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Sample records for energy electron-neutrino scattering

  1. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, Q2. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in Q2 from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generator. We furthermore report on a photon-like background unpredicted by the generator which we interpret as neutral-coherent diffractive scattering from hydrogen.

  2. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, J.

    2015-12-31

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generator. We furthermore report on a photon-like background unpredicted by the generator which we interpret as neutral-coherent diffractive scattering from hydrogen.

  3. Measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon at $\\langle E_{\

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, J.

    2016-02-25

    The first direct measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has been carried out using the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The flux-integrated differential cross sections in the electron production angle, electron energy, and Q2 are presented. The ratio of the quasielastic, flux-integrated differential cross section in Q2 for νe with that of similarly selected νμ-induced events from the same exposure is used to probe assumptions that underpin conventional treatments of charged-current νe interactions used by long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Furthermore, the data are found to be consistent with lepton universality and are well described by the predictions of the neutrino event generator GENIE.

  4. Measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon at $$\\langle E_{\

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, J.

    2016-02-25

    The first direct measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has been carried out using the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The flux-integrated differential cross sections in the electron production angle, electron energy, and Q2 are presented. The ratio of the quasielastic, flux-integrated differential cross section in Q2 for νe with that of similarly selected νμ-induced events from the same exposure is used to probe assumptions that underpin conventional treatments of charged-current νe interactions used by long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Furthermore, the data are found tomore » be consistent with lepton universality and are well described by the predictions of the neutrino event generator GENIE.« less

  5. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-10-28

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  6. Measurement of Electron Neutrino Quasielastic and Quasielasticlike Scattering on Hydrocarbon at ⟨E_{ν}⟩=3.6  GeV.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, J; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; Chvojka, J; da Motta, H; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Díaz, G A; Eberly, B; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Gago, A M; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Ghosh, A; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfín, J G; Mousseau, J; Muhlbeier, T; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Osta, J; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Salazar, G; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Solano Salinas, C J; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wospakrik, M; Zavala, G; Zegarra, A; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2016-02-26

    The first direct measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has been carried out using the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The flux-integrated differential cross sections in the electron production angle, electron energy, and Q^{2} are presented. The ratio of the quasielastic, flux-integrated differential cross section in Q^{2} for ν_{e} with that of similarly selected ν_{μ}-induced events from the same exposure is used to probe assumptions that underpin conventional treatments of charged-current ν_{e} interactions used by long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The data are found to be consistent with lepton universality and are well described by the predictions of the neutrino event generator GENIE.

  7. Measurement of Electron Neutrino Quasielastic and Quasielasticlike Scattering on Hydrocarbon at ⟨Eν⟩=3.6 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Salazar, G.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zegarra, A.; Zhang, D.; Ziemer, B. P.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    The first direct measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielasticlike scattering on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has been carried out using the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The flux-integrated differential cross sections in the electron production angle, electron energy, and Q2 are presented. The ratio of the quasielastic, flux-integrated differential cross section in Q2 for νe with that of similarly selected νμ-induced events from the same exposure is used to probe assumptions that underpin conventional treatments of charged-current νe interactions used by long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The data are found to be consistent with lepton universality and are well described by the predictions of the neutrino event generator GENIE.

  8. First Observation of Low Energy Electron Neutrinos in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2016-10-13

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  9. Measurement of the Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section for Electron Neutrinos on a Hydrocarbon Target

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments, which observe the transition from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, promise to help answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding physics in the post-Standard-Model era. Because they wish to observe the interactions of electron neutrinos in their detectors, and because the power of current results is typically limited by their systematic uncertainties, these experiments require precise estimates of the cross-section for electron neutrino interactions. Of particular interest is the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) process, which gures signi cantly in the composition of the reactions observed at the far detector. However, no experimental measurements of this crosssection currently exist for electron neutrinos; instead, current experiments typically work from the abundance of muon neutrino CCQE cross-section data and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for electron neutrinos. Veri cation of these predictions is challenging due to the di culty of constructing an electron neutrino beam, but the advent of modern high-intensity muon neutrino beams|together with the percent-level electron neutrino impurity inherent in these beams| nally presents the opportunity to make such a measurement. We report herein the rst-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering, which was made using the MINER A detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE di erential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: nal-state electron angle, nal-state electron energy, and the square of the fourmomentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino , Q2. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE

  10. Observation of Electron Neutrino Appearance in a Muon Neutrino Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Floetotto, L.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L. J.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    The T2K experiment has observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam produced 295 km from the Super-Kamiokande detector with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. A total of 28 electron neutrino events were detected with an energy distribution consistent with an appearance signal, corresponding to a significance of 7.3σ when compared to 4.92±0.55 expected background events. In the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing model, the electron neutrino appearance signal depends on several parameters including three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, a mass difference Δm322 and a CP violating phase δCP. In this neutrino oscillation scenario, assuming |Δm322|=2.4×10-3 eV2, sin2θ23=0.5, and Δm322>0 (Δm322<0), a best-fit value of sin22θ13=0.140-0.032+0.038 (0.170-0.037+0.045) is obtained at δCP=0. When combining the result with the current best knowledge of oscillation parameters including the world average value of θ13 from reactor experiments, some values of δCP are disfavored at the 90% C.L.

  11. Observation of electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F D M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Floetotto, L; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L J; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2014-02-14

    The T2K experiment has observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam produced 295 km from the Super-Kamiokande detector with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. A total of 28 electron neutrino events were detected with an energy distribution consistent with an appearance signal, corresponding to a significance of 7.3σ when compared to 4.92±0.55 expected background events. In the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing model, the electron neutrino appearance signal depends on several parameters including three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, a mass difference Δm(32)(2) and a CP violating phase δ(CP). In this neutrino oscillation scenario, assuming |Δm(32)(2)|=2.4×10(-3)  eV(2), sin(2)θ(23)=0.5, and Δm322>0 (Δm(32)(2)<0), a best-fit value of sin(2)2θ(13)=0.140(-0.032)(+0.038) (0.170(-0.037)(+0.045)) is obtained at δ(CP)=0. When combining the result with the current best knowledge of oscillation parameters including the world average value of θ(13) from reactor experiments, some values of δ(CP) are disfavored at the 90% C.L.

  12. Evidence of electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Abgrall, N.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Beznosko, D.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Boyd, S.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Brook-Roberge, D. G.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Curioni, A.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dobson, J.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziomba, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Frank, E.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Jung, C. K.; Kaboth, A.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khanam, F.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, S. B.; Kirby, B.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Kogan, G.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kowalik, K.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Laing, A.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lim, I. T.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, G. D.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marchionni, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Masliah, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; McLachlan, T.; Messina, M.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nicholls, T. C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Obayashi, Y.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Pac, M. Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2013-08-01

    The T2K Collaboration reports evidence for electron neutrino appearance at the atmospheric mass splitting, |Δm322|≈2.4×10-3eV2. An excess of electron neutrino interactions over background is observed from a muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV at the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector 295 km from the beam’s origin. Signal and background predictions are constrained by data from near detectors located 280 m from the neutrino production target. We observe 11 electron neutrino candidate events at the SK detector when a background of 3.3±0.4(syst) events is expected. The background-only hypothesis is rejected with a p value of 0.0009 (3.1σ), and a fit assuming νμ→νe oscillations with sin⁡22θ23=1, δCP=0 and |Δm322|=2.4×10-3eV2 yields sin⁡22θ13=0.088-0.039+0.049(stat+syst).

  13. Inelastic neutrino scattering off stable even-even Mo isotopes at low and intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasi, K. G.; Kosmas, T. S.; Divari, P. C.

    2010-04-01

    Inelastic neutrino scattering cross sections for the even-even Mo isotopes (contents of the MOON detector at Japan), at low and intermediate electron neutrino energies ( ɛi≤100 MeV), are calculated. MOON is a next-generation double beta and neutrino-less double-beta-decay experiment which is also a promising facility for low-energy neutrino detection. The nuclear wave functions required in this work have been constructed in the context of the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) and the results presented refer to 92Mo, 94Mo, 96Mo, 98Mo and 100Mo isotopes.

  14. Short-BaseLine Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  15. Interaction of electron neutrino with LSD detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Semenov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of electron neutrino flux, originating in the rotational collapse mechanism on the first stage of Supernova burst, with the LSD detector components, such as 56Fe (a large amount of this metal is included in as shielding material) and liquid scintillator barNnH2n+2, is being investigated. Both charged and neutral channels of neutrino reaction with 12barN and 56Fe are considered. Experimental data, giving the possibility to extract information for nuclear matrix elements calculation are used. The number of signals, produced in LSD by the neutrino pulse of Supernova 1987A is determined. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Herald W.

    2011-12-01

    Personal perspective and recollections by the author discuss the Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino at a Savannah River reactor in 1956. First presented at the Neutrino Santa Fe 2006 Conference.

  17. On the measurement of the electron-neutrino correlation in neutron beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to the measurement of A, the electron-neutrino correlation, in neutron beta decay is presented. A precise measurement of A can lead to a precise determination of G{sub A}/G{sub V}. Coincidences between electrons and protons are detected in a field-expansion spectrometer. Both electrons and protons are detected in segmented Si detectors. The spectrometer configuration has a long, {approx} 1 meter, drift distance for the proton. The electron energy and time of flight between the electron and proton are measured. We show that by sorting the data on proton time of flight and electron energy, A can be determined with a statistical accuracy of {approx} 5.1/{radical}n, where n is the number of decays observed. The approach has a number of advantages. Thin-dead-layer segmented Si detectors are commercially available. There are no material apertures to determine the acceptance of the apparatus. The charged particles interact only with electric and magnetic fields before striking the detectors. Coincident detection of electrons and protons reduces backgrounds, and allows the in situ determination of backgrounds. In the analysis, it is not necessary to sort on the relative electron and proton direction and hence electron back scattering does not cause systematic uncertainties. A time of flight spectrum is obtained for each electron energy. Different parts of the spectra have different sensitivities to A. The parts of the spectra that are insensitive to A can be used to verify the accuracy of the electric and magnetic field determinations.

  18. Measurement of the Inclusive Electron Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section on Carbon with the T2K Near Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    The T2K off-axis near detector ND280 is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ˜1 GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle, and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged νe charged current cross section on carbon is measured to be ⟨σ ⟩ϕ =1.11 ±0.10 (stat)±0.18 (syst)×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon . The differential and total cross-section measurements agree with the predictions of two leading neutrino interaction generators, NEUT and GENIE. The NEUT prediction is 1.23 ×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon and the GENIE prediction is 1.08 ×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon . The total νe charged current cross-section result is also in agreement with data from the Gargamelle experiment.

  19. Measurement of the inclusive electron neutrino charged current cross section on carbon with the T2K near detector.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2014-12-12

    The T2K off-axis near detector ND280 is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ∼1  GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle, and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged ν(e) charged current cross section on carbon is measured to be ⟨σ⟩(ϕ)=1.11±0.10(stat)±0.18(syst)×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The differential and total cross-section measurements agree with the predictions of two leading neutrino interaction generators, NEUT and GENIE. The NEUT prediction is 1.23×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon and the GENIE prediction is 1.08×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The total ν(e) charged current cross-section result is also in agreement with data from the Gargamelle experiment.

  20. Observation of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the NuMI Beam with the NOvA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Niner, Evan David

    2015-01-01

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two functionally identical detectors separated by 810 kilometers at locations 14 milliradians off-axis from the NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab. At these locations the beam energy peaks at 2 GeV. This baseline is the longest in the world for an accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment, which enhances the sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering. The experiment studies oscillations of the muon neutrino and anti-neutrino beam that is produced. Both detectors completed commissioning in the summer of 2014 and continue to collect data. One of the primary physics goals of the experiment is the measurement of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam which yields measurements of the oscillation parameters sin213, δ , and the neutrino mass ordering within the standard model of neutrino oscillations. This thesis presents the analysis of data collected between February 2014 and May 2015, corresponding to 3.52 X 1020 protons-on-target. In this first analysis NOvA recorded 6 electron neutrino candidates, which is a 3.3σ observation of electron neutrino appearance. The T2K experiment performs the same measurement on a baseline of 295 kilometers and has a 1 σ preference for the normal mass ordering over the inverted ordering over the phase space of the CP violating parameter δ, which is also weakly seen in the NOvA result. By the summer of 2016 NOvA will triple its statistics due to increased beam power and a completed detector. If electron neutrinos continue to be observed at the current rate NOvA will be able to establish a mass ordering preference at a similar confidence level to T2K.

  1. An experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a cryogenic tritium source

    SciTech Connect

    Fackler, O.; Jeziorski, B.; Kolos, W.; Monkhorst, H.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; Szalewicz, K.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-06-25

    An experiment has been performed to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations have been made for tritium and the HeT/sup +/ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. The excited final molecular state calculations and the experimental apparatus are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a frozen tritium source

    SciTech Connect

    Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-03-01

    We are performing an experiment to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations can be precisely made for tritium and the HeT/sup +/ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. We discuss the excited final molecular state calculations and describe the experimental apparatus. 2 references, 6 figures.

  3. MiniBooNE: first results on the muon-to-electron neutrino oscillation search

    SciTech Connect

    Sorel, M.; /Columbia U.

    2007-10-01

    MiniBooNE's first results on a search for an electron neutrino excess in a muon neutrino beam are presented, together with an analysis of the data within a two neutrino {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance-only oscillation context. MiniBooNE finds excellent agreement between data and Standard Model predictions in the oscillation analysis energy region. If neutrino and antineutrino oscillations are the same, MiniBooNE excludes at {approx} 98% confidence level the two neutrino {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance-only oscillation interpretation of the LSND anomaly. MiniBooNE also finds a discrepancy at energies below the oscillation analysis range, which is currently not understood and under investigation.

  4. Stochastic methods for zero energy quantum scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Justus H.; Mall, Hubertus R.; Lenz, Stefan

    1998-02-01

    We investigate the use of stochastic methods for zero energy quantum scattering based on a path integral approach. With the application to the scattering of a projectile from a nuclear many-body target in mind, we use the potential scattering of a particle as a test for the accuracy and efficiency of several methods. To be able to deal with complex potentials, we introduce a path sampling action and a modified scattering observable. The approaches considered are the random walk, where the points of a path are sequentially generated, and the Langevin algorithm, which updates an entire path. Several improvements are investigated. A cluster algorithm for dealing with scattering problems is finally proposed, which shows the best accuracy and stability.

  5. Short-baseline electron neutrino oscillation length after the Troitsk experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Long, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the implications for short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance in the 3+1 mixing scheme of the recent Troitsk bounds on the mixing of a neutrino with mass between 2 and 100 eV. Considering the Troitsk data in combination with the results of short-baseline νe and ν¯e disappearance experiments, which include the reactor and Gallium anomalies, we derive a 2σ allowed range for the effective neutrino squared-mass difference between 0.85 and 43eV2. The upper bound implies that it is likely that oscillations in distance and/or energy can be observed in radioactive source experiments. It is also favorable for the ICARUS@CERN experiment, in which it is likely that oscillations are not washed out in the near detector. We discuss also the implications for neutrinoless double-β decay.

  6. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, J.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  7. Energy conservation - A test for scattering approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquista, C.; Holland, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The roles of the extinction theorem and energy conservation in obtaining the scattering and absorption cross sections for several light scattering approximations are explored. It is shown that the Rayleigh, Rayleigh-Gans, anomalous diffraction, geometrical optics, and Shifrin approximations all lead to reasonable values of the cross sections, while the modified Mie approximation does not. Further examination of the modified Mie approximation for the ensembles of nonspherical particles reveals additional problems with that method.

  8. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce a.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  9. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-21

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ→νν-bar,τ{sup +}τ{sup −},bb-bar, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV. If the νν-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  10. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νν-bar , τ{sup +}τ{sup −}, b b-bar , we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νν-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  11. Unitarization and low-energy scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, P. C.; Robilotta, M. R.

    2014-07-01

    A procedure based on the well-known K-matrix formalism is presented, which makes patterns in inelastic regions of low-energy scattering data considerably more transparent. It relies on the use of an empirical kernel, obtained by eliminating elastic loops from the experimental amplitude. This allows structures associated with resonances, such as locations, widths, and heights, to become visible with the naked eye. The method is illustrated with a study of the P-wave Kπ amplitude.

  12. Low Energy Electron Scattering from Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, M. C. A.; Silva, D. G. M.; Bettega, M. H. F.; da Costa, R. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; Khakoo, M. A.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand and optimize processes occurring during the ignition of plasma and its consequences in post-discharge for an internal combustion engine, especially considering the spark plug, we have produced in this work some basic information necessary to modeling spark ignition in alcohol- fuelled engines. Total cross sections of electron scattering by methanol and ethanol molecules in the energy range from 60 to 500 eV are reported, using the linear transmission method based on the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Aditionally to that, measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering were also discussed, for impact energies of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 100 eV and for scattering angles of 5°-130°. The measurements were obtained using the relative flow method with an aperture source, and calculations using two different implementations of the Schwinger multichannel method, one that takes all electrons into account and is adapted for parallel computers, and another that uses pseudopotentials and considers only the valence electrons.

  13. Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, W.R.; Ai, L.; Kaufmann, W.B.

    1998-02-01

    An analysis of low-energy charged pion-nucleon data from recent {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}p experiments is presented. From the scattering lengths and the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule we find a value of the pion-nucleon coupling constant of f{sup 2}=0.0756{plus_minus}0.0007. We also find, contrary to most previous analyses, that the scattering volumes for the P{sub 31} and P{sub 13} partial waves are equal, within errors, corresponding to a symmetry found in the Hamiltonian of many theories. For the potential models used, the amplitudes are extrapolated into the subthreshold region to estimate the value of the {Sigma} term. Off-shell amplitudes are also provided. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, W. R.; Ai, Li; Kaufmann, W. B.

    1998-02-01

    An analysis of low-energy charged pion-nucleon data from recent π+/-p experiments is presented. From the scattering lengths and the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule we find a value of the pion-nucleon coupling constant of f2=0.0756+/-0.0007. We also find, contrary to most previous analyses, that the scattering volumes for the P31 and P13 partial waves are equal, within errors, corresponding to a symmetry found in the Hamiltonian of many theories. For the potential models used, the amplitudes are extrapolated into the subthreshold region to estimate the value of the Σ term. Off-shell amplitudes are also provided.

  15. Low Energy Electron Scattering from Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.

    2012-06-01

    We report an investigation of processes that occur during the ignition of the plasma and its consequences in post-discharge time for an internal combustion engine, in order to find the appropriate parameters to be used in cars that operate with lean mixtures air-fuel. The relevance of this theme has attracted much attention, and has been one of the subjects of collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. We have produced some basic information necessary to modeling spark ignition in alcohol- fuelled engines. Total cross sections of electron scattering by methanol and ethanol molecules were obtained, using the linear transmission method based on the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering were also obtained, for scattering angles of 5 --130 . The measurements were taken using the relative flow method with an aperture source, and calculations using two different implementations of the Schwinger multichannel method, one that takes all electrons into account and is adapted for parallel computers, and another that uses pseudopotentials and considers only the valence electrons. Additionally to these, computer simulation studies of electronic discharge in mixtures of ethanol were performed, using a Zero-Dimensional Plasma Kinetic solver. Previous reported models for combustion of ethanol and cross sections data for momentum transfer of electron collisions with ethanol were used. The time evolutions of the main species densities are reported and the ignition time delay discussed.

  16. Experimental evidence of electron neutrino oscillations and validation of MSW-LMA model with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzini, M. Buizza

    2011-04-01

    We report the real time measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrino fluxes performed with the Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The achievement of these measurements was possible thanks to the excellent levels of the radiopurity reached. The measurement of the 7Be in real time is the first direct measurements of the survival probability for solar electron neutrinos in the vacuum region. For 8B we reached a threshold energy of 3MeV which is the lowest achieved so far in real time. For the first time, the same apparatus can measure two different oscillation regions (vacuum-driven and matter-enhanced) predicted by the MSW-LMA model. Borexino also quotes the ratio between the survival probabilities, corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.75, and validates the presence of the transition region between the two oscillation regimes, according to the MSW-LMA solution.In addition, a preliminary result on the Day-Night Asymmetry (ADN) for the 7Be neutrino flux is presented and corresponds to 0.007 ± 0.073. This measurement makes Borexino able to give once more an independent confirmation of the MSW-LMA solution.

  17. Properties of scattering amplitudes at very high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The research is reported concerning the (1) total cross sections as the energy becomes infinite, (2) elastic scattering amplitude for nonforward directions, and (3) upper bound of neutrino scattering cross sections.

  18. Deep Wavelet Scattering for Quantum Energy Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, Matthew

    Physical functionals are usually computed as solutions of variational problems or from solutions of partial differential equations, which may require huge computations for complex systems. Quantum chemistry calculations of ground state molecular energies is such an example. Indeed, if x is a quantum molecular state, then the ground state energy E0 (x) is the minimum eigenvalue solution of the time independent Schrödinger Equation, which is computationally intensive for large systems. Machine learning algorithms do not simulate the physical system but estimate solutions by interpolating values provided by a training set of known examples {(xi ,E0 (xi) } i <= n . However, precise interpolations may require a number of examples that is exponential in the system dimension, and are thus intractable. This curse of dimensionality may be circumvented by computing interpolations in smaller approximation spaces, which take advantage of physical invariants. Linear regressions of E0 over a dictionary Φ ={ϕk } k compute an approximation E 0 as: E 0 (x) =∑kwkϕk (x) , where the weights {wk } k are selected to minimize the error between E0 and E 0 on the training set. The key to such a regression approach then lies in the design of the dictionary Φ. It must be intricate enough to capture the essential variability of E0 (x) over the molecular states x of interest, while simple enough so that evaluation of Φ (x) is significantly less intensive than a direct quantum mechanical computation (or approximation) of E0 (x) . In this talk we present a novel dictionary Φ for the regression of quantum mechanical energies based on the scattering transform of an intermediate, approximate electron density representation ρx of the state x. The scattering transform has the architecture of a deep convolutional network, composed of an alternating sequence of linear filters and nonlinear maps. Whereas in many deep learning tasks the linear filters are learned from the training data, here

  19. Low-energy electron scattering from cyanamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kedong; Guo, Shuangcheng; Meng, Ju; Huang, Xiaotian; Wang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    The low-energy electron collisions with cyanamide molecule are investigated by using the UK molecular R -matrix codes for electron energies ranging from 0.01 eV to 10 eV. Three models including static-exchange, static-exchange plus polarization, and close-coupling (CC) approximations are employed to reveal the dynamic interaction. Elastic (integrated and differential), momentum-transfer, and excitation cross sections from the ground state to the three low-lying electron excited states have been presented. Two shape resonances, two core-excited resonances, and two Feshbach resonances are detected in the CC approximation. The role of active space in the target and scattering problem including the resonances is discussed. The precise resonance parameters are found to be sensitive to the treatment of polarization effects employed. These resonances may be responsible for the fragments observed in a recent experiment of the dissociative electron attachments to cyanamide. Since the cyanamide molecule has a large permanent dipole moment, a Born closure procedure is used to account for the contribution of partial waves higher than l =4 to obtain converged cross sections.

  20. Hint of CPT Violation in Short-Baseline Electron Neutrino Disappearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

  1. Short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance, tritium beta decay, and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2010-09-01

    We consider the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly and the gallium radioactive source experiments anomaly in terms of short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance in the framework of 3+1 four-neutrino mixing schemes. The separate fits of MiniBooNE and gallium data are highly compatible, with close best-fit values of the effective oscillation parameters Δm2 and sin⁡22ϑ. The combined fit gives Δm2≳0.1eV2 and 0.11≲sin⁡22ϑ≲0.48 at 2σ. We consider also the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments and the limits on the effective electron antineutrino mass in β decay obtained in the Mainz and Troitsk tritium experiments. The fit of the data of these experiments limits the value of sin⁡22ϑ below 0.10 at 2σ. Considering the tension between the neutrino MiniBooNE and gallium data and the antineutrino reactor and tritium data as a statistical fluctuation, we perform a combined fit which gives Δm2≃2eV and 0.01≲sin⁡22ϑ≲0.13 at 2σ. Assuming a hierarchy of masses m1, m2, m3≪m4, the predicted contributions of m4 to the effective neutrino masses in β decay and neutrinoless double-β decay are, respectively, between about 0.06 and 0.49 and between about 0.003 and 0.07 eV at 2σ. We also consider the possibility of reconciling the tension between the neutrino MiniBooNE and gallium data and the antineutrino reactor and tritium data with different mixings in the neutrino and antineutrino sectors. We find a 2.6σ indication of a mixing angle asymmetry.

  2. Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.

  3. Study on energy loss compensation of back scattering conical cavity high-energy laser energy meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xun; Wang, Hui; Shang, Xiao-yan; Nie, Liang; Liu, Bao-yuan

    2009-05-01

    Because absolute quantity thermal laser energy meter based on conical cavity has some features, for example, wide wavelength adaptation range, high laser damage threshold value, extensive measuring energy range and so on, it is often used as the standard of high-energy laser energy meter, and is used extensively in the domain of high energy laser measurement. But, laser energy will lose because of back scattering of conical absorption cavity. So, only after the loss is compensated and amended, exact measurement of laser energy can be achieved. Aiming at energy loss compensation problem of conical cavity high-energy laser energy meter, we firstly, according to speckle statistics optical theory, analyze the back scattering of the conical absorption cavity in condition of uniform distribution laser incident on diffuse reflection surface, and secondly, we aim at high power laser's output facula shape: round, based on optical principles of interaction of the conical cavity inner face and the incident laser and utilize complexfication Simpson numerical method, the mathematical models of optical power density distribution at open-end of conical cavity and back scattering gross power are established. On this basis, the measured result is compensated and amended. The back scattering energy loss is about 0.5% to 2.5%.High-energy laser energy measuring accuracy is improved effectively.

  4. Energy dependence of scatter components in multispectral PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Bentourkia, M; Msaki, P; Cadorette, J; Lecomte, R

    1995-01-01

    High resolution images in PET based on small individual detectors are obtained at the cost of low sensitivity and increased detector scatter. These limitations can be partially overcome by enlarging discrimination windows to include more low-energy events and by developing more efficient energy-dependent methods to correct for scatter radiation from all sources. The feasibility of multispectral scatter correction was assessed by decomposing response functions acquired in multiple energy windows into four basic components: object, collimator and detector scatter, and trues. The shape and intensity of these components are different and energy-dependent. They are shown to contribute to image formation in three ways: useful (true), potentially useful (detector scatter), and undesirable (object and collimator scatter) information to the image over the entire energy range. With the Sherbrooke animal PET system, restoration of detector scatter in every energy window would allow nearly 90% of all detected events to participate in image formation. These observations suggest that multispectral acquisition is a promising solution for increasing sensitivity in high resolution PET. This can be achieved without loss of image quality if energy-dependent methods are made available to preserve useful events as potentially useful events are restored and undesirable events removed.

  5. Algorithmic scatter correction in dual-energy digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Mou, Xuanqin; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Lau, Beverly A.; Chan, Suk-tak; Zhang, Lei

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Small calcifications are often the earliest and the main indicator of breast cancer. Dual-energy digital mammography (DEDM) has been considered as a promising technique to improve the detectability of calcifications since it can be used to suppress the contrast between adipose and glandular tissues of the breast. X-ray scatter leads to erroneous calculations of the DEDM image. Although the pinhole-array interpolation method can estimate scattered radiations, it requires extra exposures to measure the scatter and apply the correction. The purpose of this work is to design an algorithmic method for scatter correction in DEDM without extra exposures.Methods: In this paper, a scatter correction method for DEDM was developed based on the knowledge that scattered radiation has small spatial variation and that the majority of pixels in a mammogram are noncalcification pixels. The scatter fraction was estimated in the DEDM calculation and the measured scatter fraction was used to remove scatter from the image. The scatter correction method was implemented on a commercial full-field digital mammography system with breast tissue equivalent phantom and calcification phantom. The authors also implemented the pinhole-array interpolation scatter correction method on the system. Phantom results for both methods are presented and discussed. The authors compared the background DE calcification signals and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of calcifications in the three DE calcification images: image without scatter correction, image with scatter correction using pinhole-array interpolation method, and image with scatter correction using the authors' algorithmic method.Results: The authors' results show that the resultant background DE calcification signal can be reduced. The root-mean-square of background DE calcification signal of 1962 μm with scatter-uncorrected data was reduced to 194 μm after scatter correction using the authors' algorithmic method. The range of

  6. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Y.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  7. Hint of CPT violation in short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations allowing for a CPT-violating difference of the squared masses and mixings of neutrinos and antineutrinos. We found that the discrepancy between the disappearance of electron neutrinos indicated by the data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the limits on the disappearance of electron antineutrinos given by the data of reactor experiments reveal a positive CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles (with a statistical significance of about 3.5σ), whereas the squared-mass asymmetry is practically not bounded.

  8. Study of Intrabeam Scattering in Low Energy Electron Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco

    2002-08-08

    The paper contains a study of intrabeam scattering in a low energy electron storage ring to be used as part of a Compton back-scattering x-ray source. We discuss time evolution of emittance and dependence of IBS growth rates on lattice parameters.

  9. Correlative Aspects of the Solar Electron Neutrino Flux and Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1994, the Homestake Solar Neutrino Detector obtained 108 observations of the solar electron neutrino flux (less than 0.814 MeV). The "best fit" values derived from these observations suggest an average daily production rate of about 0.485 Ar-37 atom per day, a rate equivalent to about 2.6 SNU (solar neutrino units) or about a factor of 3 below the expected rate from the standard solar model. In order to explain, at least, a portion of this discrepancy, some researchers have speculated that the flux of solar neutrinos is variable, possibly being correlated with various markers of the solar cycle (e.g., sunspot number, the Ap index, etc.). In this paper, using the larger "standard data set," the issue of correlative behavior between solar electron neutrino flux and solar activity is re-examined. The results presented here clearly indicate that no statistically significant association exists between any of the usual markers of solar activity and the solar electron neutrino flux.

  10. Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.

    2016-02-01

    We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.

  11. Low-energy scattering of electrons and positrons in liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of low energy electrons and positrons is described for the liquid phase and compared and contrasted with that for the gas phase. Similarities as well as differences are noted. The loci of scattering sites, called spurs in the liquid phase, are considered in detail. In particular, their temporal and spatial evolution is considered from the point of view of scattering. Two emphases are made: one upon the stochastic calculation of the distribution of distances required for slowing down to thermal velocities, and the other upon the calculation of cross sections for energy loss by means of quantum mechanics.

  12. Short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance, tritium beta decay, and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2010-09-01

    We consider the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly and the gallium radioactive source experiments anomaly in terms of short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance in the framework of 3+1 four-neutrino mixing schemes. The separate fits of MiniBooNE and gallium data are highly compatible, with close best-fit values of the effective oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}. The combined fit gives {Delta}m{sup 2}(greater-or-similar sign)0.1 eV{sup 2} and 0.11(less-or-similar sign)sin{sup 2}2{theta}(less-or-similar sign)0.48 at 2{sigma}. We consider also the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor antineutrino oscillation experiments and the limits on the effective electron antineutrino mass in {beta} decay obtained in the Mainz and Troitsk tritium experiments. The fit of the data of these experiments limits the value of sin{sup 2}2{theta} below 0.10 at 2{sigma}. Considering the tension between the neutrino MiniBooNE and gallium data and the antineutrino reactor and tritium data as a statistical fluctuation, we perform a combined fit which gives {Delta}m{sup 2}{approx_equal}2 eV and 0.01(less-or-similar sign)sin{sup 2}2{theta}(less-or-similar sign)0.13 at 2{sigma}. Assuming a hierarchy of masses m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, m{sub 3}<

  13. Measurement of the electron neutrino charged-current interaction rate on water with the T2K ND280 π0 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J. D.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the charged current interaction rate of the electron neutrino beam component of the beam above 1.5 GeV using the large fiducial mass of the T2K π0 detector. The predominant portion of the νe flux (˜85 % ) at these energies comes from kaon decays. The measured ratio of the observed beam interaction rate to the predicted rate in the detector with water targets filled is 0.89 ±0.08 (stat)±0.11 (sys) , and with the water targets emptied is 0.90 ±0.09 (stat)±0.13 (sys) . The ratio obtained for the interactions on water only from an event subtraction method is 0.87 ±0.33 (stat)±0.21 (sys) . This is the first measurement of the interaction rate of electron neutrinos on water, which is particularly of interest to experiments with water Cherenkov detectors.

  14. Inferring mixture Gibbs free energies from static light scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David; Wahle, Christopher; Thurston, George

    We describe a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing that applies to connected, isotropic ternary and quaternary liquid composition domains, including restricted domains which may not touch all binary axes. For restricted domains, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns obtained at different wavelengths can correspond to the same underlying free energy, and supplement the available information. We discuss well-posed problems for this fully nonlinear, degenerate elliptic partial differential equation. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, and indicate how measurement time depends on instrument throughput. These methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain liquid domains. Supported by NIH EY018249.

  15. Low energy analyzing powers in pion-proton elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Cröni, M.; Bilger, R.; van den Brandt, B.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Comfort, J. R.; Denz, H.; Erhardt, A.; Föhl, K.; Friedman, E.; Gräter, J.; Hautle, P.; Hofman, G. J.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.; Pätzold, J.; Pavan, M. M.; Wagner, G. J.; von Wrochem, F.

    2004-05-01

    Analyzing powers of pion-proton elastic scattering have been measured at PSI with the Low Energy Pion Spectrometer LEPS and a novel polarized scintillator target. Angular distributions between 40 and 120 deg (c.m.) were taken at 45.2, 51.2, 57.2, 68.5, 77.2, and 87.2 MeV incoming pion kinetic energy for π+p scattering, and at 67.3 and 87.2 MeV for π-p scattering. These new measurements constitute a substantial extension of the polarization data base at low energies. Predictions from phase shift analyses are compared with the experimental results, and deviations are observed at low energies.

  16. Elastic positron-cadmium scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.

    2010-05-15

    The elastic and annihilation cross sections for positron-cadmium scattering are reported up to the positronium-formation threshold (at 2.2 eV). The low-energy phase shifts for the elastic scattering of positrons from cadmium were derived from the bound and pseudostate energies of a very large basis configuration-interaction calculation of the e{sup +}-Cd system. The s-wave binding energy is estimated to be 126{+-}42 meV, with a scattering length of A{sub scat}=(14.2{+-}2.1)a{sub 0}, while the threshold annihilation parameter, Z{sub eff}, was 93.9{+-}26.5. The p-wave phase shift exhibits a weak shape resonance that results in a peak Z{sub eff} of 91{+-}17 at a collision energy of about 490{+-}50 meV.

  17. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: Parton energy loss

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Guo, Xiao-feng

    2001-02-17

    Multiple parton scattering and induced parton energy loss are studied in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off nuclei. The effect of multiple scattering of a highly off-shell quark and the induced parton energy loss is expressed in terms of the modification to the quark fragmentation functions. The authors derive such modified quark fragmentation functions and their QCD evolution equations in DIS using the generalized factorization of higher twist parton distributions. They consider double-hard and hard-soft parton scattering as well as their interferences in the same framework. The final result, which depends on both the diagonal and off-diagonal twist-four parton distributions in nuclei, demonstrates clearly the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference features and predicts a unique nuclear modification of the quark fragmentation functions.

  18. High energy parton-parton elastic scattering in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    We show that the high energy limit of quark-quark, or gluon-gluon, elastic scattering is calculable in terms of the BFKL pomeron when {minus}t {much_gt} {Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}. Surprisingly, this on-shell amplitudes does not have infrared divergences in the high energy limit.

  19. High-energy pion-nucleus scattering at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent data obtained for pion-nucleus interactions above the [triangle](1232) is presented. The expected long mean-free path at pion energies above the [3,3] resonance is demonstrated in elastic scattering. Evidence for unexpected nuclear transparency for outgoing pions at resonance energies is presented. A new technique measuring virtual [triangle] components of the nuclear wave function is suggested.

  20. High-energy pion-nucleus scattering at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.L.

    1993-02-01

    Recent data obtained for pion-nucleus interactions above the {triangle}(1232) is presented. The expected long mean-free path at pion energies above the [3,3] resonance is demonstrated in elastic scattering. Evidence for unexpected nuclear transparency for outgoing pions at resonance energies is presented. A new technique measuring virtual {triangle} components of the nuclear wave function is suggested.

  1. Measurement of the intrinsic electron neutrino component in the T2K neutrino beam with the ND280 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Floetotto, L.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iwai, E.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lee, K. P.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Mathie, E. L.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    The T2K experiment has reported the first observation of the appearance of electron neutrinos in a muon neutrino beam. The main and irreducible background to the appearance signal comes from the presence in the neutrino beam of a small intrinsic component of electron neutrinos originating from muon and kaon decays. In T2K, this component is expected to represent 1.2% of the total neutrino flux. A measurement of this component using the near detector (ND280), located 280 m from the target, is presented. The charged current interactions of electron neutrinos are selected by combining the particle identification capabilities of both the time projection chambers and electromagnetic calorimeters of ND280. The measured ratio between the observed electron neutrino beam component and the prediction is 1.01±0.10 providing a direct confirmation of the neutrino fluxes and neutrino cross section modeling used for T2K neutrino oscillation analyses. Electron neutrinos coming from muons and kaons decay are also separately measured, resulting in a ratio with respect to the prediction of 0.68±0.30 and 1.10±0.14, respectively.

  2. Very Low Energy Electron Scattering from Ozone and Chlorine Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulley, R. J.; Field, T. A.; Steer, W. A.; Mason, N. J.; Ziesel, J. P.; Lunt, S. L.; Field, D.

    1998-10-01

    Total cross-sections are reported for the scattering of electrons from ozone (O_3) and chlorine dioxide (OClO) for energies in the range of 9 meV to 10 eV. The measurements were made in transmission experiments using a synchrotron photoionization apparatus with an energy resolution in the incident electron beam of ~ 3.5 meV (FWHM). The cross section for O3 shows strong rotational scattering at low energy, through the presence of the permanent dipole moment of O_3. Superposed on this strong scattering signal, there is evidence of a weak structure around 50 meV associated with dissociative attachment. A shape resonance, known from earlier work at ~ 4 meV, is also observed. Electron scattering from OClO is dominated by rotationally inelastic scattering decreasing from a peak at essentially zero eV to an energy of 40 meV, where p-wave attachment becomes more important, peaking at 50--60 meV and extending to several hundred meV.

  3. Scattering of High Energy Photons in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jochen R.

    Modern synchrotron radiation facilities provide bright beams at photon energies higher than 80 keV which only weakly interact with matter; most diffraction experiments can be interpreted within 1. order Born approximation. The technique is considered a new probe in condensed matter research because it combines the high penetration power of thermal neutrons with the extreme momentum space resolution obtained in state of the art X-ray diffraction experiments. Identical samples can be studied with both probes and the information content is strongly enhanced by combining their results because of the difference in the intrinsic cross section, or in cases where high resolution inelastic neutron scattering experiments can be performed on the same crystal. After a short description of the experimental technique examples are presented including accurate structure factor measurements for charge density studies, defect induced diffuse scattering, structural phase transitions including critical scattering, and non-resonant bulk magnetic scattering.

  4. Causality, renormalizability and ultra-high energy gravitational scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.; Shore, Graham M.

    2016-05-01

    The amplitude { A }(s,t) for ultra-high energy scattering can be found in the leading eikonal approximation by considering propagation in an Aichelburg-Sexl gravitational shockwave background. Loop corrections in the QFT describing the scattered particles are encoded for energies below the Planck scale in an effective action which in general exhibits causality violation and Shapiro time advances. In this paper, we use Penrose limit techniques to calculate the full energy dependence of the scattering phase shift {{{\\Theta }}}{{scat}}(\\hat{s}), where the single variable \\hat{s}={Gs}/{m}2{b}d-2 contains both the CM energy s and impact parameter b, for a range of scalar QFTs in d dimensions with different renormalizability properties. We evaluate the high-energy limit of {{{\\Theta }}}{{scat}}(\\hat{s}) and show in detail how causality is related to the existence of a well-defined UV completion. Similarities with graviton scattering and the corresponding resolution of causality violation in the effective action by string theory are briefly discussed.

  5. Theoretical Study of Low Energy Scattering from Metal Nuclei.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Bernadette; Hira, Ajit; Duran, Joe; Jaramillo, Danelle

    2015-04-01

    We continue our interest in the interactions between different nuclear species with a computational study of the scattering of the low-energy nuclei of H through F atoms (Z <= 9 ) from Silver, Palladium and other metals. Recent work has shown that neutron scattering can be used to record holographic images of materials. We have developed a FORTRAN computer program to compute stopping cross sections and scattering angles in Ag and other metals for the small nuclear projectiles, using Monte Carlo calculation. This code allows for different angles of incidence. Next, simulations were done in the energy interval from 50 to 210 keV. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant experimental data. The data are further analyzed to identify periodic trends in terms of the atomic number of the projectile. Such studies have potential applications in nuclear physics and in nuclear medicine.

  6. Low-energy positron scattering by pyrimidine

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Pastega, Diego F.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2015-12-28

    This work reports elastic integral and differential cross sections for positron collisions with pyrimidine, for energies up to 20 eV. The cross sections were computed with the Schwinger multichannel method in the static plus polarization approximation. We also employed the Born closure procedure to account for the long range potential due to the permanent dipole moment of the molecule. Our results are compared with the experimental total cross section of Zecca et al. [J. Phys. B 43, 215204 (2010)], the experimental grand-total, quasi-elastic integral and differential cross section of Palihawadana et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 12717 (2013)]. We also compare our results with theoretical integral and differential cross sections obtained by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 62704 (2013)] with the R-matrix and the independent atom model with screening-corrected additivity rule methods, and with the results computed by Franz and Gianturco [Phys. Rev. A 88, 042711 (2013)] using model correlation-polarization potentials. The agreement between the theory and the experiment is encouraging.

  7. Low energy neutron deuteron scattering to N3LO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaryan, Arman; Vanasse, Jared; Springer, Roxanne

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO) nd scattering amplitude in the framework of nonrelativistic pionless effective field theory (EFTπ/). This theory is only valid when the typical momentum exchange in the scattering is smaller then the mass of the pion. The power counting parameter for EFTπ/ is the ratio Q/Λπ /, where Q is the typical momentum exchange in the scattering and Λπ / is the EFTπ/ breakdown scale, Λπ / scattering at leading order requires summing an infinite set of diagrams. The first nonzero polarization-dependent observables occur at N2LO. At N3LO new 2-body forces appear, which introduce four new EFTπ/ coefficients. These coefficients are fixed by the 3PJ and 1P1 phase shifts of NN scattering. We find that these terms have an important impact. The results of this calculation at N3LO will be important for understanding spin polarization observables in nd scattering, in particular the longstanding Ay puzzle. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-FG02-05ER41368.

  8. Low-energy elastic differential scattering of He/++/ by He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, S. K.; Doverspike, L. D.; Champion, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental results are developed for the relative elastic differential scattering of He(++) by He for collision energies in the range 4 equal to or less than E equal to or less than 75 eV. In the analysis of the data, semiclassical considerations are utilized, assuming that the dynamics of the scattering is governed solely by the B and E states of He2(++). It is shown that existing ab initio calculations for the intermolecular potentials predict differential cross sections which are not in particularly good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. E710, Proton, Antiproton Elastic Scattering at Tevatron Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Sasan

    Experiment E710, located at site E0 of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab, was conceived in order to measure pp elastic scattering. The measured parameters were: the total cross section sigma_{t }, the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude rho, the nuclear slope parameter B, the nuclear curvature parameter C, the total elastic cross section sigma _{el}, and the single diffractive cross section sigma_{sd} . These measurements were taken at center-of-mass energies of sqrt{s}=1.02 and 1.8 TeV.

  10. Energy measurement of electron beams by Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    1995-01-01

    A method has been proposed to utilize the well-known Compton scattering process as a tool to measure the centroid energy of a high energy electron beam at the 0.01% level. It is suggested to use the Compton scattering of an infrared laser off the electron beam, and then to measure the energy of the scattered gamma-rays very precisely using solid-state detectors. The technique proposed is applicable for electron beams with energies from 200 MeV to 16 GeV using presently available lasers. This technique was judged to be the most viable of all those proposed for beam energy measurements at the nearby Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Plans for a prototype test of the technique are underway, where the main issues are the possible photon backgrounds associated with an electron accelerator and the electron and laser beam stabilities and diagnostics. The bulk of my ASEE summer research has been spent utilizing the expertise of the staff at the Aerospace Electronics Systems Division at LaRC to assist in the design of the test. Investigations were made regarding window and mirror transmission and radiation damage issues, remote movement of elements in ultra-high vacuum conditions, etc. The prototype test of the proposed laser backscattering method is planned for this December.

  11. Elastic np → np( pn) scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyan, Yu. A.; Anikina, M. Kh.; Belyaev, A. V.; Ierusalimov, A. P.; Troyan, A. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The study of the elastic np → np( pn) scattering was carried out at the momenta of incident quasimonochromatic neutrons P 0 = 1.43, 2.23 and 5.20 GeV/ c. The differential cross sections of the processes of elastic np scattering, both without (cos Φ* p < 0) and with charge exchange (cos Φ* p >0) of nucleons, are analyzed. The results are compared with the data of other experiments. The suggested pole model takes into account exchange by π meson, ρ meson, and includes the peripheral exchange mechanism. This model permits one to get a good description of the data of elastic np scattering at the energy region 1-10 GeV.

  12. Parity violation in low-energy neutron-deuteron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young-Ho; Gudkov, Vladimir; Lazauskas, Rimantas

    2011-01-15

    Parity-violating effects for low-energy elastic neutron deuteron scattering are calculated for Desplanques, Donoghue, and Holstein (DDH) and effective field theory types of weak potentials in a distorted-wave Born approximation, using realistic hadronic strong interaction wave functions, obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space. The resulting relation between physical observables and low-energy constants can be used to fix low-energy constants from experiments. Potential model dependencies of parity-violating effects are discussed.

  13. Ward identities and high energy scattering amplitudes in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Ho, Pei-Ming; Lee, Jen-Chi

    2005-02-01

    High-energy limit α→∞ of stringy Ward identities derived from the decoupling of two types of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string are used to check the consistency of saddle point calculations of high energy scattering amplitudes of Gross and Mende and Gross and Manes. Some inconsistencies of their saddle point calculations are found even for the string-tree scattering amplitudes of the excited string states. We discuss and calculate the missing terms of the calculation by those authors to recover the stringy Ward identities. In addition, based on the tree-level stringy Ward identities, we give the proof of a general formula, which was proposed previously, of all high energy four-point string-tree amplitudes of arbitrary particles in the string spectrum. In this formula all such scattering amplitudes are expressed in terms of those of tachyons as conjectured by Gross. The formula is extremely simple which manifestly demonstrates the universal high energy behavior of the interactions among all string states.

  14. A search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ochoa Ricoux, Juan Pedro

    2009-01-01

    We perform a search for vμ → ve oscillations, a process which would manifest a nonzero value of the θ13 mixing angle, in the MINOS long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The analysis consists of searching for an excess of ve charged-current candidate events over the predicted backgrounds, made mostly of neutral-current events with high electromagnetic content. A novel technique to select electron neutrino events is developed, which achieves an improved separation between the signal and the backgrounds, and which consequently yields a better reach in θ13. The backgrounds are predicted in the Far Detector from Near Detector measurements. An excess is observed in the Far Detector data over the predicted backgrounds, which is consistent with the background-only hypothesis at 1.2 standard deviations.

  15. Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth's outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to the first adiabatic invariant μ = 4-200 MeV/G. The electron diffusion coefficients due to hiss scattering are calculated at L = 2-6, and the modeled energy band of effective pitch angle scattering is also well correlated with the constant μ lines and is consistent with the observed energy range of electron decay. Using the previously developed statistical plasmaspheric hiss model during modestly disturbed periods, we perform a 2-D Fokker-Planck simulation of the electron phase space density evolution at L = 3.5 and demonstrate that plasmaspheric hiss causes the significant decay of 100 keV-1 MeV electrons with the largest decay rate occurring at around 340 keV, forming anisotropic pitch angle distributions at lower energies and more flattened distributions at higher energies. Our study provides reasonable estimates of the electron populations that can be most significantly affected by plasmaspheric hiss and the consequent electron decay profiles.

  16. Observing Muon Neutrino to Electron Neutrino Oscillations in the NOνA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations offers an insight on new physics beyond the Standard Model. The three mixing angles (θ12, θ13 and θ23) and the two mass splittings (Δm2 and Αm2 ) have been measured by different neutrino oscillation experiments. Some other parameters including the mass ordering of different neutrino mass eigenstates and the CP violation phase are still unknown. NOνA is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment, using neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The experiment is equipped with two functionally identical detectors about 810 kilometers apart and 14 mrad off the beam axis. In this configuration, the muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam reach the disappearance maximum in the far detector and a small fraction of that oscillates into electron neutrinos. The sensitivity to the mass ordering and CP viola- tion phase determination is greately enhanced. This thesis presents the νeappearance analysis using the neutrino data collected with the NOνA experiment between February 2014 and May 2015, which corresponds to 3.45 ×1020 protons-on-target (POT). The νe appearance analysis is performed by comparing the observed νe CC-like events to the estimated background at the far detector. The total background is predicted to be 0.95 events with 0.89 originated from beam events and 0.06 from cosmic ray events. The beam background is obtained by extrapolating near detector data through different oscillation channels, while the cosmic ray background is calculated based on out-of-time NuMI trigger data. A total of 6 electron neutrino candidates are observed in the end at the far detector which represents 3.3 σ excess over the predicted background. The NOνA result disfavors inverted mass hierarchy for δcp ϵ [0, 0.6π] at 90% C.L.

