or modify assumptions used in engineering models to project energy savings. Estimates of measure performance based on comparisons of energy use are not included in this paper because sufficient post-retrofit data is not yet available. Field data failed to confirm several critical assumptions used to project energy savings. Showerhead water flow rates and anticipated reductions from the retrofit measures were less than expected. Participation in this voluntary study was relatively low considering its risk- and cost-free design. Finally, barriers were encountered that prevented retrofits at some participating sites. The cumulative effect of all factors could reduce projected savings 70% over initial engineering estimates, if 100% participation is assumed.

  8. Field study of energy-efficient showerheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, S.A.; Warwick, W.M.; Lauhala, A.J. ); Hickman, C.H. ); Dent, C.L. )

    1992-09-01

    In August 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) initiated an energy-efficient showerhead performance assessment project. Approximately 98 homes are participating in this study. All are metered under the Regional End-Use Metering Program (REMP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Bonneville. Hourly pre- and post-retrofit electrical water heating consumption data will be analyzed using the REMP data archive. The goal of this study is to identify factors affecting energy savings from retrofit of energy-efficient shower heads which will be used to develop an algorithm'' to credit participants in retrofit programs with savings. This algorithm must be easy to apply, credible, and adoptable to conditions which may vary among utilities in Bonneville's Pacific Northwest service area. This field data collection project was designed to collect information about site and occupant characteristics that may affect participation and performance. These data are used to verify or modify assumptions used in engineering models to project energy savings. Estimates of measure performance based on comparisons of energy use are not included in this paper because sufficient post-retrofit data is not yet available. Field data failed to confirm several critical assumptions used to project energy savings. Showerhead water flow rates and anticipated reductions from the retrofit measures were less than expected. Participation in this voluntary study was relatively low considering its risk- and cost-free design. Finally, barriers were encountered that prevented retrofits at some participating sites. The cumulative effect of all factors could reduce projected savings 70% over initial engineering estimates, if 100% participation is assumed.

  9. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

    2010-08-11

    With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and

  10. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation.

  11. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  12. 75 FR 69655 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28640] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the...

  13. 76 FR 80355 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Doc No: 2011-32912] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of... the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92...

  14. 78 FR 29749 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Submission for Office of... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE- 2G), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  15. Curvature Filters Efficiently Reduce Certain Variational Energies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuanhao; Sbalzarini, Ivo F

    2017-04-01

    In image processing, the rapid approximate solution of variational problems involving generic data-fitting terms is often of practical relevance, for example in real-time applications. Variational solvers based on diffusion schemes or the Euler-Lagrange equations are too slow and restricted in the types of data-fitting terms. Here, we present a filter-based approach to reduce variational energies that contain generic data-fitting terms, but are restricted to specific regularizations. Our approach is based on reducing the regularization part of the variational energy, while guaranteeing non-increasing total energy. This is applicable to regularization-dominated models, where the data-fitting energy initially increases, while the regularization energy initially decreases. We present fast discrete filters for regularizers based on Gaussian curvature, mean curvature, and total variation. These pixel-local filters can be used to rapidly reduce the energy of the full model. We prove the convergence of the resulting iterative scheme in a greedy sense, and we show several experiments to demonstrate applications in image-processing problems involving regularization-dominated variational models.

  16. Quantum Coherence in Photosynthesis for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Elisabet; Augulis, Ramunas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Ferretti, Marco; Thieme, Jos; Zigmantas, Donatas; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2014-09-01

    The crucial step in the conversion of solar to chemical energy in Photosynthesis takes place in the reaction center where the absorbed excitation energy is converted into a stable charge separated state by ultrafast electron transfer events. However, the fundamental mechanism responsible for the near unity quantum efficiency of this process is unknown. Here we elucidate the role of coherence in determining the efficiency of charge separation in the plant photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC) by comprehensively combining experiment (two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy) and theory (Redfield theory). We reveal the presence of electronic coherence between excitons as well as between exciton and charge transfer states which we argue to be maintained by vibrational modes. Furthermore, we present evidence for the strong correlation between the degree of electronic coherence and efficient and ultrafast charge separation. We propose that this coherent mechanism will inspire the development of new energy technologies.