  17. Seismic energy transmission in an intensively scattering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1977-01-01

    In order to account for some special features of lunar seismograms, namely, the gradual build-up of the signal, the extremely prolonged tail, and the lack of apparent coherence among three orthogonal components of ground motion, a statistical approach is proposed for describing transmission of seismic energy through a medium in which strong scattering takes place. A seismic diffusion theory is presented for a medium with randomly distributed scatterers of a given size distribution. A solution of the resulting diffusion equation for an impulsive energy source gives a curve which fairly closely reproduces the envelope of typical lunar impact seismograms. Since the model is based on constant diffusivity, long-range transmission will require a combination of diffusion and wave propagation treatments for accurate description.

  18. Resonances in low-energy positron-alkali scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horbatsch, M.; Ward, S. J.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Close-coupling calculations were performed with up to five target states at energies in the excitation threshold region for positron scattering from Li, Na and K. Resonances were discovered in the L = 0, 1 and 2 channels in the vicinity of the atomic excitation thresholds. The widths of these resonances vary between 0.2 and 130 MeV. Evidence was found for the existence of positron-alkali bound states in all cases.

  19. Interpretation of low-energy electron-CO2 scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanroose, W.; McCurdy, C. W.; Rescigno, T. N.

    2002-09-01

    Recent ab initio calculations of low-energy electron-CO2 scattering [Rescigno et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 032716 (2002)] are interpreted using an analytically solvable model. The model, which treats two partial-wave Hamiltonians with different l values coupled by a long-range (d/r2) interaction, is a generalization of similar single-channel models that have previously been used to interpret the low-energy behavior of electron scattering by polar diatomic molecules. The present model is used to track the pole trajectories of both resonances and virtual states, both of which figure prominently in low-energy electron-CO2 scattering, in the plane of complex momentum. The connection between resonant and virtual states is found to display a different topology in the case of a polyatomic molecule than it does in diatomic molecules. In a polyatomic molecule, these states may have a conical intersection and consequently acquire a Berry phase along closed paths in two-dimensional vibrational motion. The analytic behavior of the S matrix is further modified by the presence of a geometry-dependent dipole moment.

  20. Scattering of low-energy neutrinos on atomic shells

    SciTech Connect

    Babič, Andrej; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    We present a derivation of the total cross section for inelastic scattering of low-energy solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos on bound electrons, resulting in a transition of the electron to an excited state. The atomic-shell structure of various chemical elements is treated in terms of a nonrelativistic approximation. We estimate the interaction rates for modern neutrino detectors, in particular the Borexino and GEMMA experiments. We establish that in these experiments the effect can be safely neglected, but it could be accessible to future large-volume neutrino detectors with low energy threshold.

  1. Scattering of low-energy neutrinos on atomic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babič, Andrej; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-01

    We present a derivation of the total cross section for inelastic scattering of low-energy solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos on bound electrons, resulting in a transition of the electron to an excited state. The atomic-shell structure of various chemical elements is treated in terms of a nonrelativistic approximation. We estimate the interaction rates for modern neutrino detectors, in particular the Borexino and GEMMA experiments. We establish that in these experiments the effect can be safely neglected, but it could be accessible to future large-volume neutrino detectors with low energy threshold.

  2. Quantum scattering model of energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Bao-quan; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2015-12-01

    We develop a quantum scattering model to describe the exciton transport through the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. It is found that the exciton transport involving the optimal quantum coherence is more efficient than that involving classical behaviour alone. Furthermore, we also find that the quantum resonance condition is easier to be fulfilled in multiple pathways than that in one pathway. We then definitely demonstrate that the optimal distribution of the pigments, the multitude of energy delivery pathways and the quantum effects are combined together to contribute to the perfect energy transport in the FMO complex.

  3. Triple energy window scatter correction technique in PET.

    PubMed

    Shao, L; Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1994-01-01

    A practical triple energy window technique (TEW) is proposed, which is based on using the information in two lower energy windows and one single calibration, to estimate the scatter within the photopeak window. The technique is basically a conventional dual-window technique plus a modification factor, which can partially compensate object-distribution dependent scatters. The modification factor is a function of two lower scatter windows of both the calibration phantom and the actual object. In order to evaluate the technique, a Monte Carlo simulation program, which simulates the PENN-PET scanner geometry, was used. Different phantom activity distributions and phantom sizes were tested to simulate brain studies, including uniform and nonuniform distributions. The results indicate that the TEW technique works well for a wide range of activity distributions and object sizes. The comparisons between the TEW and dual window techniques show better quantitative accuracy for the TEW, especially for different phantom sizes. The technique is also applied to experimental data from a PENN-PET scanner to test its practicality.

  4. Dirac Calculations for Proton Inelastic Scattering at Intermediate Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nohy, N. A.; El-Hammamy, M. N.; Aly, N. E.; Abdel-Moneim, A. M.; Hamza, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic proton inelastic scattering from different targets (16O, 24Mg, 28Si, 40Ca, 54Fe, 58Ni, 90Zr, 154Sm, 176Yb, and 208Pb) at intermediate energies is analyzed in the framework of phenomenological optical potentials based on the Dirac formalism. Parameters of the Dirac phenomenological potential with Woods Saxon (WS) shape are obtained. The first order vibrational collective model with one phonon is used to calculate the transition optical potentials to the first low-lying excited state (2+) of the investigated target nuclei. Also, the variation of deformation length ( δ) with energy and mass number is studied. It is noticed that the deformation length increases slightly with energy at intermediate range.

  5. High energy scattering in QCD and in quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, L. N.

    2014-06-01

    The theory of the high energy scattering in QCD is based on the BFKL equation for the Pomeron wave function and on its generalization for composite multi-gluon states in the crossing channel. At a large number of colors the equations for the gluon composite states have remarkable mathematical properties including their Möbius invariance, holomorphic separability, duality symmetry and integrability. High energy QCD interactions local in the particle rapidities are formulated in the form of the gauge invariant effective action. In the maximally extended N = 4 super-symmetry the Pomeron turns out to be dual to the reggeized graviton in the 10-dimensional anti-de-Sitter space. As a result, the Gribov calculus for the Pomeron interactions should be reformulated here as a generally covariant effective field theory for the reggeized gravitons. We construct the corresponding effective action, which gives a possibility to calculate their trajectory and couplings. The graviton trajectory in the leading order contains an ultraviolet divergency meaning the presence of the double-logarithmic (DL) terms. We sum the DL contributions in all orders of the perturbation theory in the Einstein-Hilbert gravity and in its super-symmetric generalizations. In the N = 8 super gravity the ratio of the scattering amplitude in the DL approximation to the Born expression tends to zero at large energies.

  6. Low-Energy Elastic Electron Scattering by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsarinny O.; Bartschat, K.; Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to investigate the low-energy elastic electron scattering by atomic oxygen. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to construct the target description and to represent the scattering functions. A detailed investigation regarding the dependence of the predicted partial and total cross sections on the scattering model and the accuracy of the target description is presented. The predicted angle-integrated elastic cross sections are in good agreement with experiment, whereas significant discrepancies are found in the angle-differential elastic cross sections near the forward direction. .The near-threshold results are found to strongly depend on the treatment of inner-core short-range correlation effects in the target description, as well as on a proper account of the target polarizability. A sharp increase in the elastic cross sections below 1 eV found in some earlier calculations is judged to be an artifact of an unbalanced description of correlation in the N-electron target structure and the (N+l)-electron-collision problems.

  7. Elastic Scattering of Low-Energy Electrons byTetrahydrofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, Cynthia S.; Orel, Ann E.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2006-05-09

    We present the results of ab initio calculations for elasticelectron scattering by tetrahydrofuran (THF) using the complex Kohnvariational method. We carried out fixed-nuclei calculations at theequilibrium geometry of the target molecule for incident electronenergies up to 20 eV. The calculated momentum transfer cross sectionsclearly reveal the presence of broad shape resonance behavior in the 8-10eV energy range, in agreement with recent experiments. The calculateddifferential cross sections at 20 eV, which include the effects of thelong-range electron-dipole interaction, are alsofound to be in agreementwith the most recent experimental findings.

  8. Influence of low-energy scattering on loosely bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Capel, Pierre; Baye, Daniel

    2010-01-15

    Compact algebraic equations are derived that connect the binding energy and the asymptotic normalization constant (ANC) of a subthreshold bound state with the effective-range expansion of the corresponding partial wave. These relations are established for positively charged and neutral particles, using the analytic continuation of the scattering (S) matrix in the complex wave-number plane. Their accuracy is checked on simple local potential models for the {sup 16}O+n, {sup 16}O+p, and {sup 12}C+alpha nuclear systems, with exotic nuclei and nuclear astrophysics applications in mind.

  9. A Interferometric Approach to Suppression of Scattered Radiant Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Christopher John Campbell

    The concept of using an interferometric process to reduce scattered light in optical systems has been examined from a physical optics viewpoint. An experiment is described which illustrates the basic concepts of a particular scheme addressing the important case of a telescope viewing a distant point object whose image is degraded by scattering from dust on the primary lens. A basic conceptual scheme is described, utilizing a modified Twyman-Green interferometer, which introduces a (pi) phase shift and a focal power difference between the arms. The interferometer is inserted into the optical train of an elementary telescope to null the scattered energy while preserving the image intensity associated with the distant point object, thereby enhancing the signal -to-noise ratio. The effect of this interferometer on the image of a distant point object is examined in detail. Computer techniques were used to solve Lommel function based series representations of the diffraction integral, and generate the intensity distributions which are presented as a series of iso-intensity contour maps. The results indicate that a distant point object could be reimaged successfully. Further analytic evaluations reveal specific operating conditions for the interferometer that optimize the peak intensity at the focal plane. A wavefront model was used to derive the radially dependent intensity distribution at the focal plane from the single on-axis scattering point. To evaluate the effectiveness of the scatter-nulling interferometric technique, an analytic expression for the gain in signal-to-noise ratio was developed, utilizing elementary models of a reimaging systems with and without the inclusion of a nulling interferometer. Gains up to a factor of 10('8) were observed with the assumption of a reasonable set of system parameters and for the limited set of conditions employed. Results imply that the interferometric approach could be successful and effective under restricted conditions

  10. Measuring $\\theta_{13}$ via Muon Neutrino to Electron Neutrino Oscillations in the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, Ruth B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary goals in neutrino physics at the present moment is to make a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter $\\theta_{13}$. This parameter, in addition to being unknown, could potentially allow for the introduction of CP violation into the lepton sector. The MINOS long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment has the ability to make a measurement of this parameter, by looking for the oscillation of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos between a Near and Far Detector over a distance of 735 km. This thesis discusses the development of an analysis framework to search for this oscillation mode. Two major improvements to pre-existing analysis techniques have been implemented by the author. First, a novel particle ID technique based on strip topology, known as the Library Event Matching (LEM) method, is optimized for use in MINOS. Second, a multiple bin likelihood method is developed to fit the data. These two improvements, when combined, increase MINOS' sensitivity to $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})$ by 27\\% over previous analyses. This thesis sees a small excess over background in the Far Detector. A Frequentist interpretation of the data rules out $\\theta_{13}=0$ at 91\\%. A Bayesian interpretation of the data is also presented, placing the most stringent upper boundary on the oscillation parameter to date, at $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})<0.09(0.015)$ for the Normal (Inverted) Hierarchy and $\\delta_{CP}=0$.

  11. Can the negative mass square of the electron neutrino be an indication of degenerated relic neutrinos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinnouchi, O.; Homma, K.

    1998-09-01

    The unphysical result of the negative mass square of the electron neutrinos recently reported in several tritium β-decay experiments, is one of the most attractive subjects among remaining physical problems. As a possible scenario to explain the anomaly, we have assumed a reaction with relic neutrinos which are predicted by the standard big bang cosmology. If such neutrinos could exist, the interaction of the relic neutrinos with the target tritium, νe+3H-->3He+e- could be laid under the large amount of the β-decay process, 3H-->3He+e-+νē, which would cause a peak-like structure beyond the end-point in the Kurie plot. Based on the assumption, we evaluated the cross section from the event rate found in the peak by re-fitting to the 1991 data published by the Mainz Group. In this letter we will provide a scenario that can account for the evaluated cross section by introducing a spatially inhomogeneous neutrino degeneration, which would result much lower temperature than the prediction from the standard big bang cosmology.

  12. Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Gašparić, I.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kistryn, St.; Kozela, A.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.; Stephenson, E. J.; Sworst, R.

    2008-07-01

    Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental database for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This article reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituute (KVI). Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the 2H(p→,d)p and 1H(d→,d)p reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The differential cross-section data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.

  13. Low-energy elastic electron scattering from furan

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Muse, J.; Ralphs, K.; Costa, R. F.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.

    2010-06-15

    We report normalized experimental and theoretical differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering by C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O (furan) molecules from a collaborative project between several Brazilian theoretical groups and an experimental group at California State Fullerton, USA. The measurements are obtained by using the relative flow method with helium as the standard gas and a thin aperture target gas collimating source. The relative flow method is applied without the restriction imposed by the relative flow pressure condition on helium and the unknown gas. The experimental data were taken at incident electron energies of 1, 1.5, 1.73, 2, 2.7, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, and 50 eV and covered the angular range between 10 deg. and 130 deg. The measurements verify observed {pi}* shape resonances at 1.65{+-}0.05eV and 3.10{+-}0.05 eV scattering energies, in good agreement with the transmission electron data of Modelli and Burrow [J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5721 (2004)]. Furthermore, the present results also indicated both resonances dominantly in the d-wave channel. The differential cross sections are integrated in the standard way to obtain integral elastic cross sections and momentum transfer cross sections. The calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were performed in the static-exchange and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximations. The calculated integral and momentum transfer cross sections clearly revealed the presence of two shape resonances located at 1.95 and 3.56 eV and ascribed to the B{sub 1} and A{sub 2} symmetries of the C{sub 2v} point group, respectively, in very good agreement with the experimental findings. Overall agreement between theory and experiment regarding the differential, momentum transfer, and integral cross sections is very good, especially for energies below 10 eV.

  14. Coherent-form energy conservation relation for the elastic scattering of a guided mode in a symmetric scattering system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao

    2013-10-07

    We propose a coherent-form energy conservation relation (ECR) that is generally valid for the elastic transmission and reflection of a guided mode in a symmetric scattering system. In contrast with the classical incoherent-form ECR, |τ|2 + |ρ|2≤1 with τ and ρ denoting the elastic transmission and reflection coefficients of a guided mode, the coherent-form ECR is expressed as |τ + ρ|≤1, which imposes a constraint on a coherent superposition of the transmitted and reflected modes. The coherent-form ECR is rigorously demonstrated and is numerically tested by considering different types of modes in various scattering systems. Further discussions with the scattering matrix formalism indicate that two coherent-form ECRs, |τ + ρ|≤1 and |τ-ρ|≤1, along with the classical ECR |τ|2 + |ρ|2≤1 constitute a complete description of the energy conservation for the elastic scattering of a guided mode in a symmetric scattering system. The coherent-form ECR provides a common tool in terms of energy transfer for understanding and analyzing the scattering dynamics in currently interested scattering systems.

  15. High energy asymptotics of scattering processes in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enberg, R.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Munier, S.

    2005-10-01

    High energy scattering in the QCD parton model was recently shown to be a reaction-diffusion process and, thus, to lie in the universality class of the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. We recall that the latter appears naturally in the context of the parton model. We provide a thorough numerical analysis of the mean-field approximation, given in QCD by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In the framework of a simple stochastic toy model that captures the relevant features of QCD, we discuss and illustrate the universal properties of such stochastic models. We investigate, in particular, the validity of the mean-field approximation and how it is broken by fluctuations. We find that the mean-field approximation is a good approximation in the initial stages of the evolution in rapidity.

  16. scattering at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Guimarães, V.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lubian, J.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; de Faria, P. N.; Kolata, J. J.; Becchetti, F. D.; Jiang, H.; Aguilera, E. F.; Lizcano, D.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Garcia, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present 8B 27Al elastic scattering angular distributions for the proton-halo nucleus 8B at two energies above the Coulomb barrier, namely Elab=15.3 and 21.7 MeV. The experiments were performed in the Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil facility (RIBRAS) in São Paulo, and in the TwinSol facility at the University of Notre Dame, USA. The angular distributions were measured in the angular range of 15-80 degrees. Optical model and continuum discretized coupled channels calculations were performed, and the total reaction cross sections were derived. A comparison of the 8B+27Al total reaction cross sections with similar systems including exotic, weakly bound, and tightly bound projectiles impinging on the same target is presented.

  17. A study of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tingjun

    2009-03-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations (neutrino changing from one flavor to another) has provided compelling evidence that the neutrinos have non-zero masses and that leptons mix, which is not part of the original Standard Model of particle physics. The theoretical framework that describes neutrino oscillation involves two mass scales (Δmatm2 and Δmsol2), three mixing angles (θ12, θ23, and θ13) and one CP violating phase (δCP). Both mass scales and two of the mixing angles (θ12 and θ23) have been measured by many neutrino experiments. The mixing angle θ13, which is believed to be very small, remains unknown. The current best limit on θ13 comes from the CHOOZ experiment: θ13 < 11° at 90% C.L. at the atmospheric mass scale. δCP is also unknown today. MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino experiment based at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a muon neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near Detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far Detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can obtain parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. MINOS has published results on the precise measurement of Δmatm2 and θ23 through the disappearance of muon neutrinos in the Far Detector and on a search for sterile neutrinos by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far Detector. MINOS also has the potential to improve the limit on the neutrino mixing angle θ13 or make the first measurement of its value by searching for an electron neutrino appearance signal in the Far Detector. This is the focus of the study presented in this thesis. We developed a neural network based algorithm to

  18. Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

    2012-06-01

    The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

  19. Mirror nuclei 3H and 3He binding energies difference and low energy parameters of neutron-neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2015-07-01

    A relationship between the binding energy difference for the mirror nuclei 3H and 3He and the low energy parameters of neutron-neutron and proton-proton scattering is established. The experimental values for the difference of 3H and 3He binding energies and the low-energy proton-proton scattering parameters are used to obtain the values for the neutron-neutron scattering length a nn = -18.38(55) fm and the effective range r nn = 2.84(4) fm. The calculated neutron-neutron scattering length is in good agreement with one of the two well-known and differing experimental values of this quantity.

  20. An ultra-efficient energy transfer beyond plasmonic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Sze-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Kai; Lin, Albert

    2014-11-14

    The energy transfer between nano-particles is of great importance for, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, nano-particle waveguides, and other photonic devices. This study shows through novel design and algorithm optimization, the energy transfer efficiency between plasmonic and dielectric nano-particles can be greatly improved. Using versatile designs including core-shell wrapping, supercells and dielectric mediated plasmonic scattering, 0.05 dB/μm attenuation can be achieved, which is 20-fold reduction over the baseline plasmonic nano-particle chain, and 8-fold reduction over the baseline dielectric nano-particle chain. In addition, it is also found that the dielectric nano-particle chains can actually be more efficient than the plasmonic ones, at their respective optimized geometry. The underlying physics is that although plasmonic nano-particles provide stronger coupling and field emission, the effect of plasmonic absorption loss is actually more dominant resulting in high attenuation. Finally, the group velocity for all design schemes proposed in this work is shown to be maintained above 0.4c, and it is found that the geometry optimization for transmission also boosts the group velocity.

  1. Low-energy electron scattering by cellulose and hemicellulose components.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Eliane M; da Costa, Romarly F; Sanchez, Sergio d'A; Natalense, Alexandra P P; Bettega, Márcio H F; Lima, Marco A P; Varella, Márcio T do N

    2013-02-07

    We report elastic integral, differential and momentum transfer cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by the cellulose components β-D-glucose and cellobiose (β(1 → 4) linked glucose dimer), and the hemicellulose component β-D-xylose. For comparison with the β forms, we also obtain results for the amylose subunits α-D-glucose and maltose (α(1 → 4) linked glucose dimer). The integral cross sections show double peaked broad structures between 8 eV and 20 eV similar to previously reported results for tetrahydrofuran and 2-deoxyribose, suggesting a general feature of molecules containing furanose and pyranose rings. These broad structures would reflect OH, CO and/or CC σ* resonances, where inspection of low-lying virtual orbitals suggests significant contribution from anion states. Though we do not examine dissociation pathways, these anion states could play a role in dissociative electron attachment mechanisms, in case they were coupled to the long-lived π* anions found in lignin subunits [de Oliveira et al., Phys. Rev. A, 2012, 86, 020701(R)]. Altogether, the resonance spectra of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components establish a physical-chemical basis for electron-induced biomass pretreatment that could be applied to biofuel production.

  2. Surface analysis of catalysts by low-energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanleerdam, Gerrit Cornelis

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of catalyst surfaces using Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) is described. The structure of a catalyst is generally described in conjunction with the different spectroscopic techniques used to characterize them. LEIS is discussed in detail. The importance of the different mechanisms for a number of elements is discussed and related to the total shape of a LEIS spectrum. The consequences for quantitative surface composition analysis are addressed. The absence of signals for tetragonally coordinated cations in the surface of gamma Al2O3 is argued to be due to the preferential exposure of crystallographic planes which contain exclusively octahedral sites. The insight makes it possible to propose a detailed model for the surface structure of gamma Al2O3 and the position of deposited metaloxides there upon. The location of molybdenum strongly depends on the amount deposited and the calcination temperature. The addition of lanthanum making gamma Al2O3 more thermostable is investigated. A series of silica supported molybdenum oxide catalysts is investigated toexplain the remarkable behavior to the selective oxidation of ammonia.

  3. Transverse momentum at work in high-energy scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    I will review some aspects of the definition and the phenomenology of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) which are potentially interesting for the physics program at several current and future experimental facilities. First of all, I will review the definition of quark, gluon and Wilson loop TMDs based on gauge invariant hadronic matrix elements. Looking at the phenomenology of quarks, I will address the flavor dependence of the intrinsic transverse momentum in unpolarized TMDs, focusing on its extraction from Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. I will also present an estimate of its impact on the transverse momentum spectrum of W and Z bosons produced in unpolarized hadronic collisions and on the determination of the W boson mass. Moreover, the combined effect of the flavor dependence and the evolution of TMDs with the energy scale will be discussed for electron-positron annihilation. Concerning gluons, I will present from an effective theory point of view the TMD factorization theorem for the transverse momentum spectrum of pseudoscalar quarkonium produced in hadronic collisions. Relying on this, I will discuss the possibility of extracting precise information on (un)polarized gluon TMDs at a future Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC).

  4. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  5. Electron scattering as a tool to study zero-point kinetic energies of atoms in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreh, R.; Finkelstein, Y.; Vos, M.

    2015-07-01

    High resolution electron compton scattering (ECS) is being used to study the atomic momentum distributions and hence the zero-point kinetic energies (ZPKE) of the scattering atoms. Such studies have shown that the scattering is from a single atom of the scattering sample. For an electron beam with a well defined incident energy, the scattered electron energy at any angle from each atomic species is Doppler broadened. The broadening reflects the atomic momentum distribution contributed by both the internal and external motions of the molecular system. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the scattered electron lines it was possible to determine the kinetic energy of the scattering atom including that of its zero-point motion. Thus, the atomic kinetic energies in gases such as H2, D2, HD, CH4 and in H2O, D2O and NH3 were measured and compared with those calculated semi-empirically using the measured optical infra red (IR) and Raman frequencies of the internal vibrations of the molecules. In general, good agreement between the measured and calculated values was found. Electron scattering was also used to study the ratio of e-scattering intensities from the H- and O-atoms in water (H2O), where some anomalies were reported to exist.

  6. Positronium scattering from Kr and Xe at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2003-03-01

    The scattering of orthopositronium from Kr and Xe is investigated with the fixed core stochastic variational method. The scattering lengths for Ps-Kr and Ps-Xe scattering in the fixed core approximation are 3.18a{sub 0} and 3.82a{sub 0}, respectively. Inclusion of core-polarization potentials leads to a significant reduction in the scattering lengths. The Ps-Kr and Ps-Xe scattering lengths were 1.98a{sub 0} and 2.29a{sub 0} for polarization potentials that were tuned to an average of the model electron-atom and positron-atom scattering lengths for the respective atoms. Other choices of the polarization potential resulted in scattering lengths that could be larger by 0.3a{sub 0} or smaller by 0.8a{sub 0}. The pick-off annihilation parameter {sub 1}Z{sub eff} has also been computed as part of the analysis. The present values of {sub 1}Z{sub eff} are about 3 to 10 times smaller than the accepted experimental values since short-range electron-positron correlations were ignored when the annihilation matrix element was evaluated.

  7. A combined muon-neutrino and electron-neutrino oscillation search at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, Jocelyn Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE seeks to corroborate or refute the unconfirmed oscillation result from the LSND experiment. If correct, the result implies that a new kind of massive neutrino, with no weak interactions, participates in neutrino oscillations. MiniBooNE searches for vμ → ve oscillations with the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 8 GeV beam line, which produces a vμ beam with an average energy of ~ 0.8 GeV and an intrinsic ve content of 0.4%. The neutrino detector is a 6.1 m radius sphere filled with CH2, viewed by 1540 photo-multiplier tubes, and located 541 m downstream from the source. This work focuses on the estimation of systematic errors associated with the neutrino flux and neutrino interaction cross section predictions, and in particular, on constraining these uncertainties using in-situ MiniBooNE vμ charged current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering data. A data set with ~ 100,000 events is identified, with 91% CCQE purity. This data set is used to measure several parameters of the CCQE cross section: the axial mass, the Fermi momentum, the binding energy, and the functional dependence of the axial form factor on four-momentum transfer squared. Constraints on the vμ and ve fluxes are derived using the vμ CCQE data set. A Monte Carlo study of a combined vμ disappearance and ve appearance oscillation fit is presented, which improves the vμ → ve oscillation sensitivity of MiniBooNE with respect to a ve appearance-only fit by 1.2-1.5σ, depending on the value of Δm2.

  8. Enhanced stabilisation of trapped electron modes by collisional energy scattering in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, P.; Camenen, Y.; Benkadda, S.; Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2015-06-15

    The collisional stabilisation via energy scattering and pitch-angle scattering of micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations with a special emphasis on the often neglected energy scattering operator. It is shown that in the linear regime energy scattering has a negligible effect on Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes but enhances the stabilisation of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) in presence of nonzero ion temperature and density gradients. This stabilisation is sensitive to the model used for the energy restoring term in the collision operator. The contributions of parallel and drift motion to the total growth rate in velocity space are used to characterize the complex stabilisation mechanisms behind pitch-angle and energy scattering for a range of relevant parameters such as the magnetic shear, the collisionality, the logarithmic density gradient, and the logarithmic ion temperature gradient. It is shown that depending on these parameters, energy scattering stabilisation of TEM can be either due to a decrease of the contribution from drifting trapped electrons or to an increase of the contribution from the parallel motion of passing electrons. Finally, for a standard ITG/TEM case, the effect of energy scattering on the nonlinear heat and particle fluxes is investigated.

  9. Study of Low Energy Electron Inelastic Scattering Mechanisms Using Spin Sensitive Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hongbing

    1995-01-01

    Spin sensitive electron spectroscopies were used to study low energy electron inelastic scattering from metal surfaces and thin films. In these experiments, a beam of spin polarized electrons from a GaAs source is directed on the sample surface, and the spin polarization and intensity are measured as a function of energy loss and scattering angle by a Mott electron polarimeter coupled with a concentric hemispherical energy analyzer. Systematic studies of the angular dependence of inelastically scattered electrons were conducted on a Cu(100) surface, and Mo/Cu(100), non-magnetized Fe/Cu(100), and Co/Cu(100) films. The polarization and intensity of scattered electrons were measured as function of energy loss and scattering angle. Further studies were also conducted on Ag(100) surface and amorphous Cu/Ag(100) films. From the experimental results, the angular distributions of dipole and impact scattered electrons can be determined individually and both are found to peak in the specular scattering direction. Preliminary studies were conducted on magnetized Co/Cu(100) films. The spin dependent scattering intensity asymmetry was measured, with a clearly observable peak at energy loss of ~1 eV, which coincides with the band splitting. The polarizations of secondary electrons produced by an unpolarized primary beam were also measured. The polarizations can be related to the band polarization of magnetized cobalt films.

  10. Characterizing the behavior of scattered radiation in multi-energy x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossin, Artur; Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2017-04-01

    Scattered radiation results in various undesirable effects in medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and security x-ray imaging. Despite numerous studies characterizing this phenomenon and its effects, the knowledge of its behavior in the energy domain remains limited. The present study aims at summarizing some key insights on scattered radiation originating from the inspected object. In addition, various simulations and experiments with limited collimation on both simplified and realistic phantoms were conducted in order to study scatter behavior in multi-energy x-ray imaging. Results showed that the spectrum shape of the scatter component can be considered preserved in the first approximation across the image plane for various acquisition geometries and phantoms. The variations exhibited by the scatter spectrum were below 10% for most examined cases. Furthermore, the corresponding spectrum shape proved to be also relatively invariant for different experimental angular projections of one of the examined phantoms. The observed property of scattered radiation can potentially lead to the decoupling of spatial and energy scatter components, which can in turn enable speed ups in scatter simulations and reduce the complexity of scatter correction.

  11. A time domain energy theorem for scattering of plane electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hoop, A. T.

    1984-10-01

    A time domain analysis of the scattering problem reveals the more general conditions under which the relevant theorems in the theory of the scattering of electromagnetic waves by an obstacle of bounded extent may also hold in the time domain. The present investigation is concerned with the energy theorem for plane wave scattering. Three different kinds of time behavior are considered, taking into account transient fields, time-periodic fields, and perpetuating fields. The derived energy theorem relates the energy which is both absorbed and scattered by the object to the spherical-wave amplitude of the scattered field in the far-field region, when observed in the direction of propagation of the incident plane wave.

  12. Search for W-prime boson decaying to electron-neutrino pairs in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-11-01

    The authors present the results of a search for W{prime} boson decaying to electron-neutrino pairs in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using a data sample corresponding to 205 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab. They observe no evidence for this decay mode and set limits on the production cross section times branching fraction, assuming the neutrinos from W{prime} boson decays to be light. If they assume the manifest left-right symmetric model, they exclude a W{prime} boson with mass less than 788 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level.

  13. Interaction of Electron Neutrinos with {sup 56}Fe in the LSD for E{sub {nu}{sub e}} {<=} 50 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gaponov, Yu.V.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Semenov, S.V.

    2004-11-01

    The neutrino pulses detected by the LSD (Liquid Scintillator Detector) on February 23, 1987, are analyzed on the basis of a two-stage model of supernova explosion. The number of events due to the electron-neutrino interaction with {sup 56}Fe in the LSD is calculated. The obtained number of signals is in agreement with experimental data.

  14. On scattering effects for volume sources in low-energy photon spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lépy, Marie-Christine; Brondeau, Laurine; Ferreux, Laurent; Pierre, Sylvie

    2013-11-01

    In this study, different aspects of the Compton scattering inside volume sources are illustrated using experimental approach and Monte Carlo simulation. For the low-energy range (below 100 keV) scattered events represents around 30% of the whole spectrum. Influence of the source-detector geometry is discussed. The scattering effects induce strong differences in spectrum shape for different geometrical conditions. This should influence efficiency transfer factors. A new approach is proposed, including the scattered events, to avoid complex peak area determination.

  15. Detailed theoretical and experimental analysis of low-energy electron-N2 scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiguo; Morrison, Michael A.; Isaacs, William A.; Trail, Wayne K.; Alle, Dean T.; Gulley, R. J.; Brennan, Michael J.; Buckman, Stephen J.

    1995-08-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of electron scattering from molecular nitrogen at energies below 10.0 eV. In the theoretical component of this project we have generated differential and integral cross sections for elastic scattering and vibrational excitation in converged vibrational close-coupling calculations. In the experiments, we have measured differential cross sections for these processes at scattering angles from 20° to 130° in a crossed-beam experiment at a large number of energies between 0.55 and 10 eV and, in a complementary time-of-flight experiment, total cross sections at energies between 0.08 and 10.0 eV. The measured angular distributions have been extrapolated to 0° and 180° using a procedure based on a nonlinear least-squares fit constrained by known physical properties of the e-N2 scattering matrix; numerical integration of the resulting extrapolated distributions yields integrated cross sections with almost no error beyond that inherent in the measured angular data. We find generally good agreement between the present experimental and theoretical cross section, particularly at energies near the Πg resonance near 2.39 eV. In previous studies of scattering in this region, such comparisons have been made problematical by the difficulty of ascertaining the appropriate theoretical scattering energy. We recommend here a protocol for resolving this problem for both elastic scattering and vibrational excitation.

  16. Low energy positron interactions with uracil—Total scattering, positronium formation, and differential elastic scattering cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Chiari, L.; Buckman, S. J.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2014-07-21

    Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.

  17. Review of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of solution of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics are presented. Scattering experiments of a beam of particles at a nonrelativisitic energy by a target made up of particles are analyzed. The Schroedinger equation is used to develop the quantum mechanical description of the system and one of several functions depending on the relative distance of the particles. The inverse problem is the construction of the potentials from experimental measurements.

  18. Gravitational scattering in the ADD model at high and low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, G.; Sjödahl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational scattering in the ADD model is considered at both sub- and transplanckian energies using a common formalism. By keeping a physical cut-off in the KK tower associated with virtual KK exchange, such as the cut-off implied by a finite brane width, troublesome divergences are removed from the calculations in both energy ranges. The scattering behavior depends on three different energy scales: the fundamental Planck mass, the collision energy and the inverse brane width. The result for energies low compared to the effective cut-off (inverse brane width) is a contact-like interaction. At high energies the gravitational scattering associated with the extra dimensional version of Newton’s law is recovered.

  19. Time gating for energy selection and scatter rejection: High-energy pulsed neutron imaging at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Alicia; Schirato, Richard; McKigney, Edward; Hunter, James; Temple, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a linear accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico that accelerates a proton beam to 800 MeV, which then produces spallation neutron beams. Flight path FP15R uses a tungsten target to generate neutrons of energy ranging from several hundred keV to ~600 MeV. The beam structure has micropulses of sub-ns width and period of 1.784 ns, and macropulses of 625 μs width and frequency of either 50 Hz or 100 Hz. This corresponds to 347 micropulses per macropulse, or 1.74 x 104 micropulses per second when operating at 50 Hz. Using a very fast, cooled ICCD camera (Princeton Instruments PI-Max 4), gated images of various objects were obtained on FP15R in January 2015. Objects imaged included blocks of lead and borated polyethylene; a tungsten sphere; and a tungsten, polyethylene, and steel cylinder. Images were obtained in 36 min or less, with some in as little as 6 min. This is novel because the gate widths (some as narrow as 10 ns) were selected to reject scatter and other signal not of interest (e.g. the gamma flash that precedes the neutron pulse), which has not been demonstrated at energies above 14 MeV. This proof-of-principle experiment shows that time gating is possible above 14MeV and is useful for selecting neutron energy and reducing scatter, thus forming clearer images. Future work (simulation and experimental) is being undertaken to improve camera shielding and system design and to precisely determine optical properties of the imaging system.

  20. The energy dependence of the diffraction minimum in the elastic scattering and new LHC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyugin, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    The soft diffraction phenomena in the elastic proton-proton scattering are reviewed from the viewpoint of experiments at the LHC (TOTEM and ATLAS collaboration). In the framework of the High Energy Generalized Structure (HEGS) model the form of the diffraction minimum in the nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering in a wide energy region is analyzed. The energy dependencies of the main characteristics of the diffraction dip are obtained. The numerical predictions at LHC energies are presented. The comparison of the model predictions with the new LHC data at √{ s} = 13 TeV is made.

  1. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Braicovich, L. Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Le Tacon, M.; Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Supruangnet, R.

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  2. Time-delay at higher genus in high-energy open string scattering*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, T.; Rey, S.-J.

    2001-02-01

    We explore some aspects of causal time-delay in open string scattering studied recently by Seiberg, Susskind and Toumbas. By examining high-energy scattering amplitudes at higher order in perturbation theory, we argue that causal time-delay at /Gth order is /1/(G+1) times smaller than the time-delay at tree level. We propose a space-time interpretation of the result by utilizing the picture of the high-energy open string scattering put forward by Gross and Mañes. We argue that the phenomenon of reduced time-delay is attributed to the universal feature of the space-time string trajectory in high-energy scattering that string shape at higher order remains the same as that at tree level but overall scale is reduced. We also discuss implications to the space-time uncertainty principle and make brief comments on causal time-delay behavior in space/time noncommutative field theory.

  3. Elastic electron scattering in krypton in the energy range from 5 to 10 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Linert, Ireneusz; Mielewska, Brygida; Zubek, Mariusz; King, George C.

    2010-01-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering in krypton have been measured at the energies of 5,7.5, and 10 eV over the scattering angle range from 30 deg. to 180 deg. The measurements for backward scattering employed the magnetic angle-changing technique. These differential cross sections have been integrated to yield the elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections at the above energies. These new results are compared with the most recent measurements and calculations of the respective cross sections in krypton. The dependence of the differential cross sections on atomic polarizability of the heavier rare gas atoms argon, krypton, and xenon has also been investigated over the electron energy range 5-30 eV and for forward, backward, and intermediate scattering angles.

  4. Low-energy Scattering of Positronium by Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Hasi

    2007-01-01

    The survey reports theoretical studies involving positronium (Ps) - atom scattering. Investigations carried out in last few decades have been briefly reviewed in this article. A brief description of close-coupling approximation (CCA), the first-Born approximation (FBA) and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) for Ps-Atom systems are made. The CCA codes of Ray et a1 [1-6] are reinvestigated using very fine mesh-points to search for resonances. The article advocates the need for an extended basis set & a systematic study using CCAs.

  5. Comprehensive study of the surface peak in charge-integrated low-energy ion scattering spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Draxler, M.; Gruber, R.; Bauer, P.; Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.; Schmid, K.; Ermolov, S. N.

    2003-08-01

    Low-energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, the neutral and the charge-integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) are obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. It is well known that charge integrated spectra may exhibit a surface peak which is more pronounced for heavier projectiles, e.g., Ne ions. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF experiments and computer simulations for H, He, and Ne projectiles scattered from a polycrystalline copper target. Measurements were done in the range of 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 degree sign under UHV conditions. The simulations were performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. In the experiments, a pronounced surface peak was observed at low energies, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation. Several atomic layers may contribute to the surface peak, depending on the energy. Analyzing the contributions of the individual outermost atomic layers, one finds that the binary collisions of the projectiles with atoms in the first and the second layer yield a narrow energy distribution, while the contribution from the deeper layers is dominated by multiple scattering and therefore exhibits a very broad energy spectrum. It is shown that the appearance of a more or less pronounced surface peak is due to the relative contributions of single scattering and multiple scattering and thus depends on the projectile energy and mass.

  6. Global Scale Observation of Scattered Energy from the Core: Seismic Constraints on the F-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, B. A.; Adam, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPdf phase arrivals in the distance range 149-178 degrees. Within this collection, we have identified an energy packet that arrives 5-20 seconds after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a coda that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. The origin of this scattered energy is unclear and may provide valuable information about structure in the core. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of theses scatterers and try and locate them. Our results show that the scattered energy originates along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameter. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, in particular the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for these scatterers, we show that their origin is most likely at the base of the outer-core, in the F-layer. To assess our interpretation, we model synthetic seismograms and test velocity profiles in the F-layer. We suggest that such a layer may be responsible for the scattering in the PKP coda as observed in the data. The detection and observation of this scattered energy enables us to constrain physical properties of the F-layer that play an important role in the investigation of the geodynamo modelisation and core evolution.

  7. A measurement of hadron production cross sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the Δm2 about equals 1-eV2 region

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, David W.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of hadron production cross-sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the Δm2 ~ 1 eV2} region. This dissertation presents measurements from two different high energy physics experiments with a very strong connection: the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment located at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (Mini-BooNE) located at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois.

  8. Elastic scattering of 17O ions from 58Ni at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Strano, E.; Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Parascandolo, L.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Toniolo, N.; Grebosz, J.; Filipescu, D.; Gheorghe, A.; Glodariu, T.; Stroe, L.; Miyatake, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S.; Kim, Y. H.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V.; Zerva, K.

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering has been studied for the collisions induced by 17O on 58Ni target at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. The elastic scattering angular distributions were measured for several energies and were analyzed within the framework of the optical model to obtain total reaction cross sections. The reaction cross-sections of the tightly bound 17O were compared with those of weakly bound 17F on the same targets in order to investigate the effects of the low binding energy in the reaction dynamics.

  9. Absolute Beam Energy Measurement using Elastic ep Scattering at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre

    1999-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.

  10. High-energy gravitational scattering and Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Florian; Sundborg, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Quantum black holes are difficult to describe. We consider two seemingly divergent approaches, high-energy scattering and the proposal to regard black holes as Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitons, and establish a connection between them. Results from the eikonal approximation of high-energy scattering are reconsidered and processed further by a saddle-point approximation. The dominant contribution to the scattering amplitude comes from a ladder diagram with the exchange of N gravitons, and the number of gravitons follows a Poisson distribution. This approximation supports the picture of a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate with an extent equal to the Schwarzschild radius, which grows with N in a way determined by the saddle point. The approach permits calculations of 1 /N corrections from the fluctuations around the saddle points and we comment on these. Scattering methods might be useful probes of quantum black holes, especially when interpreted in terms of condensates.

  11. Low-energy D-wave positronium-hydrogen scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Denton; van Reeth, P.; Ward, S. J.

    2014-03-01

    We are investigating the four-body Coulomb process of positronium-hydrogen (Ps-H) scattering below the Ps(n=2) excitation threshold using the Kohn variational method and variants. Our Ps-H 1 D -wave phase shifts compare reasonably well with the close-coupling results, but our 3 D -wave phase shifts are appreciably lower. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of these, we are employing a sectors-based approach and the modification of the short-range Hylleraas terms with an exponential in the r12 coordinate. We are investigating the use of the Born approximation for higher partial waves. We plan also to present our latest S-wave and P-wave results using the Kohn variational method. S.J. Ward acknowledges support from NSF under grant no. PHYS-968638.

  12. Rotational excitation of physisorbed H2 by low-energy electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlinsky, A. J.

    1982-07-01

    The inelastic-scattering spectrum for pure rotational transitions (J, m)=(0, 0)-->(2, m) by low-energy electrons (2scattering is assumed to be dominated by the 2Σ+u resonance. Comparison is made to the recent experimental results of Avouris, Schmeisser, and Demuth for H2 on Ag.

  13. Review of total cross sections and forward scattering parameters at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M.; White, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    We review the field of the elastic scattering of pp and {bar p}p at the ultra-high energies. The recent total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}, and {rho}-value results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider experiments presented at the 4th `Blois` Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering (Elba, Italy, in May, 1991), allow us a comprehensive overview of the field. 24 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Review of total cross sections and forward scattering parameters at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); White, A.R. . High Energy Physics Div.)

    1991-10-01

    We review the field of the elastic scattering of pp and {bar p}p at the ultra-high energies. The recent total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}, and {rho}-value results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider experiments presented at the 4th Blois' Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering (Elba, Italy, in May, 1991), allow us a comprehensive overview of the field. 24 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

    2013-09-28

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  16. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

    2013-09-01

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  17. Low-energy electron scattering from C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Bettega, M. H. F.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-12-15

    We present differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by three butanol isomers, isobutanol, t-butanol, and 2-butanol. Our results were calculated with the Schwinger multichannel method in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation for collision energies from 1 to 50 eV. The present results are compared with previous calculations and measurements for the remaining C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH isomer, n-butanol [Khakoo et al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 062714 (2008)]. Distinctive behavior is observed in the differential cross sections at collision energies between 5 and 10 eV. In particular, whereas n-butanol exhibits an f-wave scattering pattern, the other isomers exhibit d-wave behavior. A similar pattern is found in the related alkanes when comparing straight-chain versus branched isomers. We discuss the possible connection of this behavior to shape resonances that influence the scattering.

  18. Low-energy Auger electron diffraction: influence of multiple scattering and angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassé, A.; Niebergall, L.; Kucherenko, Yu.

    2002-04-01

    The angular dependence of Auger electrons excited from single-crystal surfaces is treated theoretically within a multiple-scattering cluster model taking into account the full Auger transition matrix elements. In particular the model has been used to discuss the influence of multiple scattering and angular momentum of the Auger electron wave on Auger electron diffraction (AED) patterns in the region of low kinetic energies. Theoretical results of AED patterns are shown and discussed in detail for Cu(0 0 1) and Ni(0 0 1) surfaces, respectively. Even though Cu and Ni are very similar in their electronic and scattering properties recently strong differences have been found in AED patterns measured in the low-energy region. It is shown that the differences may be caused to superposition of different electron diffraction effects in an energy-integrated experiment. A good agreement between available experimental and theoretical results has been achieved.

  19. Pion-Nucleon Scattering Experiments at Low Energies:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitschopf, J.; Bauer, M.; Clement, H.; Cröni, M.; Denz, H.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Friedman, E.; Gibson, E.

    Total cross sections of the single charge exchange reaction π-p→π0n have been measured at PSI from about 40 to 250 MeV using a transmission technique. Preliminary results show an excellent agreement with predictions from the SAID FA02 phase shift analysis for energies above 70 MeV.

  20. α scattering and α -induced reaction cross sections of 64Zn at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, A.; Mohr, P.; Gyürky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Zs.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Galaviz, D.; Güray, R. T.; Korkulu, Z.; Özkan, N.; Yalçın, C.

    2016-11-01

    Background: α -nucleus potentials play an essential role for the calculation of α -induced reaction cross sections at low energies in the statistical model. Uncertainties of these calculations are related to ambiguities in the adjustment of the potential parameters to experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and to the energy dependence of the effective α -nucleus potentials. Purpose: The present work studies the total reaction cross section σreac of α -induced reactions at low energies which can be determined from the elastic scattering angular distribution or from the sum over the cross sections of all open nonelastic channels. Method: Elastic and inelastic 64Zn(α ,α )64Zn angular distributions were measured at two energies around the Coulomb barrier, at 12.1 and 16.1 MeV. Reaction cross sections of the (α ,γ ) , (α ,n ) , and (α ,p ) reactions were measured at the same energies using the activation technique. The contributions of missing nonelastic channels were estimated from statistical model calculations. Results: The total reaction cross sections from elastic scattering and from the sum of the cross sections over all open nonelastic channels agree well within the uncertainties. This finding confirms the consistency of the experimental data. At the higher energy of 16.1 MeV, the predicted significant contribution of compound-inelastic scattering to the total reaction cross section is confirmed experimentally. As a by-product it is found that most recent global α -nucleus potentials are able to describe the reaction cross sections for 64Zn around the Coulomb barrier. Conclusions: Total reaction cross sections of α -induced reactions can be well determined from elastic scattering angular distributions. The present study proves experimentally that the total cross section from elastic scattering is identical to the sum of nonelastic reaction cross sections. Thus, the statistical model can reliably be used to distribute the total reaction

  1. Can the Negative Mass Square of the Electron Neutrinos BE AN Indication of Interaction with Relic Neutrinos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Kensuke; Jinnouchi, Osamu

    2003-04-01

    The unphysical result of the negative mass square of the electron neutrinos recently reported in several tritium β-decay experiments, is one of the most attractive subjects. As a possible scenario to explain the anomaly, we have assumed a reaction with relic neutrinos which are predicted by the standard big bang cosmology. If such neutrinos could exist, the interaction of the relic neutrinos with the target tritium, νe + 3H → 3He + e- could be laid under the large amount of the β-decay process, H- > He + e- + bar ν e, which would cause a peak-like structure beyond the end-point in the Kurie plot. Based on the assumption, we evaluated the cross section from the event rate found in the peak by re-fitting to the 1991 data published by Mainz Group. In this talk we will provide a scenario that could account for the evaluated cross section by assuming a coherent state of the neutrino sea, which would result much lower temperature than the prediction from the standard big bang cosmology.

  2. Low-energy elastic electron scattering from chloromethane, CH3Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, C.; Sakaamini, A.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2015-10-01

    We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloromethane, CH3Cl, also known as methyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 100 eV and at scattering angles from {5}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to earlier previous results for this molecule.

  3. Low-energy elastic electron scattering form chloroethane, C2H5Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaamini, A.; Navarro, C.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2015-10-01

    We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloroethane, C2H5Cl, also known as ethyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 1 to 30 eV and at scattering angles from {10}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to previous results for C2H5Cl and for the related molecule chloromethane.

  4. Total elastic cross section for H-bar-H scattering at thermal energies

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab; Ghosh, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the elastic scattering cross sections for a few low-lying partial waves and also the converged elastic cross sections with added partial waves in the energy range 10{sup -10}-10{sup -2} a.u. for the H-bar-H system using atomic orbital techniques. The present s-wave predictions are in good agreement with the other existing theoretical estimates. Nonzero low-order partial-wave elastic cross sections show dips like for s-wave scattering. The converged elastic cross section shows structurelike behavior in the energy range 4.2x10{sup -4}-10{sup -2} a.u.

  5. Low-energy scattering of antihydrogen by helium and molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Armour, E. A. G.; Todd, A. C.; Liu, Y.; Gregory, M. R.; Jonsell, S.; Plummer, M.

    2008-08-08

    In this paper, we describe in detail calculations that we have carried out of cross sections for rearrangement processes in very low-energy helium+antihydrogen (H-bar) scattering that result in He{sup +}p-bar+Ps or Hep-bar+e{sup +} or {alpha}p-bar+Ps{sup -}. The interaction between the leptons is taken into account very accurately. Results are presented for all three processes. A description is also given of a preliminary calculation of elastic and antiproton annihilation cross sections for very low-energy H{sub 2}+H-bar scattering.

  6. New measurements and phase shift analysis of p16O elastic scattering at astrophysical energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovichenko, Sergey; Burtebayev, Nassurlla; Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, Albert; Zazulin, Denis; Kerimkulov, Zhambul; Nassurlla, Marzhan; Omarov, Chingis; Tkachenko, Alesya; Shmygaleva, Tatyana; Kliczewski, Stanislaw; Sadykov, Turlan

    2017-01-01

    The results of new experimental measurements of p16O elastic scattering in the energy range of 0.6-1.0 MeV at angles of 40°-160° are given. Phase shift analysis of p16O elastic scattering was made using these and other experimental data on differential cross sections in excitation functions and angular distributions at energies of up to 2.5 MeV. Supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (0073/PCF-IS-MES)

  7. Scattering of Halo Nuclei at Energies below and around the Coulomb Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, M. J. G.; Cubero, M.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Moro, A. M.; Pesudo, V.; Acosta, L.; Alcorta, M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Bender, P.; Buchmann, L.; Diget, C. A.; Di Pietro, A.; Escrig, D.; Falou, H. A.; Figuera, P. P.; Fulton, B. R.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Garnsworthy, A.; Gómez-Camacho, J.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Lay, J. A.; Madurga, M.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Rajabali, M.; Sarazin, F.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Unsworth, C.; Walden, P.

    The loosely bound structure of halo nuclei is predicted to affect the collisions with heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. We report here on the results on a series of experiments done at different facilities to study the behaviour of the scattering of the archetype of the halo nuclei: 6He, 11Li, and 11Be on heavy targets at energies below and around the Coulomb barrier. The results are interpreted in the framework of Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channel calculations (CDCC). The departure from Rutherford scattering is larger than expected. In first approximation the effect certainly scales with the loosely bound character of the projectile.

  8. Fast scattering simulation tool for multi-energy x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossin, A.; Tabary, J.; Rebuffel, V.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of Monte Carlo (MC) and deterministic approaches was employed as a means of creating a simulation tool capable of providing energy resolved x-ray primary and scatter images within a reasonable time interval. Libraries of Sindbad, a previously developed x-ray simulation software, were used in the development. The scatter simulation capabilities of the tool were validated through simulation with the aid of GATE and through experimentation by using a spectrometric CdTe detector. A simple cylindrical phantom with cavities and an aluminum insert was used. Cross-validation with GATE showed good agreement with a global spatial error of 1.5% and a maximum scatter spectrum error of around 6%. Experimental validation also supported the accuracy of the simulations obtained from the developed software with a global spatial error of 1.8% and a maximum error of around 8.5% in the scatter spectra.

  9. Imaging multi-energy gamma-ray fields with a Compton scatter camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. B.; Dogan, N.; Gormley, J. E.; Knoll, G. F.; O'Donnell, M.; Wehe, D. K.

    1994-08-01

    Multi-energy gamma-ray fields have been imaged with a ring Compton scatter camera (RCC). The RCC is intended for industrial applications, where there is a need to image multiple gamma-ray lines from spatially extended sources. To our knowledge, the ability of a Compton scatter camera to perform this task had not previously been demonstrated. Gamma rays with different incident energies are distinguished based on the total energy deposited in the camera elements. For multiple gamma-ray lines, separate images are generated for each line energy. Random coincidences and other interfering interactions have been investigated. Camera response has been characterized for energies from 0.511 to 2.75 MeV. Different gamma-ray lines from extended sources have been measured and images reconstructed using both direct and iterative algorithms.

  10. The internal energy distribution of NO and N 2 scattering from defective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierro, William; Castejón, Henry J.

    2008-11-01

    The internal energy distribution of NO and N 2 scattering from a defective surfaces has been studied using classical molecular dynamics. Stochastic trajectory simulations were used to calculate the final rotational excitation, angular distribution and trapping probabilities of N 2 and NO scattering from clean Ag(1 1 1) surfaces, with adatoms and with vacancies. Calculations reproduce well the experimental results for NO and N 2 scattering from clean surfaces. NO undergoes more extensive rotational excitation than N 2 on clean and defective surfaces. Scattering is more inelastic on defective surfaces and adatoms defects appear to promote rotational excitation more efficiently than vacancies. Trapping exhibits a complex behavior. Dynamical corrugation causes trapping of NO on clean Ag(1 1 1) to exhibit a "crossover" behavior. That is, the value of n in the standard functional dependence of trapping on the incident energy, Eicos nθi, switches sign as the incident energy increases. This behavior is also observed in the case of N 2 scattering from a surface with adatoms, but in this case is caused by the static corrugation. It appears that the breaking of the 2-D symmetry of the surface (i.e. static corrugation) compensates for the lack of anisotropy in the interaction potential (i.e. dynamical corrugation) for N 2/Ag(1 1 1). Adatom defects increase trapping for NO molecules impinging on the surface with glancing trajectories while vacancies have the opposite effect.

  11. Bound-state methods for low-energy electron-ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Leonard

    1996-02-01

    An effective-potential formalism, previously developed for electron scattering by a neutral target, is extended to apply to electron-ion scattering, with the requirement of antisymmetrization now accounted for explicitly. A minimum principle for the effective potential is derived, valid for scattering below the ionization threshold and applicable when, as is usually the case, the target wave functions are imprecisely known. The basis for the minimum principle is the Rayleigh-Ritz property that is satisfied by the modified Hamiltonian in terms of which the effective potential is defined. An analysis of single-channel, zero-energy scattering for a particular partial wave is presented; it is based on the effective-potential formalism and leads to an absolute definition of the zero-energy phase shift δ(0) of the form δ(0)=μ(∞)π, where μ(n) is the quantum defect of the nth energy level. This result may be thought of as an extension of Levinson's theorem for scattering by short-range potentials.

  12. Interatomic scattering in energy dependent photoelectron spectra of Ar clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Patanen, M.; Benkoula, S.; Nicolas, C.; Goel, A.; Antonsson, E.; Neville, J. J.; Miron, C.

    2015-09-28

    Soft X-ray photoelectron spectra of Ar 2p levels of atomic argon and argon clusters are recorded over an extended range of photon energies. The Ar 2p intensity ratios between atomic argon and clusters’ surface and bulk components reveal oscillations similar to photoelectron extended X-ray absorption fine structure signal (PEXAFS). We demonstrate here that this technique allows us to analyze separately the PEXAFS signals from surface and bulk sites of free-standing, neutral clusters, revealing a bond contraction at the surface.

  13. Multiple scattering calculations of relativistic electron energy loss spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, K.; Rehr, J. J.; Verbeeck, J.

    2010-04-01

    A generalization of the real-space Green’s-function approach is presented for ab initio calculations of relativistic electron energy loss spectra (EELS) which are particularly important in anisotropic materials. The approach incorporates relativistic effects in terms of the transition tensor within the dipole-selection rule. In particular, the method accounts for relativistic corrections to the magic angle in orientation resolved EELS experiments. The approach is validated by a study of the graphite CK edge, for which we present an accurate magic angle measurement consistent with the predicted value.

  14. Interpretation of the spectra of energy scattered by dispersed anchovies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diachok, Orest

    2001-12-01

    The spectra of backscattered energy by dispersed anchovies, which were reported by Holliday (1972), reveal several peaks at frequencies that correspond to theoretically calculated resonance frequencies of year classes of anchovies. Theoretical calculations are based on concurrent measurements of distributions of swim bladder dimensions and a modified form of Minnaert's (1933) equation. Differences between calculated and measured values of the mean lengths of the second-, third-, and fourth-year classes are within experimental uncertainties (+/-8%). The calculated mean lengths of juvenile anchovies are in good agreement with historical measurements of the bounds on this parameter (Butler, 1989). Matching of theoretical calculations and measurements of backscattered energy level versus frequency yields estimates of the total Q of the spectral line, QT, and the relative number density per year class. The resultant estimate of QT of adult anchovies is approximately 4.4. This value of QT is consistent with laboratory measurements of the Q of individual anchovies, Q0 (~7 at 15 m) and measurements of length distributions of year classes and depth distributions. Resultant estimates of relative number densities of year classes were consistent with historical measurements of the relative number densities of year classes of anchovies in the Southern California Bight.

  15. Triple Parton Scatterings in High-Energy Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Enterria, David; Snigirev, Alexander M.

    2017-03-01

    A generic expression to compute triple parton scattering cross sections in high-energy proton-proton (p p ) collisions is presented as a function of the corresponding single parton cross sections and the transverse parton profile of the proton encoded in an effective parameter σeff,TPS . The value of σeff,TPS is closely related to the similar effective cross section that characterizes double parton scatterings, and amounts to σeff,TPS=12.5 ±4.5 mb . Estimates for triple charm (c c ¯) and bottom (b b ¯) production in p p collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations for single c c ¯ , b b ¯ cross sections. At √{s }≈100 TeV , about 15% of the p p collisions produce three c c ¯ pairs from three different parton-parton scatterings.

  16. Scattering of Low Energy Electrons and Positrons from Hydrogenic Systems and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand K.

    2007-01-01

    While the electron scatters from the target, the target no longer stays in its original form. One of the first methods to take into account the distortion of the target at low incident energies is the method of polarized orbitals. In this method the wave function for the process is written using the first-order perturbation theory and the equation for the scattering function is derived from the Schradinger equation. This method has been very successful in calculating the phase shifts and therefore the cross sections at various energies. The total wave function can be used to calculate photoionization cross sections. The disadvantage of this approach is that the method is not variational and therefore does not provide bounds on the phase shifts. These difficulties can be overcome by using the Feshbach projection operator formalism. This approach has been employed for the scattering of electrons and positrons from targets. Results of various calculations will be discussed.

  17. Trajectory analysis of low-energy and hyperthermal ions scattered from Cu(110)

    SciTech Connect

    McEachern, R.L.; Goodstein, D.M.; Cooper, B.H.

    1989-05-15

    Trajectories of Na{sup +} ions scattered from the Cu(110) surface in the <1 1bar 0> and <001> azimuths were studied for a range of incident energies from 56 eV to 4 keV. The goal is to explain the trends observed in the energy spectra and determine what types of trajectories contribute to these spectra. Using the computer program SAFARI, simulations were performed with trajectory analyses for 100-, 200-, and 400-eV scattering. We show results from the 100-eV simulations in both azimuths and compare them with the experimental data. The simulated energy spectra are in excellent agreement with the data. Ion trajectories and impact parameter plots from the simulations are used to determine the relative importance of different types of ion-surface-atom collisions. The simulations have shown that the striking differences observed in comparing the <1 1bar 0> and <001> spectra are mostly due to ions which scatter from second-layer atoms. This system exhibits strong focusing onto the second-layer atoms by the first-layer rows, and the focusing is very sensitive to the spacing between the rows. At the lower beam energies, scattering from the second layer dominates the measured spectra.

  18. Cross sections for ultra-low-energy electron scattering from atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, M.; Shigemura, K.; Hosaka, K.; Odagiri, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.

    2016-12-01

    Absolute total cross sections for electron scattering from He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe at very low electron energies obtained using the technique employing the threshold-photoelectron source are presented. Comparison of the measured cross section for noble gas atoms with those of theoretical results are made.

  19. An investigation into electron scattering from pyrazine at intermediate and high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, A. G.; Fuss, M. C.; Blanco, F.; Gorfinkiel, J. D.; Almeida, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Brunger, M. J.; García, G.

    2013-11-14

    Total electron scattering cross sections for pyrazine in the energy range 10–500 eV have been measured with a new magnetically confined electron transmission-beam apparatus. Theoretical differential and integral elastic, as well as integral inelastic, cross sections have been calculated by means of a screening-corrected form of the independent-atom representation (IAM-SCAR) from 10 to 1000 eV incident electron energies. The present experimental and theoretical total cross sections show a good level of agreement, to within 10%, in the overlapping energy range. Consistency of these results with previous calculations (i.e., the R-matrix and Schwinger Multichannel methods) and elastic scattering measurements at lower energies, below 10 eV, is also discussed.

  20. Electromagnetic energy within a magnetic infinite cylinder and scattering properties for oblique incidence.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Tiago José; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2010-07-01

    We analytically calculate the time-averaged electromagnetic energy stored inside a nondispersive magnetic isotropic cylinder that is obliquely irradiated by an electromagnetic plane wave. An expression for the optical-absorption efficiency in terms of the magnetic internal coefficients is also obtained. In the low absorption limit, we derive a relation between the normalized internal energy and the optical-absorption efficiency that is not affected by the magnetism and the incidence angle. This relation, indeed, seems to be independent of the shape of the scatterer. This universal aspect of the internal energy is connected to the transport velocity and consequently to the diffusion coefficient in the multiple scattering regime. Magnetism favors high internal energy for low size parameter cylinders, which leads to a low diffusion coefficient for electromagnetic propagation in 2D random media.

  1. Coupling of multiple coulomb scattering and energy loss and straggling in HZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Walker, S. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C.; Tweed, J.

    Current developments in HZETRN are focused towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic transport code capable of simulating radiation transport with either space or laboratory boundary conditions One aspect of the new version of HZETRN is the inclusion of small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering of incident ions by target nuclei While the effects of multiple scattering are negligible in the space radiation environment multiple scattering must be included in laboratory transport code simulations to accurately model ion beam experiments to simulate the physical and biological-effective radiation dose and to develop new methods and strategies for light ion radiation therapy In this paper we present the theoretical formalism and computation procedures for incorporating multiple scattering into HZETRN and coupling the ion-nuclear scattering interactions with energy loss and straggling Simulations of the effects of multiple scattering on ion beam characterization will be compared with results from laboratory measurements which include path-length corrections angular and lateral broadening and absorbed dose

  2. Diffuse scattering and low-energy phonons in superionic conductor Cu1.8SSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilkin, Sergey; Hoser, Andreas; Schweika, Werner

    2005-03-01

    The neutron diffuse and inelastic scattering were studied in the superionic α-phase of copper selenide. In neutron diffraction experiments on Cu1.85Se single crystal the diffuse scattering features were observed along [111] direction in vicinity of (400) and (422) reflections. In inelastic neutron scattering measurements performed with time-of-flight spectrometer the elastic and inelastic scattering processes were separated and a strong inelastic scattering was observed also along [111] nearby (400) and (022). This shows that diffuse scattering found in conventional diffraction experiment is mainly inelastic and most probably comes from the low-energy phonons. Such phonons with optic-like behaviour of transverse acoustic modes at q/qm> 0.2-0.4 were found earlier in α-Cu1.85Se [1]. [1] S.A. Danilkin, A.N. Skomorokhov, A. Hoser, H. Fuess, V. Rajevac, N.N. Bickulova, Crystal structure and lattice dynamics of superionic copper selenide Cu2-δSe, J. Alloys and Compounds, 2003, v. 361, p. 57-61.

  3. Total electron scattering cross section of Fluorocarbons at intermediate electron energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe

    2008-10-01

    Total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) have been measured using the linear transmission technique for impact energies 0.10 -- 4.00 keV. These TCS are compared to existing experimental and theoretical TCS in the literature. Based on the present measurements, an empirical formula is developed to predict the TCS of fluorocarbons as a function of incident electron energy.

  4. The calibration of elastic scattering angular distribution at low energies on HIRFL-RIBLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. X.; Zhang, G. L.; Lin, C. J.; Qu, W. W.; Yang, L.; Ma, N. R.; Zheng, L.; Jia, H. M.; Sun, L. J.; Liu, X. X.; Chu, X. T.; Yang, J. C.; Wang, J. S.; Xu, S. W.; Ma, P.; Ma, J. B.; Jin, S. L.; Bai, Z.; Huang, M. R.; Zang, H. L.; Yang, B.; Liu, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The precise calibration of angular distribution of heavy-ion elastic scattering induced by Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at energies around Coulomb barrier on the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) at the Heavy-Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) is presented. The beam profile and the scattering angles on the target are deduced by a measurement with two Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), and four sets of detector telescopes (including Double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) placed systematically along the beam line, incorporating with Monte Carlo simulation. The MWPCs were used to determine the beam trajectory before the target, and the energies and the positions of scattered particles on the detectors were measured by the DSSDs. Minor corrections on the beam spot and the detector position are performed by assuming the pure Rutherford scattering at angles which are smaller than the related grazing angle. This method is applied for the elastic scattering of 17F on 89Y target at Elab=59 MeV and 50 MeV.

  5. Quantitative considerations in medium energy ion scattering depth profiling analysis of nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalm, P. C.; Bailey, P.; Reading, M. A.; Rossall, A. K.; van den Berg, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    The high depth resolution capability of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) is becoming increasingly relevant to the characterisation of nanolayers in e.g. microelectronics. In this paper we examine the attainable quantitative accuracy of MEIS depth profiling. Transparent but reliable analytical calculations are used to illustrate what can ultimately be achieved for dilute impurities in a silicon matrix and the significant element-dependence of the depth scale, for instance, is illustrated this way. Furthermore, the signal intensity-to-concentration conversion and its dependence on the depth of scattering is addressed. Notably, deviations from the Rutherford scattering cross section due to screening effects resulting in a non-coulombic interaction potential and the reduction of the yield owing to neutralization of the exiting, backscattered H+ and He+ projectiles are evaluated. The former mainly affects the scattering off heavy target atoms while the latter is most severe for scattering off light target atoms and can be less accurately predicted. However, a pragmatic approach employing an extensive data set of measured ion fractions for both H+ and He+ ions scattered off a range of surfaces, allows its parameterization. This has enabled the combination of both effects, which provides essential information regarding the yield dependence both on the projectile energy and the mass of the scattering atom. Although, absolute quantification, especially when using He+, may not always be achievable, relative quantification in which the sum of all species in a layer adds up to 100%, is generally possible. This conclusion is supported by the provision of some examples of MEIS derived depth profiles of nanolayers. Finally, the relative benefits of either using H+ or He+ ions are briefly considered.

  6. Scattering of W and Z bosons at high-energy lepton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleper, Christian; Kilian, Wolfgang; Reuter, Jürgen; Sekulla, Marco

    2017-02-01

    We present a new study of quasi-elastic W and Z scattering processes in high-energy e^+e^- collisions, based on and extrapolating the low-energy effective theory which extends the standard model with a 125 {GeV} Higgs boson. We parameterize deviations in the low-energy range in terms of the dimension-eight operators that arise in the effective theory. Smoothly extending this to higher energy, we study a set of simplified models of new physics in W / Z scattering, (1) a structureless extrapolation of the effective theory, and (2) scalar and tensor resonance multiplets. The high-energy asymptotics of all models is regulated by a universal unitarization procedure. This enables us to provide benchmark scenarios which can be meaningfully evaluated off shell and in exclusive event samples, and to determine the sensitivity of an e^+e^- collider to the model parameters. We analyze the longitudinal vector-boson scattering modes, where we optimize the cuts for the fiducial cross section for different collider scenarios. Here, we choose energy stages of 1.0, 1.4 and 3 TeV, as motivated by the extendability of the ILC project and the staging scenario of the CLIC project.

  7. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos in low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2017-03-01

    A thorough account of electromagnetic interactions of massive neutrinos in the theoretical formulation of low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering is given. The formalism of neutrino charge, magnetic, electric, and anapole form factors defined as matrices in the mass basis is employed under the assumption of three-neutrino mixing. The flavor change of neutrinos traveling from the source to the detector is taken into account and the role of the source-detector distance is inspected. The effects of neutrino flavor-transition millicharges and charge radii in the scattering experiments are pointed out.

  8. Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhumagulova, K. N. Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S.

    2015-08-15

    Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer–Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.

  9. Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S.

    2015-08-01

    Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer-Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.

  10. Hierarchy spectrum of SM fermions: from top quark to electron neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, She-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    In the SM gauge symmetries and fermion content of neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks, we study the effective four-fermion operators of Einstein-Cartan type and their contributions to the Schwinger-Dyson equations of fermion self-energy functions. The study is motivated by the speculation that these four-fermion operators are probably originated due to the quantum gravity, which provides the natural regularization for chiral-symmetric gauge field theories. In the chiral-gauge symmetry breaking phase, as to achieve the energetically favorable ground state, only the top-quark mass is generated via the spontaneous symmetry breaking, and other fermion masses are generated via the explicit symmetry breaking induced by the top-quark mass, four-fermion interactions and fermion-flavor mixing matrices. A phase transition from the symmetry breaking phase to the chiral-gauge symmetric phase at TeV scale occurs and the drastically fine-tuning problem can be resolved. In the infrared fixed-point domain of the four-fermion coupling for the SM at low energies, we qualitatively obtain the hierarchy patterns of the SM fermion Dirac masses, Yukawa couplings and family-flavor mixing matrices with three additional right-handed neutrinos ν R f . Large Majorana masses and lepton-number symmetry breaking are originated by the four-fermion interactions among ν R f and their left-handed conjugated fields ν R fc . Light masses of gauged Majorana neutrinos in the normal hierarchy (10-5 - 10-2 eV) are obtained consistently with neutrino oscillations. We present some discussions on the composite Higgs phenomenology and forward-backward asymmetry of toverline{t} -production, as well as remarks on the candidates of light and heavy dark matter particles (fermions, scalar and pseudoscalar bosons).

  11. Impact of nuclear effects on weak pion production at energies below 1 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobczyk, Jan T.; Żmuda, Jakub

    2013-06-01

    Charged-current single-pion production in scattering off 12C is investigated for neutrino energies up to 1 GeV. A model of Nieves [Phys. Rev. C10.1103/PhysRevC.83.045501 83, 045501 (2011)] is further developed by performing exact integration and avoiding several approximations. The effect of exact integration is investigated both for double-differential and total neutrino-nucleus cross sections. The impact of nuclear effects with in-medium modifications of the Δ(1232) resonance properties as well as an effective field theory nonresonant background contribution are discussed. The dependence of the fraction of Δ(1232) decays into n-particle-n-hole states on incident neutrino energy is estimated. The impact of various ingredients of the model on the ratio of muon to electron neutrino cross sections is investigated in detail.

  12. Neutron Scattering Study of Low Energy Magnetic Excitation in FeTeSe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Schneeloch, John; Matsuda, Masaaki; Christianson, A. D.; Gu, Genda; Zaliznyak, I. A.; Xu, Guangyong; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    We have performed neutron scattering and magnetization/transport measurements on a series of FeTe1-xSex system single crystals to study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity. Comparing to pure FeTe1-xSex compounds, extra Fe and Ni/Cu doping on Fe-site can change physics properties of these samples, including resistivity, magnetization and superconducting properties. Our neutron scattering studies also show the Fe-site doping change low energy magnetic spectrum, including the magnetic excitations intensity, position and magnetic correlation length in these samples. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the low energy magnetic fluctuations are also found to be different depending on the composition. This work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE.

  13. Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Campajola, L.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillá, V.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gialanella, L.; Gulino, M.; Gyürky, G.; Kiss, G.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Ordine, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.

    2008-12-01

    Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p+d→p+p+n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.

  14. Vanishing rainbows near orbiting and the energy dependence of rainbow scattering - Relation to properties of the potential. [molecular beam scattering cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. F.; Hall, R. B.; Mason, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The energy threshold behavior of elastic rainbow scattering near the transition to orbiting is derived. Analysis of the energy dependence of the rainbow angle shows that the full range from high energies down to orbiting can be fitted with two parameters. Thus, measurements of the rainbow angle can give essentially only two pieces of information about the potential. For potentials of common shapes, such measurements are sensitive to regions of the potential just beyond the minimum and give information about the shape of the potential in this range. However, neither a minimum nor a point of inflection in the potential is necessary for rainbow scattering.

  15. Antihydrogen-hydrogen elastic scattering at thermal energies using an atomic-orbital technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab; Ghosh, A.S.

    2003-05-01

    In view of the recent interest in the trapping of antihydrogen atom H(bar sign), at very low temperatures, H-bar-H scattering has been investigated at low incident energies using a close-coupling model with the basis set H-bar(1s,2s,2p-bar)+H(1s,2s,2p-bar). The predicted s-wave elastic phase shifts, scattering length, and effective range are in a good agreement with the other recent predictions of Jonsell et al. and of Armour and Chamberlain. The results indicate that the atomic orbital expansion model is suitable to study the H-bar-H scattering at ultracold temperatures.

  16. Symmetry properties of the effective action for high-energy scattering in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, R. ); Lipatov, L.N. ); Szymanowski, L. )

    1995-01-15

    We study the effective action describing high-energy scattering processes in the multi-Regge limit of QCD, which should provide the starting point for a new attempt to overcome the limitations of the leading logarithmic and the eikonal approximations. The action can be obtained via simple graphical rules or by integrating in the QCD functional integral over momentum modes of gluon and quark fields that do not appear explicitly as scattering or exchanged particles in the considered processes. The supersymmetry is used to obtain the terms in the action involving quark fields from the pure gluonic ones. We observe Weizsaecker-Williams-type relations between terms describing scattering and production of particles.

  17. A Measurement of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment After Four Years of Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanaugh, Steven

    2010-05-01

    This work attempts to measure or set a limit on sin2(2θ13), the parameter which describes vμ → ve oscillations. The MINOS detectors at Fermilab are used to perform a search for the oscillations utilizing a beam of vμ neutrinos created in the NuMI beamline by the collisions of 120 GeV protons with a carbon target. These collisions create π± and K± which are focused with magnetic horns, are allowed to decay, and result in a beam of vμ in the energy range of 1 to 30 GeV. Two functionally identical steel-scintillator calorimetric detectors are utilized to measure the interactions of the generated neutrinos. A detector close to the NuMI beam, located 104 m underground and 1040 m from the target, is used to measure the properties of the neutrino beam, including the flux, composition, and energy spectrum. This information is used in part to generate a predicted spectrum of neutrinos in absence of vμ → ve oscillations in the detector located far from the target, at a distance of 705 m underground and 735.5 km from the target. An excess of predicted ve charged current events in this far detector will be interpreted as vμ → ve oscillations, and a measurement of sin2(2θ13) will be made using a Feldman-Cousins analysis. The measurement of vμ → ve requires the separation of ve candidates from background events. New reconstruction software was developed with a focus on identifying ve candidate events in order to reduce systematic errors. The event parameters measured by this software were used as an input to an artificial neutral network event discriminator. The details of this reconstruction software and the other steps of the analysis necessary to making the measurement will be discussed. This work builds on a previous measurement made with this

  18. Measuring the electron neutrino mass with improved sensitivity: the HOLMES experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachero, A.; Alpert, B. K.; Becker, D. T.; Bennett, D. A.; Biasotti, M.; Brofferio, C.; Ceriale, V.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Day, P. K.; De Gerone, M.; Dressler, R.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Fowler, J. W.; Fumagalli, E.; Gallucci, G.; Gard, J. D.; Gatti, F.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heinitz, S.; Hilton, G. C.; Köster, U.; Lusignoli, M.; Mates, J. A. B.; Nisi, S.; Nucciotti, A.; Orlando, A.; Parodi, L.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Puiu, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.; Schmidt, D. R.; Schumann, D.; Siccardi, F.; Sisti, M.; Swetz, D. S.; Terranova, F.; Ullom, J. N.; Vale, L. R.

    2017-02-01

    HOLMES is a new experiment aiming at directly measuring the neutrino mass with a sensitivity below 2 eV . HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the decay of 163Ho. The calorimetric measurement eliminates systematic uncertainties arising from the use of external beta sources, as in experiments with spectrometers. This measurement was proposed in 1982 by A. De Rujula and M. Lusignoli, but only recently the detector technological progress has allowed to design a sensitive experiment. HOLMES will deploy a 1000 pixels array of low temperature microcalorimeters with implanted 163Ho nuclei. HOLMES, besides being an important step forward in the direct neutrino mass measurement with a calorimetric approach, will also establish the potential of this approach to extend the sensitivity down to 0.1 eV and lower. The detectors used for the HOLMES experiment will be Mo/Cu bilayers TESs (Transition Edge Sensors) on SiNx membrane with gold absorbers. Microwave multiplexed rf-SQUIDs are the best available technique to read out large array of such detectors. An extensive R&D activity is in progress in order to maximize the multiplexing factor while preserving the performances of the individual detectors. To embed the 163Ho into the gold absorbers a custom mass separator ion implanter is being developed. The current activities are focused on the the single detector performances optimization and on the 163Ho isotope production and embedding. A preliminary measurement of a sub-array of 4× 16 detectors is planned late in 2017. In this contribution we present the HOLMES project with its technical challenges, its status and perspectives.

  19. Scattering of H(1s) off metastable helium atom at thermal energies

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A. S.

    2006-06-15

    Quantal calculations for scattering of ground-state antihydrogen by metastable (n=2S) helium atoms have been performed using the nonadiabatic, atomic orbital expansion technique at thermal energies. The zero-energy elastic cross sections of the present systems are much greater than the corresponding value for the ground-state helium target. The low-energy elastic cross section for the singlet metastable helium [He(2 {sup 1}S)] target is higher than the corresponding value when the target is in the metastable triplet state [He(2 {sup 3}S)].

  20. Beam energy spread in FERMI@elettra gun and linac induced by intrabeam scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, Alexander A; Zholents, Alexander A; Zolotorev, Max S.; Penco, Giuseppe

    2008-07-11

    Intrabeam scattering (IBS) of electrons in the pre-cathode area in the electron guns know in the literature as Boersh effect is responsible for a growth of the electron beam energy spread there. Albeit most visible within the electron gun where the electron beam density is large and the energy spread is small, the IBS acts all along the entire electron beam pass through the Linac. In this report we calculate the energy spread induced by IBS in the FERMI@elettra electron gun.

  1. Impact of Phonon Surface Scattering on Thermal Energy Distribution of Si and SiGe Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Abhinav; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Thermal transport in nanostructures has attracted considerable attention in the last decade but the precise effects of surfaces on heat conduction have remained unclear due to a limited accuracy in the treatment of phonon surface scattering phenomena. Here, we investigate the impact of phonon-surface scattering on the distribution of thermal energy across phonon wavelengths and mean free paths in Si and SiGe nanowires. We present a rigorous and accurate description of phonon scattering at surfaces and predict and analyse nanowire heat spectra for different diameters and surface conditions. We show that the decrease in the diameter and increased roughness and correlation lengths makes the heat phonon spectra significantly shift towards short wavelengths and mean free paths. We also investigate the emergence of phonon confinement effects for small diameter nanowires and different surface scattering properties. Computed results for bulk materials show excellent agreement with recent experimentally-based approaches that reconstruct the mean-free-path heat spectra. Our phonon surface scattering model allows for an accurate theoretical extraction of heat spectra in nanowires and contributes to elucidate the development of critical phonon transport modes such as phonon confinement and coherent interference effects. PMID:27174699

  2. Forward pd elastic scattering and total spin-dependent pd cross sections at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Uzikov, Yu. N.; Haidenbauer, J.

    2009-02-15

    Spin-dependent total pd cross sections are considered using the optical theorem. For this aim the full spin dependence of the forward pd elastic scattering amplitude is considered in a model independent way. The single-scattering approximation is used to relate this amplitude to the elementary amplitudes of pp and pn scattering and the deuteron form factor. A formalism allowing to take into account Coulomb-nuclear interference effects in polarized pd cross sections is developed. Numerical calculations for the polarized total pd cross sections are performed at beam energies 20-300 MeV using the NN interaction models developed by the Juelich group. Double-scattering effects are estimated within the Glauber approach and found to be in the order of 10-20%. Existing experimental data on differential pd cross sections are in good agreement with the performed Glauber calculations. It is found that for the used NN models the total longitudinal and transversal pd cross sections are comparable in absolute value to those for pp scattering.

  3. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegun, A. K.; Takatsu, J.; Nakaji, T.; van Goethem, M. J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Koffeman, E. N.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images, should be minimized from 3-5% or higher to less than 1%, to make the treatment plan with proton beams more accurate, and thereby better treatment for the patient. With Geant4 we simulated a proton radiography detection system with two position-sensitive and residual energy detectors. A complex phantom filled with various materials (including tissue surrogates), was placed between the position sensitive detectors. The phantom was irradiated with 150 MeV protons and the energy loss radiograph and scattering angles were studied. Protons passing through different materials in the phantom lose energy, which was used to create a radiography image of the phantom. The multiple Coulomb scattering of a proton traversing different materials causes blurring of the image. To improve image quality and material identification in the phantom, we selected protons with small scattering angles. A good quality proton radiography image, in which various materials can be recognized accurately, and in combination with xCT can lead to more accurate relative stopping powers predictions.

  4. Experimental validation of a multi-energy x-ray adapted scatter separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossin, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2016-12-01

    Both in radiography and computed tomography (CT), recently emerged energy-resolved x-ray photon counting detectors enable the identification and quantification of individual materials comprising the inspected object. However, the approaches used for these operations require highly accurate x-ray images. The accuracy of the images is severely compromised by the presence of scattered radiation, which leads to a loss of spatial contrast and, more importantly, a bias in radiographic material imaging and artefacts in CT. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a recently introduced partial attenuation spectral scatter separation approach (PASSSA) adapted for multi-energy imaging. For this purpose, a prototype x-ray system was used. Several radiographic acquisitions of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were performed. Reference primary images were obtained via the beam-stop (BS) approach. The attenuation images acquired from PASSSA-corrected data showed a substantial increase in local contrast and internal structure contour visibility when compared to uncorrected images. A substantial reduction of scatter induced bias was also achieved. Quantitatively, the developed method proved to be in relatively good agreement with the BS data. The application of the proposed scatter correction technique lowered the initial normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 45% between the uncorrected total and the reference primary spectral images by a factor of 9, thus reducing it to around 5%.

  5. Equivalence of a tip bremsstrahlung quantum and an elastically scattered electron at ultrahigh energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.

    2012-04-01

    In the scattering of relativistic spin-polarized electrons from point nuclei, two types of polarization correlations are compared: those of a left- or right-circular bremsstrahlung photon at the short-wavelength limit (when the outgoing electron is not observed) and those of an elastically scattered, left- or right-handed electron. Bremsstrahlung is calculated from the Dirac-Sommerfeld-Maue model, and elastic electron scattering is obtained from a partial-wave analysis. By considering a gold target and electron energies Ei up to 20 MeV, a striking similarity of the respective polarization correlations is found to develop when the collision energy is increased beyond 5 MeV. From analytical Born results for light targets it is shown that only for a longitudinally spin-polarized electron do the respective polarization correlations agree in the limit Ei→∞. In the general case, a very high nuclear charge is needed in addition, leading to a sum rule for bremsstrahlung well known from elastic electron scattering.

  6. On the importance of full-dimensionality in low-energy molecular scattering calculations

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Alexandre; Jankowski, Piotr; Stoecklin, Thierry; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Scattering of H2 on CO is of great importance in astrophysics and also is a benchmark system for comparing theory to experiment. We present here a new 6-dimensional potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of H2-CO with an estimated uncertainty of about 0.6 cm−1 in the global minimum region, several times smaller than achieved earlier. This potential has been used in nearly exact 6-dimensional quantum scattering calculations to compute state-to-state cross-sections measured in low-energy crossed-beam experiments. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved in all cases. We also show that the fully 6-dimensional approach is not needed with the current accuracy of experimental data since an equally good agreement with experiment was obtained using only a 4-dimensional treatment, which validates the rigid-rotor approach widely used in scattering calculations. This finding, which disagrees with some literature statements, is important since for larger systems full-dimensional scattering calculations are currently not possible. PMID:27333870

  7. Spectrum bandwidth narrowing of Thomson scattering X-rays with energy chirped electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tong; Chen, Min Li, Fei-Yu; Yu, Lu-Le; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-06

    We study incoherent Thomson scattering between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam accelerated from a laser wakefield. The energy chirp effects of the accelerated electron beam on the final radiation spectrum bandwidth are investigated. It is found that the scattered X-ray radiation has the minimum spectrum width and highest intensity as electrons are accelerated up to around the dephasing point. Furthermore, it is proposed that the electron acceleration process inside the wakefield can be studied by use of 90° Thomson scattering. The dephasing position and beam energy chirp can be deduced from the intensity and bandwidth of the scattered radiation.

  8. Numerical investigation of the single scattering albedo of radiant energy passing through polydisperse crystalline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, O. V.; Shefer, V. A.; Sinyukova, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the role of atmospheric formations and cosmic dust clouds in the transmission of radiation is one of the most uncertain and difficult problems in astrophysics and climatology. One of the main tasks of practical astrophysics is the interpretation of the results of observations of space objects. There is a necessity of describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the environment. In this paper, applying the numerical methods, we study the optical characteristics of polydisperse media consisting of randomly oriented and preferentially oriented crystals, taking into account the distribution function of particle sizes. Particles of spherical shape and ensembles preferentially oriented plate crystals are considered as models. Mie theory and method of physical optics are used to calculate the scattering characteristics. Numerical study of the effects of extinction, scattering and absorption on the single scattering albedo of radiation allowed us to establish the basic patterns of the passage of radiant energy through a translucent medium. At the visible range of wavelengths, both for small and large particles, the single scattering albedo is almost equal to 1. The spectral course of this optical performance is mainly determined by the refractive index of the particles. Features of wave dependence of single scattering albedo are associated with microphysical parameters of the environment, which are more pronounced when the attenuation of the radiation is determined mainly by the scattering. Higher values of the absorption index and optical thickness of the crystal reduce the value of the single scattering albedo, smoothing the features of its spectral course. Values of the absorption index of substance, as value of the order of 0.1, do not lead to a decrease of the single scattering albedo as it is less than 0.5. This allows us to conclude that we should not neglect the microphysical characteristics of the crystals even by strong absorption of radiant

  9. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  10. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  11. Teasing apart the effects of seed size and energy content on rodent scatter-hoarding behavior.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Scatter-hoarding rodents are known to play a crucial role in the seed dispersal of many plant species. Numerous studies have indicated that both seed size and the energy content of seeds can affect rodent foraging behavior. However, seed size is usually associated with energy content per seed, making it difficult to isolate how seed size and energy affect rodent foraging preferences. This study used 99 treatments of artificial seeds (11 seed sizes×9 levels of energy content) to tease apart the effect of seed size and energy content on rodent seed-caching behavior. Both seed traits showed significant effects, but their details depended on the stage of the rodent foraging process. Seeds with higher energy content were harvested more rapidly while seed size only had a modest effect on harvest rate. However, after harvesting, seed size showed a much stronger effect on rodent foraging behavior. Rodents' choice of which seeds to remove and cache, as well as seed dispersal distance, seemed to reflect an optimal seed size. Our findings could be adapted in future studies to gain a better understanding of scatter-hoarding rodent foraging behavior, and the co-evolutionary dynamics between plant seed production and seed dispersers.

  12. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  13. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future. PMID:26821751

  14. Energy deposition model based on electron scattering cross section data from water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, A.; Oiler, J. C.; Blanco, F.; Gorfinkiel, J. D.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Maira-Vidal, A.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.; Huerga, C.; Téllez, M.; García, G.

    2008-10-01

    A complete set of electrons scattering cross sections by water molecules over a broad energy range, from the me V to the Me V ranges, is presented in this study. These data have been obtained by combining experiments and calculations and cover most relevant processes, both elastic and inelastic, which can take place in the considered energy range. A new Monte Carlo simulation programme has been developed using as input parameter these cross sectional data as well as experimental energy loss spectra. The simulation procedure has been applied to obtain electron tracks and energy deposition plots in water when irradiated by a Ru-106 plaque as those used for brachyteraphy of ocular tumours. Finally, the low energy electron tracks provided by the present model have been compared with those obtained with other codes available in the literature

  15. Surface plasmon excitations in metal spheres: Direct comparison of light scattering and electron energy-loss spectroscopy by modal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Sean M.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2013-06-01

    In previous publications, qualitative agreement between studies of surface plasmon excitations in nanoparticles by near-field light scattering and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been found for experiments and simulations. Here, we present a quantitative method for the comparison of light scattering and EELS for surface plasmons in metal spheres. Defining the Fourier transform of the modal component of the scattered electric field along the equivalent electron trajectory enables a direct evaluation of the relative weighting factor for light- and electron-excited surface plasmon modes. This common quantity for light scattering and EELS is examined for size, composition, and trajectory dependencies, facilitating the analysis of key differences between light and electron excitation. A single functional dependence on Drude model plasmon energies is identified to explain the relative modal weighting factors for light scattering and EELS. This method represents an important step toward the complete spectral and spatial reconstruction of EELS maps from near-field light scattering calculations.

  16. Elastic scattering of 17O+208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Strano, E.; Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Toniolo, N.; Filipescu, D.; Gheorghe, A.; Glodariu, T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, Y. H.; Lay, J. A.; Miyatake, H.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V.; Stroe, L.; Vitturi, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Zerva, K.

    2016-05-01

    Within the frame of the commissioning of a new experimental apparatus EXPADES we undertook the measurement of the elastic scattering angular distribution for the system 17O+208Pb at energy around the Coulomb barrier. The reaction dynamics induced by loosely bound Radioactive Ion Beams is currently being extensively studied [4]. In particular the study of the elastic scattering process allows to obtain direct information on the total reaction cross section of the exotic nuclei. In order to understand the effect of the low binding energy on the reaction mechanism it is important to compare radioactive weakly bound nuclei with stable strongly-bound nuclei. In this framework the study of the 17O+208Pb elastic scattering can be considered to be complementary to a previous measurement of the total reaction cross section for the system 17F+208Pb at energies of 86, 90.4 MeV [5, 6]. The data will be compared with those obtained for the neighboring systems 16,18O+208Pb and others available in literature.

  17. A scatter correction method for contrast-enhanced dual-energy digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yihuan; Peng, Boyu; Lau, Beverly A.; Hu, Yue-Houng; Scaduto, David A.; Zhao, Wei; Gindi, Gene

    2015-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual energy digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DE-DBT) is designed to image iodinated masses while suppressing breast anatomical background. Scatter is a problem, especially for high energy acquisition, in that it causes severe cupping artifact and iodine quantitation errors. We propose a patient specific scatter correction (SC) algorithm for CE-DE-DBT. The empirical algorithm works by interpolating scatter data outside the breast shadow into an estimate within the breast shadow. The interpolated estimate is further improved by operations that use an easily obtainable (from phantoms) table of scatter-to-primary-ratios (SPR)—a single SPR value for each breast thickness and acquisition angle. We validated our SC algorithm for two breast emulating phantoms by comparing SPR from our SC algorithm to that measured using a beam-passing pinhole array plate. The error in our SC computed SPR, averaged over acquisition angle and image location, was about 5%, with slightly worse errors for thicker phantoms. The SC projection data, reconstructed using OS-SART, showed a large degree of decupping. We also observed that SC removed the dependence of iodine quantitation on phantom thickness. We applied the SC algorithm to a CE-DE-mammographic patient image with a biopsy confirmed tumor at the breast periphery. In the image without SC, the contrast enhanced tumor was masked by the cupping artifact. With our SC, the tumor was easily visible. An interpolation-based SC was proposed by (Siewerdsen et al 2006 Med. Phys. 33 187-97) for cone-beam CT (CBCT), but our algorithm and application differ in several respects. Other relevant SC techniques include Monte-Carlo and convolution-based methods for CBCT, storage of a precomputed library of scatter maps for DBT, and patient acquisition with a beam-passing pinhole array for breast CT. Our SC algorithm can be accomplished in clinically acceptable times, requires no additional imaging hardware or extra patient dose and is

  18. Baryon scattering at high energies: wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, J.; Motyka, L.

    2008-05-01

    The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark antiquark pair in γ* scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in γ* scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the γ*-initiated quark antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2→4 transition vertex (triple pomeron vertex). The odderon term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three-reggeized gluon state, which then, via a new 3→4 transition vertex, couples to the four-gluon (two-pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes.

  19. A scatter correction method for contrast-enhanced dual-energy digital breast tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yihuan; Peng, Boyu; Lau, Beverly A.; Hu, Yue-Houng; Scaduto, David A.; Zhao, Wei; Gindi, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual energy digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DE-DBT) is designed to image iodinated masses while suppressing breast anatomical background. Scatter is a problem, especially for high energy acquisition, in that it causes severe cupping artifact and iodine quantitation errors. We propose a patient specific scatter correction (SC) algorithm for CE-DE-DBT. The empirical algorithm works by interpolating scatter data outside the breast shadow into an estimate within the breast shadow. The interpolated estimate is further improved by operations that use an easily obtainable (from phantoms) table of scatter-to-primary-ratios (SPR) - a single SPR value for each breast thickness and acquisition angle. We validated our SC algorithm for two breast emulating phantoms by comparing SPR from our SC algorithm to that measured using a beam-passing pinhole array plate. The error in our SC computed SPR, averaged over acquisition angle and image location, was about 5%, with slightly worse errors for thicker phantoms. The SC projection data, reconstructed using OS-SART, showed a large degree of decupping. We also observed that SC removed the dependence of iodine quantitation on phantom thickness. We applied the SC algorithm to a CE-DE-mammographic patient image with a biopsy confirmed tumor at the breast periphery. In the image without SC, the contrast enhanced tumor was masked by the cupping artifact. With our SC, the tumor was easily visible. An interpolation-based SC was proposed by (Siewerdsen et al., 2006) for cone-beam CT (CBCT), but our algorithm and application differ in several respects. Other relevant SC techniques include Monte-Carlo and convolution-based methods for CBCT, storage of a precomputed library of scatter maps for DBT, and patient acquisition with a beam-passing pinhole array for breast CT. Our SC algorithm can be accomplished in clinically acceptable times, requires no additional imaging hardware or extra patient dose and is easily transportable

  20. Low-energy electron scattering from CO. 2: Ab-initio study using the frame-transformation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1976-01-01

    The Wigner-Eisenbud R matrix method has been combined with the frame transformation theory to study electron scattering from molecular systems. The R matrix, calculated at the boundary point of the molecular core radius, has been transformed to the space frame in order to continue the solution of the scattering equations in the outer region where rotational motion of the nuclei is taken into account. This procedure has been applied to a model calculation of thermal energy electron scattering from CO.

  1. Excitation energy-dependent nature of Raman scattering spectrum in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

    PubMed

    Erol, Ayse; Akalin, Elif; Sarcan, Fahrettin; Donmez, Omer; Akyuz, Sevim; Arikan, Cetin M; Puustinen, Janne; Guina, Mircea

    2012-11-28

    The excitation energy-dependent nature of Raman scattering spectrum, vibration, electronic or both, has been studied using different excitation sources on as-grown and annealed n- and p-type modulation-doped Ga1 - xInxNyAs1 - y/GaAs quantum well structures. The samples were grown by molecular beam technique with different N concentrations (y = 0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.7%) at the same In concentration of 32%. Micro-Raman measurements have been carried out using 532 and 758 nm lines of diode lasers, and the 1064 nm line of the Nd-YAG laser has been used for Fourier transform-Raman scattering measurements. Raman scattering measurements with different excitation sources have revealed that the excitation energy is the decisive mechanism on the nature of the Raman scattering spectrum. When the excitation energy is close to the electronic band gap energy of any constituent semiconductor materials in the sample, electronic transition dominates the spectrum, leading to a very broad peak. In the condition that the excitation energy is much higher than the band gap energy, only vibrational modes contribute to the Raman scattering spectrum of the samples. Line shapes of the Raman scattering spectrum with the 785 and 1064 nm lines of lasers have been observed to be very broad peaks, whose absolute peak energy values are in good agreement with the ones obtained from photoluminescence measurements. On the other hand, Raman scattering spectrum with the 532 nm line has exhibited only vibrational modes. As a complementary tool of Raman scattering measurements with the excitation source of 532 nm, which shows weak vibrational transitions, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy has been also carried out. The results exhibited that the nature of the Raman scattering spectrum is strongly excitation energy-dependent, and with suitable excitation energy, electronic and/or vibrational transitions can be investigated.

  2. Transient energy relaxation in scattering-assisted terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Guo, X. G.; Cao, J. C.

    2017-03-01

    We adopt a self-consistent Maxwell-Bloch method to investigate the energy relaxation process from unsaturated to saturated in the scattering-assisted terahertz quantum cascade laser. In the lasing-establishment process, more nonequilibrium LO phonons are accumulated and more electrons are thermalized. At the same time, more efficient energy relaxation of the saturated situation can be found compared with the unsaturated situation. These phenomena stem from the improved electron transport efficiency across the active region, due to the lasing-induced lifetime reduction of electrons in the upper lasing subband. The simulation results are qualitatively identical with previous experimental results.

  3. H-He elastic scattering at low energies: Contribution of nonzero partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports the nonzero partial wave elastic cross sections together with s-wave results for the scattering of an antihydrogen atom off a gaseous helium target at thermal energies (up to 10{sup -2} a.u.). We have used a nonadiabatic atomic orbital method having different basis sets to investigate the system. The consideration of all the significant partial waves (up to J=24) reduces the oscillatory nature present in the individual partial wave cross section. The added elastic cross section is almost constant up to 10{sup -7} a.u. and then decreases steadily and very slowly with increasing energy.

  4. Combining dynamic and static depth profiling in low energy ion scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Veen, Rik ter; Fartmann, Michael; Kersting, Reinhard; Hagenhoff, Birgit

    2013-01-15

    The advantages of combining dynamic and static depth profiling in low energy ion scattering are demonstrated for an Si/SiO{sub x}/W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD stack. Dynamic depth profiling can be used to calibrate static depth profiling. Energy losses of 152 and 215 eV/nm were found for 3 keV {sup 4}He{sup +} and 5 keV {sup 4}He{sup +} primary ions, respectively, for the experimental configuration used. This is in good agreement with the values used in the field. Static depth profiling can be used to recognize sputter artifacts in dynamic depth profiles.

  5. Elastic scattering for the system {sup 6}Li+p at near barrier energies with MAGNEX

    SciTech Connect

    Soukeras, V.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O.; Cappuzzello, F.; Bondi, M.; Nicolosi, D.; Acosta, L.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Alamanos, N.; De Napoli, M.; Foti, A.; and others

    2015-02-24

    Elastic scattering measurements have been performed for the {sup 6}Li+p system in inverse kinematics at the energies of 16, 20, 25 and 29 MeV. The heavy ejectile was detected by the large acceptance MAGNEX spectrometer at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) in Catania, in the angular range between ∼2{sup 0} and 12{sup 0} in the laboratory system, giving us the possibility to span almost a full angular range in the center of mass system. Results will be presented and discussed for one of the energies.