  17. Quantum Coherence in Photosynthesis for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Elisabet; Augulis, Ramunas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Ferretti, Marco; Thieme, Jos; Zigmantas, Donatas; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    The crucial step in the conversion of solar to chemical energy in Photosynthesis takes place in the reaction center where the absorbed excitation energy is converted into a stable charge separated state by ultrafast electron transfer events. However, the fundamental mechanism responsible for the near unity quantum efficiency of this process is unknown. Here we elucidate the role of coherence in determining the efficiency of charge separation in the plant photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC) by comprehensively combining experiment (two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy) and theory (Redfield theory). We reveal the presence of electronic coherence between excitons as well as between exciton and charge transfer states which we argue to be maintained by vibrational modes. Furthermore, we present evidence for the strong correlation between the degree of electronic coherence and efficient and ultrafast charge separation. We propose that this coherent mechanism will inspire the development of new energy technologies. PMID:26870153

  18. Investigation into dyeing acceleration efficiency of ultrasound energy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Deshuai; Guo, Qingjie; Liu, Xin

    2010-04-01

    The acceleration efficiency of ultrasound was investigated by different application of ultrasound during dyeing process in an ultrasound cleaner. Actual energy dissipated into the dyeing bath was measured to ensure the formation of ultrasound cavatiation. The experimental findings showed ultrasound pretreatment could improve slightly the dye exhaustion and fixation, but failed to improve fastness of dyed fabrics. Obvious enhancement effects on dye exhaustion and fixation were achieved in continuous and intermittent ultrasound dyeing processes, and slight improvement effects on some fastness properties of fabrics dyed in ultrasound fields were observed. A comparison of the efficiencies in two ultrasound dyeing processes revealed the dyeing process in intermittent ultrasound field would benefit to making full use of ultrasound energy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Theoretical efficiency limits for thermoradiative energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-02-07

    A new method to produce electricity from heat called thermoradiative energy conversion is analyzed. The method is based on sustaining a difference in the chemical potential for electron populations above and below an energy gap and let this difference drive a current through an electric circuit. The difference in chemical potential originates from an imbalance in the excitation and de-excitation of electrons across the energy gap. The method has similarities to thermophotovoltaics and conventional photovoltaics. While photovoltaic cells absorb thermal radiation from a body with higher temperature than the cell itself, thermoradiative cells are hot during operation and emit a net outflow of photons to colder surroundings. A thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.25 eV at a temperature of 500 K in surroundings at 300 K is found to have a theoretical efficiency limit of 33.2%. For a high-temperature thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.4 eV, a theoretical efficiency close to 50% is found while the cell produces 1000 W/m{sup 2} has a temperature of 1000 K and is placed in surroundings with a temperature of 300 K. Some aspects related to the practical implementation of the concept are discussed and some challenges are addressed. It is, for example, obvious that there is an upper boundary for the temperature under which solid state devices can work properly over time. No conclusions are drawn with regard to such practical boundaries, because the work is aimed at establishing upper limits for ideal thermoradiative devices.

  20. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4...

  1. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4...

  2. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANOPR); request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has...

  3. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey Engineers; Mathew, Paul; Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale; Rumsey, Peter; Weale, John

    2008-04-10

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 [1] by at least 30%. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If not, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. This article describes key energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, which have been developed and applied to several laboratory buildings--both for design and operation. In addition to traditional whole building energy use metrics (e.g. BTU/ft{sup 2}.yr, kWh/m{sup 2}.yr), the article describes HVAC system metrics (e.g. ventilation W/cfm, W/L.s{sup -1}), which can be used to identify the presence or absence of energy features and opportunities during design and operation.

  4. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - State Energy Program Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    State energy offices use SEP funds to develop state plans that identify opportunities for adopting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, and implementing programs to improve energy sustainability.

  5. Energy Efficient Transport - Technology in hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, D. B.; Bartlett, D. W.; Hood, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    Technologies developed through NASA's Energy Efficient Transport Program are described. The program was charged with research in advanced aerodynamics and active controls, with the goal of increasing the fuel efficiency of transport aircraft by 15 to 20 percent. Research in aerodynamics was directed toward the development of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings, winglets, computational design methodology, high-lift devices, propulsion airframe integration, and surface coatings. The active control portion of the program investigated Wing Load Alleviation (WLA) through the use of active controls, drag reduction, and the effect of active pitch controls on fuel consumption. It was found that applying active control functions at the beginning of the aircraft design cycle brings the best benefit, and that if active control and advanced aerodynamic airframe configurations are applied to transport aircraft design concurrently with new lightweight materials, fuel consumption can be reduced by as much as 40 percent.

  6. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  7. Realizing Efficient Energy Harvesting from Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yunlong

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are emerging field of research in renewable energy. The development of OPVs in recent years has made this technology viable for many niche applications. In order to realize widespread application however, the power conversion efficiency requires further improvement. The efficiency of an OPV depends on the short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF). For state-of-the-art devices, JSC is mostly optimized with the application of novel low-bandgap materials and a bulk heterojunction device architecture (internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%). The remaining limiting factors are the low VOC and FF. This work focuses on overcoming these bottlenecks for improved efficiency. Temperature dependent measurements of device performance are used to examine both charge transfer and exciton ionization process in OPVs. The results permit an improved understanding of the intrinsic limit for VOC in various device architectures and provide insight on device operation. Efforts have also been directed at engineering device architecture for optimized FF, realizing a very high efficiency of 8% for vapor deposited small molecule OPVs. With collaborators, new molecules with tailored desired energy levels are being designed for further improvements in efficiency. A new type of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite material is also included in this study. By addressing processing issues and anomalous hysteresis effects, a very high efficiency of 19.1% is achieved. Moving forward, topics including engineering film crystallinity, exploring tandem architectures and understanding degradation mechanisms will further push OPVs toward broad commercialization.