  6. Elastic scattering of {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cubero, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.; Buchmann, L.; Shotter, A.; Walden, P.; Diget, D. G.; Fulton, B.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Mukha, I.

    2011-10-28

    We have studied the dynamical effects of the halo structure of {sup 11}Li on the scattering on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. This experiment was performed at ISAC-II at TRIUMF with a world record in production of the post-accelerated {sup 11}Li beam. As part of this study we report here on the first measurement of the elastic cross section of the core nucleus, i.e. {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb, at energies around the Coulomb barrier. A preliminary optical model analysis has been performed in order to extract a global optical potential to describe the measured angular distributions.

  7. Optimum forward scattering zone for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Pardeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2015-08-01

    Here we present a comparative study of various schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter, which decides the maximum value of forward laboratory scattering angle, in intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments. We have found that these are special cases of the recently proposed parameterization scheme in Kumar Rajiv et al., Phys. Rev. C, 81 (2010) 037602. The scheme may be used to demarcate the absorption-free as well as no-flux loss zone for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments.

  8. A phenomenological study of photon production in low energy neutrino nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James P; Goldman, Terry J

    2009-01-01

    Low energy photon production is an important background to many current and future precision neutrino experiments. We present a phenomenological study of t-channel radiative corrections to neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering. After introducing the relevant processes and phenomenological coupling constants, we will explore the derived energy and angular distributions as well as total cross-section predictions along with their estimated uncertainties. This is supplemented throughout with comments on possible experimental signatures and implications. We conclude with a general discussion of the analysis in the context of complimentary methodologies. This is based on a talk presented at the DPF 2009 meeting in Detroit MI.

  9. Solution structure and excitation energy transfer in phycobiliproteins of Acaryochloris marina investigated by small angle scattering.

    PubMed

    Golub, M; Combet, S; Wieland, D C F; Soloviov, D; Kuklin, A; Lokstein, H; Schmitt, F-J; Olliges, R; Hecht, M; Eckert, H-J; Pieper, J

    2017-04-01

    The structure of phycobiliproteins of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina was investigated in buffer solution at physiological temperatures, i.e. under the same conditions applied in spectroscopic experiments, using small angle neutron scattering. The scattering data of intact phycobiliproteins in buffer solution containing phosphate can be well described using a cylindrical shape with a length of about 225Å and a diameter of approximately 100Å. This finding is qualitatively consistent with earlier electron microscopy studies reporting a rod-like shape of the phycobiliproteins with a length of about 250 (M. Chen et al., FEBS Letters 583, 2009, 2535) or 300Å (J. Marquart et al., FEBS Letters 410, 1997, 428). In contrast, phycobiliproteins dissolved in buffer lacking phosphate revealed a splitting of the rods into cylindrical subunits with a height of 28Å only, but also a pronounced sample aggregation. Complementary small angle neutron and X-ray scattering experiments on phycocyanin suggest that the cylindrical subunits may represent either trimeric phycocyanin or trimeric allophycocyanin. Our findings are in agreement with the assumption that a phycobiliprotein rod with a total height of about 225Å can accommodate seven trimeric phycocyanin subunits and one trimeric allophycocyanin subunit, each of which having a height of about 28Å. The structural information obtained by small angle neutron and X-ray scattering can be used to interpret variations in the low-energy region of the 4.5K absorption spectra of phycobiliproteins dissolved in buffer solutions containing and lacking phosphate, respectively.

  10. A Monte Carlo study of the energy spectra and transmission characteristics of scattered radiation from x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Platten, David John

    2014-06-01

    Existing data used to calculate the barrier transmission of scattered radiation from computed tomography (CT) are based on primary beam CT energy spectra. This study uses the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system and Epp user code to determine the energy spectra of CT scatter from four different primary CT beams passing through an ICRP 110 male reference phantom. Each scatter spectrum was used as a broad-beam x-ray source in transmission simulations through seventeen thicknesses of lead (0.00-3.50 mm). A fit of transmission data to lead thickness was performed to obtain α, β and γ parameters for each spectrum. The mean energy of the scatter spectra were up to 12.3 keV lower than that of the primary spectrum. For 120 kVp scatter beams the transmission through lead was at least 50% less than predicted by existing data for thicknesses of 1.5 mm and greater; at least 30% less transmission was seen for 140 kVp scatter beams. This work has shown that the mean energy and half-value layer of CT scatter spectra are lower than those of the corresponding primary beam. The transmission of CT scatter radiation through lead is lower than that calculated with currently available data. Using the data from this work will result in less lead shielding being required for CT scanner installations.

  11. Low-energy electron elastic scattering cross sections for excited Au and Pt atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felfli, Zineb; Eure, Amanda R.; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Sokolovski, Dmitri

    2010-05-01

    Electron elastic total cross sections (TCSs) and differential cross sections (DCSs) in both impact energy and scattering angle for the excited Au and Pt atoms are calculated in the electron impact energy range 0 ⩽ E ⩽ 4.0 eV. The cross sections are found to be characterized by very sharp long-lived resonances whose positions are identified with the binding energies of the excited anions formed during the collisions. The recent novel Regge-pole methodology wherein is embedded through the Mulholland formula the electron-electron correlations is used together with a Thomas-Fermi type potential incorporating the crucial core-polarization interaction for the calculations of the TCSs. The DCSs are evaluated using a partial wave expansion. The Ramsauer-Townsend minima, the shape resonances and the binding energies of the excited Au - and Pt - anions are extracted from the cross sections, while the critical minima are determined from the DCSs.

  12. Quantum random bit generation using energy fluctuations in stimulated Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Moffatt, Doug; Spanner, Michael; Lausten, Rune; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2013-12-02

    Random number sequences are a critical resource in modern information processing systems, with applications in cryptography, numerical simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the measurement of pulse energy quantum fluctuations in Stokes light generated by spontaneously-initiated stimulated Raman scattering. Bright Stokes pulse energy fluctuations up to five times the mean energy are measured with fast photodiodes and converted to unbiased random binary strings. Since the pulse energy is a continuous variable, multiple bits can be extracted from a single measurement. Our approach can be generalized to a wide range of Raman active materials; here we demonstrate a prototype using the optical phonon line in bulk diamond.

  13. X-ray coherent scattering form factors of tissues, water and plastics using energy dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, B. W.; Landheer, K. A.; Johns, P. C.

    2011-07-01

    A key requirement for the development of the field of medical x-ray scatter imaging is accurate characterization of the differential scattering cross sections of tissues and phantom materials. The coherent x-ray scattering form factors of five tissues (fat, muscle, liver, kidney, and bone) obtained from butcher shops, four plastics (polyethylene, polystyrene, lexan (polycarbonate), nylon), and water have been measured using an energy-dispersive technique. The energy-dispersive technique has several improvements over traditional diffractometer measurements. Most notably, the form factor is measured on an absolute scale with no need for scaling factors. Form factors are reported in terms of the quantity x = λ-1sin (θ/2) over the range 0.363-9.25 nm-1. The coherent form factors of muscle, liver, and kidney resemble those of water, while fat has a narrower peak at lower x, and bone is more structured. The linear attenuation coefficients of the ten materials have also been measured over the range 30-110 keV and parameterized using the dual-material approach with the basis functions being the linear attenuation coefficients of polymethylmethacrylate and aluminum.

  14. The adsorption of H2 on Fe(111) studied by thermal energy atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, P.; Zappone, M.; Bernasek, S. L.

    1993-11-01

    The interaction of H2 with Fe(111) has been studied by thermal energy atom scattering (TEAS). The specularly scattered He intensity as a function of hydrogen coverage exhibits a concave drop in scattered He intensity up to 30% coverage, followed by a plateau and another drop in intensity at 80% coverage. A model has been developed to account for this data which assumes three adsorption sites for H on Fe(111), in analogy with the three desorption peaks seen in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The adsorption sites have not been definitely assigned, but are labeled ``deep-hollow,'' ``shallow-hollow,'' and ``on-top.'' Competitive adsorption into the deep-hollow and shallow-hollow sites is assumed to account for the initial concavity of the data. Adsorption into on-top sites only becomes significant at 80% coverage. Effective cross sections and reflectivities for the three sites have been obtained for θi=60° and 40°. When a H saturated surface is heated, the scattered He intensity decreases upon heating from 173 to 240 K, at which point desorption has already begun. This drop in intensity is not completely explicable by a Debye-Waller attenuation. It is proposed to be due to a shift in population of the adsorbed H to more exposed, on-top sites, in accord with a Boltzmann distribution of adsorption sites. The scattered He intensity increases upon further heating from 240 to 400 K, corresponding to the desorption of recombined H2 from the surface. Comparison of the He/H/Fe(111) system is made with the He/H/Pt(111) and He/H/Fe(110) systems.

  15. Coupling of Multiple Coulomb Scattering with Energy Loss and Straggling in HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Walker, Steven A.; Tweed, John

    2007-01-01

    The new version of the HZETRN deterministic transport code based on Green's function methods, and the incorporation of ground-based laboratory boundary conditions, has lead to the development of analytical and numerical procedures to include off-axis dispersion of primary ion beams due to small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering. In this paper we present the theoretical formulation and computational procedures to compute ion beam broadening and a methodology towards achieving a self-consistent approach to coupling multiple scattering interactions with ionization energy loss and straggling. Our initial benchmark case is a 60 MeV proton beam on muscle tissue, for which we can compare various attributes of beam broadening with Monte Carlo simulations reported in the open literature.

  16. Electron-atom superelastic scattering in magnesium at millielectron volt energies.

    PubMed

    Baynard, T; Reber, A C; Niedziela, R F; Darveau, S A; Prutzman, B; Berry, R S

    2007-12-13

    The energy dependence of superelastic scattering is measured for electrons on Mg(3(1)P) from threshold to 270 meV with a novel technique. The method uses photoelectrons produced by a narrow bandwidth laser as an approximately monoenergetic incident electron source to collide with excited atoms. Measurements are made at energies as low as 1.5 meV with a resolution of 1 meV near threshold. An efficient magnetic-bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer allows for the simultaneous measurement of multiple scattering channels. Above-threshold ionization is also observed. The measured energy dependence for transitions from the 3(1)P state to both the 3(3)P and 3(1)S are found to be inversely proportional to the energy from 10 to 270 meV. Below 10 meV, the dependencies are different, with the 3(3)P transition having an E(-1/2) dependence and the 3(1)S channel retaining an E(-1) dependence.

  17. Facile Control of Interfacial Energy-Barrier Scattering in Antimony Telluride Electrodeposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiwon; Jung, Hyunsung; Lim, Jae-Hong; Myung, Nosang V.

    2017-04-01

    The augmented thermoelectric performance of nanocrystalline antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) films is investigated by introducing interfacial energy-barrier scattering (i.e., barrier heights), which occurs at both the grain boundaries and the interfaces with embedded second phases. It is postulated that the barriers created at both the interfaces and boundaries filter the low-energy carriers, thus favoring a high Seebeck coefficient. A facile, but high-precision composition-controlled electrodeposition technique is employed to synthesize single-phase nanocrystalline Sb2Te3 and nanocomposite Te/Sb2Te3. Both the initial composition of the Sb-Te solid solution and the post-annealing profiles are varied to control the grain size, as well as the formation of second-phase Te. The electrical and thermoelectric properties are measured and correlated with the physical properties, where an enhanced Seebeck coefficient at a fixed carrier concentration is interpreted as indicating that the energy-dependent carrier filtering effect is in force. On a promising note, modification of the Sb2Te3 film physical properties and formation of the second phase affect the interfacial energy-barrier scattering and yields an enhanced power factor. Thus, Sb2Te3 film is a promising p-type thermoelectric material for a room-temperature-operational micro-thermoelectric power generator.

  18. Inverse Compton Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool for the Measurement of Electron Beam Energies in Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, A. D. J.

    2003-10-01

    The main emphasis of the diode research project at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) UK is to produce small diameter radiographic spot sizes at high dose to improve the resolution of the transmission radiographs taken during hydrodynamic experiments. Experimental measurements of conditions within the diodes of Pulsed Power driven flash x-ray machines are vital to provide a benchmark for electromagnetic PIC codes such as LSP which are used to develop new diode designs. The potential use of inverse Compton scattering (ICS) as a diagnostic technique in the determination of electron energies within the diode has been investigated. The interaction of a laser beam with a beam of high-energy electrons will create an ICS spectrum of photons. Theoretically, one should be able to glean information on the energies and positions of the electrons from the energy spectrum and differential cross section of the scattered photons. The feasibility of fielding this technique on various diode designs has been explored, and an experimental setup with the greatest likelihood of success is proposed.

  19. Low-energy theorems for nucleon-nucleon scattering at unphysical pion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Filin, A. A.; Gegelia, J.

    2015-07-01

    The longest-range part of the nuclear force from the one-pion exchange governs the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude in the near-threshold region and imposes correlations between the coefficients in the effective range expansion. These correlations may be regarded as low-energy theorems and are known to hold to a high accuracy in the neutron-proton 3S1 partial wave. We generalize the low-energy theorems to the case of unphysical pion masses and provide results for the correlations between the coefficients in the effective range expansion in this partial wave for pion masses up to Mπ˜400 MeV . We discuss the implications of our findings for the available and upcoming lattice-quantum-chromodynamics simulations of two-nucleon observables.

  20. Low-energy extensions of the eikonal approximation to heavy-ion scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, C.E.; Aguiar, C.E.; Zardi, F.; Vitturi, A.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss different schemes devised to extend the eikonal approximation to the regime of low bombarding energies (below 50 MeV per nucleon) in heavy-ion collisions. From one side we consider the first- and second-order corrections derived from Wallace{close_quote}s expansion. As an alternative approach we examine the procedure of accounting for the distortion of the eikonal straight-line trajectory by shifting the impact parameter to the corresponding classical turning point. The two methods are tested for different combinations of colliding systems and bombarding energies, by comparing the angular distributions they provide with the exact solution of the scattering problem. We find that the best results are obtained with the shifted trajectories, the Wallace expansion showing a slow convergence at low energies, in particular for heavy systems characterized by a strong Coulomb field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Fast computation of high energy elastic collision scattering angle for electric propulsion plume simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Samuel J.

    2016-11-01

    In the plumes of Hall thrusters and ion thrusters, high energy ions experience elastic collisions with slow neutral atoms. These collisions involve a process of momentum exchange, altering the initial velocity vectors of the collision pair. In addition to the momentum exchange process, ions and atoms can exchange electrons, resulting in slow charge-exchange ions and fast atoms. In these simulations, it is particularly important to accurately perform computations of ion-atom elastic collisions in determining the plume current profile and assessing the integration of spacecraft components. The existing models are currently capable of accurate calculation but are not fast enough such that the calculation can be a bottleneck of plume simulations. This study investigates methods to accelerate an ion-atom elastic collision calculation that includes both momentum- and charge-exchange processes. The scattering angles are pre-computed through a classical approach with ab initio spin-orbit free potential and are stored in a two-dimensional array as functions of impact parameter and energy. When performing a collision calculation for an ion-atom pair, the scattering angle is computed by a table lookup and multiple linear interpolations, given the relative energy and randomly determined impact parameter. In order to further accelerate the calculations, the number of collision calculations is reduced by properly defining two cut-off cross-sections for the elastic scattering. In the MCC method, the target atom needs to be sampled; however, it is confirmed that initial target atom velocity does not play a significant role in typical electric propulsion plume simulations such that the sampling process is unnecessary. With these implementations, the computational run-time to perform a collision calculation is reduced significantly compared to previous methods, while retaining the accuracy of the high fidelity models.

  2. THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM PULSARS: A CASE FOR INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Otte, Nepomuk; McCann, Andrew

    2012-07-20

    The observations of gamma-ray emission from pulsars with the Fermi-LAT detector and the detection of the Crab pulsar with the VERITAS array of Cherenkov telescopes at energies above 100 GeV make it unlikely that curvature radiation is the main source of photons above GeV energies in the Crab and many other pulsars. We outline a model in which the broad UV-X-ray component and the very high energy {gamma}-ray emission of pulsars are explained within the synchrotron self-Compton framework. We argue that the bulk of the observed radiation is generated by the secondary plasma, which is produced in cascades in the outer gaps of the magnetosphere. We find that the inverse Compton (IC) scattering occurs in the Klein-Nishina regime, which favors synchrotron photons in the UV band as target field for the scattering process. The primary beam is accelerated in a modest electric field, with a field strength that is of the order of a few percent of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Overall, for IC scattering occurring in the Klein-Nishina regime, the particle distribution in the gap does not evolve toward a stationary distribution and thus is intrinsically time-dependent. We point out that in a radiation reaction-limited regime of particle acceleration the gamma-ray luminosity L{sub {gamma}} scales linearly with the pulsar spin-down power E-dot , L{sub {gamma}}{proportional_to} E-dot , and not proportional to {radical}( E-dot ) as expected from potential-limited acceleration.

  3. Effects of a scattering center on the ground-state energy of quantum-dot lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatansever, Z. D.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sokmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of a repulsive scattering center on the ground-state energy and spin properties of a three-electron parabolic quantum dot are investigated theoretically by means of configuration interaction method. Phase transition from a weakly correlated regime to a strongly correlated regime is examined from several strengths and positions of Gaussian impurity. Numerical results reveal that the transition from spin-1/2 to spin-3/2 state depends strongly on the location of the impurity which accordingly states the controllability of the spin polarization. Moreover, broken circular symmetry results in more pronounced electronic charge localization.

  4. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-07-01

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  5. Influence of planar oscillations on scattered ion energy distributions in transmission ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailes, A. A.; Seiberling, L. E.

    1999-06-01

    Utilizing the transmission ion channeling technique and a Monte Carlo simulation of the channeling of He ions in Si, we have been able to determine surface structure by comparing experimental to simulated scattered ion energy distributions. In analyzing data for {110} beam incidence, we have found that planar oscillations persist well past 2000 Å in our Monte Carlo simulations. These oscillations yield no benefit to this method of data analysis but can make analysis more difficult by the requirement for more accurate Si thickness determination.

  6. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-10-25

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines--infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to the projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  7. In-Medium Isovector πN Amplitude from Low-Energy Pion Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Bauer, M.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Denz, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Erhardt, A.; Hofman, G. J.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Yaari, G.

    2004-09-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of 21.5MeV positive and negative pions by Si, Ca, Ni, and Zr have been measured as part of a study of the pion-nucleus potential across the threshold. The “anomalous” repulsion in the s-wave term was observed, as is the case with pionic atoms. The extra repulsion can be accounted for by a chiral-motivated model where the pion decay constant is modified in the medium. Unlike in pionic atoms, the anomaly cannot be removed by merely introducing an empirical on-shell energy dependence.

  8. High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2005-05-15

    At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.

  9. Search for Light-Speed Anisotropies Using Compton Scattering of High-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Bocquet, J.-P.; Moricciani, D.; Bellini, V.; Beretta, M.; Casano, L.; Dangelo, A.; di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Franco, D.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Giardina, G.; Girolami, B.; Giusa, A.; Gurzadyan, V. G.; Kashin, A.; Knyazyan, S.; Lapik, A.; Lehnert, R.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lleres, A.; Mammoliti, F.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Margarian, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Messi, R.; Nedorezov, V.; Perrin, C.; Randieri, C.; Rudnev, N.; Russo, G.; Schaerf, C.; Sperduto, M.-L.; Sutera, M.-C.; Turinge, A.; Vegna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Based on the high sensitivity of Compton scattering off ultra relativistic electrons, the possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light is investigated. The result discussed in this contribution is based on the γ-ray beam of the ESRF's GRAAL facility (Grenoble, France) and the search for sidereal variations in the energy of the Compton-edge photons. The absence of oscillations yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 × 10-14 at 95% confidence level on a combination of photon and electron coefficients of the minimal Standard-Model Extension (mSME). This new constraint provides an improvement over previous bounds by one order of magnitude.

  10. High-order multiphoton laser-assisted elastic electron scattering by Xe in a femtosecond near-infrared intense laser field: Plateau in energy spectra of scattered electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Kakuta; Morimoto, Yuya; Kanya, Reika; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton free-free transitions were observed in laser-assisted elastic electron scattering (LAES) by Xe atoms in a femtosecond near-infrared intense laser field. The distinct peak structures at the energy shifts of n -photons (n =+1 ,+2 ,+3 ,+4 ,+5 , and +6 ) were identified in the observed energy spectrum, and the energy and angular distributions of the LAES signals were in good agreement with those obtained by numerical simulations based on the Kroll-Watson theory. The LAES signal intensities at the scattering angles at 9.1° and 11.8° exhibited a clear plateau structure as a function of the harmonic order n , and the mechanism of these nonperturbative LAES processes was interpreted by a classical mechanical description.

  11. Channeling effects observed in energy-loss spectra of nitrogen ions scattered off a Pt(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, A.; Heiland, W.; Jensen, J.; Juaristi, J. I.; Arnau, A.

    2001-11-01

    We present measured energy-loss spectra of nitrogen ions, which are scattered off a (1×2) missing row reconstructed Pt(110) single-crystal surface. The primary energy is varied from below 1 keV up to above 1 MeV, i.e., 0.04v0energies. Experimental results are compared with theoretical energy-loss values obtained from trajectory and stopping power calculations of charged particles scattered under grazing incidence conditions from metallic surfaces. The stopping power is calculated using the scattering theory formalism. Different trajectory classes are found by the calculations and assigned to different contributions in the energy-loss spectra. Regarding the simplicity of the presented model the agreement with the experiment is good.

  12. High-energy hadron-hadron (dipole-dipole) scattering from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Matteo; Meggiolaro, Enrico

    2008-10-01

    In this paper the problem of high-energy hadron-hadron (dipole-dipole) scattering is approached (for the first time) from the point of view of lattice QCD, by means of Monte Carlo numerical simulations. In the first part, we give a brief review of how high-energy scattering amplitudes can be reconstructed, using a functional-integral approach, in terms of certain correlation functions of two Wilson loops, and we also briefly recall some relevant analyticity and crossing-symmetry properties of these loop-loop correlation functions, when going from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory. In the second part, we shall see how these (Euclidean) loop-loop correlation functions can be evaluated in lattice QCD, and we shall compare our numerical results with some nonperturbative analytical estimates that appeared in the literature, discussing, in particular, the question of the analytic continuation from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory and its relation to the still unsolved problem of the asymptotic s dependence of the hadron-hadron total cross sections.

  13. Simulation experiments for gamma-ray mapping of planetary surfaces: Scattering of high-energy neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, J.; Englert, P.; Reedy, R. C.; Waenke, H.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of certain elements in surface layers of planetary objects specify constraints on models of their origin and evolution. This information can be obtained by means of remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy, as planned for a number of future space missions, i.e., Mars, Moon, asteroids, and comets. To investigate the gamma-rays made by interactions of neutrons with matter, thin targets of different composition were placed between a neutron-source and a high-resolution germanium spectrometer. Gamma-rays in the range of 0.1 to 8 MeV were accumulated. In one set of experiments a 14-MeV neutron generator using the T(d,n) reaction as neutron-source was placed in a small room. Scattering in surrounding walls produced a spectrum of neutron energies from 14 MeV down to thermal. This complex neutron-source induced mainly neutron-capture lines and only a few scattering lines. As a result of the set-up, there was a considerable background of discrete lines from surrounding materials. A similar situation exists under planetary exploration conditions: gamma-rays are induced in the planetary surface as well as in the spacecraft. To investigate the contribution of neutrons with higher energies, an experiment for the measurement of prompt gamma radiation was set up at the end of a beam-line of an isochronous cyclotron.

  14. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J; Rhyne, James J; Lewis, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  15. Cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane in the intermediate-energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Sugohara, R. T.; Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I.; Souza, G. L. C. de; Homem, M. G. P.

    2011-12-15

    Organosilicon compounds are of current interest due to the numerous applications of these species in industries. Some of these applications require the knowledge of electron collision cross sections, which are scarce for such compounds. In this work, we report absolute values of differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane (TMS) measured in the 100-1000 eV energy range. The relative-flow technique is used to normalize our data. In addition, the independent-atom-model (IAM) and the additivity rule (AR), widely used to model electron collisions with light hydrocarbons, are also applied for e{sup -}-TMS interaction. The comparison of our measured results of cross sections and the calculated data shows good agreement, particularly near the higher-end of incident energies.

  16. Carrier scattering processes and low energy phonon spectroscopy in hybrid perovskites crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Even, Jacky; Paofai, Serge; Bourges, Philippe; Letoublon, Antoine; Cordier, Stéphane; Durand, Olivier; Katan, Claudine

    2016-03-01

    Despite the wealth of research conducted the last three years on hybrid organic perovskites (HOP), several questions remain open including: to what extend the organic moiety changes the properties of the material as compared to allinorganic (AIP) related perovskite structures. To ultimately reach an answer to this question, we have recently introduced two approaches that were designed to take the stochastic molecular degrees of freedom into account, and suggested that the high temperature cubic phase of HOP and AIP is an appropriate reference phase to rationalize HOP's properties. In this paper, we recall the main concepts and discuss more specifically the various possible couplings between charge carriers and low energy excitations such as acoustic and optical phonons. As available experimental or simulated data on low energy excitations are limited, we also present preliminary neutron scattering and ultrasonic measurements obtained and freshly prepared single crystals of CH3NH3PbBr3.

  17. MeV-energy x rays from inverse compton scattering with laser-wakefield accelerated electrons.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Powers, N D; Ghebregziabher, I; Maharjan, C M; Liu, C; Golovin, G; Banerjee, S; Zhang, J; Cunningham, N; Moorti, A; Clarke, S; Pozzi, S; Umstadter, D P

    2013-04-12

    We report the generation of MeV x rays using an undulator and accelerator that are both driven by the same 100-terawatt laser system. The laser pulse driving the accelerator and the scattering laser pulse are independently optimized to generate a high energy electron beam (>200  MeV) and maximize the output x-ray brightness. The total x-ray photon number was measured to be ∼1×10(7), the source size was 5  μm, and the beam divergence angle was ∼10  mrad. The x-ray photon energy, peaked at 1 MeV (reaching up to 4 MeV), exceeds the thresholds of fundamental nuclear processes (e.g., pair production and photodisintegration).

  18. Low-energy electron scattering from the aza-derivatives of pyrrole, furan, and thiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossoski, F.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2013-06-01

    We report elastic integral and differential cross sections for electron scattering from the aza-derivatives of pyrrole, furan, and thiophene, namely, pyrazole, imidazole, isoxazole, oxazole, isothiazole, and thiazole. The calculations were performed within the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials, with inclusion of static, exchange, and polarization interactions, for energies up to 10 eV. We found two π* shape resonances and a high-lying σ* shape resonance in each system. A sharp low-energy σ* resonance was also identified in isothiazole and thiazole. Pyrazole and imidazole presented yet a broad low-lying σ* resonance. The positions of the resonances agree very well with existing experimental results. We discuss the similarities and differences among the resonances of these compounds.

  19. A model for soft high-energy scattering: Tensor pomeron and vector odderon

    SciTech Connect

    Ewerz, Carlo; Maniatis, Markos

    2014-03-15

    A model for soft high-energy scattering is developed. The model is formulated in terms of effective propagators and vertices for the exchange objects: the pomeron, the odderon, and the reggeons. The vertices are required to respect standard rules of QFT. The propagators are constructed taking into account the crossing properties of amplitudes in QFT and the power-law ansätze from the Regge model. We propose to describe the pomeron as an effective spin 2 exchange. This tensor pomeron gives, at high energies, the same results for the pp and pp{sup -bar} elastic amplitudes as the standard Donnachie–Landshoff pomeron. But with our tensor pomeron it is much more natural to write down effective vertices of all kinds which respect the rules of QFT. This is particularly clear for the coupling of the pomeron to particles carrying spin, for instance vector mesons. We describe the odderon as an effective vector exchange. We emphasise that with a tensor pomeron and a vector odderon the corresponding charge-conjugation relations are automatically fulfilled. We compare the model to some experimental data, in particular to data for the total cross sections, in order to determine the model parameters. The model should provide a starting point for a general framework for describing soft high-energy reactions. It should give to experimentalists an easily manageable tool for calculating amplitudes for such reactions and for obtaining predictions which can be compared in detail with data. -- Highlights: •A general model for soft high-energy hadron scattering is developed. •The pomeron is described as effective tensor exchange. •Explicit expressions for effective reggeon–particle vertices are given. •Reggeon–particle and particle–particle vertices are related. •All vertices respect the standard C parity and crossing rules of QFT.

  20. Measuring the Low Energy Nuclear Quenching Factor in Liquid Argon for a Coherent Neutrino Scatter Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxe, M.; Bernstein, A.; Hagmann, C.; Joshi, T.; Jovanovic, I.; Kazkaz, K.; Sangiorgio, S.

    2012-08-01

    Coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering (CNS) is an as-yet undetected, flavor-independent neutrino interaction predicted by the Standard Model [D. Freedman, Phys. Rev. D 9 (5) (1974) 1389-1392]. One of the primary reasons the CNS interaction has yet to be observed is the very low energy depositions (less than 1 keV for MeV-energy neutrinos) [A. Drukier, L. Stodolsky, Phys. Rev. D 30 (11) (1984) 2295-2309]. An additional challenge in detecting CNS is nuclear quenching, which is a phenomenon encountered in many detection materials in which nuclear recoils produce less observable energy per unit energy deposited than electronic recoils. The ratio observed signal for nuclear recoils to electronic recoils or nuclear ionization quench factor, is presently unknown in argon at typical CNS energies [C. Hagmann, A. Bernstein, IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 51 (5) (2004) 2151-2155]. Here we present plans for using the Gamma or Neutron Argon Recoils Resulting in Liquid Ionization (G/NARRLI) detector to measure the nuclear ionization quench factor at ˜8 keV.

  1. A comparison of phantom scatter from flattened and flattening filter free high-energy photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Neil; Allen, Vince; Daniel, Jim; Dacey, Rob; Walker, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams have different dosimetric properties from those of flattened beams. The aim of this work was to characterize the collimator scatter (S{sub c}) and total scatter (S{sub cp}) from 3 FFF beams of differing quality indices and use the resulting mathematical fits to generate phantom scatter (S{sub p}) data. The similarities and differences between S{sub p} of flattened and FFF beams are described. S{sub c} and S{sub cp} data were measured for 3 flattened and 3 FFF high-energy photon beams (Varian 6 and 10 MV and Elekta 6 MV). These data were fitted to logarithmic power law functions with 4 numerical coefficients. The agreement between our experimentally determined flattened beam S{sub p} and published data was within ± 1.2% for all 3 beams investigated and all field sizes from 4 × 4 to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. For the FFF beams, S{sub p} was only within 1% of the same flattened beam published data for field sizes between 6 × 6 and 14 × 14 cm{sup 2}. Outside this range, the differences were much greater, reaching − 3.2%, − 4.5%, and − 4.3% for the fields of 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} for the Varian 6-MV, Varian 10-MV, and Elekta 6-MV FFF beams, respectively. The FFF beam S{sub p} increased more slowly with increasing field size than that of the published and measured flattened beam of a similar reference field size quality index, i.e., there is less Phantom Scatter than that found with flattened beams for a given field size. This difference can be explained when the fluence profiles of the flattened and FFF beams are considered. The FFF beam has greatly reduced fluence off axis, especially as field size increases, compared with the flattened beam profile; hence, less scatter is generated in the phantom reaching the central axis.

  2. Low energy scattering cross section ratios of 14N(p ,p ) 14N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deBoer, R. J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Görres, J.; LeBlanc, P. J.; Manukyan, K. V.; Moran, M. T.; Smith, K.; Tan, W.; Uberseder, E.; Wiescher, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Champagne, A. E.; Islam, M. S.

    2015-04-01

    Background: The slowest reaction in the first CNO cycle is 14N(p ,γ ) 15O , therefore its rate determines the overall energy production efficiency of the entire cycle. The cross section presents several strong resonance contributions, especially for the ground-state transition. Some of the properties of the corresponding levels in the 15O compound nucleus remain uncertain, which affects the uncertainty in extrapolating the capture cross section to the low energy range of astrophysical interest. Purpose: The 14N(p ,γ ) 15O cross section can be described by using the phenomenological R matrix. Over the energy range of interest, only the proton and γ -ray channels are open. Since resonance capture makes significant contributions to the 14N(p ,γ ) 15O cross section, resonant proton scattering data can be used to provide additional constraints on the R -matrix fit of the capture data. Methods: A 4 MV KN Van de Graaff accelerator was used to bombard protons onto a windowless gas target containing enriched 14N gas over the proton energy range from Ep=1.0 to 3.0 MeV. Scattered protons were detected at θlab=90 , 120∘, 135∘, 150∘, and 160∘ using ruggedized silicon detectors. In addition, a 10 MV FN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator was used to accelerate protons onto a solid Adenine (C5H5N5 ) target, of natural isotopic abundance, evaporated onto a thin self-supporting carbon backing, over the energy range from Ep=1.8 to 4.0 MeV. Scattered protons were detected at 28 angles between θlab=30 .4∘ and 167 .7∘ by using silicon photodiode detectors. Results: Relative cross sections were extracted from both measurements. While the relative cross sections do not provide as much constraint as absolute measurements, they greatly reduce the dependence of the data on otherwise significant systematic uncertainties, which are more difficult to quantify. The data are fit simultaneously using an R -matrix analysis and level energies and proton widths are extracted. Even

  3. Intermediate Energy Proton Nucleus Scattering from CALCIUM-40, ZIRCONIUM-90 and LEAD-208.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lawrence

    In recent years, there has been much interest in studying proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate bombarding energies. We focus on two main themes in this thesis. Firstly, we examine the importance of measuring scattering observables out to high momentum transfers where they become sensitive to the matter distribution in the interior of the nucleus. Here, we find that nuclear medium and exchange effects are needed, especially at lower proton kinetic energies (~ 200 MeV). Secondly, we focus on the remarkable and systematic agreement between experimental data and theory when a consistent microscopic approach is used. As part of our study, we have made high momentum transfer measurements at TRIUMF for proton elastic and inelastic scattering from ^{40} Ca, ^{90}Zr and ^{208}Pb. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers are presented for proton kinetic energies of 200, 362 and 400 MeV out to a maximum momentum transfer of q~ 4.8 fm^{-1}, well above the typical limit of ~2.5 fm ^{-1}. Our elastic data are analyzed with a nonrelativistic microscopic optical model based on the Hamburg density -dependent two-body interaction (Ge83a) and on the Decharge and Gogny (De87) theoretical ground states, and involve no adjustable parameters. The calculations show surprisingly good agreement with data as it follows the cross section through typically 9 orders of magnitude and reproduces the oscillations in the analyzing power out to high q for a number of target nuclei and at various bombarding energies. The success of the elastic calculations also suggests that the theoretical model(s) are sufficiently well understood that nuclear structure problems can now be investigated. We study this aspect mainly through the low-lying natural -parity 3^- and 5^ - transitions. The inelastic data are analyzed with distorted-wave Born approximation calculations using the same nonrelativistic density-dependent interaction to drive the transition, the same optical model potential to distort

  4. An experimental study of energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma rays in binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan Sandhu, B. S.

    2015-08-28

    The present measurements are carried out to investigate the multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons emerging from targets of binary alloys (brass and soldering material). The scattered photons are detected by 51 mm × 51 mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector whose response unscrambling converting the observed pulse–height distribution to a true photon energy spectrum, is obtained with the help of 10 × 10 inverse response matrix. The numbers of multiply scattered events, having same energy as in the singly scattered distribution, first increases with target thickness and then saturate. The application of response function of scintillation detector does not result in any change of measured saturation thickness. Monte Carlo calculation supports the present experimental results.

  5. Elastic Scattering of Low Energy Pions by Nuclei and the In-Medium Isovector πN Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Bauer, M.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Denz, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Erhardt, A.; Hofman, G. J.; Kritchman, S.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Yaari, G.

    2006-07-01

    Measurements of elastic scattering of 21.5 MeV π± by Si, Ca, Ni and Zr were made using a single arm magnetic spectrometer and absolute calibration was made by parallel measurements of Coulomb scattering of muons. Optical model fits to the data reveal the `anomalous' s-wave repulsion known from pionic atoms. Introducing a chiral-motivated density dependence of the isovector scattering amplitude, and considering the energy dependence of the free πN interaction greatly improve fits to the data and remove the `anomaly'.

  6. Measurement of the time-resolved reflection matrix for enhancing light energy delivery into a scattering medium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngwoon; Hillman, Timothy R; Choi, Wonjun; Lue, Niyom; Dasari, Ramachandra R; So, Peter T C; Choi, Wonshik; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2013-12-13

    Multiple scatterings occurring in a turbid medium attenuate the intensity of propagating waves. Here, we propose a method to efficiently deliver light energy to the desired target depth in a scattering medium. We measure the time-resolved reflection matrix of a scattering medium using coherent time-gated detection. From this matrix, we derive and experimentally implement an incident wave pattern that optimizes the detected signal corresponding to a specific arrival time. This leads to enhanced light delivery at the target depth. The proposed method will lay a foundation for efficient phototherapy and deep-tissue in vivo imaging in the near future.

  7. Energy-partition diagnostic for measuring time-resolved scattering and absorption in burst-mode laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Z; Schoenly, J E; Covarrubias, A; Lilge, L; Marjoribanks, R S

    2014-03-01

    We describe an energy-partition diagnostic based on integrating sphere principle for measuring absorption and scattering in plasma-mediated ablation by a high repetition-rate (133 MHz), pulsetrain-burst ultrafast-pulse laser. The system time-resolves the partition of elastically scattered laser light into specular reflection, diffuse reflection, and transmission, giving access to per-pulse absorption dynamics. Physical events such as optical breakdown and incubation effects in glass and aluminum are illustrated.

  8. Energy-partition diagnostic for measuring time-resolved scattering and absorption in burst-mode laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Z.; Schoenly, J. E.; Covarrubias, A.; Lilge, L.; Marjoribanks, R. S.

    2014-03-01

    We describe an energy-partition diagnostic based on integrating sphere principle for measuring absorption and scattering in plasma-mediated ablation by a high repetition-rate (133 MHz), pulsetrain-burst ultrafast-pulse laser. The system time-resolves the partition of elastically scattered laser light into specular reflection, diffuse reflection, and transmission, giving access to per-pulse absorption dynamics. Physical events such as optical breakdown and incubation effects in glass and aluminum are illustrated.

  9. Low-energy neutral-current neutrino scattering on {sup 128,130}Te isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2011-05-15

    Differential, total, and cumulative cross section calculations for neutral current neutrino scattering on {sup 128,130}Te isotopes are performed in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation by utilizing realistic two-nucleon forces. These isotopes are the main contents of detectors of ongoing experiments with multiple neutrino physics goals (COBRA and CUORE at Gran Sasso), including potential low-energy astrophysical neutrino (solar, supernova, geoneutrinos) detection. The incoming neutrino energy range adopted in our calculations ({epsilon}{sub {nu}{<=}1}00 MeV) covers the low-energy {beta}-beam neutrinos and the pion-muon stopped neutrino beams existing or planned to be conducted at future neutron spallation sources. The aim of these facilities is to measure neutrino-nucleus cross sections at low and intermediate neutrino energies with the hope of shedding light on open problems in neutrino-induced reactions on nuclei and neutrino astrophysics. Such probes motivate theoretical studies on weak responses of various nuclear systems; thus the evaluated cross sections may be useful in this direction.

  10. Internal strain gradients quantified in bone under load using high-energy X-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, S.R.; Yuan, F.; Brinson, L.C.; Almer, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering (>60 keV) allows noninvasive quantification of internal strains within bone. In this proof-of-principle study, wide angle X-ray scattering maps internal strain vs position in cortical bone (murine tibia, bovine femur) under compression, specifically using the response of the mineral phase of carbonated hydroxyapatite. The technique relies on the response of the carbonated hydroxyapatite unit cells and their Debye cones (from nanocrystals correctly oriented for diffraction) to applied stress. Unstressed, the Debye cones produce circular rings on the two-dimensional X-ray detector while applied stress deforms the rings to ellipses centered on the transmitted beam. Ring ellipticity is then converted to strain via standard methods. Strain is measured repeatedly, at each specimen location for each applied stress. Experimental strains from wide angle X-ray scattering and an attached strain gage show bending of the rat tibia and agree qualitatively with results of a simplified finite element model. At their greatest, the apatite-derived strains approach 2500 {micro}{var_epsilon} on one side of the tibia and are near zero on the other. Strains maps around a hole in the femoral bone block demonstrate the effect of the stress concentrator as loading increased and agree qualitatively with the finite element model. Experimentally, residual strains of approximately 2000 {micro}{var_epsilon} are present initially, and strain rises to approximately 4500 {micro}{var_epsilon} at 95 MPa applied stress (about 1000 {micro}{var_epsilon} above the strain in the surrounding material). The experimental data suggest uneven loading which is reproduced qualitatively with finite element modeling.

  11. Internal strain gradients quantified in bone under load using high-energy X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Yuan, Fang; Brinson, L C; Almer, J D

    2011-01-11

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering (>60 keV) allows noninvasive quantification of internal strains within bone. In this proof-of-principle study, wide angle X-ray scattering maps internal strain vs position in cortical bone (murine tibia, bovine femur) under compression, specifically using the response of the mineral phase of carbonated hydroxyapatite. The technique relies on the response of the carbonated hydroxyapatite unit cells and their Debye cones (from nanocrystals correctly oriented for diffraction) to applied stress. Unstressed, the Debye cones produce circular rings on the two-dimensional X-ray detector while applied stress deforms the rings to ellipses centered on the transmitted beam. Ring ellipticity is then converted to strain via standard methods. Strain is measured repeatedly, at each specimen location for each applied stress. Experimental strains from wide angle X-ray scattering and an attached strain gage show bending of the rat tibia and agree qualitatively with results of a simplified finite element model. At their greatest, the apatite-derived strains approach 2500 με on one side of the tibia and are near zero on the other. Strains maps around a hole in the femoral bone block demonstrate the effect of the stress concentrator as loading increased and agree qualitatively with the finite element model. Experimentally, residual strains of approximately 2000 με are present initially, and strain rises to approximately 4500 με at 95 MPa applied stress (about 1000 με above the strain in the surrounding material). The experimental data suggest uneven loading which is reproduced qualitatively with finite element modeling.

  12. Four-jet production in single- and double-parton scattering within high-energy factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Maciula, Rafal; Serino, Mirko; Szczurek, Antoni; van Hameren, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We perform a first study of 4-jet production in a complete high-energy factorization (HEF) framework. We include and discuss contributions from both single-parton scattering (SPS) and double-parton scattering (DPS). The calculations are performed for kinematical situations relevant for two experimental measurements (ATLAS and CMS) at the LHC. We compare our results to those reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations for different sets of kinematical cuts. The results of the HEF approach are compared with their counterparts for collinear factorization. For symmetric cuts the DPS HEF result is considerably smaller than the one obtained with collinear factorization. The mechanism leading to this difference is of kinematical nature. We conclude that an analysis of inclusive 4-jet production with asymmetric p T -cuts below 50 GeV would be useful to enhance the DPS contribution relative to the SPS contribution. In contrast to the collinear approach, the HEF approach nicely describes the distribution of the Δ S variable, which involves all four jets and their angular correlations.

  13. Determination of actinide speciation in solution using high-energy X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Soderholm, L; Skanthakumar, S; Neuefeind, J

    2005-09-01

    High-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) has been used to understand the coordination environment of the uranyl ion in a perchlorate solution. Assuming the two coordinating oxo ligands bound to U(VI) are represented in a peak in the pair distribution function (PDF) at 1.766(1) A, integration of the peak intensity is used to quantify the charge located on the oxygens. The dioxo ligands are essentially neutral, as predicted by numerous published calculations, with a charge of -16.4(8) electrons. The peak in the PDF at 2.420(1) A is consistent with equatorial ligating waters. The intensity of this peak is inconsistent with an integral coordination number and is used to propose a solution equilibrium of five and four waters coordinating to the uranyl(VI) ion favoring the five-coordinate species. This equilibrium is then used to experimentally determine that five-coordinate uranyl is 1.19+/-0.42 kcal/mol more stable than its four-coordinate counterpart under the conditions of the experiment. Further peaks in the Fourier transform of the scattering data at 4.50, 7, and 8.7 A are attributed to uranium-solvent correlations.

  14. Low energy elastic electron scattering from CF{sub 3}Br molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, L. R.; Brunton, J. R.; Maddern, T. M.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-03-28

    CF{sub 3}Br is a potentially valuable precursor molecule for generating beams of gas phase Br radicals suitable for electron collisions studies. However, the utility of CF{sub 3}Br for this purpose depends critically on the availability of sound scattering cross sections to allow the contribution of the precursor to be isolated within the total scattering signal. To this end, here we present elastic differential cross section (DCS) measurements for CF{sub 3}Br at incident energies between 15 and 50 eV. Comparison of these DCSs to those from the only other available experimental study [Sunohara et al., J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 36, 1843 (2003)] and a Schwinger multichannel with pseudo potentials (SMCPPs) calculation [Bettega et al., J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 36, 1263 (2003)] shows generally a very good accord. Integral elastic and momentum transfer cross sections, derived from our DCSs, are also found to be in quite good agreement with the SMCPP results.

  15. Data acquisition and analysis for the energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamzin, Murat Kamilevich

    In response to the shortcomings of the Anger camera currently being used in conventional SPECT, particularly the trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution, a novel energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera, or the ESCSC, has been proposed. A successful clinical implementation of the ESCSC could revolutionize the field of SPECT. Features of this camera include utilization of silicon and CdZnTe detectors in primary and secondary detector systems, list-mode time stamping data acquisition, modular architecture, and post-acquisition data analysis. Previous ESCSC studies were based on Monte Carlo modeling. The objective of this work is to test the theoretical framework developed in previous studies by developing the data acquisition and analysis techniques necessary to implement the ESCSC. The camera model working in list-mode with time stamping was successfully built and tested thus confirming potential of the ESCSC that was predicted in previous simulation studies. The obtained data were processed during the post-acquisition data analysis based on preferred event selection criteria. Along with the construction of a camera model and proving the approach, the post-acquisition data analysis was further extended to include preferred event weighting based on the likelihood of a preferred event to be a true preferred event. While formulated to show ESCSC capabilities, the results of this study are important for any Compton scatter camera implementation as well as for coincidence data acquisition systems in general.

  16. Elastic alpha scattering experiments and the alpha-nucleus optical potential at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, P.; Kiss, G.G.; Fülöp, Zs.; Galaviz, D.; Gyürky, Gy.; Somorjai, E.

    2013-11-15

    High precision angular distribution data of (α,α) elastic scattering are presented for the nuclei {sup 89}Y, {sup 92}Mo, {sup 106,110,116}Cd, {sup 112,124}Sn, and {sup 144}Sm at energies around the Coulomb barrier. Such data with small experimental uncertainties over the full angular range (20–170°) are the indispensable prerequisite for the extraction of local optical potentials and for the determination of the total reaction cross section σ{sub reac}. A systematic fitting procedure was applied to the experimental scattering data presented to obtain comprehensive local potential parameter sets that are composed of a real folding potential and an imaginary potential of Woods–Saxon surface type. The potential parameters obtained were used in turn to construct a new systematic α-nucleus potential with very few parameters. Although this new potential cannot reproduce the angular distributions with the same small deviations as the local potential, the new potential is able to predict the total reaction cross sections for all cases under study.

  17. Scattering of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms at low collision energy.

    PubMed

    Loreau, J; van der Avoird, A

    2015-11-14

    We present a theoretical study of elastic and rotationally inelastic collisions of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) at low energy. Quantum close-coupling calculations have been performed for energies between 0.001 and 300 cm(-1). We focus on collisions in which NH3 is initially in the upper state of the inversion doublet with j = 1, k = 1, which is the most relevant in an experimental context as it can be trapped electrostatically and Stark-decelerated. We discuss the presence of resonances in the elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as the trends in the inelastic cross sections along the rare gas series and the differences between NH3 and ND3 as a colliding partner. We also demonstrate the importance of explicitly taking into account the umbrella (inversion) motion of NH3 in order to obtain accurate scattering cross sections at low collision energy. Finally, we investigate the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ammonia using cold or ultracold rare gas atoms. We show that some systems exhibit a large ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections in the cold regime, which is promising for sympathetic cooling experiments. The close-coupling calculations are based on previously reported ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH3-He and NH3-Ar, as well as on new, four-dimensional, potential energy surfaces for the interaction of ammonia with Ne, Kr, and Xe, which were computed using the coupled-cluster method and large basis sets. We compare the properties of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to the interaction of ammonia with the various rare gas atoms.

  18. Photon Scattering from the Stable Even-Mass Mo Isotopes Below the Neutron-Separation Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Hutcheson, A.; Kwan, E.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Angell, C.; Hammond, S.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Wagner, A.

    2008-10-01

    We present results from photon-scattering experiments on the stable even-mass molybdenum isotopes below the neutron-separation energy carried out with bremsstrahlung at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf in Germany, and with monoenergetic photon beams at the HIγS facility at TUNL. We applied statistical methods in order to correct for the branching and cascade transitions and to determine the photoabsorption cross section. The obtained results allowed us to extend the tail of the Giant Dipole Resonance below the (,) threshold down to 4 MeV. The photoabsorption cross sections deduced from the present experiments show that the dipole strength increases with the neutron number of the Mo isotopes. The experimental results are discussed in the frame of Quasiparticle-Random-Phase-Approximation in a deformed basis which describe the increasing strength as a result of the deformation.

  19. Next-to-soft corrections to high energy scattering in QCD and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, A.; Melville, S.; Naculich, S. G.; White, C. D.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the Regge (high energy) limit of 4-point scattering in both QCD and gravity, using recently developed techniques to systematically compute all corrections up to next-to-leading power in the exchanged momentum i.e. beyond the eikonal approximation. We consider the situation of two scalar particles of arbitrary mass, thus generalising previous calculations in the literature. In QCD, our calculation describes power-suppressed corrections to the Reggeisation of the gluon. In gravity, we confirm a previous conjecture that next-to-soft corrections correspond to two independent deflection angles for the incoming particles. Our calculations in QCD and gravity are consistent with the well-known double copy relating amplitudes in the two theories.

  20. Virtual compton scattering at low energy and the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Helene Fonvieille

    2003-10-01

    We present a particular kind of (e, e' p) experiments, which has opened a new field of investigation of nucleon structure in the last ten years. The exclusive photon electroproduction process p(e, e' p){gamma} is used to study Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) off the proton: {gamma}*p {yields} {gamma}p. In the low energy domain, this process gives access to new observables called the Generalized Polarizabilities. They are fundamental properties of the nucleon, characterizing the deformation of its internal structure under an applied electromagnetic field. Dedicated experiments have been performed at MAMI, Jefferson Lab and MIT-Bates. This contribution summarizes the results obtained so far and future prospects in the field.

  1. Low-energy photodetachment of Ga- and elastic electron scattering from neutral Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kedong; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the photodetachment of the negative gallium ion and elastic electron scattering from neutral Ga for photon and electron energies ranging from threshold to 12 eV. The calculations are carried out with the B -spline R -matrix method. A multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with nonorthogonal term-dependent orbitals is employed to generate accurate initial- and final-state wave functions. The close-coupling expansions include the 4 s 24 p n l (k l ) bound and continuum states of Ga and the 4 s -excited autoionizing states 4 s 4 p2 . The calculated photodetachment and elastic cross sections exhibit prominent resonance features. In order to clarify the origin of these resonances, the contributions of the major ionization channels to the partial cross sections are analyzed in detail.

  2. Fully microscopic description of elastic and inelastic scattering at intermediate incident energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minomo, Kosho; Kohno, Michio; Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2016-06-01

    We aim for fully microscopic understanding of many-body nuclear reactions starting from two- and three-nucleon forces based on chiral effective field theory (Ch-EFT). We first construct a g-matrix with the nuclear forces based on Ch-EFT using Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory, in which the three-nucleon force effects are represented through the density dependence of the g-matrix. Then, the folding model and microscopic coupled-channels method with the g-matrix are applied to nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering at intermediate incident energies. This new microscopic framework well describes the elastic and inelastic cross sections with no ad-hoc parameters. In addition, the three-nucleon force and coupled-channels effects on many-body nuclear reactions are clarified.

  3. Measurement of the Solar Neutrino Energy Spectrum Using Neutrino-Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Okada, A.; Okumura, K.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; .Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Kearns, E.; Messier, M.D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.J.; Takemori, D.; Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Mine, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Haines, T.J.; and others

    1999-03-01

    A measurement of the energy spectrum of recoil electrons from solar neutrino scattering in the Super-Kamiokande detector is presented. The results shown here were obtained from 504 days of data taken between 31 May 1996 and 25 March 1998. The shape of the measured spectrum is compared with the expectation for solar {sup 8}B neutrinos. The comparison takes into account both kinematic and detector related effects in the measurement process. The spectral shape comparison between the observation and the expectation gives a {chi}{sup 2} of 25.3 with 15 degrees of freedom, corresponding to a 4.6{percent} confidence level. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. High-efficiency high-energy-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Q.; Tyson, T. A.; Caliebe, W. A.; Kao, C.-C.

    2005-12-01

    A nine-element analyzer system for inelastic X-ray scattering has been designed and constructed. Each individual analyzer crystal is carefully aligned with an inverse joystick goniometer. For the analyzers silicon wafers with 100 mm diameter are spherically bent to 1 or 0.85 m radius, respectively. Additionally, an analyzer with an extra small radius of 0.182 m and diameter of 100 mm was constructed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in fluorescence mode. All analyzer crystals with large radius have highly uniform focusing property. The total energy resolution is approximately 0.5 eV at backscattering for the 1 m radius Si(440) analyzer array and approximately 4 eV for the 0.182 m radius Si(440) analyzer at 6493 eV.

  5. The surfaces of Mo bicrystals studied by low-energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolov, S. N.; Jansen, W. P. A.; Markin, S. N.; Glebovsky, V. G.; Brongersma, H. H.

    2002-07-01

    Molybdenum bicrystals having two crystallographic orientations at the surface were studied by low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). Since the surfaces are part of the same specimen, their history and treatments are identical and thus provide an ideal possibility to compare segregation and annealing processes and to verify the quantification of LEIS. The crystallographic orientation of the seeds, the grown bicrystals and the bicrystalline samples was checked by means of X-ray Laue patterns as well as LEED patterns. The misorientation angles were about 1-2°. Because of the high surface sensitivity of LEIS, the scattered ion signals for the Mo(1 1 0)/Mo(1 0 0) bicrystal grains should reflect the atomic densities of the outermost atomic layers of their surfaces. The atomic density of the (1 0 0) surface is found to be 76% of that of the (1 1 0) surface. The difference with the theoretical value for the outer surface (71%) is ascribed to a small contribution of the second atomic layer for the open (1 0 0) surface. For the faces of a Mo(1 1 0)/Mo(1 1 0) bicrystal identical signals are found. At higher ion doses the bombardment leads to (partial) amorphization of the surface. It is found that the annealing of this layer starts already at 700 K for the (1 1 0), but at 1300 K for the (1 0 0) surface. A strong carbon segregation is already found at 1100 K for Mo(1 0 0), while there is still no segregation for the (1 1 0) surface. The results are explained in terms of differences in surface free energies, atomic mobilities and crystal structure.

  6. Theoretical study of neutrino scattering off the stable even Mo isotopes at low and intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasi, K. G.; Ydrefors, E.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2011-10-01

    A systematic study of the cross sections of neutral-current neutrino scattering off the stable even Mo isotopes (mass number A=92,94,96,98,100), at low and intermediate neutrino energies ( E⩽130 MeV), is presented and discussed. The required wave functions for the initial (ground state) and all accessible final nuclear states are constructed in the context of the quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) and tested against data on the low-lying energy spectra of the isotopes in question. The individual contributions coming from the polar-vector and axial-vector components of the hadronic current for the coherent and incoherent channels of each isotope are investigated. The studied Mo isotopes are contents of the detector of the MOON experiment operating at Japan with a hybrid aim to search for neutrinoless double beta decay events and to detect low- and intermediate-energy astrophysical neutrinos (solar, supernova, geo-neutrinos), and also of the NEMO neutrinoless double beta decay detector in Modane at France. For such purposes our cross section calculations are of significant importance.

  7. Reaction dynamics and energy transfer in ion/surface scattering: Oxygen(+)/silicon dioxide and neon(+)/silicon(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinteros, Cecilia Laura

    The scattering of hyperthermal ions on surfaces provides detailed information regarding physical and chemical processes of scientific and technological importance. In order to explore the dynamics of atomic ion-surface interactions with and without chemical transformations, two different systems have been studied. The scattering of hyperthermal Ne+ on Si(001) provides a critical test for the applicability of simple models for energy transfer. Angle-, energy-, and mass-resolved detection reveals that for Ne+ energies between 50--300 eV, a simple analytical model can provide a quantitative description of the energy transfer process. In contrast, the study of O+/SiOx exhibits a vast array of reaction channels. Not only are scattered and sputtered species found, but O2 - is formed through the abstraction of surface oxygen via two competing pathways. For low O+ energies, O 2- is produced exclusively by scattering-mediated abstraction, where an incident oxygen ion reacts with a surface O-atom. At higher energies, recoil-abstraction is also observed, in which a recoiling O- anion collides with a neighboring surface O-atom to form O2-. The two mechanisms are related in that scattering-mediated abstraction and recoil-abstraction both form O 2- products along the outgoing path of the trajectory. A simple barrier model for oxygen abstraction strongly suggests that the precursors for O2- formation are the scattered and recoiled O- species. This study represents the first experimental evidence of hyperthermal atomic ions abstracting oxygen atoms from an oxide surface.

  8. Compton scattering for spectroscopic detection of ultra-fast, high flux, broad energy range X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Brunetti, E.; Vieux, G.; Yang, X.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M.; Islam, M. R.; Ersfeld, B.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Maneuski, D.; Montgomery, R.; Smith, G.; Hoek, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Shea, V. O.; Issac, R. C.; Lemos, N. R. C.; Dias, J. M.; and others

    2013-11-15

    Compton side-scattering has been used to simultaneously downshift the energy of keV to MeV energy range photons while attenuating their flux to enable single-shot, spectrally resolved, measurements of high flux X-ray sources to be undertaken. To demonstrate the technique a 1 mm thick pixelated cadmium telluride detector has been used to measure spectra of Compton side-scattered radiation from a Cobalt-60 laboratory source and a high flux, high peak brilliance X-ray source of betatron radiation from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator.

  9. A method for using neutron elastic scatter to create a variable energy neutron beam from a nearly monoenergetic neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Z. D.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    This work describes preliminary investigation into the design of a compact, portable, variable energy neutron source. The proposed method uses elastic neutron scatter at specific angles to reduce the energy of deuterium-deuterium or deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutrons. The research focuses on D-T Monte Carlo simulations, both in idealized and more realistic scenarios. Systematic uncertainty of the method is also analyzed. The research showed promise, but highlighted the need for discrimination of multiply-scattered neutrons, either through a pulsed generator or associated particle imaging.

  10. A study of effective atomic number and electron density of gel dosimeters and human tissues for scattering of gamma rays: momentum transfer, energy and scattering angle dependence.

    PubMed

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study water- and tissue-equivalent properties of some gel dosimeters, human tissues and water, for scattering of photons using the effective atomic number (Z eff). The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) was used to obtain Z eff and electron density (N e ) of gel dosimeters, human tissues and water considering a 10(-2)-10(9) momentum transfer, q (Å(-1)). In the present work, a logarithmic interpolation procedure was used to estimate R/C as well as Z eff of the chosen materials in a wide scattering angle (1°-180°) and energy range (0.001-100 MeV). The Z eff of the chosen materials was found to increase as momentum transfer increases, for q > ~1 Å(-1). At fixed scattering angle and energy, Z eff of the material first increases and then becomes constant for high momentum transfers (q ≥ 3 Å(-1)), which indicates that Z eff is almost independent of energy and scattering angle for the chosen materials. Based on the Z eff data and the continuous momentum transfer range (10(-2)-10(9) Å(-1)), MAGIC, PAGAT and soft tissue were found to be water-equivalent materials, since their differences (%) relative to water are significantly low (≤3.2 % for MAGIC up to 10(3) Å(-1), ≤2.9 % for PAGAT up to 10(9) Å(-1), and ≤3.8 % for soft tissue up to 10(9) Å(-1)), while the Fricke gel was not found to be water equivalent. PAGAT was found to be a soft tissue-equivalent material in the entire momentum transfer range (<4.3 %), while MAGAT has shown to be tissue equivalent for brain (≤8.1 % up to 10 Å(-1)) and lung (<8.2 % up to 10 Å(-1)) tissues. The Fricke gel dosimeter has shown to be adipose tissue equivalent for most of the momentum range considered (<10 %).

  11. A computational analysis of low-energy electron scattering from gaseous cyclopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curík, R.; Gianturco, F. A.

    2002-02-01

    Absolute elastic cross sections, integral and differential, are computed for electron-cyclopropane collisions at energies from 1.0 up to 15.0 eV, spanning the region where possible shape resonance structures were detected by earlier experiments and calculations. The present results confirm the above findings and locate a resonance of A2' symmetry around 6.0 eV and a broader, weaker resonance of A2'' symmetry around 8 eV. The calculations are further shown to be in good agreement with the existing measurements of the angular distributions of the scattered electrons at energies from 2.0 up to 10.0 eV. The presently computed cross sections also agree with earlier R-matrix calculations (Beyer T, Nestmann B M, Sarpal B K and Peyerimhoff S D 1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 3431) and with the available integral cross section measurements. A model local exchange potential of very simple usage is shown to provide quite good accord with the exact calculations at the static-exchange level.

  12. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; de Gouvea, A.; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  13. A new approach to detect congestive heart failure using Teager energy nonlinear scatter plot of R-R interval series.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Chandrakar

    2012-09-01

    A novel approach to distinguish congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects from healthy subjects is proposed. Heart rate variability (HRV) is impaired in CHF subjects. In this work hypothesizing that capturing moment to moment nonlinear dynamics of HRV will reveal cardiac patterning, we construct the nonlinear scatter plot for Teager energy of R-R interval series. The key feature of Teager energy is that it models the energy of the source that generated the signal rather than the energy of the signal itself. Hence, any deviations in the genesis of HRV, by complex interactions of hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and humoral variables, as well as by the autonomic and central nervous regulations, get manifested in the Teager energy function. Comparison of the Teager energy scatter plot with the second-order difference plot (SODP) for normal and CHF subjects reveals significant differences qualitatively and quantitatively. We introduce the concept of curvilinearity for central tendency measures of the plots and define a radial distance index that reveals the efficacy of the Teager energy scatter plot over SODP in separating CHF subjects from healthy subjects. The k-nearest neighbor classifier with RDI as feature showed almost 100% classification rate.

  14. Complementary optical-potential analysis of {alpha}-particle elastic scattering and induced reactions at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M. Obreja, A.C.; Roman, F.L.; Avrigeanu, V.; Oertzen, W. von

    2009-07-15

    A previously derived semi-microscopic analysis based on the Double Folding Model, for {alpha}-particle elastic scattering on A{approx}100 nuclei at energies below 32 MeV, is extended to medium mass A{approx}50-120 nuclei and energies from {approx}13 to 50 MeV. The energy-dependent phenomenological imaginary part for this semi-microscopic optical model potential was obtained including the dispersive correction to the microscopic real potential, and used within a concurrent phenomenological analysis of the same data basis. A regional parameter set for low-energy {alpha}-particles entirely based on elastic scattering data analysis was also obtained for nuclei within the above mentioned mass and energy ranges. Then, an ultimate assessment of ({alpha},{gamma}), ({alpha},n), and ({alpha},p) reaction cross sections considered target nuclei from {sup 45}Sc to {sup 118}Sn and incident energies below {approx}12 MeV. The former diffuseness of the real part of optical potential as well as the surface imaginary potential depth have been found to be responsible for the actual difficulties in the description of these data, and modified in order to obtain an optical potential which describes equally well both the low-energy elastic scattering and induced reaction data for {alpha}-particles.

  15. Multiple photon Monte Carlo simulation for polarized Mo/ller scattering with Yennie-Fraustchi-Suura exponentiation at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadach, S.; Ward, B. F. L.

    1996-07-01

    We present the theoretical basis and sample Monte Carlo data for the YFS exponentiated O(α) calculation of polarized Mo/ller scattering at c.m.s. energies large compared to 2me. Both longitudinal and transverse polarizations are discussed. Possible applications to Mo/ller polarimetry at the SLD are thus illustrated.

  16. Time-dependent scattering of a composite particle: A local self-energy approach for internal excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasselli, Federico; Bertoni, Andrea; Goldoni, Guido

    2016-09-01

    When composite particles—such as small molecules, nuclei, or photogenerated excitons in semiconductors—are scattered by an external potential, energy may be transferred between the c.m. and the internal degrees of freedom. An accurate dynamical modeling of this effect is pivotal in predicting diverse scattering quantities and reaction cross sections, and allows us to rationalize time-resolved energy and localization spectra. Here, we show that time-dependent scattering of a quantum composite particle with an arbitrary, nonperturbative external potential can be obtained by propagating the c.m. degrees of freedom with a properly designed local self-energy potential. The latter embeds the effect of internal virtual transitions and can be obtained by the knowledge of the stationary internal states. The case is made by simulating Wannier-Mott excitons in one- and two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures. The self-energy approach shows very good agreement with numerically exact Schrödinger propagation for scattering potentials where a mean-field model cannot be applied, at a dramatically reduced computational cost.

  17. Inclusion of electron correlation for the target wave function in low- to intermediate-energy e-N2 scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherford, C. A.; Brown, F. B.; Temkin, A.

    1987-01-01

    In a recent calculation, an exact exchange method was developed for use in the partial-differential-equation approach to electron-molecule scattering and was applied to e-N2 scattering in the fixed-nuclei approximation with an adiabatic polarization potential at low energies (0-10 eV). Integrated elastic cross sections were calculated and found to be lower than experiment at energies both below and above the Pi(g) resonance. It was speculated at that time that improved experimental agreement could be obtained if a correlated target representation were used in place of the uncorrelated one. The present paper implements this suggestion and demonstrates the improved agreement. These calculations are also extended to higher energies (0-30 eV) so asd to include the Sigma(u) resonance. Some discrepancies among the experiments and between experiment and the various calculations at very low energy are noted.

  18. X-ray scatter correction for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: compensation of patient's lean/fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Darboux, Michel; Bordy, Thomas; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Gonon, Georges

    2004-05-01

    At CEA-LETI, a DEXA approach for systems using a digital 2D radiographic detector has been developed. It relies on an original X-rays scatter management method, based on a combined use of an analytical model and of scatter calibration data acquired through different thicknesses of Lucite slabs. Since Lucite X-rays interaction properties are equivalent to fat, the approach leads to a scatter flux map representative of a 100% fat region. However, patients" soft tissues are composed of lean and fat. Therefore, the obtained scatter map has to be refined in order to take into account the various fat ratios that can present patients. This refinement consists in establishing a formula relating the fat ratio to the thicknesses of Low and High Energy Lucite slabs leading to same signal level. This proportion is then used to compute, on the basis of X-rays/matter interaction equations, correction factors to apply to Lucite equivalent X-rays scatter map. Influence of fat ratio correction has been evaluated, on a digital 2D bone densitometer, with phantoms composed of a PVC step (simulating bone) and different Lucite/water thicknesses as well as on patients. The results show that our X-rays scatter determination approach can take into account variations of body composition.

  19. Electron-helium and electron-neon scattering cross sections at low electron energies using a photoelectron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Subramanian, K. P.; Krishnakumar, E.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute electron-helium and electron-neon scattering cross sections have been measured at low electron energies using the powerful technique of photoelectron spectroscopy. The measurements have been carried out at 17 electron energies varying from 0.7 to 10 eV with an accuracy of + or - 2.7 percent. The results obtained in the present work have been compared with other recent measurement and calculations.

  20. Inelastic scattering measurements of low energy x-ray photons by organics, soil, water, wood, and metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paki Amouzou, P.; Gertsenshteyn, M.; Jannson, T.; Shnitser, P.; Savant, G.

    2006-08-01

    The angular distribution of the inelastic scattering of photons at low energies (<=80 KeV) has been measured in organic material, soil, rocks, wood, steel sheet, and water. The measurements have been performed under air inside an X-ray shield cabinet using X-rays tube as a photon source and a thermoelectrically cooled CdTe detector. Measurements have been taken for both single and combined materials. The contributions of inelastic scattering of photons for the lower Z material in a given configuration have been extracted. The measured signal is primarily Compton scattering. The measured inelastic scattering contributions were compared with the calculated inelastic scattering cross sections according to the Klein-Nishina theory, updated to include a practical energy distribution of an X-ray tube beam. Relatively good agreement was found for all targets under investigation. The slight discrepancy is attributed to photoelectric effect and sample configuration. Present results may act as a guide for optimization of X-ray imaging sensors and in particular of those based on lobster eye X-ray optics suitable for cargo inspection, improvised explosives detection, non-destructive evaluation, and medical imaging.

  1. Analytic expressions for the inelastic scattering and energy loss of electron and proton beams in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Emfietzoglou, D.; Kyriakou, I.; Garcia-Molina, R.; Abril, I.; Kostarelos, K.

    2010-09-15

    We have determined ''effective'' Bethe coefficients and the mean excitation energy of stopping theory (I-value) for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles based on a sum-rule constrained optical-data model energy loss function with improved asymptotic properties. Noticeable differences between MWCNTs, SWCNT bundles, and the three allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, glassy carbon) are found. By means of Bethe's asymptotic approximation, the inelastic scattering cross section, the electronic stopping power, and the average energy transfer to target electrons in a single inelastic collision, are calculated analytically for a broad range of electron and proton beam energies using realistic excitation parameters.

  2. Observations of the scatter-free solar-flare electrons in the energy range 20-1000 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Fisk, L. A.; Lin, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Observations of the scatter-free electron events from solar active region McMath No. 8905 are presented. The measurements were made on Explorer 33 satellite. The data show that more than 80% of the electrons from these events undergo no or little scattering and that these electrons travel only approximately 1.5 a.u. between the sun and the earth. The duration of these events cannot be accounted fully by velocity dispersion alone. It is suggested that these electrons could be continuously injected into interplanetary medium for a time interval of approximately 2 to 3 minutes. Energy spectra of these electrons are discussed.

  3. Nonadiabatic, momentum-dependent, and energy-dependent corrections in the effective-potential description for low-energy scattering of spinless systems - Their relations and validity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    In the effective-potential description for low-energy scattering involving a spinless complex (a body with internal structure), the nonadiabatic corrections are sometimes disguised in momentum-dependent terms. These are distinct from energy-dependent corrections. A general procedure is given here by which all the momentum-dependent corrections can be converted into nonadiabatic corrections in truly local form. Circumstances under which an expansion of the effective potential, in terms of the adiabatic term plus nonadiabatic and energy-dependent corrections is allowed and forbidden, are discussed. An example for the latter is in the case of near degeneracy in the spectrum of the complex or in the extrapolation of the effective potential to short-distance behavior. This indicates that certain claims of 'saturation effect' at short distances in low-energy electron-atom scattering are invalid.

  4. Bond ionicity of alkaline-earth oxides studied by low-energy D+ scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Hayami, W.; Aizawa, T.; Ishizawa, Y.

    1994-08-01

    Low-energy D+ scattering is employed to explore the nature of the bonding of polycrystalline alkaline-earth oxides MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO, with particular emphasis on the investigation of the ionicity of the topmost-layer atoms. Increasing ionicity as one goes to the heavier cations is concluded from the probability of the resonance neutraliztion of the D+ ions, which is consistent with the conventional chemical arguments based on electronegativity scales but is in apparent contradiction to the results of recent ab initio cluster-model calculations. It is also concluded that the metallic Ba layer is formed rather patchily on the BaO surface after the heat treatment up to 1000 °C. This is probably because free Ba atoms, being supplied by the reaction of BaO with the Ta substrate, are precipitated at the BaO surface. Another example is concerned with the interactions of the Ba adatoms with Si(001) and Pt(111) surfaces; Ba is found to have marked covalency with the substrate atoms.

  5. Strain relaxation of CdTe on Ge studied by medium energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, J. C.; Pierre, F.; Jalabert, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have used the medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) technique to assess the strain relaxation in molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) grown CdTe (2 1 1)/Ge (2 1 1) system. A previous X-ray diffraction study, on 10 samples of the same heterostructure having thicknesses ranging from 25 nm to 10 μm has allowed the measurement of the strain relaxation on a large scale. However, the X-ray diffraction measurements cannot achieve a stress measurement in close proximity to the CdTe/Ge interface at the nanometer scale. Due to the huge lattice misfit between the CdTe and Ge, a high degree of disorder is expected at the interface. The MEIS in channeling mode is a good alternative in order to profile defects with a high depth resolution. For a 21 nm thick CdTe layer, we observed, at the interface, a high density of Cd and/or Te atoms moved from their expected crystallographic positions followed by a rapid recombination of defects. Strain relaxation mechanisms in the vicinity of the interface are discussed

  6. Low-energy positron scattering from DNA nucleobases: the effects from permanent dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Jan; Gianturco, Francesco Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Ab initio quantum calculations for low-energy positron scattering from gas-phase isolated molecular nucleobases which are part of the DNA structure are presented and discussed over the range of 1 eV to 25 eV. The calculations report the integral cross sections (ICSs) and the momentum-transfer cross sections (MTCSs) for Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine. The calculations show very clearly the important role of the dominant long-range interaction between the positron projectile and the permanent dipole-moments of the target molecules in deciding the relative sizes of the ICSs and MTCSs for the present series of molecules. Such results confirm the largely repulsive interaction between positron and DNA bases, which is nevertheless producing very large cross sections and marked deflection functions from the latter molecules. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Nano-scale Insights into Ion-beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey V. Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Paulo Limão-Vieira and Malgorzata Smialek-Telega.

  7. Geometries and focal properties of two electron-lens systems useful in low-energy electron or ion scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1979-01-01

    Geometries and focal properties are given for two types of electron-lens system commonly needed in electron scattering. One is an electron gun that focuses electrons from a thermionic emitter onto a fixed point (target) over a wide range of final energies. The other is an electron analyzer system that focuses scattered electrons of variable energy onto a fixed position (e.g., the entrance plane of an analyzer) at fixed energy with a zero final beam angle. Analyzer-system focusing properties are given for superelastically, elastically, and inelastically scattered electrons. Computer calculations incorporating recent accurate tube-lens focal properties are used to compute lens voltages, locations and diameters of all pupils and windows, filling factors, and asymptotic rays throughout each lens system. Focus voltages as a function of electron energy and energy change are given, and limits of operation of each system discussed. Both lens systems have been in routine use for several years, and good agreement has been consistently found between calculated and operating lens voltages.

  8. Energy-dispersive small-angle X-ray scattering with cone collimation using X-ray capillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2016-09-01

    Energy-dispersive small-angle X-ray scattering (ED-SAXS) with an innovative design of cone collimation based on an ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) had been explored. Using this new cone collimation system, scattering angle 2θ has a theoretical minimum angle related to the mean half-opening angle of the hollow cone beam of 1.42 mrad, and with the usable X-ray energy ranging from 4 to 30 keV, the resulting observable scattering vector q is down to a minimum value of about 0.003 Å-1 (or a Bragg spacing of about 2100 Å). However, the absorption of lower energies by X-ray capillary optics, sample transmission, and detector response function limits the application range to lower energy. Cone collimation ED-SAXS experiments carried out on pure water, Lupolen, and in situ temperature-dependent measurement of diacetylenic acid/melamine micelle solid were presented at three different scattering angles 2θ of 0.18°, 0.70° and 1.18° to illustrate the new opportunities offered by this technique as well as its limitations. Also, a comparison has been made by replacing the PPXRL with a pinhole, and the result shows that cone collimation ED-SAXS based on ESBC with PPXRL was helpful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio (i.e., reducing the parasitic background scattering) than ESBC with a pinhole. The cone collimation instrument based on X-ray capillary optics could be considered as a promising tool to perform SAXS experiments, especially cone collimation ED-SAXS has potential application for the in situ temperature-dependent studying on the kinetics of phase transitions.

  9. Global scale observation of scattered energy near the ICB: seismic constraints on the base of the outer-core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPdf phase arrivals in the distance range 149-178 degrees. Within this collection, we have identified in more than a thousand records an energy packet that arrives 5-20 seconds after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a coda that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. The origin of this scattered energy is unclear and may provide valuable information about structure in the core. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of theses scatterers and try and locate them.Our results show that the scattered energy originates along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameter. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, in particular the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for these scatterers, we show that their origin is most likely in the vicinity of the inner-core boundary. We refer to this scattered energy the "M" phase.To assess our interpretation, we model synthetic seismograms and explore models of structures at the base of the outer-core and search for models that predict the relative travel times and amplitudes of the M to PKPdf without destroying the fit to PKPbc. We show that a ~300km thick layer with a larger gradient than in AK135 over a ~50km lower velocity layer above the ICB provides a good fit to the differential travel times. We also consider the possibility that lateral variations in the thickness or velocity of this layer and ICB topography could produce a M phase.

  10. The Intermediate Energy Elastic Scattering of Protons by α-CLUSTER 20Ne and 24Mg Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Mikhailyuk, V. P.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    The multiple diffraction scattering theory and the α-cluster model with dispersion have been applied for calculations of the observables for the elastic scattering of intermediate energy protons by 20Ne and 24Mg nuclei. The target nuclei are considered as composed of the core (16O nucleus) and additional α-clusters (one α-cluster for 20Ne nucleus and a dumb-bell α-cluster configuration for 24Mg nucleus). Taking into account the α-cluster configuration of the core, it was supposed that the additional α-cluster or center of mass of the dumb-bell are arranged with the most probability inside or outside of the core. The calculated observables for the elastic p-20Ne and p-24Mg scattering are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The influence of the deformed core contribution on the behavior of the calculated observables also is tested.

  11. Elastic scattering of low energy pions by nuclei and the in-medium isovector πN amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Bauer, M.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Denz, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Erhardt, A.; Hofman, G. J.; Kritchman, S.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Yaari, G.

    2005-09-01

    Measurements of elastic scattering of 21.5 MeV π± by Si, Ca, Ni, and Zr were made by using a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. Absolute calibration was made by parallel measurements of Coulomb scattering of muons. Parameters of a pion-nucleus optical potential were obtained from fits to all eight angular distributions put together. The anomalous s-wave repulsion known from pionic atoms is clearly observed and could be removed by introducing a chiral-motivated density dependence of the isovector scattering amplitude, which also greatly improved the fits to the data. The empirical energy dependence of the isoscalar amplitude also improves the fits to the data but, contrary to what is found with pionic atoms, on its own is incapable of removing the anomaly.

  12. The influence of triple energy window scatter correction on activity quantification for 1 7 7Lu molecular radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew P.; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M.; Hamilton, David

    2016-07-01

    Accurate activity quantification is the foundation for all methods of radiation dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy (MRT). The requirements for patient-specific dosimetry using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are challenging, particularly with respect to scatter correction. In this paper data from phantom studies, combined with results from a fully validated Monte Carlo (MC) SPECT camera simulation, are used to investigate the influence of the triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction on SPECT activity quantification for {{}1 7 7} Lu MRT. Results from phantom data show that; (1) activity quantification for the total counts in the SPECT field-of-view demonstrates a significant overestimation in total activity recovery when TEW scatter correction is applied at low activities (≤slant 200 MBq). (2) Applying the TEW scatter correction to activity quantification within a volume-of-interest with no background activity provides minimal benefit. (3) In the case of activity distributions with background activity, an overestimation of recovered activity of up to 30% is observed when using the TEW scatter correction. Data from MC simulation were used to perform a full analysis of the composition of events in a clinically reconstructed volume of interest. This allowed, for the first time, the separation of the relative contributions of partial volume effects (PVE) and inaccuracies in TEW scatter compensation to the observed overestimation of activity recovery. It is shown, that even with perfect partial volume compensation, TEW scatter correction can overestimate activity recovery by up to 11%. MC data is used to demonstrate that even a localized and optimized isotope-specific TEW correction cannot reflect a patient specific activity distribution without prior knowledge of the complete activity distribution. This highlights the important role of MC simulation in SPECT activity quantification.

  13. Energy-based scatter correction for 3-D PET scanners using NaI(T1) detectors.

    PubMed

    Adam, L E; Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    2000-05-01

    Earlier investigations with BGO positron emission tomography (PET) scanners showed that the scatter correction technique based on multiple acquisitions with different energy windows are problematic to implement because of the poor energy resolution of BGO (22%), particularly for whole-body studies. We believe that these methods are likely to work better with NaI(TI) because of the better energy resolution achievable with NaI(TI) detectors (10%). Therefore, we investigate two different choices for the energy window, a low-energy window (LEW) on the Compton spectrum at 400-450 keV, and a high-energy window (HEW) within the photopeak (lower threshold above 511 keV). The results obtained for our three-dimensional (3-D) (septa-less) whole-body scanners [axial field of view (FOV) of 12.8 cm and 25.6 cm] as well as for our 3-D brain scanner (axial FOV of 25.6 cm) show an accurate prediction of the scatter distribution for the estimation of trues method (ETM) using a HEW, leading to a significant reduction of the scatter contamination. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique using a LEW is shown to be intrinsically wrong; in particular, it fails for line source and bar phantom measurements. However, the method is able to produce good results for homogeneous activity distributions. Both methods are easy to implement, are fast, have a low noise propagation, and will be applicable to other PET scanners with good energy resolution and stability, such as hybrid NaI(TI) PET/SPECT dual-head cameras and future PET cameras with GSO or LSO scintillators.

  14. Inverse scattering at fixed energy for massive charged Dirac fields in de Sitter-Reissner-Nordström black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Damien

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we consider massive charged Dirac fields propagating in the exterior region of de Sitter-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We show that the parameters of such black holes are uniquely determined by the partial knowledge of the corresponding scattering operator S(λ ) at a fixed energy λ. More precisely, we consider the partial wave scattering operators S(λ ,n) (here λ \\in {R} is the energy and n\\in {{{N}}\\star } denotes the angular momentum) defined as the restrictions of the full scattering operator on a well-chosen basis of spin-weighted spherical harmonics. We prove that the knowledge of the scattering operators S(λ ,n), for all n\\in L, where L is a subset of {{{N}}\\star } that satisfies the Müntz condition {{\\sum }n\\in L}\\frac{1}{n} = +∞ , makes it possible to recover the mass, the charge, and the cosmological constant of a de Sitter-Reissner-Nordström black hole. The main tool consists in the complexification of the angular momentum n and in studying the analytic properties of the ‘unphysical’ corresponding data in the complex variable z.

  15. Intramolecular segregation in polymers and macromolecules studied by low-energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijme, M. A.; Maas, A. J. H.; Viitanen, M. M.; Denier van der Gon, A. W.; Brongersma, H. H.; Bosman, A. W.; Meijer, E. W.

    2001-06-01

    The intramolecular segregation in several generations of poly(propylene imine) dendrimers and oxygen plasma modified HDPE was studied with low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although the different generations of poly(propylene imine) dendrimers contain almost the same atomic carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, it is shown that this ratio at the outermost surface depends strongly on the generation of the dendrimer. The conformation of a dendrimer is probably related to the flexibility of the bis(3-aminopropyl)amine endgroups, which becomes lower for higher generations. Furthermore, the formation of a metallodendrimer, by complexation of CuCl 2 with the amine endgroups of a fourth generation dendrimer (D4), was followed with LEIS. Compared to pure CuCl 2, a relatively high copper concentration and a high atomic copper to chlorine ratio was found at the surface of the metallodendrimer. The high copper concentration and the reduced sterical hindrance by chlorine demonstrate the high potential of the metallodendrimers as catalytic material. The hydrophobic surface of HDPE can be made hydrophilic by treating it in an oxygen plasma. During such a treatment, oxygen containing functional groups are introduced at the surface, which improves wetting and thus adhesion. Unfortunately, the effect of an oxygen treatment is only temporary, an effect referred to as ageing or hydrophobic recovery. LEIS has been used to study this ageing process. We were able to follow the surface oxygen concentration as a function of the time between the plasma treatment and the LEIS analysis. Combined information obtained from LEIS and XPS measurements indicates that the ageing is mainly confined to the outermost atomic layers. Moreover, the ageing process depends strongly on the exact experimental conditions.

  16. Relationships between human cataracts and environmental radiant energy. Cataract formation, light scattering and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zigman, S; Sutliff, G; Rounds, M

    1991-01-01

    This preliminary report has two parts. The first is based upon data obtained from a group of cataract patients in southern Florida (USA) with the object of relating the types of cataracts removed to their personal background and their protein biochemistry. Intra-capsular cataract surgery patients at the Venice Eye Clinic (Florida) were interviewed, and their extracted lenses were classified. The parameters were: age, place of residency, occupation, medical and family history and indoor/outdoor activity. Subcapsular cataracts were found mainly in the youngest patients and in those who were in Florida the least. Mixed cataracts predominated in the oldest patients, while non-nuclear cataracts were associated most with outdoor activity. Water-insoluble protein was elevated in nuclei of lenses with nuclear opacities. Soluble proteins in the nuclei of nuclear cataracts had increased levels of voided (heavy) protein, beta-crystallins, and less than 20 Kd peptides. The above changes were enhanced in brunescent cataracts. In lenses with cortical opacities, only increased size heterogeneity in the beta-crystallin region was observed. The second part of this report is based upon direct measurements of the optical properties of freshly extracted intra-capsular cataracts obtained in Rochester, New York (USA). The purpose was to attempt to learn the relative contributions that absorption, scattering, and fluorescence make toward obscuring vision. A general conclusion is that the shorter wavelengths of radiant energy in environmental lighting influence the above-stated optical properties the most, and thus appear to be the major contributors to obscured vision.

  17. Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications.

    PubMed

    Fofang, N T; Luk, T S; Okandan, M; Nielson, G N; Brener, I

    2013-02-25

    Enhanced light trapping is an attractive technique for improving the efficiency of thin film silicon solar cells. In this paper, we use FDTD simulations to study the scattering properties of silicon nanostructures on a silicon substrate and their application as enhanced light trappers. We find that the scattered spectrum and angular scattering distribution strongly depend on the excitation direction, that is, from air to substrate or from substrate to air. At the dipole resonance wavelength the scattering angles tend to be very narrow compared to those of silicon nanostructures in the absence of a substrate. Based on these properties, we propose a new thin film silicon solar cell design incorporating silicon nanostructures on both the front and back surfaces for enhanced light trapping.

  18. Vibrational excitation in low-energy electron scattering by H 2 molecules physisorbed on a metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teillet-Billy, D.; Stibbe, D. T.; Tennyson, J.; Gauyacq, J. P.

    1999-12-01

    The electron impact vibrational excitation of H 2 molecules physisorbed on a free-electron metal surface is studied theoretically at collision energies of a few eV. The role of the short-lived low-lying 2Σ u resonance is investigated. The electron scattering by a free H 2 molecule is described by the R-matrix method and the corresponding results are used to model the electron scattering by the physisorbed molecule with the coupled angular mode (CAM) method. The strength of the vibrational excitation and, in particular, the overtone vibrational excitation ratio are found to be smaller for the physisorbed molecule than for the free molecule. However, the energy dependence of the vibrational excitation process is found to be weakly influenced by the physisorption, as observed experimentally by Demuth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 47 (1981) 1166].

  19. Low-energy electron scattering by N2 molecules physisorbed on Ag: Study of the resonant vibrational excitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djamo, V.; Teillet-Billy, D.; Gauyacq, J. P.

    1995-02-01

    Molecules adsorbed on a metal surface can be excited by low-energy electron impact. Resonant processes in which an intermediate negative ion is formed during the collision are very efficient. The resonant vibrational excitation of N2 molecules physisorbed on Ag by low-energy electrons is studied theoretically with the coupled-angular-mode method. The influence of the neighboring surface on the excitation process (including the excitation of overtones) is analyzed. The results are compared with the experimental results of Demuth, Schmeisser, and Avouris. It is found that in a scattering experiment, most of the vibrational excitation concerns electrons that are inelastically scattered into the metal and are thus not observed experimentally.

  20. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-09

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  1. Possibilities of studying the structure of halo nuclei in reactions of quasifree proton scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Zuyev, S. V. Kasparov, A. A.; Konobeevski, E. S.

    2015-07-15

    The possibility of experimentally studying the structure of halo nuclei in reactions induced by quasifree proton scattering on clusters of these nuclei is considered. Quasifree proton scattering on {sup 6}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 4}n, {sup 2}n, and n clusters in inverse kinematics is considered for the example of the {sup 8}He nucleus. Angular and energy distributions of secondaries are obtained for various representations of the cluster structure of the {sup 8}He nucleus. It is clearly shown that, in the angular and energy distributions of secondaries, one can single out regions that receive dominant contributions from reactions on specific clusters and which correspond to concrete cluster configurations of halo nuclei. Possible relevant experiments are proposed.

  2. Phonon self-energy and origin of anomalous neutron scattering spectra in SnTe and PbTe thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chen; Ma, Jie; May, Andrew F; Cao, Huibo; Christianson, Andrew D; Ehlers, Georg; Singh, David J; Sales, Brian C; Delaire, Olivier A

    2014-01-01

    The anharmonic lattice dynamics of rock-salt thermoelectric compounds SnTe and PbTe are investigated with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations. The experiments show that, surprisingly, although SnTe is closer to the ferroelectric instability, phonon spectra in PbTe exhibit a more anharmonic character. This behavior is reproduced in first-principles calculations of the temperature-dependent phonon self-energy. Our simulations reveal how the nesting of phonon dispersions induces prominent features in the self-energy, which account for the measured INS spectra and their temperature dependence. We establish that the phase-space for three-phonon scattering processes, rather than just the proximity to the lattice instability, is the mechanism determining the complex spectrum of the transverse-optical ferroelectric mode.

  3. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-01-01

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices. PMID:25829547

  4. Determination of 16O and 18O sensitivity factors and charge-exchange processes in low-energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Téllez, H.; Chater, R. J.; Fearn, S.; Symianakis, E.; Brongersma, H. H.; Kilner, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    Quantitative analysis in low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) requires an understanding of the charge-exchange processes to estimate the elemental sensitivity factors. In this work, the neutralization of He+ scattered by 18O-exchanged silica at energies between 0.6 and 7 keV was studied. The process is dominated by Auger neutralization for Ei < 0.8 keV. An additional mechanism starts above the reionization threshold. This collision-induced neutralization becomes the dominant mechanism for Ei > 2 keV. The ion fractions P+ were determined for Si and O using the characteristic velocity method to quantify the surface density. The 18O/16O sensitivity ratio indicates an 18% higher sensitivity for the heavier O isotope.

  5. Phonon self-energy and origin of anomalous neutron scattering spectra in SnTe and PbTe thermoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Li, C W; Hellman, O; Ma, J; May, A F; Cao, H B; Chen, X; Christianson, A D; Ehlers, G; Singh, D J; Sales, B C; Delaire, O

    2014-05-02

    The anharmonic lattice dynamics of rock-salt thermoelectric compounds SnTe and PbTe are investigated with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and first-principles calculations. The experiments show that, surprisingly, although SnTe is closer to the ferroelectric instability, phonon spectra in PbTe exhibit a more anharmonic character. This behavior is reproduced in first-principles calculations of the temperature-dependent phonon self-energy. Our simulations reveal how the nesting of phonon dispersions induces prominent features in the self-energy, which account for the measured INS spectra and their temperature dependence. We establish that the phase space for three-phonon scattering processes, combined with the proximity to the lattice instability, is the mechanism determining the complex spectrum of the transverse-optic ferroelectric mode.

  6. Multiple photon Monte Carlo simulation for polarized Mo/ller scattering with Yennie-Fraustchi-Suura exponentiation at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jadach, S. |; Ward, B.F. |

    1996-07-01

    We present the theoretical basis and sample Monte Carlo data for the YFS exponentiated {ital O}({alpha}) calculation of polarized Mo/ller scattering at c.m.s. energies large compared to 2{ital m}{sub {ital e}}. Both longitudinal and transverse polarizations are discussed. Possible applications to Mo/ller polarimetry at the SLD are thus illustrated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Very low-energy nucleon-16O coupled-channel scattering: Results with a phenomenological vibrational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Amos, K.; Fraser, P. R.; Karataglidis, S.; Pisent, G.; van der Knijff, D.

    2017-03-01

    We employ a collective vibration coupled-channel model to describe the nucleon-16O cluster systems, obtaining low-excitation spectra for 17O and 17F. Bound and resonance states of the compound systems have been deduced, showing good agreement with experimental spectra. Low-energy scattering cross sections of neutrons and protons from 16O also have been calculated and the results compare well with available experimental data.

  8. Neutrino and antineutrino CCQE scattering in the SuperScaling Approximation from MiniBooNE to NOMAD energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megias, G. D.; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2013-08-01

    We compare the predictions of the SuperScaling model for charged-current quasielastic muonic neutrino and antineutrino scattering from 12C with experimental data spanning an energy range up to 100 GeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the results to different parametrizations of the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors. Finally, we show the differences between electron and muon (anti)neutrino cross sections relevant for the νSTORM facility.

  9. Measurement of energy spectra of small-angle scattering and distribution of optical microinhomogeneities in laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tverdokhleb, P E; Shepetkin, Yu A; Steinberg, I Sh; Belikov, A Yu; Vatnik, S M; Vedin, I A; Kurbatov, P F

    2014-06-30

    The energy spectra of small-angle light scattering from the samples of Nd:YAG ceramics and the spatial distributions of optical microinhomogeneities in them are measured. The spatial profiles of microinhomogeneities are found using the collinear heterodyne microprobe technique. Based on the obtained data, the comparison of noise and lasing characteristics of foreign and domestic samples of laser ceramics is carried out. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  10. Distribution of Linearly Polarized Gluons and Elliptic Azimuthal Anisotropy in Deep Inelastic Scattering Dijet Production at High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Adrian; Lappi, Tuomas; Skokov, Vladimir

    2015-12-17

    In this study, we determine the distribution of linearly polarized gluons of a dense target at small x by solving the Balitsky–Jalilian-Marian–Iancu–McLerran–Weigert–Leonidov–Kovner rapidity evolution equations. From these solutions, we estimate the amplitude of cos2Φ azimuthal asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering dijet production at high energies. We find sizable long-range in rapidity azimuthal asymmetries with a magnitude in the range of v2=~10%.

  11. Distribution of Linearly Polarized Gluons and Elliptic Azimuthal Anisotropy in Deep Inelastic Scattering Dijet Production at High Energy

    DOE PAGES

    Dumitru, Adrian; Lappi, Tuomas; Skokov, Vladimir

    2015-12-17

    In this study, we determine the distribution of linearly polarized gluons of a dense target at small x by solving the Balitsky–Jalilian-Marian–Iancu–McLerran–Weigert–Leonidov–Kovner rapidity evolution equations. From these solutions, we estimate the amplitude of cos2Φ azimuthal asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering dijet production at high energies. We find sizable long-range in rapidity azimuthal asymmetries with a magnitude in the range of v2=~10%.

  12. The New Methodology and Chemical Contrast Observation by Use of the Energy-Selective Back-Scattered Electron Detector.

    PubMed

    Drab, Marek; Krajniak, Janusz; Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P

    2016-12-01

    We report on a robust method for chemical element-sensitive imaging by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The commercial Auriga FE-SEM microscope (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany), equipped with an energy-selective grid detector (EsB) as a part of the experimental setup, was applied for generation of chemical contrast at low accelerating voltages, which is gentle for sensitive samples. The EsB-grid detector, conceptually adapted by us as an energy retarding field analyzer (RFA), was used to detect the two-dimensional (2D) energy spectrum for the first time. The electron energy spectrum measured by sweeping the retarding grid potential revealed thresholds corresponding to electronic transitions in the specimen, followed by 2D-derivation treatment applied just at the observed thresholds. This allowed chemical mapping by SEM. In this report the 273 eV Auger transition in carbon deposited onto the Si(100) sample was chosen as a source for chemical contrast in the SEM image. In addition to Auger electrons, we expect analogous energy-selective contrast enhancement for inelastically scattered electrons, for example, in plasmonic contrast and elastically scattered electrons, for example in phase contrast, our method, proved for carbon, is expected to apply to a broader list of elements as a general capability of chemical mapping, at several-fold better lateral resolution when compared with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).

  13. Measurement of the High Energy Neutrino-Nucleon Cross Section with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiqian; Kiryluk, Joanna; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    IceCube is a 1km3 neutrino detector located at the South Pole. It detects all-sky neutrinos of all flavors. IceCube has measured atmospheric muon and electron neutrino fluxes, and has recently discovered a flux of high energy extraterrestrial diffuse neutrinos. We present a novel analysis method and performance studies to determine the neutrino-nucleon cross section at high energies. It uses atmospheric and extraterrestrial neutrino-induced electromagnetic and hadronic showers (cascades) in the TeV-PeV energy range. In this method, uncertainties associated with the flux are canceled by using the ratio of yields from the Southern and Northern hemispheres in the Sky. At the energies in this study, the yields are sensitive to the deep-inelastic scattering cross-section and nucleon structure in a region of kinematic overlap with HERA and with the LHC. Their actual measurement forms a valuable proof-of-concept towards future measurements in the Extremely-High-Energy regime, which will provide sensitivity to new physics with unique neutrino probes. We have performed and will present an initial sensitivity study for determining the cross section from 5 years of data with the complete IceCube detector, as well as for the proposed IceCube-Gen2 high-energy extension. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1205796.

  14. Optimization of energy window and evaluation of scatter compensation methods in MPS using the ideal observer with model mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used the ideal observer (IO) and IO with model mismatch (IO-MM) applied in the projection domain and an anthropomorphic Channelized Hotelling Observer (CHO) applied to reconstructed images to optimize the acquisition energy window width and evaluate various scatter compensation methods in the context of a myocardial perfusion SPECT defect detection task. The IO has perfect knowledge of the image formation process and thus reflects performance with perfect compensation for image-degrading factors. Thus, using the IO to optimize imaging systems could lead to suboptimal parameters compared to those optimized for humans interpreting SPECT images reconstructed with imperfect or no compensation. The IO-MM allows incorporating imperfect system models into the IO optimization process. We found that with near-perfect scatter compensation, the optimal energy window for the IO and CHO were similar; in its absence the IO-MM gave a better prediction of the optimal energy window for the CHO using different scatter compensation methods. These data suggest that the IO-MM may be useful for projection-domain optimization when model mismatch is significant, and that the IO is useful when followed by reconstruction with good models of the image formation process.

  15. Validity of the relativistic impulse approximation for elastic proton-nucleus scattering at energies lower than 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Hillhouse, G. C.; Meng, J.