  8. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  9. Energy efficient contextual sensing for elderly care.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Dinesh; Estevez, Leonardo; Rao, Shekar

    2007-01-01

    Technology assisted safe living has great potential in revolutionizing the way healthcare is provided to elderly and needy population. A wireless sensor network (WSN) based system for sensing and reporting events based on context is presented in this paper. It is demonstrated that by proper use of architectures for supporting WSNs and by exploiting very recent technological advances, it is now possible to build and deploy extremely energy efficient systems with very long and dependable battery life. The system evolves over most existing approaches by highly localizing the computations for detecting events and transmitting only positive events where care providers may need to be alerted.

  10. Aerodynamics/ACEE: aircraft energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  11. Energy efficiency improvements in Chinese compressed airsystems

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Li, Li; Li, Yuqi; Taranto, T.

    2007-06-01

    Industrial compressed air systems use more than 9 percent ofall electricity used in China. Experience in China and elsewhere hasshown that these systems can be much more energy efficient when viewed asa whole system and rather than as isolated components.This paper presentsa summary and analysis of several compressed air system assessments.Through these assessments, typical compressed air management practices inChina are analyzed. Recommendations are made concerning immediate actionsthat China s enterprises can make to improve compressed air systemefficiency using best available technology and managementstrategies.

  12. Energy Efficient Engine: Combustor component performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Combustor Component Performance analysis as developed under the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) program are presented. This study was conducted to demonstrate the aerothermal and environmental goals established for the EEE program and to identify areas where refinements might be made to meet future combustor requirements. In this study, a full annular combustor test rig was used to establish emission levels and combustor performance for comparison with those indicated by the supporting technology program. In addition, a combustor sector test rig was employed to examine differences in emissions and liner temperatures obtained during the full annular performance and supporting technology tests.

  13. Magnetocaloric materials for energy efficient cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubina, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Solid-state magnetic cooling near room temperature has recently gained a prominent position among alternative cooling technologies that are deemed to have higher energy efficiency compared to vapour compression. This prospect has surged a rapid growth of the area of magnetocaloric materials. Although several breakthroughs were achieved, the extensive study revealed a number of challenges in the effective deployment of the magnetic refrigerants. This review focuses on fundamentally and technologically relevant aspects of the cooling with magnetocaloric materials. A critical evaluation of magnetic refrigerants and progress made in improvement of their performance is provided. Future development trends in the field of materials for the solid state cooling are highlighted.

  14. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  15. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes were investigated. A new generation on nonplanar oscillator was fabricated, and it is anticipated that passive linewidths will be pushed to the kilohertz regime. A number of diode-pumped laser transitions were demonstrated in the rod configuration. Second-harmonic conversion efficiencies as high as 15% are routinely obtained in a servo-locked external resonant doubling crystal at 15 mW cw input power levels at 1064 nm.

  16. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  17. New concept in grinding for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    The objective was to assess the potential energy savings of a laboratory-scale, conveyor-belt-type autogenous (new-concept) mill and compare its performance to a 5.5-ft diameter conventional autogenous mill. The project included provisions for the design, construction, and field testing of a pilot-scale, new-concept mill and technology transfer activities. Comparative tests with the laboratory-scale, new-concept and conventional mills, using taconite ore, revealed the new-concept mill as inefficient in terms of process and mechanical energy requirements.

  18. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  19. Healthcare Energy Efficiency Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Douglas R.; Lai, Judy; Lanzisera, Steven M; Parrish, Kristen D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-01-31

    Hospitals are known to be among the most energy intensive commercial buildings in California. Estimates of energy end-uses (e.g. for heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) in hospitals are uncertain for lack of information about hospital-specific mechanical system operations and process loads. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a benchmarking system designed specifically for hospitals. Version 1.0 featured metrics to assess energy performance for the broad variety of ventilation and thermal systems that are present in California hospitals. It required moderate to extensive sub-metering or supplemental monitoring. In this new project, we developed a companion handbook with detailed equations that can be used toconvert data from energy and other sensors that may be added to or already part of hospital heating, ventilation and cooling systems into metrics described in the benchmarking document.This report additionally includes a case study and guidance on including metering into designs for new hospitals, renovations and retrofits. Despite widespread concern that this end-use is large and growing, there is limited reliable information about energy use by distributed medical equipment and other miscellaneouselectrical loads in hospitals. This report proposes a framework for quantifying aggregate energy use of medical equipment and miscellaneous loads. Novel approaches are suggested and tried in an attempt to obtain data to support this framework.

  20. A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

    1996-09-24

    This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.