    2008-07-15

    We present the first study to examine the validity of the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) for describing elastic proton-nucleus scattering at incident laboratory kinetic energies lower than 200 MeV. For simplicity we choose a {sup 208}Pb target, which is a spin-saturated spherical nucleus for which reliable nuclear structure models exist. Microscopic scalar and vector optical potentials are generated by folding invariant scalar and vector scattering nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitudes, based on our recently developed relativistic meson-exchange model, with Lorentz scalar and vector densities resulting from the accurately calibrated PK1 relativistic mean field model of nuclear structure. It is seen that phenomenological Pauli blocking (PB) effects and density-dependent corrections to {sigma}N and {omega}N meson-nucleon coupling constants modify the RIA microscopic scalar and vector optical potentials so as to provide a consistent and quantitative description of all elastic scattering observables, namely, total reaction cross sections, differential cross sections, analyzing powers and spin rotation functions. In particular, the effect of PB becomes more significant at energies lower than 200 MeV, whereas phenomenological density-dependent corrections to the NN interaction also play an increasingly important role at energies lower than 100 MeV.

  16. Electron density of Rhizophora spp. wood using Compton scattering technique at 15.77, 17.48 and 22.16 keV XRF energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhreet, B. Z.; Bauk, S.; Shukri, A.

    2015-02-01

    Compton (incoherently) scattered photons which are directly proportional to the electron density of the scatterer, have been employed in characterizing Rhizophora spp. as breast tissue equivalent. X-ray fluorescent scattered incoherently from Rhizophora spp. sample was measured using Si-PIN detector and three XRF energy values 15.77, 17.48 and 22.16 keV. This study is aimed at providing electron density information in support of the introduction of new tissue substitute materials for mammography phantoms.

  17. Detailed study and mean field interpretation of {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C elastic scattering at seven medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.; Morsad, A.; Satchler, G. R.; Brandan, M. E.

    2000-03-01

    Detailed measurements of the elastic scattering of {sup 16}O ions from {sup 12}C have been carried out at seven energies from 62 to 124 MeV, at center-of-mass angles from about 10 degree sign to about 145 degree sign . A coherent optical model analysis of these data has been performed using both the Woods-Saxon and the folding-model potentials. The extracted results are consistent with analyses of data at higher energies for this and similar light heavy-ion systems. Some model-independent spline forms for the real potentials were also investigated. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Experimental testing of ab initio potential energy surfaces: Stereodynamics of NO(A2Σ+) + Ne inelastic scattering at multiple collision energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxford, Thomas F. M.; Sharples, Thomas R.; McKendrick, Kenneth G.; Costen, Matthew L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a crossed molecular beam velocity-map ion imaging study of state-to-state rotational energy transfer of NO(A2Σ+, v = 0, N = 0, j = 0.5) in collisions with Ne atoms. From these measurements, we report differential cross sections and angle-resolved rotational angular momentum alignment moments for product states N' = 3 and 5-10 for collisions at an average energy of 523 cm-1, and N' = 3 and 5-14 for collisions at an average energy of 1309 cm-1, respectively. The experimental results are compared to the results of close-coupled quantum scattering calculations on two literature ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) [Pajón-Suárez et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 429, 389 (2006) and Cybulski and Fernández, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 7319 (2012)]. The differential cross sections from both experiment and theory show clear rotational rainbow structures at both collision energies, and comparison of the angles observed for the rainbow peaks leads to the conclusion that Cybulski and Fernández PES better represents the NO(A2Σ+)-Ne interaction at the collision energies used here. Sharp, forward scattered (<10°), peaks are observed in the experimental differential cross sections for a wide range of N' at both collision energies, which are not reproduced by theory on either PES. We identify these as L-type rainbows, characteristic of attractive interactions, and consistent with a shallow well in the collinear Ne-N-O geometry, similar to that calculated for the NO(A2Σ+)-Ar surface [Kłos et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244303 (2008)], but absent from both of the NO(A2Σ+)-Ne surfaces tested here. The angle-resolved alignment moments calculated by quantum scattering theory are generally in good agreement with the experimental results, but both experiment and quantum scattering theories are dramatically different to the predictions of a classical rigid-shell, kinematic-apse conservation model. Strong oscillations are resolved in the experimental alignment moments as a

  19. Experimental testing of ab initio potential energy surfaces: Stereodynamics of NO(A(2)Σ(+)) + Ne inelastic scattering at multiple collision energies.

    PubMed

    Luxford, Thomas F M; Sharples, Thomas R; McKendrick, Kenneth G; Costen, Matthew L

    2016-11-07

    We present a crossed molecular beam velocity-map ion imaging study of state-to-state rotational energy transfer of NO(A(2)Σ(+), v = 0, N = 0, j = 0.5) in collisions with Ne atoms. From these measurements, we report differential cross sections and angle-resolved rotational angular momentum alignment moments for product states N' = 3 and 5-10 for collisions at an average energy of 523 cm(-1), and N' = 3 and 5-14 for collisions at an average energy of 1309 cm(-1), respectively. The experimental results are compared to the results of close-coupled quantum scattering calculations on two literature ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) [Pajón-Suárez et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 429, 389 (2006) and Cybulski and Fernández, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 7319 (2012)]. The differential cross sections from both experiment and theory show clear rotational rainbow structures at both collision energies, and comparison of the angles observed for the rainbow peaks leads to the conclusion that Cybulski and Fernández PES better represents the NO(A(2)Σ(+))-Ne interaction at the collision energies used here. Sharp, forward scattered (<10°), peaks are observed in the experimental differential cross sections for a wide range of N' at both collision energies, which are not reproduced by theory on either PES. We identify these as L-type rainbows, characteristic of attractive interactions, and consistent with a shallow well in the collinear Ne-N-O geometry, similar to that calculated for the NO(A(2)Σ(+))-Ar surface [Kłos et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244303 (2008)], but absent from both of the NO(A(2)Σ(+))-Ne surfaces tested here. The angle-resolved alignment moments calculated by quantum scattering theory are generally in good agreement with the experimental results, but both experiment and quantum scattering theories are dramatically different to the predictions of a classical rigid-shell, kinematic-apse conservation model. Strong oscillations are resolved in the experimental alignment

  20. The spectral energy distribution of the scattered light from dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattila, Kalevi; Schnur, G. F. O.

    1989-01-01

    A dark cloud is exposed to the ambient radiation field of integrated starlight in the Galaxy. Scattering of starlight by the dust particles gives rise to a diffuse surface brightness of the dark nebula. The intensity and the spectrum of this diffuse radiation can be used to investigate, e.g., the scattering parameters of the dust, the optical thickness of the cloud, and as a probe of the ambient radiation field at the location of the cloud. An understanding of the scattering process is also a prerequisite for the isolation of broad spectral features due to fluorescence or to any other non-scattering origin of the diffuse light. Model calculations are presented for multiple scattering in a spherical cloud. These calculations show that the different spectral shapes of the observed diffuse light can be reproduced with standard dust parameters. The possibility to use the observed spectrum as a diagnostic tool for analyzing the thickness of the cloud and the dust particle is discussed.

  1. Theoretical Studies of Energy and Momentum Exchange in Atomic and Molecular Scattering from Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Manson

    2005-06-30

    The contributions that we have made during the grant period of DE-FG02-98ER45704 can be placed into six different categories: (1) advances in the Theory of Molecule-Surface Scattering, (2) advances in the Theory of Atom-Surface Scattering, (3) utilization of scattering theory to Extract Physical Information about Surfaces, (4) Gas-Surface Interactions, (5) Ion Scattering from surfaces and (6) Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). These six topics are discussed below as individual listings under the title 'IV. Detailed description of research accomplishments'. These advances show that we have made significant progress on several scientific problems in atomic and molecular surface scattering during the course of this grant as well as contributions to other areas. It is also noted that this work, although fundamentally theoretical, is marked by its strong motivation to explain current experimental measurements. This was an important secondary goal in the proposed work. We have developed theory that is useful to experimentalists in the explanation and analysis of their experimental data.

  2. SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; Feldman, G.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.

    2010-10-15

    We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.

  3. Using EFT to analyze low-energy Compton scattering from protons and light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel R.; McGovern, Judith; Grießhammer, Harald W.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the application of an effective field theory (EFT) which incorporates the chiral symmetry of QCD to Compton scattering from the proton and deuteron. We describe the chiral EFT analysis of the γp scattering database presented in our recent review [1], which gives: αE1(p) = 10.5±0.5(stat)±0.8(theory), βM1(p) = 2.7±0.5(stat)±0.8(theory), for the electric and magnetic dipole polarizability of the proton.We also summarize Ref. [1]'s chiral EFT analysis of the world data on coherent Compton scattering from deuterium, which yields: αE1(s) = 10.5±2.0(stat)±0.8(theory), βM1(s) = 3.6±1.0(stat)±0.8(theory).

  4. Effective atomic numbers of blue topaz at different gamma-rays energies obtained from Compton scattering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Tuschareon, S. Limkitjaroenporn, P. Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-03-24

    Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuation coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.

  5. Effective atomic numbers of blue topaz at different gamma-rays energies obtained from Compton scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuschareon, S.; Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-03-01

    Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuation coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.

  6. Interaction model for electron scattering from ethylene in the energy range 1-10 000 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, M. C.; Sanz, A. G.; Muñoz, A.; Do, T. P. D.; Nixon, K.; Brunger, M. J.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; García, G.

    2013-02-01

    We present new experimental electron energy loss distribution functions for ethylene (C2H4) measured with two different apparatus (Liège and Madrid) in different incident electron energy ranges. Theoretical cross sections for electron scattering from C2H4 were calculated using the screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) method. Through a critical comparison of our new data and existing results from other groups, we obtain a self-consistent set of recommended interaction cross section values and energy loss spectra. Finally, electron tracks in C2H4 are simulated with our Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) in order to demonstrate the efficacy of our recommended data.

  7. Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gehring, P. M.; Stock, C.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Winn, Barry L.; Gu, Genda; Shapiro, Stephen M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Ushiyama, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.; Xu, Guangyong

    2015-02-10

    In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010], and TA2 along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in this multiferroic material are coupled.

  8. Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO3

    DOE PAGES

    Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; ...

    2015-02-10

    In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010], and TA2 along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in thismore » multiferroic material are coupled.« less

  9. The GEANT low energy Compton scattering (GLECS) package for use in simulating advanced Compton telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippen, R. Marc

    2004-02-01

    Compton γ-ray imaging is inherently based on the assumption of γ-rays scattering with free electrons. In reality, the non-zero momentum of target electrons bound in atoms blurs this ideal scattering response in a process known as Doppler broadening. The design and understanding of advanced Compton telescopes, thus, depends critically on the ability to accurately account for Doppler broadening effects. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo package that simulates detailed Doppler broadening has been developed for use with the powerful, general-purpose GEANT3 and GEANT4 radiation transport codes. This paper describes the design of this package, and illustrates results of comparison with selected experimental data.

  10. High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT

    SciTech Connect

    Macrander, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals.

  11. Analytical on-shell calculation of low energy higher order scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Barry R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that the use of analytical on-shell methods involving calculation of the discontinuity across the t-channel cut associated with the exchange of a pair of massless particles (photons or gravitons) can be used to evaluate one-loop contributions to electromagnetic and gravitational scattering, with and without polarizability, reproducing via simple algebraic manipulations, results obtained previously, generally using Feynman diagram techniques. In the gravitational case the use of factorization permits a straightforward and algebraic calculation of higher order scattering without consideration of ghost contributions or of triple-graviton couplings, which made previous evaluations considerably more arduous.

  12. Mapping the energy density of shaped waves in scattering media onto a complete set of diffusion modes.

    PubMed

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Mosk, Allard P; Vellekoop, Ivo M; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L

    2016-08-08

    We study the energy density of shaped waves inside a quasi-1D disordered waveguide. We find that the spatial energy density of optimally shaped waves, when expanded in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation, is well described by considering only a few of the lowest eigenfunctions. Taking into account only the fundamental eigenfunction, the total internal energy inside the sample is underestimated by only 2%. The spatial distribution of the shaped energy density is very similar to the fundamental eigenfunction, up to a cosine distance of about 0.01. We obtain the energy density of transmission eigenchannels inside the sample by numerical simulation of the scattering matrix. Computing the transmission-averaged energy density over all transmission channels yields the ensemble averaged energy density of shaped waves. From the averaged energy density, we reconstruct its spatial distribution using the eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. The results of our study have exciting applications in controlled biomedical imaging, efficient light harvesting in solar cells, enhanced energy conversion in solid-state lighting, and low threshold random lasers.

  13. Image-spectroscopy--II. The removal of plural scattering from extended energy-filtered series by Fourier deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P J; Midgley, P A

    2001-08-01

    The increased spectral information obtained by acquiring an EFTEM image-series over several hundred eV allows plural scattering to be removed from loss images using standard deconvolution techniques developed for the quantification of EEL spectra. In this work, both Fourier-log and Fourier-ratio deconvolution techniques have been applied successfully to such image-series. Application of the Fourier-log technique over an energy-loss range of several hundred eV has been achieved by implementation of a novel method that extends the effective dynamic range of EFTEM image-series acquisition by over four orders of magnitude. Experimental results show that the removal of plural scattering from EFTEM image-series gives a significant improvement in quantification for thicker specimen regions. Further, the recovery of the single-scattering distribution using the Fourier-log technique over an extended energy-loss range is shown to result in an increase in both the ionisation-edge jump-ratio and the signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian Rong

    2011-11-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

  15. Experimental study of the variation of alpha elastic scattering cross sections along isotopic and isotonic chains at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. G.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Somorjai, E.; Galaviz, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Zilges, A.; Mohr, P.; Goerres, J.; Wiescher, M.; Oezkan, N.; Gueray, T.; Yalcin, C.; Avrigeanu, M.

    2008-05-21

    To improve the reliability of statistical model calculations in the region of heavy proton rich isotopes alpha elastic scattering experiments have been performed at ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary. The experiments were carried out at several energies above and below the Coulomb barrier with high precision. The measured angular distributions can be used for testing the predictions of the global and regional optical potential parameter sets. Moreover, we derived the variation of the elastic alpha scattering cross section along the Z = 50 ({sup 112}Sn-{sup 124}Sn) isotopic and N = 50 ({sup 89}Y-{sup 92}Mo) isotonic chains. In this paper we summarize the efforts to provide high precision experimental angular distributions for several A{approx_equal}100 nuclei to test the global optical potential parameterizations applied to p-process network calculations.

  16. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections in the intermediate energy region. III - SF6 and UF6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, W.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed technique has been used to measure the ratios of elastic differential electron scattering cross sections (DCS) for SF6 and UF6 to those of He at electron impact energies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 75 eV and at scattering angles of 20 to 135 deg. In order to obtain the absolute values of DCS from these ratios, He DCS of McConkey and Preston have been employed in the 20 to 90 deg range. At angles in the 90 to 135 deg range the recently determined cross sections of Srivastava and Trajmar have been utilized. From these DCS, elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been obtained.

  17. High-Energy Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction for In Situ Diffuse Scattering Studies of Bulk Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, John E.; Jo, Wook; Donner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron x-ray scattering offers a powerful technique for investigation of single-crystal material structures. Large, mm-sized crystals can be used, allowing complex in situ sample environments to be employed. Here, we demonstrate how this technique can be applied for the collection of single-crystal diffuse scattering volumes from the electro-active material 96%Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-4%BaTiO3 while electric fields are applied in situ. The data obtained allow correlation of the atomic and nanoscale structures with the observed macroscopic electro-active properties of interest. This article presents a recent study relating the nanoscale stacking fault structure in BNT-BT to the relaxor-ferroelectric nature of the material [Daniels et al. in Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 252904 (2011)], and extends this study with further experimental description and analysis.

  18. Overview of sigma, /rho/ and dsigma/dt in high energy proton-antiproton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, R.N.

    1988-07-12

    Recent results on the total cross section, real-to-imaginary ratio of the forward scattering amplitude, and the slope parameter are discussed. The ability of future Tevatron data to distinguish between alternative explanations of the large value of /rho/ measured by UA-4 is emphasized. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Sharp low-energy feature in single-particle spectra due to forward scattering in d-wave cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Hwan; Bok, Jin Mo; Zhang, Wentao; He, Junfeng; Zhou, X J; Varma, C M; Choi, Han-Yong

    2014-08-01

    There is an enormous interest in the renormalization of the quasiparticle (qp) dispersion relation of cuprate superconductors both below and above the critical temperature T_{c} because it enables the determination of the fluctuation spectrum to which the qp's are coupled. A remarkable discovery by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a sharp low-energy feature (LEF) in qp spectra well below the superconducting energy gap but with its energy increasing in proportion to T_{c} and its intensity increasing sharply below T_{c}. This unexpected feature needs to be reconciled with d-wave superconductivity. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of ARPES data from Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ} (Bi2212) using Eliashberg equations to show that the qp scattering rate due to the forward scattering impurities far from the Cu-O planes is modified by the energy gap below T_{c} and shows up as the LEF. This is also a necessary step to analyze ARPES data to reveal the spectrum of fluctuations promoting superconductivity.

  20. Initial evaluation of a modified dual-energy window scatter correction method for CZT-based gamma cameras for breast SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Steve D.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) gamma cameras for SPECT imaging offer significantly improved energy resolution compared to traditional scintillation detectors. However, the photopeak resolution is often asymmetric due to incomplete charge collection within the detector, resulting in many photopeak events incorrectly sorted into lower energy bins ("tailing"). These misplaced events contaminate the true scatter signal, which may negatively impact scatter correction methods that rely on estimates of scatter from the spectra. Additionally, because CZT detectors are organized into arrays, each individual detector element may exhibit different degrees of tailing. Here, we present a modified dualenergy window scatter correction method for emission detection and imaging that attempts to account for positiondependent effects of incomplete charge collection in the CZT gamma camera of our dedicated breast SPECT-CT system. Point source measurements and geometric phantoms were used to estimate the impact of tailing on the scatter signal and extract a better estimate of the ratio of scatter within two energy windows. To evaluate the method, cylindrical phantoms with and without a separate fillable chamber were scanned to determine the impact on quantification in hot, cold, and uniform background regions. Projections were reconstructed using OSEM, and the results for the traditional and modified scatter correction methods were compared. Results show that while modest reduced quantification accuracy was observed in hot and cold regions of the multi-chamber phantoms, the modified scatter correction method yields up to 8% improved quantification accuracy with 4% less added noise than the traditional DEW method within uniform background regions.

  1. Search for a new charged heavy vector boson decaying to an electron-neutrino pair in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jieun

    2005-06-01

    We present results on a search for a heavy charged vector boson, W', decaying to an electron-neutrino pair in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 205 pb-1. We found no evidence of this decay channel, and set 95% confidence level limits on the production cross section times branching fraction assuming the light neutrino. We also set the limit on the W' boson mass at MW' > 788 GeV/c2, assuming the standard model strength couplings.

  2. Low-energy sterile neutrinos: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Several experimental anomalies seem to point towards the existence of light sterile neutrinos. We focus on the low-energy anomalous results (the so-called gallium and reactor anomalies), which indicate a non-zero admixture U of the electron neutrino with a fourth (mostly) sterile mass eigenstate ν4. We point out that solar sector data, in combination with the precision measurement of θ13, provide the constraint |<0.041 (90% C.L.), independent of the reactor flux determinations.

  3. Quasi-elastic scattering and transfer angular distribution for B,1110+232Th systems at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shradha; Biswas, D. C.; Mukherjee, S.; Patel, D.; Gupta, Y. K.; Prajapati, G. K.; Joshi, B. N.; Danu, L. S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; John, B. V.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Vind, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Quasi-elastic scattering and transfer angular distributions for B,1110+232Th reactions have been measured simultaneously in a wide range of bombarding energies around the Coulomb barrier. The quasi-elastic angular distribution data are analyzed using the optical model code ecis with phenomenological Woods-Saxon potentials. The obtained potential parameters suggest the presence of usual threshold anomaly, confirming tightly bound characteristics for both the projectiles. The reaction cross sections are obtained from the fitting of quasi-elastic angular distribution data. The reduced cross sections at sub-barrier energies compared with Li,76+232Th systems show a systematic dependence on projectile breakup energy. The angular distribution of the transfer products show similar behavior for both the systems.

  4. Multiple-scattering distributions and angular dependence of the energy loss of slow protons in copper and silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantero, E. D.; Lantschner, G. H.; Eckardt, J. C.; Lovey, F. C.; Arista, N. R.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of angular distributions and of the angular dependence of the energy loss of 4-, 6-, and 9-keV protons transmitted through thin Cu and Ag polycrystalline foils are presented. By means of standard multiple-scattering model calculations it is found that a V(r)∝r-2.8 potential leads to significantly better fits of the angular distributions than the standard Thomas Fermi, Lenz-Jensen, or Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potentials. A theoretical model for the angular dependence of the energy loss based on considering geometric effects on a frictional inelastic energy loss plus an angular-dependent elastic contribution and the effects of foil roughness reproduces the experimental data. This agrees with previous results in Au and Al, therefore extending the applicability of the model to other metallic elements.

  5. [Determination of Trace Boron Based on Gold Nanorod Plasmonic Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Energy Transfer to the Coordinate].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ling-ling; Li, Ting-sheng; Luo, Yang-he; Wen, Gui-qing; Liang, Ai-hui; Jiang, Zhi-liang

    2015-05-01

    B is a necessary trace element for human and animals, but the excess intake of B caused poison. Thus, it is very important to determination of B in foods and water. The target of this study is development of a new, sensitive and selective resonance Rayleigh scattering energy transfer (RRS-ET) for the determination of B. The combination of energy transfer with resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) has developed a new technology called RRS-ET, which can realize selective and sensitive detection of boric acid. The gold nanorods in diameter of 12 nm and length of 37 nm were prepared by the seed growth procedure. In pH 5. 6 NH4 Ac-HAc buffer solution and in the presence of azomethine-H (AMH), the gold nanorod particles exhibited a strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) peak at 404 nm. In the presence of boric acid, it reacts with AMH to form AMH-boric acid (AMH-B) complexes. When the complexe as a receptor close to the gold nanorod as a donor, the resonance Rayleigh scattering energy transfer (RRS-ET) take placed that resulted in the Rayleigh scattering signal quenching. With the increase of the concentration of boric acid, the formed complexes increased, the scattering light energy of gold nanorod transfer to the complexes increased, resulting in the Rayleigh scattering intensity linearly reduced at 404 nrn. The decreased RRS intensity responds linearly to the concentration of boron over 10~750 ng . mL-1 B, with a regress equation of ΔI404 nm =3. 53c+24 and a detection of 5 ng mL-1 B. The influence of coexistence substances on the RRS-ET determination of 2. 3 X 10(-7) mol . L-1 B was considered in details. Results showed that this new RRS-ET method is of high selectivity, that is, 4 X 10(-4) mol . L-1 Mn2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Bi+, Na+, Al3+, glucose, Hg2+, IO3-, F-, SO(2-)3, SiO3-, NO3-, CIO4-, H2O2, mannitol, glycerol, and ethylene glycol, 4X 10(-5) mol . L-1 L-tyrosine, and 2 X 10(-4) mol . L-1 L-glutamic acid do not interfere with the determination. Based on this, a new

  6. Energy efficient facile extraction process of cellulose nanofibres and their dimensional characterization using light scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Chandravati; Saini, Arun; Maji, Pradip K

    2017-06-01

    A chemi-mechanical approach was used to extract cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) from waste mango wood scraps using a mild chemical treatment ensuring no acid hydrolysis. The dimensional analysis for CNFs has been done by taking into account both the microscopic and light scattering techniques. The FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) analysis revealed the diameter of obtained CNFs in the range of 5-40nm with an average diameter of approximately 12nm. The AFM (atomic force microscopy) analysis gave a more precise average diameter value of 5nm for the obtained CNFs. The aspect ratio as determined by applying mathematical calculations on the data revealed through dynamic and static light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) was approximately 200. The characteristic shape determined by fractal dimension investigation from SLS measurement revealed the rod/thread like shape of CNFs at lower concentrations.

  7. High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hahn, B.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Hofstadter, R.

    1955-10-01

    Experimental results are presented of electron scattering by Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Bi, Th, and U, at 183 Mev and (for some of the elements) at 153 Mev. For those nuclei for which asphericity and inelastic scattering are absent or unimportant, i.e., Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Au, and Bi, a partial wave analysis of the Dirac equation has been performed in which the nuclei are represented by static, spherically symmetric charge distributions. Smoothed uniform charge distributions have been assumed; these are characterized by a constant charge density in the central region of the nucleus, with a smoothed-our surface. Essentially two parameters can be determined, related to the radium and to the surface thickness. An examination of the Au experiments show that the functional forms of the surface are not important, and that the charge density in the central regions is probably fairly flat, although it cannot be determined very accurately.

  8. Energy-related atomic and molecular structure and scattering studies. Annual progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bederson, B.

    1981-02-01

    The basic goals of this program concern the experimental determination of properties of atoms and molecules and molecular clusters that are important in a wide range of energy-related processes, in particular, measurements of polarizabilities of highly polar molecules and their polymers, and of a number of important atomic elements distributed through the periodic table, as well as of the scattering of low-energy electrons by these same systems. The most significant scientific accomplishment of the program during the past year has been the completion of measurements of the dc electric dipole polarizabilities of a number of alkali halide dimers ((KCl)/sub 2/, (RbCl)/sub 2/, (CsCl)/sub 2/, (KF)/sub 2/, and (CsF)/sub 2/). An experiment was completed to measure the total cross sections for the scattering of low-energy electrons by atomic lithium, a very significant experimental test of a relatively simple, many-body system, which is amenable to elaborate computational determination.

  9. New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallén, A.; Åström, J.; Primetzhofer, D.; Legendre, S.; Possnert, G.

    2012-09-01

    A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the Ångström laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, 1H+, 4He+, and 11B+. Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted.

  10. Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Avijit; Ray, Debasis

    2015-03-01

    The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.

  11. Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Avijit Ray, Debasis

    2015-03-15

    The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.

  12. Unusual impact of electron-phonon scattering in Si nanowire field-effect-transistors: A possible route for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag Chowdhury, Basudev; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan

    2016-09-01

    In the current work, the impact of electron-phonon scattering phenomena on the transport behaviour of silicon nanowire field-effect-transistors with sub-mean free path channel length has been investigated by developing a theoretical model that incorporates the responses of carrier effective mass mismatch between the channel and source/drain. For this purpose, a set of relevant quantum field equations has been solved by non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The obtained device current for a particular set of biases is found to decrease due to phonon scattering below a certain doping level of source/drain, above which it is observed to enhance anomalously. Analyses of the quantified scattering lifetime and power dissipation at various confinement modes of the device indicates that such unusual enhancement of current is originated from the power served by phonons instead of associated decay processes. The power generation has been observed to improve by using high-k materials as gate insulator. Such results may contribute significantly to the future nano-electronic applications for energy harvesting.

  13. Determination of the charge radii of several light nuclei from precision, high-energy electron elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, Al Amin

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high-energy electron scattering has been used to determine the charge radii of nuclei for several decades. Recent analysis of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen found an r.m.s. radius significantly different than the electron scattering result. To understand this puzzle we have analyzed the "LEDEX" data for the (e, e'p) reaction. This experiment includes measurements on several light nuclei, hydrogen, deuterium, lithium, boron, and carbon. To test our ability to measure absolute cross sections, as well as our ability to extract the charge radius, we tested our technique against the extremely well-measured carbon case and found excellent agreement using the Fourier-Bessel parametrization. We then extended the procedure to boron and lithium, which show nice agreement with the latest theoretical calculations. For hydrogen, we see clearly the limits of this technique and therefore, the charge radius is determined from the traditional extrapolation to q2 = 0. We will show that there is a model dependence in extracting the charge radius of hydrogen and its unambiguous determination is very difficult with available electron-scattering measurements.

  14. Measurements of liquid and glass structures using in-situ high energy x-ray and neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, C. J.; Skinner, Lawrie; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Tumber, Sonia; Jennings, G; Santodonato, Louis J; Jin, D; Du, Jincheng; Parise, John B

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of high temperature molten materials and their evolution to the amorphous state is often hampered by unwanted reactions with container surfaces. This work used aerodynamic levitation in combination with laser beam heating to study high melting point materials that can form supercooled liquids or glasses. Details of the instruments that are being used at the Advanced Photon Source and the Spallation Neutron Source to study molten oxides with high energy x-ray scattering and neutron diffraction with isotope substitution are presented. Examples of measurements are used to illustrate the use of the instruments. Plans for further development and application of the capabilities are presented.

  15. A semianalytic model to extract differential linear scattering coefficients of breast tissue from energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LeClair, Robert J.; Boileau, Michel M.; Wang Yinkun

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this work is to develop a technique to measure the x-ray diffraction signals of breast biopsy specimens. A biomedical x-ray diffraction technology capable of measuring such signals may prove to be of diagnostic use to the medical field. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements coupled with a semianalytical model were used to extract the differential linear scattering coefficients [{mu}{sub s}(x)] of breast tissues on absolute scales. The coefficients describe the probabilities of scatter events occurring per unit length of tissue per unit solid angle of detection. They are a function of the momentum transfer argument, x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}, where {theta}=scatter angle and {lambda}=incident wavelength. The technique was validated by using a 3 mm diameter 50 kV polychromatic x-ray beam incident on a 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick sample of water. Water was used because good x-ray diffraction data are available in the literature. The scatter profiles from 6 deg. to 15 deg. in increments of 1 deg. were measured with a 3 mmx3 mmx2 mm thick cadmium zinc telluride detector. A 2 mm diameter Pb aperture was placed on top of the detector. The target to detector distance was 29 cm and the duration of each measurement was 10 min. Ensemble averages of the results compare well with the gold standard data of A. H. Narten [''X-ray diffraction data on liquid water in the temperature range 4 deg. C-200 deg. C, ORNL Report No. 4578 (1970)]. An average 7.68% difference for which most of the discrepancies can be attributed to the background noise at low angles was obtained. The preliminary measurements of breast tissue are also encouraging.

  16. Muon Energy Reconstruction Through the Multiple Scattering Method in the NO$\\mathrm{\

    SciTech Connect

    Psihas Olmedo, Silvia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino energy measurements are a crucial component in the experimental study of neutrino oscillations. These measurements are done through the reconstruction of neutrino interactions and energy measurements of their products. This thesis presents the development of a technique to reconstruct the energy of muons from neutrino interactions in the NO$\\mathrm{\

  17. Muon Energy Reconstruction Through the Multiple Scattering Method in the NO$\\mathrm{\

    SciTech Connect

    Psihas Olmedo, Silvia Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Neutrino energy measurements are a crucial component in the experimental study of neutrino oscillations. These measurements are done through the reconstruction of neutrino interactions and energy measurements of their products. This thesis presents the development of a technique to reconstruct the energy of muons from neutrino interactions in the NO$\\mathrm{\

  18. Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, TiO2 and Si using medium energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklebank, Mitchell; Dedyulin, Sergey N.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2016-11-01

    Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, Si, and TiO2 films in the energy range 50-170 keV were determined from medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectra by an iterative procedure. The energy loss of protons was investigated for pure Ti and Si films, deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) onto n-Si(100) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) substrates respectively. Consecutive annealing of Ti at 200 °C in O2 resulted in stoichiometric TiO2 thin-films. Thickness and composition of the films and the interfacial properties were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), MEIS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Calculated stopping cross sections of Ti, Si, and TiO2 in the range of energies were compared with the commonly used SRIM2003 values. For Ti and Si, SRIM2003 values appear to be overestimated over the entire energy range. The new stopping cross sections explain deviations from previously reported values for SrTiO3. We note that the stopping cross sections of O in a gaseous phase, used in Bragg's rule calculations, cannot be applied for accurate quantitative ion beam analysis in solid compounds in the medium ion energy range.

  19. Scattering process for the system 7Be + 58Ni at 23.2 MeV beam energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocco, M.; Torresi, D.; Fierro, N.; Acosta, L.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Glodariu, T.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Pakou, A.; Parascandolo, C.; Parker, V. V.; Patronis, N.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Stroe, L.; Zerva, K.

    2013-03-01

    We measured for the first time the scattering process of 7Be nuclei from a 58Ni target at 23.2 MeV beam energy. The experiment was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL, Italy), where the 7Be Radioactive Ion Beam was in-flight produced with the facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of the detector array DINEX, arranged in a cylindrical configuration around the target to ensure a polar angle coverage in the ranges θcm = 40°-80° and 110°-150°. The scattering differential cross section was analyzed within the optical model formalism with the coupled-channel code FRESCO to extract the total reaction cross section. The result was compared with those obtained at lower beam energies in an earlier experiment performed at the University of Notre Dame (USA). At the present stage of our analysis, the two data sets were found to be not fully consistent each other.

  20. Absolute differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from atomic hydrogen at low incident energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Kenneth; Leonard, Linda; Proctor, Stephanie; Childers, J. G.; Khakoo, Murtadha A.

    2003-05-01

    Absolute differential cross sections for electrons elastically scattered from atomic hydrogen have been measured at low incident energies. The measurements were facilitated by the moveable nozzle source recently developed in our lab. Data taken at the incident energies of 20 eV, 40 eV, and 100 eV, and spanning the angular range of 10^rc to 120^rc will be presented. The results will be compared to the earlier measurements of Williams(Joseph Callaway and J. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. A) 12, 2312 (1975), J. F. Williams, J. Phys. B 8, 2191 (1975) and Shyn(T. W. Shyn and S. Y. Cho, Phys. Rev. A) 40, 1315 (1989), T. W. Shyn and Alan Grafe, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2949 (1992), and the theoretical calculations of Bray(Igor Bray, Phys. Rev. A) 46, 6995 (1992). Funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant # NSF-RUI-PHY-0096808.

  1. Reconstruction of the CoGa(100) surface studied by thermal-energy helium-atom scattering, LEED, and AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, F. M.; Pflitsch, Ch.; David, R.; Verheij, L. K.; Franchy, R.

    2001-03-01

    The surface structure of CoGa(100) has been studied by means of thermal-energy helium-atom scattering (TEAS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). A c(4×2) surface reconstruction is revealed by LEED and TEAS measurements. Sometimes this reconstruction is mixed with a (5×5) reconstruction, which is found to be due to a very minor contamination with oxygen. Only double-layer steps are found on the surface. Above 500 K, the reconstructed layer starts to disorder, but short-range ordering in this layer is still observed until 700 K. Near 900 K, segregation of Co is observed with AES. The increase of the cobalt concentration is consistent with filling up the 0.25 ML, necessary for the c(4×2) reconstruction, to a completed monolayer at 900 K. This interpretation implies that the surface is always terminated by Co.

  2. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, I. V.; Shul'ga, N. F.; Bandiera, L.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.

    2017-02-01

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders.

  3. Near-field Light Scattering Techniques for Measuring Nanoparticle-Surface Interaction Energies and Forces

    PubMed Central

    O'Dell, Dakota; Adam, Ian S.; DiPaolo, Brian; Sabharwal, Manit; Shi, Ce; Hart, Robert; Earhart, Christopher; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are quickly becoming commonplace in many commercial and industrial products, ranging from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals to medical diagnostics. Predicting the stability of the engineered nanoparticles within these products a priori remains an important and difficult challenge. Here we describe our techniques for measuring the mechanical interactions between nanoparticles and surfaces using near-field light scattering. Particle-surface interfacial forces are measured by optically “pushing” a particle against a reference surface and observing its motion using scattered near-field light. Unlike atomic force microscopy, this technique is not limited by thermal noise, but instead takes advantage of it. The integrated waveguide and microfluidic architecture allow for high-throughput measurements of about 1000 particles per hour. We characterize the reproducibility of and experimental uncertainty in the measurements made using the NanoTweezer surface instrument. We report surface interaction studies on gold nanoparticles with 50 nm diameters, smaller than previously reported in the literature using similar techniques. PMID:26855473

  4. Study of photon electroproduction on the nucleon at high and low energy by Virtual Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benali, M.; Mazouz, M.; Fonvieille, H.

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) on the nucleon are two processes accessed via the photon electroproduction reaction ( eN → eγ N). In the first part of this paper we are interested by the DVCS on the neutron. We measured the ( D( e, eγ) X- H( e, e'γ) X) unpolarized cross section and we extracted, for the first time, a non-zero contribution of (neutron-DVCS + coherent- deuteron-DVCS) at Q 2 = 1.75 GeV2 and x B = 36 from Jefferson Lab experiment E08-025. VCS on the proton has been studied at Mainz Microtron MAMI at the four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 = 0.5 GeV2, below the pion production threshold. In the second part of this paper we present our preliminary results of the structure functions ( P LL - ( P TT/ɛ)) and P LT, and the electric and magnetic generalized polarizabilities α E ( Q 2) and β M ( Q 2) extracted from this experiment.

  5. Low energy scatter due to in-situ irradiation of solid tumors in laboratory rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ritenour, E.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the pattern of scattered radiation in laboratory rat cadavers during irradiation of solid tumors on the animals' flanks was performed. The animals were wrapped in a lead shield having a circular cutout through which the tumor protruded. Irradiations were performed with a 250 kVp 15ma X-ray machine with a measured half value layer of 1.39 mmCu. Lead shielding was of sufficient thickness to attenuate essentially all of the beam. The absorbed dose measured in the animal was then due to internal scatter from the tumor. Arrays of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed beneath the skin of 17 animals bearing a solid tumor (hepatoma H-4-II-E). Absorbed dose was seen to vary isotropically, decreasing as the inverse distance squared from the tumor. Analysis of experimental error played a major role in this study. A pilot study resulted in standard errors that were 35% of the mean absorbed dose measurements. A careful reassessment of methods of manipulating the animals and the dosimetry system resulted in a reduction in standard error to 14% of the mean for small groups (less than 10 animals).

  6. Theory of inelastic ion-atom scattering at low and intermediate energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, G. B.; Garcia, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are presented of inelastic energy loss and ionization phenomena associated with Ar(+)-Ar collisions at small distances of closest approach and for laboratory collision energies ranging from several keV to several hundred keV. Outer-shell excitations are handled statistically; inner-shell excitations are calculated from the viewpoint of quasidiabatic molecular orbital promotion. Auger electron yield, average state of ionization, and average inelastic energy loss are calculated per collision as a function of distance of closest approach of the collision partners for several laboratory collision energies. Average charge-state probabilities per collision partner are calculated as a function of the average inelastic energy loss per atom. It is shown that the structure in the data is due to the underlying structure in the inner-shell independent-electron quasimolecular promotion probabilities.

  7. Surface channelling and energy losses of 4 keV hydrogen and fluorine ions in grazing scattering on Au(111) and missing row reconstructed Au(110) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Valdés, J E; Vargas, P; Esaulov, V A

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of an experimental and theoretical study of surface channelling and energy loss of 4 keV hydrogen and fluorine ions in grazing scattering on a missing row reconstructed Au(110) surface and a Au(111) surface. We performed measurements of energy losses for grazing angle scattering in surface channelling conditions for various azimuthal orientations of the crystal. Experimental results are discussed in the light of trajectory calculations of hydrogen and fluorine ions scattered under grazing incidence conditions on the surface. A nonlinear model is used in order to calculate the ion energy loss in these crystalline systems. Ab initio electronic crystal structure calculations and semi-classical simulations are performed and allow us to delineate various trajectory classes that correspond to different contributions in the energy loss spectra for various azimuthal orientations of the surface.

  8. Trajectory-dependent resonant neutralization of low energy [sup 7]Li[sup +] scattered from clean and Na-covered Al(100)

    SciTech Connect

    German, K.A.H.; Weare, C.B.; Varekamp, P.R.; Yarmoff, J.A. Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 ); Andersen, J.N. )

    1993-07-01

    Trajectory-dependent neutralization is observed for low energy (1--5 keV) [sup 7]Li[sup +] ions scattered at large angles from Na-covered Al(100). Energy spectra and angular scans of the scattered Li[sup +] ion yield are collected as a function of Na coverage. Li[sup +] ions are partially neutralized upon single scattering from Al sites and completely neutralized when scattered from Na. This site-specific neutralization indicates that the surface electrostatic potential is nonuniform. The neutralization probability is also shown to be a function of the exit angle from the surface. The results are analyzed using theoretical ion fractions based on a semiclassical resonant charge exchange model.

  9. Microscopic optical model potentials for p-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Hemalatha, M.; Gambhir, Y. K.; Kailas, S.; Haider, W.

    2007-03-15

    A comparative study of the microscopic optical potentials viz., semimicroscopic with extended Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux interaction and microscopic Brueckner theory using Hamada-Johnston as well as Urbana V14 soft-core internucleon interactions, has been carried out. These microscopic optical potentials are compared with that of Dirac phenomenology (DP) for the polarized proton-{sup 40}Ca elastic scattering at 35 MeV and 200 MeV. These potentials have different shapes for 200 MeV below 4 fm. In particular, for the real part of the central potential, only the Dirac phenomenology and the microscopic optical potential calculated with the Hamada-Johnston interaction exhibit the well known wine-bottle-bottom shape. It is found that the calculated observables (cross section, analyzing power and spin rotation function) using these potentials having different shapes, compare well with the experiment.

  10. Internal Energy Dependence of Molecular Condensation Coefficients Determined from Molecular Beam Surface Scattering Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sibener, S. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl{sub 4} from a 90 K CC1{sub 4} ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC1{sub 4} relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC1{sub 4} at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 10{sup 4} cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 15{sup 0} superspecularly independent of incident velocity.

  11. Higher lying resonances in low-energy electron scattering with carbon monoxide*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dora, Amar; Tennyson, Jonathan; Chakrabarti, Kalyan

    2016-10-01

    R-matrix calculations on electron collisions with CO are reported whose aim is to identify any higher-lying resonances above the well-reported and lowest 2Π resonance at about 1.6 eV. Extensive tests with respect to basis sets, target models and scattering models are performed. The final results are reported for the larger cc-pVTZ basis set using a 50 state close-coupling (CC) calculation. The Breit-Wigner eigenphase sum and the time-delay methods are used to detect and fit any resonances. Both these methods find a very narrow 2Σ+ symmetry Feshbach-type resonance very close to the target excitation threshold of the b 3Σ+ state which lies at 12.9 eV in the calculations. This resonance is seen in the CC calculation using cc-pVTZ basis set while a CC calculation using the cc-pVDZ basis set does not produce this feature. The electronic structure of CO- is analysed in the asymptotic region; 45 molecular states are found to correlate with states dissociating to an anion and an atom. Electronic structure calculations are used to study the behaviour of these states at large internuclear separation. Quantitative results for the total, elastic and electronic excitation cross sections are also presented. The significance of these results for models of the observed dissociative electron attachment of CO in the 10 eV region is discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limão-Vieira, Gustavo García, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrović.

  12. Three energy scales in the superconducting state of hole-doped cuprates detected by electronic Raman scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Benhabib, S.; Gu, G. D.; Gallais, Y.; ...

    2015-10-06

    We explore by electronic Raman scattering the superconducting state of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) crystal by performing a fine-tuned doping study. We find three distinct energy scales in A1g, B1g, and B2g symmetries which show three distinct doping dependencies. Above p=0.22, the three energies merge; below p=0.12, the A1g scale is no longer detectable, while the B1g and B2g scales become constant in energy. In between, the A1g and B1g scales increase monotonically with underdoping, while the B2g one exhibits a maximum at p=0.16. The three superconducting energy scales appear to be a universal feature of hole-doped cuprates. Furthermore, we proposemore » that the nontrivial doping dependencies of the three scales originate from the Fermi-surface changes and reveal competing orders inside the superconducting dome.« less

  13. Three energy scales in the superconducting state of hole-doped cuprates detected by electronic Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Benhabib, S.; Gu, G. D.; Gallais, Y.; Cazayous, M.; Measson, M. -A.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.; Sacuto, A.

    2015-10-06

    We explore by electronic Raman scattering the superconducting state of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) crystal by performing a fine-tuned doping study. We find three distinct energy scales in A1g, B1g, and B2g symmetries which show three distinct doping dependencies. Above p=0.22, the three energies merge; below p=0.12, the A1g scale is no longer detectable, while the B1g and B2g scales become constant in energy. In between, the A1g and B1g scales increase monotonically with underdoping, while the B2g one exhibits a maximum at p=0.16. The three superconducting energy scales appear to be a universal feature of hole-doped cuprates. Furthermore, we propose that the nontrivial doping dependencies of the three scales originate from the Fermi-surface changes and reveal competing orders inside the superconducting dome.

  14. Analysis of the high energy behavior of the forward scattering parameters -- {sigma}{sub tot}, {rho}, and B

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M.; Halzen, F.; Margolis, B.; White, A.R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent experimental results, namely, the remeasurement of the {rho} value by UA4/2 at {radical}s = 546 GeV, together with a new analysis by the E710 group of {sigma}{sub tot}, {rho} and B at {radical}s = 1800 GeV, as well as their measurement of {sigma}{sub tot} and B at {radical}s = 1020 GeV, have provided important anchor points for the high energy behavior of {anti p}p scattering. The authors analyze high energy {anti p}p and pp data, using two distinct (and dissimilar) analysis techniques: (1) asymptotic amplitude analysis, under the assumption that they have reached {open_quotes}asymptopia{close_quotes}, and (2) an eikonal model whose amplitudes are designed to mimic real QCD amplitudes. The former gives strong evidence for a log (s/s{sub 0}) dependence at current energies and not log{sup 2}(s/s{sub 0}), and demonstrates that odderons are not necessary to explain the experimental data. The latter gives a unitary model for extrapolation into true {open_quote}asymptopia{close_quote} from current energies, allowing them to predict the values of the total cross section at future supercolliders. Using their QCD-model, the authors obtain {sigma}{sub tot}(16 TeV)= 106 {+-} 4 mb and {sigma}{sub tot}(40 TeV) = 120 {+-} 5 mb.

  15. Dissociative Scattering of Hyperthermal Energy CF3+ Ions from Modified Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rezayat, Talayeh; Shukla, Anil K.

    2007-02-28

    We have studied surface-induced dissociation (SID) of a small polyatomic ion, CF3+, at several collision energies between 29 eV and 159 eV in collision with fluorinated alkyl thiol on gold 111 crystal.

  16. Single-scatter Monte Carlo compared to condensed history results for low energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, C.T.; Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Martin, W.R.; Wilderman, S.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate individual electron interactions. The code has been instrumental in determining the range of validity for the widely used condensed history method. This task was accomplished by isolating and testing the condensed history assumptions. The results show that the condensed history method fails for low energy electron transport due to inaccuracies in energy loss and spatial positioning. 19 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Resonant scattering and charm showers in ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Electron antineutrinos with energy of about 7 x 10 to the 6th GeV have much-enhanced cross sections due to W-boson production off electrons. Possible signals due to cosmic-ray sources are estimated. Higher-energy antineutrinos can efficiently produce a W accompanied by radiation. Another possibility, which could lead to shadowing at modest depths, is resonant production of a charged Higgs particle. The importance of muon production by charm showers in rock is pointed out.

  18. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows.

    PubMed

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-10-16

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m(2) mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems.

  19. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-10-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m2 mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems.

  20. Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows

    PubMed Central

    Alghamedi, Ramzy; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    All-inorganic visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear laminated glass windows are the most practical solution to boosting building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) energy outputs significantly while reducing cooling- and heating-related energy consumption in buildings. By incorporating luminophore materials into lamination interlayers and using spectrally-selective thin-film coatings in conjunction with CuInSe2 solar cells, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass window with minimum attenuation while ultraviolet (UV) radiation is down-converted and routed together with a significant part of infrared radiation to the edges for collection by solar cells. Experimental results demonstrate a 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed energy-harvesting clear glass panel of transparency exceeding 60%, invisible solar energy attenuation greater than 90% and electrical power output near 30 Wp/m2 mainly generated by infrared (IR) and UV radiations. These results open the way for the realization of large-area visibly-transparent energy-harvesting clear glass windows for BIPV systems. PMID:25321890

  1. Simultaneous observation of small- and large-energy-transfer electron-electron scattering in three-dimensional indium oxide thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Xin-Dian; Li, Zhi-Qing

    2016-05-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) disordered metals, the electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering is the sole significant inelastic process. Thus the theoretical prediction concerning the electron-electron (e\\text-e) scattering rate 1/τ_\\varphi as a function of temperature T in 3D disordered metal has not been fully tested thus far, though it was proposed 40 years ago (Schmid A., Z. Phys., 271 (1974) 251). We report here the simultaneous observation of small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering in 3D indium oxide thick films. In the temperature region T≳100 \\text{K} , the temperature dependence of resistivity of each film obeys Bloch-Grüneisen law, indicating that the films possess degenerate-semiconductor characteristics in electrical transport property. In the low-temperature regime, 1/τ_\\varphi as a function of T for each film can not be ascribed to e-ph scattering. To quantitatively describe the temperature behavior of 1/τ_\\varphi , both the 3D small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering processes should be considered. (The small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering rates are proportional to T3/2 and T 2, respectively.) In addition, the experimental prefactors of T3/2 and T 2 are proportional to k_F-5/2 \\ell-3/2 and E_F-1 (k F is the Fermi wave number, ℓ is the electron elastic mean free path, and E F is the Fermi energy), respectively, which are completely consistent with the theoretical predictions. Our experimental results fully demonstrate the validity of the theoretical predictions concerning both small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering rates.

  2. Low-Energy Grazing Ion-Scattering From Alkali-Halide Surfaces: A Novel Approach To C-14 Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. W.; Galutschek, E.; Hotchkis, M.

    2009-03-01

    Carbon-14 labeled compounds are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, e.g., as tracers to determine the fate of these compounds in vivo. Conventional accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one approach that offers sufficiently high sensitivity to avoid radiological waste and contamination issues in such studies, but requires large, expensive facilities that are usually not solely dedicated to this task. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) we are exploring a small size, low cost alternative to AMS for biomedical 14C tracer studies that utilizes ECR-ion-source-generated keV-energy-range multicharged C beams grazingly incident on an alkali halide target, where efficient negative ion production by multiple electron capture takes place. By using C ion charge states of +3 or higher, the molecular isobar interference at mass 14, e.g. 12CH2 and 13CH, is eliminated. The negatively charged ions in the beam scattered from the alkali halide surface are separated from other scattered charge states by two large acceptance (˜15 msr) stages of electrostatic analysis. The N-14 isobar interference is thus removed, since N does not support a stable negative ion. Initial results for C-14 detection obtained using C-14 enriched CO2 from ANSTO will be described.

  3. Low-Energy Grazing Ion-Scattering from Alkali-Halide Surfaces: A Novel Approach to C-14 Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Fred W; Galutschek, Ernst; Hotchkis, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-14 labeled compounds are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, e.g., as tracers to determine the fate of these compounds in vivo. Conventional accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one approach that offers sufficiently high sensitivity to avoid radiological waste and contamination issues in such studies, but requires large, expensive facilities that are usually not solely dedicated to this task. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) we are exploring a small size, low cost alternative to AMS for biomedical 14C tracer studies that utilizes ECR-ion-source-generated keV-energy-range multicharged C beams grazingly incident on an alkali halide target, where efficient negative ion production by multiple electron capture takes place. By using C ion charge states of +3 or higher, the molecular isobar interference at mass 14, e.g. 12CH2 and 13CH, is eliminated. The negatively charged ions in the beam scattered from the alkali halide surface are separated from other scattered charge states by two large acceptance ({approx}15 msr) stages of electrostatic analysis. The N-14 isobar interference is thus removed, since N does not support a stable negative ion. Initial results for C-14 detection obtained using C-14 enriched CO2 from ANSTO will be described.

  4. Low-Energy Grazing Ion-Scattering From Alkali-Halide Surfaces: A Novel Approach To C-14 Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F. W.; Galutschek, E.; Hotchkis, M.

    2009-03-10

    Carbon-14 labeled compounds are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, e.g., as tracers to determine the fate of these compounds in vivo. Conventional accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one approach that offers sufficiently high sensitivity to avoid radiological waste and contamination issues in such studies, but requires large, expensive facilities that are usually not solely dedicated to this task. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) we are exploring a small size, low cost alternative to AMS for biomedical {sup 14}C tracer studies that utilizes ECR-ion-source-generated keV-energy-range multicharged C beams grazingly incident on an alkali halide target, where efficient negative ion production by multiple electron capture takes place. By using C ion charge states of +3 or higher, the molecular isobar interference at mass 14, e.g. {sup 12}CH{sub 2} and {sup 13}CH, is eliminated. The negatively charged ions in the beam scattered from the alkali halide surface are separated from other scattered charge states by two large acceptance ({approx}15 msr) stages of electrostatic analysis. The N-14 isobar interference is thus removed, since N does not support a stable negative ion. Initial results for C-14 detection obtained using C-14 enriched CO{sub 2} from ANSTO will be described.

  5. Bremsstrahlung in the scattering of low-energy electrons by neutral atomic systems. [in atmosphere of sun and cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    By elementary methods, the cross section for electron-atom and electron-molecule bremsstrahlung is computed in the limit when the incident electron energy is much less than Ry. The procedure employs the classical soft-photon emission probability formula for general (h/2pi)(omega), yielding a simple expression for the bremsstrahlung cross section in terms of the total elastic scattering cross section. The validity of the method is discussed, and results are compared with more elaborate and accurate calculations. Comparison is made with ('free-free') opacity calculations for the associated process at the temperature (6300 K) of the solar atmosphere. For chi sub omega = (h/2pi)(omega)/kT = 1, the computed absorption coefficient is within 2, 7, and 12 percent of accurate calculations for scatterings by H, He, and H2, respectively. The general dependence of the opacity on chi sub omega is described well by the simple formula, although the error is larger for higher chi sub omega; it is suggested that the inaccuracy at high frequencies is due to the failure of the soft-photon approximation.

  6. Scattering of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with rare gas atoms at low collision energy

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.

    2015-11-14

    We present a theoretical study of elastic and rotationally inelastic collisions of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) at low energy. Quantum close-coupling calculations have been performed for energies between 0.001 and 300 cm{sup −1}. We focus on collisions in which NH{sub 3} is initially in the upper state of the inversion doublet with j = 1, k = 1, which is the most relevant in an experimental context as it can be trapped electrostatically and Stark-decelerated. We discuss the presence of resonances in the elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as the trends in the inelastic cross sections along the rare gas series and the differences between NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} as a colliding partner. We also demonstrate the importance of explicitly taking into account the umbrella (inversion) motion of NH{sub 3} in order to obtain accurate scattering cross sections at low collision energy. Finally, we investigate the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ammonia using cold or ultracold rare gas atoms. We show that some systems exhibit a large ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections in the cold regime, which is promising for sympathetic cooling experiments. The close-coupling calculations are based on previously reported ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH{sub 3}–He and NH{sub 3}–Ar, as well as on new, four-dimensional, potential energy surfaces for the interaction of ammonia with Ne, Kr, and Xe, which were computed using the coupled-cluster method and large basis sets. We compare the properties of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to the interaction of ammonia with the various rare gas atoms.

  7. Numerical simulations for width fluctuations in compound elastic and inelastic scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick

    2012-09-18

    The statistical theories - the Hauser-Feshbach model with the width fluctuation correction - play a central role in studying nuclear reactions in the fast energy region, hence the statistical model codes are essential for the nuclear data evaluations nowadays. In this paper, we revisit issues regarding the statistical model calculations in the fast energy range, such as the inclusion of the direct channels, and the energy averaged cross sections using different statistical assumptions. Although they have been discussed for a long time, we need more precise quantitative investigations to understand uncertainties coming from the models deficiencies in the fast energy range. For example, the partition of compound formation cross section into the elastic and inelastic channels depends on the elastic enhancement factor calculated from the statistical models. In addition, unitarity of S-matrix constrains this partition when the direct reactions are involved. Practically some simple assumptions, which many nuclear reaction model codes adopt, may work reasonably for the nuclear data evaluations. However, the uncertainties on the evaluated cross sections cannot go lower than the model uncertainty itself. We perform numerical simulations by generating the resonances using the R-matrix theory, and compare the energy (ensemble) averaged cross sections with the statistical theories, such as the theories of Moldauer, HRTW (Hofmann, Richert, Tepel, and Weidenmueller), KKM (Kawai-Kerman-McVoy), and GOE (Gaussian orthogonal ensemble).

  8. Measurement of inelastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering from DNA bases

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Marc; Bazin, Marc.; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Determine experimentally the absolute cross sections (CS) to deposit various amount of energies into DNA bases by low-energy electron (LEE) impact. Materials and methods Electron energy loss (EEL) spectra of DNA bases are recorded for different LEE impact energies on the molecules deposited at very low coverage on an inert argon (Ar) substrate. Following their normalisation to the effective incident electron current and molecular surface number density, the EEL spectra are then fitted with multiple Gaussian functions in order to delimit the various excitation energy regions. The CS to excite a molecule into its various excitation modes are finally obtained from computing the area under the corresponding Gaussians. Results The EEL spectra and absolute CS for the electronic excitations of pyrimidine and the DNA bases thymine, adenine, and cytosine by electron impacts below 18 eV are reported for the molecules deposited at about monolayer coverage on a solid Ar substrate. Conclusions The CS for electronic excitations of DNA bases by LEE impact are found to lie within the 10−16 – 10−18 cm2 range. The large value of the total ionisation CS indicates that ionisation of DNA bases by LEE is an important dissipative process via which ionising radiation degrades and is absorbed in DNA. PMID:21615242

  9. The high energy behavior of the forward scattering parameters -- {sigma}{sub tot}, {rho}, and B

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M.; Halzen, F.; Margolis, B.; White, A.R.

    1994-10-01

    Utilizing the most recent experimental data, the authors reanalyze high energy {anti p}p and pp data, using, two distinct (and dissimilar) analysis techniques: (1) asymptotic amplitude analysis, under the assumption that they have reached ``asymptopia``, and (2) an eikonal model whose amplitudes are designed to mimic real QCD amplitudes. The former gives strong evidence for a log(s/s{sub o}) dependence at current energies and not log{sup 2}(s/s{sub o}), and demonstrates that odderons are not necessary to explain the experimental data. The latter gives a unitary model for extrapolation into true ``asymptopia`` from current energies, allowing the authors to predict the values of the total cross section at future supercolliders. Using the QCD-model, they obtain {sigma}{sub tot}(16 TeV) = 109 {+-} 4mb and {sigma}{sub tot}(40 TeV) = 124 {+-} 4 mb.

  10. Resolution and transfer width of thermal energy atomic scattering from solid surfaces (TEAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, G.

    1999-04-01

    The resolution of TEAS has been investigated as a function of energy spread of atomic beam. The model calculations have been executed within the framework of time dependent Schrödinger equation. The energy spread of realistic atomic beam has been taken into account by a wave-packet. The wave-packet describes the atomic beam as an ensemble of independent particles by quantum mechanics. Taking ideally periodic surface the resolution of diffraction peaks increases when the energy spread is decreased. This fact underlines the higher efficiency of the supersonic atomic source than the effusive atomic source. Furthermore the transfer width of experimental equipment increases—when the atomic beam monochromaticity is also increased—according to the concept of the transfer width. The relation between the transfer width and the size of the period of the surface topography significantly determines the resolution of the diffraction pattern.

  11. A new potential energy surface for OH(A 2Σ+)-Kr: the van der Waals complex and inelastic scattering.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, H; Brouard, M; Chang, Y-P; Eyles, C J; Perkins, T; Seamons, S A; Kłos, J; Alexander, M H; Aoiz, F J

    2012-10-21

    New ab initio studies of the OH(A(2)Σ(+))-Kr system reveal significantly deeper potential energy wells than previously believed, particularly for the linear configuration in which Kr is bound to the oxygen atom side of OH(A(2)Σ(+)). In spite of this difference with previous work, bound state calculations based on a new RCCSD(T) potential energy surface yield an energy level structure in reasonable accord with previous studies. However, the new calculations suggest the need for a reassignment of the vibrational levels of the electronically excited complex. Quantum mechanical and quasi-classical trajectory scattering calculations are also performed on the new potential energy surface. New experimental measurements of rotational inelastic scattering cross sections are reported, obtained using Zeeman quantum beat spectroscopy. The values of the rotational energy transfer cross sections measured experimentally are in good agreement with those derived from the dynamical calculations on the new adiabatic potential energy surface.

  12. Elastic scattering and transfer reactions for the system 7Be + 58Ni at Coulomb barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocco, M.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Glodariu, T.; Guglielmetti, A.; Keeley, N.; La Commara, M.; Lay, J. A.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Parascandolo, C.; Parkar, V. V.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Rusek, K.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Stroe, L.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the reaction induced by the Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be on the closed proton shell nucleus 58Ni at 22.0 MeV bombarding energy. The 7Be beam was produced by means of the in-flight technique with the facility EXOTIC at INFN-LNL (Italy). Charged reaction products were mass and charge identified in a rather wide angular range and their energy distributions were analyzed to infer some information on the production mechanism. The relevance of direct processes, especially 3He- and 4He-stripping, as well as compound nucleus reactions is critically reviewed.

  13. Scintillation efficiency of liquid argon in low energy neutron-argon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creus, W.; Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C.; Ferella, A. D.; Rochet, J.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Walter, M.

    2015-08-01

    Experiments searching for weak interacting massive particles with noble gases such as liquid argon require very low detection thresholds for nuclear recoils. A determination of the scintillation efficiency is crucial to quantify the response of the detector at low energy. We report the results obtained with a small liquid argon cell using a monoenergetic neutron beam produced by a deuterium-deuterium fusion source. The light yield relative to electrons was measured for six argon recoil energies between 11 and 120 keV at zero electric drift field.

  14. Measurement of the beam-recoil polarization in low-energy virtual Compton scattering from the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, L.; Janssens, P.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Baumann, D.; Bensafa, I.; Benali, M.; Beričič, J.; Bernauer, J. C.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; D'Hose, N.; Defaÿ, X.; Ding, M.; Distler, M. O.; Fonvieille, H.; Friedrich, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Laveissière, G.; Makek, M.; Marroncle, J.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pasquini, B.; Pochodzalla, J.; Postavaru, O.; Potokar, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sánchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Seimetz, M.; Širca, S.; Tamas, G.; Van de Vyver, R.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Van Overloop, A.; Walcher, Th.; Weinriefer, M.; A1 Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Double-polarization observables in the reaction e ⃗p →e'p ⃗'γ have been measured at Q2=0.33 (GeV/c ) 2 . The experiment was performed at the spectrometer setup of the A1 Collaboration using the 855 MeV polarized electron beam provided by the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) and a recoil proton polarimeter. From the double-polarization observables the structure function PLT ⊥ is extracted for the first time, with the value (-15.4 ±3 .3(stat .)-2.4+1.5(syst.)) GeV-2 , using the low-energy theorem for virtual Compton scattering. This structure function provides a hitherto unmeasured linear combination of the generalized polarizabilities of the proton.

  15. Spin effects in pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering at high energies and fixed angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavleishvili, M. P.

    1989-05-01

    Based on the study of the general structure of helicity amplitudes, obligatory kinematic factors are separated and the so-called dynamic amplitudes are introduced. These factors make conservation laws fulfill and contain all the kinematic singularities of helicity amplitudes. Via the dynamic amplitudes, the observable quantities are expressed in a simple form. Kinematic factors play the role of weighting functions. At high energies and fixed angles these factors turn into small parameters which suppress contributions of some helicity amplitudes, and enhance contributions of others. So we get the kinematic hierarchy for binary processes. As an example we consider πN- and NN-scattering. Predictions are given for some asymmetry parameters which do not coincide with the helicity conservation rules, predicted by QCD.

  16. Reaction mechanism and characteristics of T20 in d+3He backward elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanifuji, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Uesaka, T.; Sakamoto, N.; Satou, Y.; Itoh, K.; Sakai, H.; Tamii, A.; Ohnishi, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Yako, K.; Sakoda, S.; Okamura, H.; Suda, K.; Wakasa, T.

    2000-02-01

    For backward elastic scattering of deuterons by 3He, cross sections σ, and tensor analyzing power T20 are measured at Ed=140-270 MeV. The data are analyzed by the plane wave impluse approximation (PWIA) and by the general formula which includes virtual excitations of other channels, with the assumption of the proton transfer from 3He to the deuteron. Using 3He wave functions calculated by the Faddeev equation, the PWIA describes global features of the experimental data, while the virtual excitation effects are important for quantitative fits to the T20 data. Theoretical predictions on T20, Kyy (polarization transfer coefficient), and Cyy (spin correlation coefficient) are provided up to GeV energies.

  17. Low-energy electron scattering in carbon-based materials analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and its application to sample thickness determination.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, M; Müller, E; Klein, M F G; Colsmann, A; Lemmer, U; Krzyzanek, V; Reichelt, R; Gerthsen, D

    2011-07-01

    High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) at low energies (≤30 keV) was used to study quantitatively electron scattering in amorphous carbon and carbon-based materials. Experimental HAADF STEM intensities from samples with well-known composition and thickness are compared with results of Monte Carlo simulations and semiempirical equations describing multiple electron scattering. A well-defined relationship is found between the maximum HAADF STEM intensity and sample thickness which is exploited (a) to derive a quantitative description for the mean quadratic scattering angle and (b) to calculate the transmitted HAADF STEM intensity as a function of the relevant materials parameters and electron energy. The formalism can be also applied to determine TEM sample thicknesses by minimizing the contrast of the sample as a function of the electron energy.

  18. Energy Distributions of Neutrons Scattered from Graphite, Light and Heavy Water, Ice, Zirconium Hydride, Lithium Hydride, Sodium Hydride and Ammonium Chloride by the Beryllium Detector Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Woods, A. D. B.; Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Sakamoto, M.; Sinclair, R. N.

    1960-09-12

    Energy distributions of neutrons scattered from various moderators and from several hydrogenous substances were measured at energy transfers of 0.02 to 0.24 ev. Results from experiments on graphite, light and heavy water, ice, ZrH, LiH, NaH, and NH4Cl are included. It is noted that the results are of a preliminary character; however, they are probably the most accurate measurements of high-energy transfers yet made. (J.R.D.)

  19. Modelization For Electromagnetic Electron Scattering at Low Energies for Radiotherapy applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaryan, Vahagn; Gueye, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Since release of the GEANT4 particle simulation toolkit in 2003, there has been a growing interest in its applications to medical physics. The applicability of GEANT4 to radiotherapy has been a subject of several investigations in recent years, and it was found to be of great use. Its low-energy model allows for electromagnetic interaction simulations down to 250 eV. The electron physics data are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL). At very lower energies (below 10 MeV), some of the tabulated data in EEDL have big uncertainties (more than 50%), and rely on various extrapolations to energy regions where there is no experimental data. We have investigated the variations of these cross-section data to radiotherapy applications. Our study suggests a strong need for better theoretical models of electron interactions with matter at these energies, and the necessity of new and more reliable experimental data. The progress towards such theoretical model will be presented.

  20. Analyses of alpha-alpha elastic scattering data in the energy range 140 - 280 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehadeh, Zuhair F.

    2017-01-01

    The differential and the reaction cross-sections for 4He-4He elastic scattering data have been nicely obtained at four energies ranging from 140 MeV to 280 MeV (lab system), namely, 140, 160, 198 and 280 MeV, by using a new optical potential with a short-range repulsive core. The treatment has been handled relativistically as v/c > 0.25 for the two lower energies and v/c > 0.31 for the two higher ones. In addition to explaining the elastic angular distributions, the adopted potentials accounted for the structure that may exist at angles close to 90°, especially for the 198 and the 280-MeV incident energies. No renormalization has been used, and all our potential parameters are new. The necessity of including a short-range repulsive potential term in our real nuclear potential part has been demonstrated. Our results contribute to solving a long-standing problem concerning the nature of the alpha-alpha potential. This is very beneficial in explaining unknown alpha-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus relativistic reactions by using the cluster formalism.

  1. Measurement of Coherent π+ Production in Low Energy Neutrino-Carbon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Antonova, M.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Ban, S.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Calland, R. G.; Campbell, T.; Cao, S.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Collazuol, G.; Coplowe, D.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Denner, P. F.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K. E.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S. G.; Giganti, C.; Gizzarelli, F.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Harada, J.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Hogan, M.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Intonti, R. A.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kim, H.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Knight, A.; Knox, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Konaka, A.; Kondo, K.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Lasorak, P.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Liptak, Z. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Li, X.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Lu, X.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, K. D.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Novella, P.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Patel, N. D.; Pavin, M.; Payne, D.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pickering, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radermacher, T.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Shirahige, T.; Short, S.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Stewart, T.; Stowell, P.; Suda, Y.; Suvorov, S.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thakore, T.; Thompson, L. F.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vallari, Z.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    We report the first measurement of the flux-averaged cross section for charged current coherent π+ production on carbon for neutrino energies less than 1.5 GeV, and with a restriction on the final state phase space volume in the T2K near detector, ND280. Comparisons are made with predictions from the Rein-Sehgal coherent production model and the model by Alvarez-Ruso et al., the latter representing the first implementation of an instance of the new class of microscopic coherent models in a neutrino interaction Monte Carlo event generator. We observe a clear event excess above background, disagreeing with the null results reported by K2K and SciBooNE in a similar neutrino energy region. The measured flux-averaged cross sections are below those predicted by both the Rein-Sehgal and Alvarez-Ruso et al. models.

  2. Measurement of Coherent π^{+} Production in Low Energy Neutrino-Carbon Scattering.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Andreopoulos, C; Antonova, M; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Ban, S; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buizza Avanzini, M; Calland, R G; Campbell, T; Cao, S; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Chikuma, N; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Coplowe, D; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Denner, P F; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K E; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, D; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S G; Giganti, C; Gizzarelli, F; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Harada, J; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Hogan, M; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Hosomi, F; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, H; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Knight, A; Knox, A; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Konaka, A; Kondo, K; Kopylov, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Lasorak, P; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Liptak, Z J; Litchfield, R P; Li, X; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Lu, X; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Ma, W Y; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, K D; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Novella, P; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Patel, N D; Pavin, M; Payne, D; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pickering, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radermacher, T; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaikhiev, A; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Shirahige, T; Short, S; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Stewart, T; Stowell, P; Suda, Y; Suvorov, S; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thakore, T; Thompson, L F; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vallari, Z; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, M; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2016-11-04

    We report the first measurement of the flux-averaged cross section for charged current coherent π^{+} production on carbon for neutrino energies less than 1.5 GeV, and with a restriction on the final state phase space volume in the T2K near detector, ND280. Comparisons are made with predictions from the Rein-Sehgal coherent production model and the model by Alvarez-Ruso et al., the latter representing the first implementation of an instance of the new class of microscopic coherent models in a neutrino interaction Monte Carlo event generator. We observe a clear event excess above background, disagreeing with the null results reported by K2K and SciBooNE in a similar neutrino energy region. The measured flux-averaged cross sections are below those predicted by both the Rein-Sehgal and Alvarez-Ruso et al.

  3. Low energy n-{sup 3}H scattering: A novel testground for nuclear interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, R.; Carbonell, J.; Fonseca, A.C.; Viviani, M.; Kievsky, A.; Rosati, S.

    2005-03-01

    Low energy n-{sup 3}H elastic cross sections near the resonance peak are calculated by solving the four-nucleon problem with realistic NN interactions. Three different methods - Alt, Grassberger, and Shandas; hyperspherical harmonics; and Faddeev-Yakubovsky - have been used and their respective results are compared. We conclude on a failure of the existing NN forces to reproduce the n-{sup 3}H total cross section.

  4. The MUNU experiment on low energy overlineνee- scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broggini, C.; MUNU Collaboration

    2002-07-01

    We built a low background detector to measure the overlineνee- elastic cross section at low energy. The detector has been installed close to a nuclear reactor in Bugey and it is running since almost 2 years. After having reduced the electron background by more than three orders of magnitude we have now the evidence, for the first time, of the overlineνe peak from the reactor.

  5. Microscopic study on proton elastic scattering of helium and lithium isotopes at energy range up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, M. Y. H.; Esmael, E. H.; Maridi, H. M.

    2014-03-01

    The proton elastic scattering data on 4,6,8 He and 6,7,9,11Li nuclei at energies below 160 MeV/nucleon are analyzed using the optical model. The optical potential (OP) is taken microscopically, with few and limited fitting parameters, using the single folding model for the real part and high-energy approximation (HEA) for the imaginary one. Clear dependencies of the volume integrals on energy and rms radii are obtained from the results. The calculated differential and the reaction cross sections are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In general, this OP with few and limited fitting parameters, which have a systematic behavior with incident energy and matter radii, successfully describes the proton elastic scattering data with stable and exotic light nuclei at energies up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

  6. Mapping the deformation in the "island of inversion": Inelastic scattering of 30Ne and 36Mg at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornenbal, P.; Scheit, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Aoi, N.; Li, K.; Matsushita, M.; Steppenbeck, D.; Wang, H.; Baba, H.; Ideguchi, E.; Kobayashi, N.; Kondo, Y.; Lee, J.; Michimasa, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Poves, A.; Sakurai, H.; Takechi, M.; Togano, Y.; Yoneda, K.

    2016-04-01

    The transition strengths of the first-excited 2+ states and deformation lengths of the nuclei 30Ne and 36Mg were determined via Coulomb- and nuclear-force-dominated inelastic scattering at intermediate energies. Beams of these exotic nuclei were produced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory and were incident on lead and carbon targets at energies above 200 MeV/u . Absolute excitation cross sections on the lead target yielded reduced transition probabilities of 0.0277(79) and 0.0528(121) e2b2 , while the measurements with the carbon target revealed nuclear deformation lengths of δN=1.98 (11) and 1.93(11) fm for 30Ne and 36Mg, respectively. Corresponding quadrupole deformation parameters of β2˜0.5 from the two probes were found comparable in magnitude, showing no indication for a reduction in deformation along isotopic and isotonic chains from 32Mg towards the neutron drip-line. Comparisons to shell-model calculations illustrate the importance of neutron excitations across the N =20 shell for 30Ne and suggest that shallow maximums of collectivity may occur around N =22 and 24 along the neon and magnesium isotopic chains, respectively.

  7. New opportunities for quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering at steady-state sources using mechanical selection of the incident and final neutron energy

    DOE PAGES

    Mamantov, Eugene

    2015-06-12

    We propose a modification of the neutron wide-angle velocity selector (WAVES) device that enables inelastic (in particular, quasielastic) scattering measurements not relying on the neutron time-of-flight. The proposed device is highly suitable for a steady-state neutron source, somewhat similar to a triple-axis spectrometer, but with simultaneous selection of the incident and final neutron energy over a broad range of scattering momentum transfer. Both the incident and final neutron velocities are defined by the WAVES geometry and rotation frequency. The variable energy transfer is achieved through the natural variation of the velocity of the transmitted neutrons as a function of themore » scattering angle component out of the equatorial plane.« less

  8. New opportunities for quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering at steady-state sources using mechanical selection of the incident and final neutron energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, Eugene

    2015-06-12

    We propose a modification of the neutron wide-angle velocity selector (WAVES) device that enables inelastic (in particular, quasielastic) scattering measurements not relying on the neutron time-of-flight. The proposed device is highly suitable for a steady-state neutron source, somewhat similar to a triple-axis spectrometer, but with simultaneous selection of the incident and final neutron energy over a broad range of scattering momentum transfer. Both the incident and final neutron velocities are defined by the WAVES geometry and rotation frequency. The variable energy transfer is achieved through the natural variation of the velocity of the transmitted neutrons as a function of the scattering angle component out of the equatorial plane.

  9. A finite-element visualization of quantum reactive scattering. II. Nonadiabaticity on coupled potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Warehime, Mick; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.

    2015-01-21

    This is the second in a series of papers detailing a MATLAB based implementation of the finite element method applied to collinear triatomic reactions. Here, we extend our previous work to reactions on coupled potential energy surfaces. The divergence of the probability current density field associated with the two electronically adiabatic states allows us to visualize in a novel way where and how nonadiabaticity occurs. A two-dimensional investigation gives additional insight into nonadiabaticity beyond standard one-dimensional models. We study the F({sup 2}P) + HCl and F({sup 2}P) + H{sub 2} reactions as model applications. Our publicly available code (http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/alexander/FEM) is general and easy to use.

  10. Energy dissipation in heavy systems: the transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; van den Berg, A.; Kolata, J.J.; Kovar, D.G.; Kutschera, W.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Yntema, J.L.; Lee, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of medium mass projectiles (A = 28 - 64) with /sup 208/Pb has been studied using a split-pole spectrograph which allows single mass and charge identification. The reaction process in all systems studied so far is dominated by quasi-elastic neutron transfer reactions, especially at incident energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In addition to the quasi-elastic component deep inelastic contributions are present in all reaction channels. The good mass and charge separation allows to generate Wilczynski plots for individual channels; for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb we observe that the transition between the quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic reactions occurs around Q = -(30 to 35) MeV.

  11. Limits on Light-Speed Anisotropies from Compton Scattering of High-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, J.-P.; Moricciani, D.; Bellini, V.; Beretta, M.; Casano, L.; D'Angelo, A.; di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Franco, D.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.; Giardina, G.; Girolami, B.; Giusa, A.; Gurzadyan, V. G.; Kashin, A.; Knyazyan, S.; Lapik, A.; Lehnert, R.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lleres, A.; Mammoliti, F.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Margarian, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Messi, R.; Nedorezov, V.; Perrin, C.; Randieri, C.; Rebreyend, D.; Rudnev, N.; Russo, G.; Schaerf, C.; Sperduto, M. L.; Sutera, M. C.; Turinge, A.; Vegna, V.

    2010-06-01

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility’s GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropies representing the first nonthreshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal standard-model extension, this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6×10-14 at 95% confidence level on a combination of the parity-violating photon and electron coefficients (κ˜o+)YZ, (κ˜o+)ZX, cTX, and cTY. This new constraint provides an improvement over previous bounds by 1 order of magnitude.

  12. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons.

    PubMed

    Bocquet, J-P; Moricciani, D; Bellini, V; Beretta, M; Casano, L; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Gurzadyan, V G; Kashin, A; Knyazyan, S; Lapik, A; Lehnert, R; Levi Sandri, P; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Margarian, A; Mehrabyan, S; Messi, R; Nedorezov, V; Perrin, C; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2010-06-18

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropies representing the first nonthreshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal standard-model extension, this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6×10(-14) at 95% confidence level on a combination of the parity-violating photon and electron coefficients (κ(o+))(YZ), (κ(o+))(ZX), c(TX), and c(TY). This new constraint provides an improvement over previous bounds by 1 order of magnitude.

  13. Collision energy dependence of state-to-state differential cross sections for rotationally inelastic scattering of H2O by He.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Gautam; Saha, Ashim Kumar; Bishwakarma, Chandan Kumar; Scheidsbach, Roy; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Parker, David; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Buck, Udo; Mavridis, Lazaros; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2017-02-08

    The inelastic scattering of H2O by He as a function of collision energy in the range 381 cm(-1) to 763 cm(-1) at an energy interval of approximately 100 cm(-1) has been investigated in a crossed beam experiment using velocity map imaging. Change in collision energy was achieved by varying the collision angle between the H2O and He beam. We measured the state-to-state differential cross section (DCS) of scattered H2O products for the final rotational states JKaKc = 110, 111, 221 and 414. Rotational excitation of H2O is probed by (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy. DCS measurements over a wide range of collision energies allowed us to probe the H2O-He potential energy surface (PES) with greater detail than in previous work. We found that a classical approximation of rotational rainbows can predict the collision energy dependence of the DCS. Close-coupling quantum mechanical calculations were used to produce DCS and partial cross sections. The forward-backward ratio (FBR), is introduced here to compare the experimental and theoretical DCS. Both theory and experiments suggest that an increase in the collision energy is accompanied with more forward scattering.

  14. A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD renormalization is described, with applications to high energy elastic pp-scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, H. M.; Tsang, P. H.; Gabellini, Y.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2016-11-01

    A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.

  15. (A neutron scattering experiment to study the high-energy spin dynamics of the itinerant antiferromagnet Mn sub 90 Cu sub 10 )

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Baca, J.A.

    1990-10-26

    The traveler performed a neutron scattering experiment to study the high-energy spin dynamics of the itinerant antiferromagnet. This experiment was conducted at a unique instrument located at the hot-neutron source at the ILL. The traveler also held various scientific discussions with ILL research staff members and visiting scientists.

  16. An energy dispersive x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics study of liquid dimethyl carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontrani, Lorenzo; Russina, Olga; Marincola, Flaminia Cesare; Caminiti, Ruggero

    2009-12-01

    In this work, we report on the first x-ray diffraction study on liquid dimethyl carbonate. Diffraction spectra were collected with an energy-dispersive instrument, whose wide Q-range allows the structure determination of weakly ordered systems (such as liquids). The structural correlation in this liquid ranges up to about 20 Å. The observed patterns are interpreted with a structural model derived from classical molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations were run using OPLS force field, only slightly modified to restrain bond distances to the experimental values. The model structure function and radial distribution functions, averaged among the productive trajectory frames, are in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. Molecular dynamics results show that the deviations from C2v cis-cis structure, predicted by ab initio calculations and observed by electron diffraction in the gas phase, are small. By analyzing the intra- and intermolecular pair distribution functions, it was possible to assign the peaks of the experimental radial distribution function to specific structural correlations, and to compute the different average intermolecular coordination numbers. The intermolecular methyl-carbonyl oxygen distance is thoroughly discussed to assess the presence of weak C-H⋯ṡO hydrogen bonds.

  17. An analytical approach to the multiply scattered light in the optical images of the extensive air showers of ultra-high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Maria; Śmiałkowski, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    One of the methods for studying the highest energy cosmic rays is to measure the fluorescence light emitted by the extensive air showers induced by them. To reconstruct a shower cascade curve from measurements of the number of photons arriving from the subsequent shower track elements it is necessary to take into account the multiple scatterings that photons undergo on their way from the shower to the detector. In contrast to the earlier Monte-Carlo work, we present here an analytical method to treat the Rayleigh and Mie scatterings in the atmosphere. The method consists in considering separately the consecutive 'generations' of the scattered light. Starting with a point light source in a uniform medium, we then examine a source in a real atmosphere and finally - a moving source (shower) in it. We calculate the angular distributions of the scattered light superimposed on the not scattered light registered from a shower at a given time. The analytical solutions (although approximate) show how the exact numerical results should be parametrised what we do for the first two generations (the contribution of the higher ones being small). Not allowing for the considered effect may lead to an overestimation of shower primary energy by ˜15% and to an underestimation of the primary particle mass (E0=1019eV with the core distance 25 km and θZ=40°).

  18. Proton-proton elastic scattering analyzing power in the 2.16 to 2.28 GeV energy region.

    SciTech Connect

    Arvieux, J.; Ball, J.; Bystricky, J.; Fontaine, J. M.; Gaillard, G.; Goudour, J. P.; Hess, R.; Kunne, R.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Lopiano, D.; de Mali, M.; Perrot-Kunne, F.; Rapin, D.; van Rossum, L.; Sans, J. L.; Spinka, H. M.; High Energy Physics; Lab. National Saturne; CEA; Univ. of Geneva; CENB; Lab. National Saturne; Univ. of Geneva

    1997-11-01

    The angular dependence of the pp elastic scattering analyzing power was measured at SATURNE II with an unpolarized proton beam and the Saclay polarized proton target. The energy region in the vicinity of the accelerator depolarizing resonance G g = 6 at Tkin = 2.202 GeV was studied. Measurements were carried out at seven energies between 2.16 and 2.28 GeV from 17 to 55 CM. No significant anomaly was observed in the angular and energy dependence of the results presented, whereas the existing data sets differ in this energy range.

  19. High-Energy-Resolution Inelastic Electron and Proton Scattering and the Multiphonon Nature of Mixed-Symmetry 2{sup +} States in {sup 94}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Holt, J. D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholten, O.

    2007-08-31

    High-energy-resolution inelastic electron scattering (at the S-DALINAC) and proton scattering (at iThemba LABS) experiments permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states of the nucleus {sup 94}Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic nuclear model calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2{sup +} states is extracted.

  20. Feasibility for direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and scattering analysis of complex matrix liquids by partial least squares.

    PubMed

    Angeyo, K H; Gari, S; Mustapha, A O; Mangala, J M

    2012-11-01

    The greatest challenge to material characterization by XRF technique is encountered in direct trace analysis of complex matrices. We exploited partial least squares (PLS) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry to rapidly (200 s) analyze lubricating oils. The PLS-EDXRFS method affords non-invasive quality assurance (QA) analysis of complex matrix liquids as it gave optimistic results for both heavy- and low-Z metal additives. Scatter peaks may further be used for QA characterization via the light elements.

  1. Differential cross sections for intermediate-energy electron scattering from α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol: Excitation of electronic-states

    SciTech Connect

    Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Thorn, P. A.; Pettifer, Z.; Duque, H. V.; Silva, G. B. da; Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; and others

    2014-07-14

    We report on measurements of differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of Rydberg electronic-states in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). The energy range of these experiments was 20–50 eV, while the scattered electron was detected in the 10°–90° angular range. There are currently no other experimental data or theoretical computations against which we can directly compare the present measured results. Nonetheless, we are able to compare our THFA DCSs with earlier cross section measurements for Rydberg-state electronic excitation for tetrahydrofuran, a similar cyclic ether, from Do et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144302 (2011)]. In addition, “rotationally averaged” elastic DCSs, calculated using our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction approach are also reported. Those latter results give integral cross sections consistent with the optical theorem, and supercede those from the only previous study of Milosavljević et al. [Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 107 (2006)].

  2. Understanding double-resonant Raman scattering in chiral carbon nanotubes: Diameter and energy dependence of the D mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herziger, Felix; Vierck, Asmus; Laudenbach, Jan; Maultzsch, Janina

    2015-12-01

    We present a theoretical model to describe the double-resonant scattering process in arbitrary carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We use this approach to investigate the defect-induced D mode in CNTs and unravel the dependence of the D -mode frequency on the CNT diameter and on the energy of the resonant optical transition. Our approach is based on the symmetry of the hexagonal lattice and geometric considerations; hence the method is independent of the exact model that is chosen to describe the electronic band structure or the phonon dispersion. We finally clarify the diameter dependence of this Raman mode that has been under discussion in the past and demonstrate that, depending on the experimental conditions, in general two different dependencies can be measured. We also prove that CNTs with an arbitrary chiral index can exhibit a D mode in their Raman spectrum, in contrast to previous symmetry-based arguments. Furthermore, we give a direct quantification of the curvature-induced phonon frequency corrections of the D mode in CNTs with respect to graphite.

  3. Feasibility of Parity-Violating Electron Scattering Experiments Below 1 GeV Beam Energy with a Toroidal Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Kurtis

    2015-10-01

    The next generation of high precision parity-violating electron scattering experiments could potentially make use of a toroidal spectrometer to perform additional measurements of the proton's weak charge (Qwp) using a hydrogen target, a test of the Standard Model using a carbon target as well as possibly studying the neutron skin of heavier nuclei. I will present the results of recent Geant4 Monte-Carlo studies performed to test the feasibility of such a toroidal spectrometer at beam energies below 1 GeV employing a concept similar to that used by the recent JLab Qweak measurement. It appears that given sufficient beam time such a measurement could be complementary to the JLab measurement, but at a significantly lower Q2. The feasibility of measuring the neutron skin using such a spectrometer will also be discussed. The key issue for this latter type of measurement is the ability to achieve the necessary resolution to separate the elastic and first excited state. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1206053.

  4. High-Intensity Scattering Processes of Relativistic Electrons in Vacuum and Their Relevance to High-Energy Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Troha, Anthony L.; Baldis, Hector A.; Gupta, Atul; Kerman, Arthur K.; Landahl, Eric C.; Luhmann, Neville C. Jr.; Van Meter, James R.

    2000-04-01

    The recent advent of ultra-short pulse, high-intensity lasers, together with advances in other novel technologies, such as high-gradient radiofrequency photoinjectors, have afforded researchers the possibility to simulate astrophysical conditions in the laboratory. Laser-produced plasmas have been successfully used to simulate astrophysical plasmas and supernovae in the laboratory for several years. Now, femtosecond laser systems operating in the terawatt to petawatt range are available, as are synchronized relativistic electron bunches with subpicosecond durations and terahertz bandwidths. With these tools, experiments have been conducted to study phenomena related to supernova explosions, stellar winds, solar coronae, cosmic rays, planetary and celestial matter, and interstellar plasmas. Other experiments have been proposed to investigate Unruh radiation, as well as ponderomotive scattering, which can accelerate electrons in vacuum to relativistic energies using the extremely high gradients in a three-dimensional laser focus. The nonlinear Doppler shift induced by ultrarelativistic radiation pressure is shown to yield complex nonlinear Compton backscattered spectra. Finally, strong radiative corrections are expected when the Doppler-upshifted laser wavelength approaches the Compton scale. These are discussed within the context of high-field classical electrodynamics, a new discipline borne out of the aforementioned innovations. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  5. Low-energy ππ and πK scatterings revisited in three-flavour resummed chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descotes-Genon, S.

    2007-09-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking may exhibit significantly different patterns in two chiral limits: Nf=2 massless flavours (mu=md=0, ms physical) and Nf=3 massless flavours (mu=md=ms=0). Such a difference may arise due to vacuum fluctuations of ss¯ pairs related to the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector, and it could yield numerical competition between contributions counted as leading and next-to-leading order in the chiral expansions of the observables. We recall and extend resummed chiral perturbation theory (ReχPT), a framework that we introduced previously to deal with such instabilities: it requires a more careful definition of the relevant observables and their one-loop chiral expansions. We analyse the amplitudes for low-energy ππ and πK scatterings within ReχPT, which we match in subthreshold regions with dispersive representations obtained from the solutions of the Roy and Roy-Steiner equations. Using a frequentist approach, we constrain the quark mass ratio as well as the quark condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant in the Nf=3 chiral limit. The results mildly favour significant contributions of vacuum fluctuations suppressing the Nf=3 quark condensate compared to its Nf=2 counterpart.

  6. Theoretical study of low-energy electron scattering with GeH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaotian; Wang, Kedong; Meng, Ju; Guo, Shuangcheng; Xu, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of electron collisions with germylene (GeH2 using the UK molecular R-matrix codes for electron energies ranging from 0.01 to 10 eV. The calculations are performed within the static-exchange, static-exchange-polarization, and 17-state close-coupling approximations. The elastic integral, differential, momentum transfer cross sections and the excitation cross sections from the ground state to the six low-lying electron excited states are presented. We found three Feshbach resonances and one Core-excited resonance. These resonances reveal the probability of anion formation by an electron attachment process and further decay to neutral and negative ion fragments. The electronic and rotational excitation cross sections for e-GeH2 scattering are reported for the first time. The cross-section dataset obtained from the present calculations are expected to be sufficiently accurate and comprehensive for most current modeling applications involving neutral GeH2.

  7. Surface structure and dipole moments of RbI(001) determined by high-resolution medium-energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazawa, T.; Hoshino, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Kido, Y.

    2001-11-01

    The surface structure of RbI(001) was determined directly by means of medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) with a monolayer depth resolution. The rumpled surface structure determined here was compared with semi-classical shell-model calculations. On the basis of a simple model regarding the lattice site ion as a point charge accompanied by a dipole moment, we evaluated the dipole moments of the top- and second-layer I- and Rb+ ions self-consistently from the relaxed lattice positions determined by means of MEIS and from the polarizabilities estimated systematically from experimental refraction data. The balance between a short-range force and a long-range coulombic one determined the equilibrium positions of the top- and second-layer ions; these are consistent with those derived by means of MEIS within the experimental uncertainties of 0.02 Å. This indicates that the polarizablities derived from the refraction data and the interatomic (short-range) potentials of the Born-Mayer type are applicable.

  8. Interaction of intermediate-energy protons with {sup 20}Ne and {sup 24}Mg nuclei within the multiple-scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Mikhailyuk, V. P.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    2011-04-15

    Observables of the elastic and inelastic scattering of 800- and 250-MeV protons on {sup 20}Ne and {sup 24}Mg nuclei were calculated on the basis of the theory of multiple diffractive scattering and the dispersive {alpha}-cluster model. The {sup 20}Ne and {sup 24}Mg nuclei were assumed to consist of a core ({sup 16}O nucleus) and additional alpha-particle clusters, which could be situated with the highest probability both in the vicinity of the center of mass of the core and outside the core. The multiparticle densities of these nuclei and single-particle nucleon-distribution densities as obtained from the dispersive {alpha}-cluster model were used in the calculations. The differential cross sections and polarizations for elastic and inelastic p{sup 20}Ne and p{sup 24}Mg scattering at the energy of 800 MeV are in better agreement with experimental data than the analogous calculations at the energy of 250 MeV. The spin-rotation functions calculated in the singleparticle approximation for elastic p{sup 20}Ne and p{sup 24}Mg scattering at these two energy values differ qualitatively from their counterparts calculated on the basis of the dispersive {alpha}-cluster model.

  9. Resonant X-ray scattering measurements of a spatial modulation of the Cu 3d and O 2p energies in stripe-ordered cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Achkar, A J; He, F; Sutarto, R; Geck, J; Zhang, H; Kim, Y-J; Hawthorn, D G

    2013-01-04

    A prevailing description of the stripe phase in underdoped cuprate superconductors is that the charge carriers (holes) phase segregate on a microscopic scale into hole-rich and hole-poor regions. We report resonant elastic x-ray scattering measurements of stripe-ordered La(1.475)Nd(0.4)Sr(0.125)CuO(4) at the Cu L and O K absorption edges that identify an additional feature of stripe order. Analysis of the energy dependence of the scattering intensity reveals that the dominant signature of the stripe order is a spatial modulation in the energies of Cu 3d and O 2p states rather than the large modulation of the charge density (valence) envisioned in the common stripe paradigm. These energy shifts are interpreted as a spatial modulation of the electronic structure and may point to a valence-bond-solid interpretation of the stripe phase.

  10. Neutron Scattering Study of Low Energy Magnetic Excitation in superconducting Te-vapor annealed under-doped FeTeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijun; Yi, Ming; Xu, Guangyong; Shneeloch, J. A.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Chi, Songxue; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    To study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, we have performed neutron scattering and magnetization measurements on a Te vapor annealed single crystal Fe1 +yTe0.8Se0.2 (Tc~13K) sample. Te vapor annealed process is found to reduce/remove the excess Fe in the as-grown sample and make the under-doped originally non-superconducting sample become good superconducting sample. Our neutron scattering studies show both spin gap and spin resonance found in the Te vapor annealed superconducting sample. Comparing to commensurate spin resonance in as-grown optimal-doped sample, the spin resonance of Te annealed sample only shows up at the clearly incommensurate positions. The temperature and energy dependence of low energy magnetic excitations are also measured in the sample. This work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE.

  11. Investigation of the elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles from 13C in the energy range 26.6-65MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtebayev, N.; Sakhiyev, S. K.; Janseitov, D. M.; Kerimkulov, Zh.; Alimov, D.; Danilov, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured the differential cross-sections for the elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles on 13C target at the isochronous cyclotron U-150 M INP Republic of Kazakhstan. The beam energies of α-particles were 29MeV and 50MeV. As a result of research we obtained new experimental data for the α + 13C elastic scattering and inelastic one leading to the 3.68 (3/2-), 6.86 (5/2+) and 7.5 (5/2-)MeV excited states of 13C nucleus. The experimental results on elastic scattering were analyzed within the framework of the optical model using Woods-Saxon potential and the double folding one. The theoretical calculations for the concerned excited states were performed using the coupled channel (CC) method. The optimal deformation parameters for the excited states of 13C nucleus were extracted.

  12. Identifying regions of strong scattering at the core-mantle boundary from analysis of PKKP precursor energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rost, S.; Earle, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    We detect seismic scattering from the core-mantle boundary related to the phase PKKP (PK. KP) in data from small aperture seismic arrays in India and Canada. The detection of these scattered waves in data from small aperture arrays is new and allows a better characterization of the fine-scale structure of the deep Earth especially in the southern hemisphere. Their slowness vector is determined from array processing allowing location of the heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary using back-projection techniques through 1D Earth models. We identify strong scattering at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) beneath the Caribbean, Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula as well as beneath southern Africa. An analysis of the scattering regions relative to sources and receivers indicates that these regions represent areas of increased scattering likely due to increased heterogeneities close to the CMB. The 1. Hz array data used in this study is most sensitive to heterogeneity with scale lengths of about 10. km. Given the small size of the scatterers, a chemical origin of the heterogeneities is likely. By comparing the location of the fine-scale heterogeneity to geodynamical models and tomographic images, we identify different scattering mechanisms in regions related to subduction (Caribbean and Patagonia) and dense thermo chemical piles (Southern Africa). ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. C-phycocyanin hydration water dynamics in the presence of trehalose: an incoherent elastic neutron scattering study at different energy resolutions.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Frank; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2007-06-01

    We present a study of C-phycocyanin hydration water dynamics in the presence of trehalose by incoherent elastic neutron scattering. By combining data from two backscattering spectrometers with a 10-fold difference in energy resolution we extract a scattering law S(Q,omega) from the Q-dependence of the elastic intensities without sampling the quasielastic range. The hydration water is described by two dynamically different populations--one diffusing inside a sphere and the other diffusing quasifreely--with a population ratio that depends on temperature. The scattering law derived describes the experimental data from both instruments excellently over a large temperature range (235-320 K). The effective diffusion coefficient extracted is reduced by a factor of 10-15 with respect to bulk water at corresponding temperatures. Our approach demonstrates the benefits and the efficiency of using different energy resolutions in incoherent elastic neutron scattering over a large angular range for the study of biological macromolecules and hydration water.

  14. Rayleigh Scattering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Andrew T.

    1982-01-01

    The correct usage of such terminology as "Rayleigh scattering,""Rayleigh lines,""Raman lines," and "Tyndall scattering" is resolved during an historical excursion through the physics of light-scattering by gas molecules. (Author/JN)

  15. Angular and charge state distributions of highly charged ions scattered during low energy surface-channeling interactions with Au(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.; Folkerts, L.; Schippers, S.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have measured scattered projectile angular and charge state distributions for 3.75 keV/amu O{sup q+} (3 {le} q {le} 8) and 1.2 keV/amu Ar{sup 1+} (3 {le} q {le} 14) ions grazingly incident along the [110] and [100] directions of a Au(110) single crystal target. Scattered projectile angular distribution characteristic of surface channeling are observed. For both incident species, the dominant scattered charge fraction is neutral, which varies only by a few percent as a function of incident charge state. Significant O{sup {minus}} formation is observed, which manifests a distinct velocity threshold. For incident Ar projectiles with open L-shells, the positive scattered charge fractions, while always less than about 10%, increase linearly with increasing number of initial L-shell vacancies.

  16. Determination of {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O sensitivity factors and charge-exchange processes in low-energy ion scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, H.; Chater, R. J.; Fearn, S.; Symianakis, E.; Kilner, J. A.; Brongersma, H. H.

    2012-10-08

    Quantitative analysis in low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) requires an understanding of the charge-exchange processes to estimate the elemental sensitivity factors. In this work, the neutralization of He{sup +} scattered by {sup 18}O-exchanged silica at energies between 0.6 and 7 keV was studied. The process is dominated by Auger neutralization for E{sub i} < 0.8 keV. An additional mechanism starts above the reionization threshold. This collision-induced neutralization becomes the dominant mechanism for E{sub i} > 2 keV. The ion fractions P{sup +} were determined for Si and O using the characteristic velocity method to quantify the surface density. The {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O sensitivity ratio indicates an 18% higher sensitivity for the heavier O isotope.

  17. Low-energy positron scattering from gas-phase tetrahydrofuran: A quantum treatment of the dynamics and a comparison with experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, J.; Gianturco, F. A.

    2013-11-28

    In this paper we report new quantum calculations of the dynamics for low-energy positrons interacting with gaseous molecules of tetrahydrofuran. The new quantum scattering cross sections are differential and integral cross sections at collision energies between 1.0 and 25.0 eV and include a careful treatment of the additional effects on the scattering process brought about by the permanent dipole moment of the target molecule. The present results are compared with an extensive range of measured data, both for the angular distributions and for the elastic integral cross sections and agree remarkably well with all findings. The new calculated quantities reported here also show the importance of correcting the experimental integral cross sections for the angular discrimination in the forward direction.

  18. Low-energy elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons from SO{sub 2} using the R-matrix method

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Monika; Baluja, K. L.

    2006-04-15

    R-matrix method is used to calculate elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections for electron-SO{sub 2} collision. The electron-impact excitation cross sections for first seven low-lying electronic excited states of SO{sub 2} molecule from the ground state of SO{sub 2} molecule have been calculated for the first time. Sixteen low-lying electronic states of SO{sub 2} molecule are included in the close coupling expansion of the wave function of the entire scattering system, which have vertical excitation energies up to 10.51 eV. Configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions are used to calculate these excitation energies. In our CI model, we keep the core 14 electrons frozen in doubly occupied molecular orbitals 1a{sub 1}, 2a{sub 1}, 3a{sub 1}, 4a{sub 1}, 1b{sub 1}, 1b{sub 2}, 2b{sub 2} and the remaining 18 electrons span the relevant active space: 5a{sub 1}, 6a{sub 1}, 7a{sub 1}, 8a{sub 1}, 9a{sub 1}, 2b{sub 1}, 3b{sub 1}, 3b{sub 2}, 4b{sub 2}, 5b{sub 2}, 6b{sub 2}, and 1a{sub 2}. Our calculated dipole moment of the ground state of SO{sub 2} at its equilibrium geometry is 0.79 a.u., which is in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental value 0.64 a.u. Our calculations detect one bound SO{sub 2}{sup -} state ({sup 2}B{sub 1}) at the equilibrium geometry of SO{sub 2} molecule. Both shape as well as core-excited shape resonances have been identified in the present work and are correlated with the experimental results on dissociative electron attachment study. A detailed analysis of resonances is provided. Cross sections are reported for the electron impact energy range 0-15 eV. All cross section calculations are performed in the fixed-nuclei approximation at the experimental equilibrium geometry of the ground state of SO{sub 2} molecule. We have also investigated dependence of resonances on the geometry of SO{sub 2} molecule to probe the possible pathways for dissociation of resulting negative ion upon electron attachment. We

  19. A new potential energy surface for OH(A 2Sigma(+))-Ar: the van der Waals complex and scattering dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kłos, J; Alexander, M H; Brouard, M; Eyles, C J; Aoiz, F J

    2008-08-07

    New ab initio studies of the OH(A (2)Sigma(+))-Ar system reveal significantly deeper potential energy wells than previously believed, particularly for the linear configuration in which Ar is bound to the oxygen atom side of OH(A (2)Sigma(+)). In spite of this difference with previous ab initio work, bound state calculations based on a new RCCSD(T) potential energy surface yield an energy level structure in reasonable accord with previous theoretical and experimental studies. Preliminary open and closed shell quantum mechanical and quasiclassical trajectory scattering calculations are also performed on the new potential energy surface surface. The findings are discussed in the light of previous theoretical and experimental results for rotational energy transfer in collisions of OH(A (2)Sigma(+)) with Ar.

  20. Quantum reactive scattering of O(3P)+H2 at collision energies up to 4.4 eV.

    PubMed

    Gacesa, Marko; Kharchenko, Vasili

    2014-10-28

    We report the results of quantum scattering calculations for the O((3)P)+H2 reaction for a range of collision energies from 0.4 to 4.4 eV, important for astrophysical and atmospheric processes. The total and state-to-state reactive cross sections are calculated using a fully quantum time-independent coupled-channel approach on recent potential energy surfaces of (3)A' and (3)A″ symmetry. A larger basis set than in the previous studies was used to ensure single-surface convergence at higher energies. Our results agree well with the published data at lower energies and indicate the breakdown of reduced dimensionality approach at collision energies higher than 1.5 eV. Differential cross sections and momentum transfer cross sections are also reported.

  1. Quantum reactive scattering of O({sup 3}P)+H{sub 2} at collision energies up to 4.4 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Gacesa, Marko; Kharchenko, Vasili

    2014-10-28

    We report the results of quantum scattering calculations for the O({sup 3}P)+H{sub 2} reaction for a range of collision energies from 0.4 to 4.4 eV, important for astrophysical and atmospheric processes. The total and state-to-state reactive cross sections are calculated using a fully quantum time-independent coupled-channel approach on recent potential energy surfaces of {sup 3}A{sup ′} and {sup 3}A{sup ″} symmetry. A larger basis set than in the previous studies was used to ensure single-surface convergence at higher energies. Our results agree well with the published data at lower energies and indicate the breakdown of reduced dimensionality approach at collision energies higher than 1.5 eV. Differential cross sections and momentum transfer cross sections are also reported.

  2. On a partial differential equation method for determining the free energies and coexisting phase compositions of ternary mixtures from light scattering data.

    PubMed

    Ross, David S; Thurston, George M; Lutzer, Carl V

    2008-08-14

    In this paper we present a method for determining the free energies of ternary mixtures from light scattering data. We use an approximation that is appropriate for liquid mixtures, which we formulate as a second-order nonlinear partial differential equation. This partial differential equation (PDE) relates the Hessian of the intensive free energy to the efficiency of light scattering in the forward direction. This basic equation applies in regions of the phase diagram in which the mixtures are thermodynamically stable. In regions in which the mixtures are unstable or metastable, the appropriate PDE is the nonlinear equation for the convex hull. We formulate this equation along with continuity conditions for the transition between the two equations at cloud point loci. We show how to discretize this problem to obtain a finite-difference approximation to it, and we present an iterative method for solving the discretized problem. We present the results of calculations that were done with a computer program that implements our method. These calculations show that our method is capable of reconstructing test free energy functions from simulated light scattering data. If the cloud point loci are known, the method also finds the tie lines and tie triangles that describe thermodynamic equilibrium between two or among three liquid phases. A robust method for solving this PDE problem, such as the one presented here, can be a basis for optical, noninvasive means of characterizing the thermodynamics of multicomponent mixtures.

  3. Net electron-phonon scattering rates in InN/GaN multiple quantum wells: The effects of an energy dependent acoustic deformation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, H. Patterson, R.; Feng, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.

    2014-08-11

    The rates of charge carrier relaxation by phonon emission are of substantial importance in the field of hot carrier solar cell, primarily in investigation of mechanisms to slow down hot carrier cooling. In this work, energy and momentum resolved deformation potentials relevant to electron-phonon scattering are computed for wurtzite InN and GaN as well as an InN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superlattice using ab-initio methods. These deformation potentials reveal important features such as discontinuities across the electronic bandgap of the materials and variations over tens of eV. The energy dependence of the deformation potential is found to be very similar for wurtzite nitrides despite differences between the In and Ga pseudopotentials and their corresponding electronic band structures. Charge carrier relaxation by this mechanism is expected to be minimal for electrons within a few eV of the conduction band edge. However, hole scattering at energies more accessible to excitation by solar radiation is possible between heavy and light hole states. Moderate reductions in overall scattering rates are observed in MQW relative to the bulk nitride materials.

  4. Experimental verification of a method to create a variable energy neutron beam from a monoenergetic, isotropic source using neutron elastic scatter and time of flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Flaska, Marek; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the neutron energy of near-monoergetic deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutrons that elastically scatter in a hydrogenous target. The experiment used two liquid scintillators to perform time of flight (TOF) measurements to determine neutron energy, with the start detector also serving as the scatter target. The stop detector was placed 1.0 m away and at scatter angles of π/6, π/4, and π/3 rad, and 1.5 m at a scatter angle of π/4 rad. When discrete 1 ns increments were implemented, the TOF peaks had estimated errors between -21.2 and 3.6% relative to their expected locations. Full widths at half-maximum (FWHM) ranged between 9.6 and 20.9 ns, or approximately 0.56-0.66 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations were also conducted that approximated the experimental setup and had both D-D and deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. The simulated results had errors between -17.2 and 0.0% relative to their expected TOF peaks when 1 ns increments were applied. The largest D-D and D-T FWHMs were 26.7 and 13.7 ns, or approximately 0.85 and 4.98 MeV, respectively. These values, however, can be reduced through manipulation of the dimensions of the system components. The results encourage further study of the neutron elastic scatter TOF system with particular interest in application to active neutron interrogation to search for conventional explosives.

  5. The calculation of the contributions to low energy e+H2 scattering from sigma u+ and Pion u symmetries using the Kohn variational method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, E. A. G.; Baker, D. J.; Plummer, M.

    1990-01-01

    Above incident energies of about 2 eV, the contribution to the total cross section in positron+H2 scattering from the sigma g+ symmetry is insufficient to account for the experimental value. Calculations carried out of the lowest partial waves of sigma u+ symmetry and Pion u symmetry using the Kohn variational method are described. The contributions to the total cross section from the two equivalent partial waves of Pion u symmetry significantly reduce the discrepancy with experiment up to incident energies of 4 to 5 eV. Comparisons are made with recent R-matrix calculations performed by Danby and Tennyson.

  6. Angular dependence of the pp elastic-scattering analyzing power between 0.8 and 2.8 GeV. II. Results for higher energies

    SciTech Connect

    Allgower, C.E.; Beddo, M.E.; Grosnick, D.P.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Lopiano, D.; Spinka, H.M.; Ball, J.; Chamouard, P.; Combet, M.; Fontaine, J.; Kunne, R.; Sans, J.; Janout, Z.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Matafonov, V.N.; Pisarev, I.L.; Popov, A.A.; Usov, Y.A.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Zhdanov, A.A.

    1999-11-01

    Measurements at 18 beam kinetic energies between 1975 and 2795 MeV and at 795 MeV are reported for the pp elastic-scattering single spin parameter A{sub ooon}=A{sub oono}=A{sub N}=P. The c.m. angular range is typically 60{endash}100{degree}. These results are compared to previous data from Saturne II and other accelerators. A search for energy-dependent structure at fixed c.m. angles is performed, but no rapid changes are observed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. A method for measuring coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering at a far off-axis high-energy neutrino beam target

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, S. J.; Cooper, R. L.; DeJongh, F.; Empl, A.; Garrison, L. M.; Hime, A.; Hungerford, E.; Kobilarcik, T.; Loer, B.; Mariani, C.; Mocko, M.; Muhrer, G.; Pattie, R.; Pavlovic, Z.; Ramberg, E.; Scholberg, K.; Tayloe, R.; Thornton, R. T.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.

    2014-04-03

    We present an experimental method for measuring the process of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS). This method uses a detector situated transverse to a high-energy neutrino beam production target. This detector would be sensitive to the low-energy neutrinos arising from decay-at-rest pions in the target. We discuss the physics motivation for making this measurement and outline the predicted backgrounds and sensitivities using this approach. We report a measurement of neutron backgrounds as found in an off-axis surface location of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) target. The results indicate that the Fermilab BNB target is a favorable location for a CENNS experiment.

  8. Low Energy Solar Neutrino Spectroscopy:. Results from the Borexino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, D.

    2011-03-01

    Till very recent the real-time solar neutrino experiments were detecting the tiny fraction of about 0.01% of the total neutrino flux above some MeV energy, the sub-MeV region remained explored only by radiochemical experiments without spectroscopical capabilities. The Borexino experiment, an unsegmented large volume liquid scintillator detector located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in central Italy, is at present the only experiment in the world acquiring the real-time solar neutrino data in the low-energy region, via the elastic scattering on electrons in the target mass. The data taking campaign started in 2007 and rapidly lead to the first independent measurement of the mono-cromatic line of 7Be of the solar neutrino spectrum at 862keV, which is of special interest because of the very loose limits coming from existing experiments. The latest measurement, after 41.3t · yr of exposure, is (49 ± 3stat ± 4syst)c/(day · 100t) and leaves the hypothesis of no oscillation inconsistent with data at 4σ level. It also represents the first direct measurement of the survival probability for solar ν e (P{7 Be}ee = 0.56 ± 0.10) in the vacuum-dominates oscillation regime. Recently Borexino was also able to measure of the 8B solar neutrinos interaction rate down to the threshold energy of 3 MeV, the lowest achieved so far. The inferred electron neutrino flux is Φ {8 B}ES = (2.7 ± 0.4stat ± 0.1syst ) × 106 cm{ - 2} s{ - 1} . The corresponding mean electron neutrino survival probability, is P{8 B}ee = 0.29 ± 0.10 at the effective energy of 8.9 MeV. Both measurements are in good agreement with other existing measurements and with predictions from the SSM in the hypothesis of MSW-LMA oscillation scenario. For the first time, thanks to the unprecedented radio-purity of the Borexino target and construction materials, we confirm with a single detector, the presence of a transition between the low energy vacuum-dominated and the high-energy matter-enhanced solar

  9. Determination of the angular and energy dependence of hard constituent scattering from. pi. /sup 0/ pair events at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Angelis, A.L.S.; Besch, H.J.; Blumenfeld, B.J.

    1982-08-23

    We present data on proton-proton collisions, obtained at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings, in which two roughly back-to-back ..pi../sup 0/'s of high transverse momentum (p/sub T/) were produced. The angular distribution of the dipion axis relative to the collision axis is found to be independent of both the effective mass m of the dipion system and the centre-of-mass energy ..sqrt..s of the proton-proton collision. The cross-sections dsigma/dm at the two values of ..sqrt..s satisfy a scaling law of the form dsigma/dm = G(x)/m/sup n/, where x = m(..pi../sup 0/,..pi../sup 0/)/..sqrt..s and n = 6.5 +- 0.5. We show from our data that the leading ..pi../sup 0/ carries most of the momentum of the scattered parton. Given this fact, the axis of the dipion system follows closely the direction of the scattered constituents, and we exploit this to determine the angular dependence of the hard-scattering subprocess. We also compare our data with the lowest order QCD predictions using structure functions as determined in deep-inelastic scattering and fragmentation functions from electron-positron annihilation.

  10. Adsorption of Iodine and Potassium on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ Investigated by Low Energy Alkali Ion Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, G.D.; Gann, R.D.; Cao, J.X.; Wu, R.Q.; Wen, J.; Xu, Z.; Gu, G.D.; Yarmoff, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of K and I on the surface of the high-T{sub c} cuprate BSCCO-2212 is investigated with low-energy (0.8 to 2 keV) Na{sup +} ion scattering and density functional theory (DFT). Samples were cleaved in ultrahigh vacuum and charge-resolved spectra of the scattered ions were collected with time-of-flight. The spectra contain a single peak representing Na scattered from Bi, as the clean surfaces are terminated by BiO. The neutralization of scattered Na depends on the local potential above the target site, and the angular dependence indicates that the clean surface has an inhomogeneous potential. Neutralization is dependent on the coverage of I, but independent of K adsorption. DFT suggests high-symmetry sites for the adsorption of both I and K, and that the potential above the Bi sites is altered by I by an amount consistent with the experimental findings, while the potential is not affected by K adsorption. DFT also enables an experimental determination of the 'freezing distance,' which is the effective point beyond which charge exchange does not occur, to be 1.6 {+-} 0.1 {angstrom} from the outermost Bi layer.

  11. High-energy magnetic excitations in overdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 studied by neutron and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Wakimoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Kimura, H.; ...

    2015-05-21

    We have performed neutron inelastic scattering and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu-L3 edge to study high-energy magnetic excitations at energy transfers of more than 100 meV for overdoped La2₋xSrxCuO4 with x=0.25 (Tc=15 K) and x=0.30 (nonsuperconducting) using identical single-crystal samples for the two techniques. From constant-energy slices of neutron-scattering cross sections, we have identified magnetic excitations up to ~250 meV for x=0.25. Although the width in the momentum direction is large, the peak positions along the (π,π) direction agree with the dispersion relation of the spin wave in the nondoped La2CuO4 (LCO), which is consistent with themore » previous RIXS results of cuprate superconductors. Using RIXS at the Cu-L3 edge, we have measured the dispersion relations of the so-called paramagnon mode along both (π,π) and (π,0) directions. Although in both directions the neutron and RIXS data connect with each other and the paramagnon along (π,0) agrees well with the LCO spin-wave dispersion, the paramagnon in the (π,π) direction probed by RIXS appears to be less dispersive and the excitation energy is lower than the spin wave of LCO near (π/2,π/2). Thus, our results indicate consistency between neutron inelastic scattering and RIXS, and elucidate the entire magnetic excitation in the (π,π) direction by the complementary use of two probes. The polarization dependence of the RIXS profiles indicates that appreciable charge excitations exist in the same energy range of magnetic excitations, reflecting the itinerant character of the overdoped sample. Lastly, we find a possible anisotropy in the charge excitation intensity might explain the apparent differences in the paramagnon dispersion in the (π,π) direction as detected by the x-ray scattering.« less

  12. A comparative study of inelastic scattering models at energy levels ranging from 0.5 keV to 10 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2017-03-01

    Six models, including a single-scattering model, four hybrid models, and one dielectric function model, were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations for aluminum and copper at incident beam energies ranging from 0.5 keV to 10 keV. The inelastic mean free path, mean energy loss per unit path length, and backscattering coefficients obtained by these models are compared and discussed to understand the merits of the various models. ANOVA (analysis of variance) statistical models were used to quantify the effects of inelastic cross section and energy loss models on the basis of the simulated results deviation from the experimental data for the inelastic mean free path, the mean energy loss per unit path length, and the backscattering coefficient, as well as their correlations. This work in this study is believed to be the first application of ANOVA models towards evaluating inelastic electron beam scattering models. This approach is an improvement over the traditional approach which involves only visual estimation of the difference between the experimental data and simulated results. The data suggests that the optimization of the effective electron number per atom, binding energy, and cut-off energy of an inelastic model for different materials at different beam energies is more important than the selection of inelastic models for Monte Carlo electron scattering simulation. During the simulations, parameters in the equations should be tuned according to different materials for different beam energies rather than merely employing default parameters for an arbitrary material. Energy loss models and cross-section formulas are not the main factors influencing energy loss. Comparison of the deviation of the simulated results from the experimental data shows a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the backscattering coefficient and energy loss per unit path length. The inclusion of backscattering electrons generated by both primary and secondary electrons for

  13. Local Inverse Scattering at a Fixed Energy for Radial Schrödinger Operators and Localization of the Regge Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudé, Thierry; Nicoleau, François

    2016-10-01

    We study inverse scattering problems at a fixed energy for radial Schr\\"{o}dinger operators on $\\R^n$, $n \\geq 2$. First, we consider the class $\\mathcal{A}$ of potentials $q(r)$ which can be extended analytically in $\\Re z \\geq 0$ such that $\\mid q(z)\\mid \\leq C \\ (1+ \\mid z \\mid )^{-\\rho}$, $\\rho \\textgreater{} \\frac{3}{2}$. If $q$ and $\\tilde{q}$ are two such potentials and if the corresponding phase shifts $\\delta\\_l$ and $\\tilde{\\delta}\\_l$ are super-exponentially close, then $q=\\tilde{q}$. Secondly, we study the class of potentials $q(r)$ which can be split into $q(r)=q\\_1(r) + q\\_2(r)$ such that $q\\_1(r)$ has compact support and $q\\_2 (r) \\in \\mathcal{A}$. If $q$ and $\\tilde{q}$ are two such potentials, we show that for any fixed $a\\textgreater{}0$, ${\\ds{\\delta\\_l - \\tilde{\\delta}\\_l \\ = \\ o \\left( \\frac{1}{l^{n-3}} \\ \\left( {\\frac{ae}{2l}}\\right)^{2l}\\right)}}$ when $l \\rightarrow +\\infty$ if and only if $q(r)=\\tilde{q}(r)$ for almost all $r \\geq a$. The proofs are close in spirit with the celebrated Borg-Marchenko uniqueness theorem, and rely heavily on the localization of the Regge poles that could be defined as the resonances in the complexified angular momentum plane. We show that for a non-zero super-exponentially decreasing potential, the number of Regge poles is always infinite and moreover, the Regge poles are not contained in any vertical strip in the right-half plane. For potentials with compact support, we are able to give explicitly their asymptotics. At last, for potentials which can be extended analytically in $\\Re z \\geq 0$ with $\\mid q(z)\\mid \\leq C \\ (1+ \\mid z \\mid )^{-\\rho}$, $\\rho \\textgreater{}1$ , we show that the Regge poles are confined in a vertical strip in the complex plane.

  14. Partially strong WW scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Kingman; Chiang Chengwei; Yuan Tzuchiang

    2008-09-01

    What if only a light Higgs boson is discovered at the CERN LHC? Conventional wisdom tells us that the scattering of longitudinal weak gauge bosons would not grow strong at high energies. However, this is generally not true. In some composite models or general two-Higgs-doublet models, the presence of a light Higgs boson does not guarantee complete unitarization of the WW scattering. After partial unitarization by the light Higgs boson, the WW scattering becomes strongly interacting until it hits one or more heavier Higgs bosons or other strong dynamics. We analyze how LHC experiments can reveal this interesting possibility of partially strong WW scattering.

  15. Proposed low-energy absolute calibration of nuclear recoils in a dual-phase noble element TPC using D-D neutron scattering kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbus, J. R.; Rhyne, C. A.; Malling, D. C.; Genecov, M.; Ghosh, S.; Moskowitz, A. G.; Chan, S.; Chapman, J. J.; de Viveiros, L.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Huang, D. Q.; Pangilinan, M.; Taylor, W. C.; Gaitskell, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new technique for the calibration of nuclear recoils in large noble element dual-phase time projection chambers used to search for WIMP dark matter in the local galactic halo. This technique provides an in situ measurement of the low-energy nuclear recoil response of the target media using the measured scattering angle between multiple neutron interactions within the detector volume. The low-energy reach and reduced systematics of this calibration have particular significance for the low-mass WIMP sensitivity of several leading dark matter experiments. Multiple strategies for improving this calibration technique are discussed, including the creation of a new type of quasi-monoenergetic neutron source with a minimum possible peak energy of 272 keV. We report results from a time-of-flight-based measurement of the neutron energy spectrum produced by an Adelphi Technology, Inc. DD108 neutron generator, confirming its suitability for the proposed nuclear recoil calibration.

  16. Energy loss of keV fluorine ions scattered off a missing-row reconstructed Au(110) surface under grazing incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Shen, J.; Esaulov, V. A.; Valdes, J. E.; Vargas, P.

    2011-03-15

    A joint experimental and theoretical study of energy loss is presented for 1-to-4-keV fluorine negative ions in grazing scattering on a missing-row reconstructed Au(110) surface. Measurements of energy losses for various azimuthal orientations of the crystal have been performed by means of a time-of-flight method with a pulsed beam. The dependence of the fraction of surviving negative ions on azimuthal angles, was determined. Our energy-loss data are discussed in light of trajectory and stopping-power calculations, where the explicit inclusion of the nonuniform electron density at the surface provides good agreement with the experimental data. The simulation allows us to delineate various trajectory classes that correspond to different contributions in the energy-loss spectra for various azimuthal orientations of the surface.

  17. Positron-rubidium scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A 5-state close-coupling calculation (5s-5p-4d-6s-6p) was carried out for positron-Rb scattering in the energy range 3.7 to 28.0 eV. In contrast to the results of similar close-coupling calculations for positron-Na and positron-K scattering the (effective) total integrated cross section has an energy dependence which is contrary to recent experimental measurements.

  18. Total electron scattering cross sections of molecules containing H, C, N, O and F in the energy range 0.2-6.0 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurung, Meera Devi; Ariyasinghe, W. M.

    2017-03-01

    Based on the effective atomic total electron scattering cross sections (EATCS) of atoms in a molecular environment, a simple model is proposed to predict the total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of H, C, N, O, and F containing molecules. The EATCS for these five atoms are reported for 0.2-6.0 keV energies. The predicted TCS by this model are compared with experimental TCS in the literature. The experimental TCS of CHF3, C2F4, C2F2H2, C4F6, and c-C4F8 have been obtained for 0.2-4.5 keV electrons by measuring the attenuation of the electron beam through a gas cell.

  19. The role of symmetry in the theory of inelastic high-energy electron scattering and its application to atomic-resolution core-loss imaging.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C

    2015-04-01

    The inelastic scattering of a high-energy electron in a solid constitutes a bipartite quantum system with an intrinsically large number of excitations, posing a considerable challenge for theorists. It is demonstrated how and why the utilization of symmetries, or approximate symmetries, can lead to significant improvements in both the description of the scattering physics and the efficiency of numerical computations. These ideas are explored thoroughly for the case of core-loss excitations, where it is shown that the coupled angular momentum basis leads to dramatic improvements over the bases employed in previous work. The resulting gains in efficiency are demonstrated explicitly for K-, L- and M-shell excitations, including such excitations in the context of atomic-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The utilization of other symmetries is also discussed.

  20. Impact of low-energy nuclear excitations on neutrino-nucleus scattering at MiniBooNE and T2K kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V.; Jachowicz, N.; Martini, M.; González-Jiménez, R.; Ryckebusch, J.; Van Cuyck, T.; Van Dessel, N.

    2016-11-01

    Background: Meticulous modeling of neutrino-nucleus interactions is essential to achieve the unprecedented precision goals of present and future accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation experiments. Purpose: Confront our calculations of charged-current quasielastic cross sections with the measurements of MiniBooNE and T2K, and to quantitatively investigate the role of nuclear-structure effects, in particular, low-energy nuclear excitations in forward muon scattering. Method: The model takes the mean-field approach as the starting point, and solves Hartree-Fock (HF) equations using a Skyrme (SkE2) nucleon-nucleon interaction. Long-range nuclear correlations are taken into account by means of the continuum random-phase approximation (CRPA) framework. Results: We present our calculations on flux-folded double differential, and flux-unfolded total cross sections off 12C and compare them with MiniBooNE and (off-axis) T2K measurements. We discuss the importance of low-energy nuclear excitations for the forward bins. Conclusions: The HF and CRPA predictions describe the gross features of the measured cross sections. They underpredict the data (more in the neutrino than in the antineutrino case) because of the absence of processes beyond pure quasielastic scattering in our model. At very forward muon scattering, low-energy HF-CRPA nuclear excitations (ω <50 MeV) account for nearly 50% of the flux-folded cross section. This extra low-energy strength is a feature of the detailed microscopic nuclear model used here, that is not accessed in a Fermi-gas based approach.

  1. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy pp and pp¯ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energymore » $pp$ and $$p\\bar p $$ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $$1/p_T^n$$ at high $$p_T$$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $$p_T$$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $$p_T$$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $$p_T$$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $$p \\bar p$$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Lastly, because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $$p\\bar p$$ collisions.« less

  2. Evaluation of scatter-to-primary ratio, grid performance and normalized average glandular dose in mammography by Monte Carlo simulation including interference and energy broadening effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, D. M.; Tomal, A.; Poletti, M. E.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, a computational code for the study of imaging systems and dosimetry in conventional and digital mammography through Monte Carlo simulations is described. The developed code includes interference and Doppler energy broadening for simulation of elastic and inelastic photon scattering, respectively. The code estimates the contribution of scattered radiation to image quality through the spatial distribution of the scatter-to-primary ratio (S/P). It allows the inclusion of different designs of anti-scatter grids (linear or cellular), for evaluation of contrast improvement factor (CIF), Bucky factor (BF) and signal difference-to-noise ratio improvement factor (SIF). It also allows the computation of the normalized average glandular dose, \\bar{D}_{g,N} . These quantities were studied for different breast thicknesses and compositions, anode/filter combinations and tube potentials. Results showed that the S/P increases linearly with breast thickness, varying slightly with breast composition or the spectrum used. Evaluation of grid performance showed that the cellular grid provides the highest CIF with smaller BF. The SIF was also greater for the cellular grid, although both grids showed SIF < 1 for thin breasts. Results for \\bar{D}_{g,N} showed that it increases with the half-value layer (HVL) of the spectrum, decreases considerably with breast thickness and has a small dependence on the anode/filter combination. Inclusion of interference effects of breast tissues affected the values of S/P obtained with the grid up to 25%, while the energy broadening effect produced smaller variations on the evaluated quantities.

  3. Elastic scattering measurement for the system 17O + 58Ni at Coulomb barrier energies with silicon strip detectors exploiting ASIC electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, C.; Manea, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Di Meo, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Boiano, A.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Parascandolo, L.; Sandoli, M.; Soramel, F.; Stroe, L.; Toniolo, N.; Veronese, F.

    2013-03-01

    The quasi elastic scattering of a 17O projectile from a 58Ni target has been studied at beam energies ranging from 42.5 to 55.0 MeV in 2.5 MeV steps. The total reaction cross sections were derived from the measured angular distributions by using an optical model fit within the coupled-channel code FRESCO. These cross sections are very similar to those measured for 17F (loosely bound by 0.6 MeV), mirror nucleus of 17O (tightly bound by 4.14 MeV). This outcome points out that, in this energy range, the small binding energy of the 17F valence proton has negligible influence onto the reactivity of such a loosely bound projectile, contrary to simple expectations, and to what observed for other loosely bound nuclei. The reaction dynamics seems to be influenced mainly by the Coulomb interaction which is similar for both mirror projectiles.

  4. A new Stark decelerator based surface scattering instrument for studying energy transfer at the gas-surface interface

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhart, Daniel P.; Grätz, Fabian; Wagner, Roman J. V.; Wodtke, Alec M.; Schäfer, Tim; Haak, Henrik; Meijer, Gerard

    2015-04-15

    We report on the design and characterization of a new apparatus for performing quantum-state resolved surface scattering experiments. The apparatus combines optical state-specific molecule preparation with a compact hexapole and a Stark decelerator to prepare carrier gas-free pulses of quantum-state pure CO molecules with velocities controllable between 33 and 1000 m/s with extremely narrow velocity distributions. The ultrahigh vacuum surface scattering chamber includes homebuilt ion and electron detectors, a closed-cycle helium cooled single crystal sample mount capable of tuning surface temperature between 19 and 1337 K, a Kelvin probe for non-destructive work function measurements, a precision leak valve manifold for targeted adsorbate deposition, an inexpensive quadrupole mass spectrometer modified to perform high resolution temperature programmed desorption experiments and facilities to clean and characterize the surface.

  5. How low-energy weak reactions can constrain three-nucleon forces and the neutron-neutron scattering length.

    PubMed

    Gårdestig, A; Phillips, D R

    2006-06-16

    We show that chiral symmetry and gauge invariance enforce relations between the short-distance physics that occurs in a number of electroweak and pionic reactions on light nuclei. Within chiral perturbation theory, this is manifested via the appearance of the same axial isovector two-body contact term in pi(-)d --> nngamma, p-wave pion production in NN collisions, tritium beta decay, pp fusion, nud scattering, and the hep reaction. Using a Gamow-Teller matrix element obtained from calculations of pp fusion as input, we compute the neutron spectrum obtained in pi(-)d --> nngamma. With the short-distance physics in this process controlled from pp --> de(=)nu(e), the theoretical uncertainty in the nn scattering length extracted from pi(-)d --> nngamma is reduced by a factor larger than 3, to approximately < or = 0.05 fm.

  6. SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR ENERGY-RELATED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lilin; Mavila Chathoth, Suresh; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Presser, Volker; Mcdonough, John; Gogotsi, Yury G.

    2011-01-01

    We used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron contrast variation to study the structure of four nanoporouscarbons prepared by thermo-chemical etching of titanium carbide TiC in chlorine at 300, 400, 600, and 800 C with pore diameters ranging between -4 and -11 {angstrom}. SANS patterns were obtained from dry samples and samples saturated with deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) in order to delineate origin of the power law scattering in the low Q domain as well as to evaluate pore accessibility for D{sub 2}O molecules. SANS cross section of all samples was fitted to Debye-Anderson-Brumberger (DAB), DAB-Kirste-Porod models as well as to the Guinier and modified Guinier formulae for cylindrical objects, which allowed for evaluating the radii of gyration as well as the radii and lengths of the pores under cylindrical shape approximation. SANS data from D{sub 2}O-saturated samples indicate that strong upturn in the low Q limit usually observed in the scattering patterns from microporous carbon powders is due to the scattering from outer surface of the powder particles. Micropores are only partially filled with D{sub 2}O molecules due to geometrical constraints and or partial hydrophobicity of the carbon matrix. Structural parameters of the dry carbons obtained using SANS are compared with the results of the gas sorption measurements and the values agree for carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) obtained at high chlorination temperatures (>600 C). For lower chlorination temperatures, pore radii obtained from gas sorption overestimate the actual pore size as calculated from SANS for two reasons: inaccessible small pores are present and the model-dependent fitting based on density functional theory models assumes non-spherical pores, whereas SANS clearly indicates that the pore shape in microporous CDC obtained at low chlorination temperatures is nearly spherical.

  7. Deuteron Analyzing Powers for \\varvec{dp} Elastic Scattering at Intermediate Energies and Three-Nucleon Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Wada, Y.; Watanabe, A.; Eto, D.; Akieda, T.; Kon, H.; Miki, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakai, H.; Sasano, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Dozono, M.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, C. S.; Yako, K.; Maeda, Y.; Kawakami, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Wakasa, T.; Yasuda, J.; Ohkura, A.; Shindo, Y.; Tabata, M.; Milman, E.; Chebotaryov, S.; Okamura, H.; Tang, T. L.

    2017-03-01

    We have measured a complete set of deuteron analyzing powers in deuteron-proton elastic scattering at 190, 250, and 294 MeV/nucleon. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon-nucleon forces together with the Tucson-Melbourne'99, and UrbanaIX three nucleon forces. The data are also presented with the calculations based on the N4LO NN potentials of the chiral effective field theory.

  8. Global scale observations of scattered energy near the inner-core boundary: Seismic constraints on the base of the outer-core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. M.-C.; Romanowicz, B.

    2015-08-01

    We have collected a global dataset of several thousands of high quality records of PKPdf, PKPbc, PKPbc-diff and PKPab phase arrivals in the distance range [149-178°]. Within this collection, we have identified an energy packet that arrives 5-20 s after the PKPbc (or PKPbc-diff) and represents a phase that is not predicted by 1D reference seismic models. We use array analysis techniques to enhance the signal of these scattered phases and show that they originate along the great-circle path in a consistent range of arrival times and narrow range of ray parameters. We therefore refer to this scattered energy the "M" phase. Using the cross-correlation technique to detect and measure the scattered energy arrival times, we compiled a dataset of 1116 records of this M phase. There are no obvious variations with source or station location, nor with the depth of the source. After exploration of possible location for this M phase, we show that its origin is most likely in the vicinity of the inner-core boundary. A tentative model is found that predicts an M-like phase, and produces good fits to its travel times as well as those of the main core phases. In this model, the P velocity profile with depth exhibits an increased gradient from about 400 km to 50 km above the ICB (i.e. slightly faster velocities than in AK135 or PREM), and a ∼ 50 km thick lower velocity layer right above the ICB.

  9. Electron and Positron Scattering from Chlorine Molecules in the Energy Region from 0.8 ev to 600 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Mineo

    2002-10-01

    ELECTRON AND POSITRON SCATTERING FROM CHLORINE MOLECULES IN THE ENERGY REGION FROM 0.8 eV TO 600 eV C. Makochekanwa, H. Kawate, O. Sueoka and M. Kimura Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan Total scattering cross sections for chlorine molecules by electron impact are determined experimentally for the impact energies from 0.8 eV to 600 eV. Elastic scattering cross sections are also determined theoretically. The results above 23 eV are the first report on these processes. The present results are in good accord in the energy-dependence with the previous measurements, although the absolute magnitude is found to be about 30% smaller than that of Gulley et al. [J. Phys. B31, 2971 (1998)]. Strong sharp peaks around 7.8 eV and 12 eV are observed and well separated, and the one at 7.8 eV is attributed to dissociative electron attachment, while the one at 12 eV is speculated to be due to ion-pair formation through direct dissociation. The present elastic cross sections are found to show the similar shape to the TCS although the magnitude is smaller by a few % below 30 eV to a factor of two at 100 eV. Small-scale experimental study is also carried out for determining total and positronium formation cross sections by positron impact as well to carry out the comparative study.

  10. Low-energy dispersion of dynamic charge stripes in La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 observed with inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruidan; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda; Reznik, Dmitry; Winn, Barry

    The dynamic stripe correlations have been the subject of intense research, owing to the possible links with high-Tc superconductivity. In light of a recently published, direct observation of charge-stripe fluctuations in La2-xSrxNiO4 using inelastic neutron scattering, we did a follow-up neutron experiment on a x=0.25 sample to characterize the low-energy dispersion of these dynamic charge stripes using the HYSPEC instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source. The scattering signals are collected in the vicinity of a charge-order peak with a large wave vector (4.4, 3, 0), where dynamic spin-stripe correlations are negligible. Mapping the low-energy charge-stripe fluctuations in a wide temperature range, we observe a finite dispersion along the stripe-modulation direction at T >=160K where the charge stripes become disordered, while the steep dispersion in the orthogonal direction is not resolved. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-SC00112704.

  11. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth.

  12. Complementary low energy ion scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of polystyrene submitted to N 2/H 2 glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, F.; Rovani, S.; Kaufmann, I. R.; Soares, G. V.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Krug, C.

    2012-02-01

    Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to access the elemental composition and chemical bonding characteristics of polystyrene (PS) surfaces sequentially treated by corona and glow discharge (plasma) processing in N 2/H 2 ambient. The latter has shown activity as suppressor of pathogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. LEIS indicated that oxygen from the corona discharge process is progressively replaced by nitrogen at the PS surface. XPS shows C dbnd N and N sbnd C dbnd O chemical groups as significant inhibitors of bacterial adhesion, suggesting application in medical devices.

  13. Alloy formation in the Co/Pd{111} system — A study with medium energy ion scattering and scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, A.; Trant, A. G.; Gustafson, J.; Jones, T. E.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Bailey, P.; Baddeley, C. J.

    2013-02-01

    The growth and annealing behaviour of ultrathin Co films on Pd{111} have been investigated by medium energy ion scattering and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Incremental annealing of Co/Pd{111} results in intermixing and the formation of an ordered CoPd alloy at 560 K. Under these conditions, MEIS reveals that the top three layers consist of an approximately equimolar mixture of Co and Pd. STM and LEED provide evidence that the overlayer has a p(2 × 1) registry leading to the conclusion that the surface is terminated in the {111} plane of the CoPd L10 structure.

  14. Elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O at energies E/A between 5 and 8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Aissaoui, N.; Beck, C.; Elanique, A.; Nouicer, R.; Morsad, A.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.

    1999-12-01

    The elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O has been measured at nine energies between E{sub lab}=75 and 124 MeV. The data cover up to 100 degree sign in the c.m. and can be described in terms of phenomenological and folding model potentials which reproduce the main features observed. In agreement with studies at higher energies in this and similar systems, refractive effects are present in the angular distributions at all energies. In particular, the passage of Airy minima through 90 degree sign at E{sub c.m.}=40, 47.5, and 62 MeV explains the deep minima observed in the excitation function. The real part of the optical potential is found to vary very little with energy over the studied interval, but the imaginary part shows a rapid change in its shape at incident energy about 90 MeV. Nonetheless, the energy dependence of the volume integral of the real and imaginary parts is in agreement with dispersion relation predictions. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  15. HOLMES: The electron capture decay of [Formula: see text]Ho to measure the electron neutrino mass with sub-eV sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Alpert, B; Balata, M; Bennett, D; Biasotti, M; Boragno, C; Brofferio, C; Ceriale, V; Corsini, D; Day, P K; De Gerone, M; Dressler, R; Faverzani, M; Ferri, E; Fowler, J; Gatti, F; Giachero, A; Hays-Wehle, J; Heinitz, S; Hilton, G; Köster, U; Lusignoli, M; Maino, M; Mates, J; Nisi, S; Nizzolo, R; Nucciotti, A; Pessina, G; Pizzigoni, G; Puiu, A; Ragazzi, S; Reintsema, C; Gomes, M Ribeiro; Schmidt, D; Schumann, D; Sisti, M; Swetz, D; Terranova, F; Ullom, J

    The European Research Council has recently funded HOLMES, a new experiment to directly measure the neutrino mass. HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the decay of [Formula: see text]Ho. The calorimetric measurement eliminates systematic uncertainties arising from the use of external beta sources, as in experiments with beta spectrometers. This measurement was proposed in 1982 by A. De Rujula and M. Lusignoli, but only recently the detector technological progress allowed to design a sensitive experiment. HOLMES will deploy a large array of low temperature microcalorimeters with implanted [Formula: see text]Ho nuclei. The resulting mass sensitivity will be as low as 0.4 eV. HOLMES will be an important step forward in the direct neutrino mass measurement with a calorimetric approach as an alternative to spectrometry. It will also establish the potential of this approach to extend the sensitivity down to 0.1 eV. We outline here the project with its technical challenges and perspectives.

  16. An adaptive-in-temperature method for on-the-fly sampling of thermal neutron scattering data in continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlou, Andrew Theodore

    The Monte Carlo simulation of full-core neutron transport requires high fidelity data to represent not only the various types of possible interactions that can occur, but also the temperature and energy regimes for which these data are relevant. For isothermal conditions, nuclear cross section data are processed in advance of running a simulation. In reality, the temperatures in a neutronics simulation are not fixed, but change with respect to the temperatures computed from an associated heat transfer or thermal hydraulic (TH) code. To account for the temperature change, a code user must either 1) compute new data at the problem temperature inline during the Monte Carlo simulation or 2) pre-compute data at a variety of temperatures over the range of possible values. Inline data processing is computationally inefficient while pre-computing data at many temperatures can be memory expensive. An alternative on-the-fly approach to handle the temperature component of nuclear data is desired. By on-the-fly we mean a procedure that adjusts cross section data to the correct temperature adaptively during the Monte Carlo random walk instead of before the running of a simulation. The on-the-fly procedure should also preserve simulation runtime efficiency. While on-the-fly methods have recently been developed for higher energy regimes, the double differential scattering of thermal neutrons has not been examined in detail until now. In this dissertation, an on-the-fly sampling method is developed by investigating the temperature dependence of the thermal double differential scattering distributions. The temperature dependence is analyzed with a linear least squares regression test to develop fit coefficients that are used to sample thermal scattering data at any temperature. The amount of pre-stored thermal scattering data has been drastically reduced from around 25 megabytes per temperature per nuclide to only a few megabytes per nuclide by eliminating the need to compute data

  17. Study of low-frequency dynamics of short peptides by Brillouin light scattering and Monte-Carlo global energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenkov, V. E.; Fedoseev, A. I.; Petukhov, M. G.; Khavinson, V. Kh; Savvateeva-Popova, E. V.; Lushnikov, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Brillouin light scattering studies of the behavior of hypersound velocity in solutions of short peptides Asp-Ser, Glu-Asp-Arg, Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu with widely varying concentrations at temperatures ranging from 295 to 360K are presented. As shown by analysis of experimental data and molecular simulation, the dipeptide Asp-Ser is characterized by formation of dimers which decompose at high temperatures. High-concentration solutions of tri- and tetrapeptides form aggregates at high temperatures which are preserved on cooling.

  18. Dual quantum electrodynamics: Dyon-dyon and charge-monopole scattering in a high-energy approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberg, Leonard; Milton, Kimball A.

    2000-04-01

    We develop the quantum field theory of electron-point magnetic monopole interactions and, more generally, dyon-dyon interactions, based on the original string-dependent ''nonlocal'' action of Dirac and Schwinger. We demonstrate that a viable nonperturbative quantum field theoretic formulation can be constructed that results in a string independent cross section for monopole-electron and dyon-dyon scattering. Such calculations can be done only by using nonperturbative approximations such as the eikonal approximation and not by some mutilation of lowest-order perturbation theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  19. Strong pickup-coupling effect on p+{sup 10}Be and {sup 11}Be elastic scattering around 40A MeV incident energy

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, N.; Lapoux, V.

    2008-01-15

    To explore the nature of the coupling effects on p+{sup 10}Be and p+{sup 11}Be elastic scattering at incident energies of 39.1A and at 38.4A MeV, respectively, coupled reaction channels (CRC) calculations were performed for the {sup 10}Be(p,d){sup 9}Be and {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be* pickup to the ground state of {sup 9}Be and the 5.960 MeV 1{sup -} and 6.263 MeV 2{sup -} doublet of excited states in {sup 10}Be at the corresponding incident energies. We show that within the CRC framework, the coupling effect on the elastic scattering is significant in both cases and produces effective absorption in the entrance channel. This suggests that the use of a fitted p+{sup 10}Be optical model potential may lead to too much absorption in the core plus proton interaction in extended coupled discretized continuum channels type of calculations for the p+{sup 11}Be system and that coupling to the {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be* pickup should be explicitly included in such studies.

  20. A high-energy, high-flux source of gamma-rays from all-optical non-linear Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvan, D. J.; Zepf, M.; Sarri, G.

    2016-09-01

    γ-Ray sources are among the most fundamental experimental tools currently available to modern physics. As well as the obvious benefits to fundamental research, an ultra-bright source of γ-rays could form the foundation of scanning of shipping containers for special nuclear materials and provide the bases for new types of cancer therapy. However, for these applications to prove viable, γ-ray sources must become compact and relatively cheap to manufacture. In recent years, advances in laser technology have formed the cornerstone of optical sources of high energy electrons which already have been used to generate synchrotron radiation on a compact scale. Exploiting the scattering induced by a second laser, one can further enhance the energy and number of photons produced provided the problems of synchronisation and compact γ-ray detection are solved. Here, we report on the work that has been done in developing an all-optical and hence, compact non-linear Thomson scattering source, including the new methods of synchronisation and compact γ-ray detection. We present evidence of the generation of multi-MeV (maximum 16-18 MeV) and ultra-high brilliance (exceeding 1020 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 0.1% BW at 15 MeV) γ-ray beams. These characteristics are appealing for the paramount practical applications mentioned above.

  1. Dual-energy fluorescent x-ray computed tomography system with a pinhole design: Use of K-edge discontinuity for scatter correction

    PubMed Central

    Sasaya, Tenta; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Thet-Lwin, Thet-; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru; Yuasa, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We propose a pinhole-based fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (p-FXCT) system with a 2-D detector and volumetric beam that can suppress the quality deterioration caused by scatter components. In the corresponding p-FXCT technique, projections are acquired at individual incident energies just above and below the K-edge of the imaged trace element; then, reconstruction is performed based on the two sets of projections using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm that incorporates the scatter components. We constructed a p-FXCT imaging system and performed a preliminary experiment using a physical phantom and an I imaging agent. The proposed dual-energy p-FXCT improved the contrast-to-noise ratio by a factor of more than 2.5 compared to that attainable using mono-energetic p-FXCT for a 0.3 mg/ml I solution. We also imaged an excised rat’s liver infused with a Ba contrast agent to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging a biological sample. PMID:28272496

  2. Dual-energy fluorescent x-ray computed tomography system with a pinhole design: Use of K-edge discontinuity for scatter correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaya, Tenta; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Thet-Lwin, Thet-; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru; Yuasa, Tetsuya

    2017-03-01

    We propose a pinhole-based fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (p-FXCT) system with a 2-D detector and volumetric beam that can suppress the quality deterioration caused by scatter components. In the corresponding p-FXCT technique, projections are acquired at individual incident energies just above and below the K-edge of the imaged trace element; then, reconstruction is performed based on the two sets of projections using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm that incorporates the scatter components. We constructed a p-FXCT imaging system and performed a preliminary experiment using a physical phantom and an I imaging agent. The proposed dual-energy p-FXCT improved the contrast-to-noise ratio by a factor of more than 2.5 compared to that attainable using mono-energetic p-FXCT for a 0.3 mg/ml I solution. We also imaged an excised rat’s liver infused with a Ba contrast agent to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging a biological sample.

  3. Singularity structure of the πN scattering amplitude in a meson-exchange model up to energies W⩽2.0 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiator, L.; Kamalov, S. S.; Ceci, S.; Chen, Guan Yeu; Drechsel, D.; Svarc, A.; Yang, Shin Nan

    2010-11-01

    Within the previously developed Dubna-Mainz-Taipei meson-exchange model, the singularity structure of the πN scattering amplitudes has been investigated. For all partial waves up to F waves and c.m. energies up to W~2 GeV, the T-matrix poles have been calculated by three different techniques: analytic continuation into the complex energy plane and speed-plot and regularization method. For all four-star resonances except the S11(1535), we find very good agreement between the analytic continuation and the regularization method. We also find resonance poles for resonances that are not so well established, but in these cases the pole positions and residues obtained by analytic continuation can substantially differ from the results predicted by the speed-plot and regularization methods.

  4. Energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.P.; Kao, C.C.; Haemaelaeinen, K.

    1998-12-31

    The authors report the energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering from Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. An energy loss feature at {approximately}6 eV is observed in the vicinity of the Cu K-edge. Numerical calculations based on the Anderson impurity model identify this as a charge transfer excitation to the anti-bonding state. The incident polarization is shown to select the intermediate states participating in the resonance process. Resonances are observed at 8,990 eV and 9,000 eV with the incident polarization perpendicular and parallel to the CuO planes, respectively. In contrast to the single-site model calculations, no resonances are observed associated with the {und 1s}3d{sup 10} {und L} intermediate states, suggesting non-local effects play a role.

  5. Simultaneous analysis of the elastic scattering and breakup channel for the reaction 11Li+208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-García, J. P.; Cubero, M.; Acosta, L.; Alcorta, M.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Buchmann, L.; Diget, C. A.; Falou, H. A.; Fulton, B.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gómez-Camacho, J.; Kanungo, R.; Lay, J. A.; Madurga, M.; Martel, I.; Moro, A. M.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Walden, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the elastic scattering and breakup channel for the reaction of 11Li on 208Pb at incident laboratory energies of 24.3 and 29.8 MeV, measured at the radioactive ion beam facility of TRIUMF, in Vancouver, Canada. A large yield of 9Li fragments was detected by four charged particle telescopes in a wide angular range. The experimental angular and energy distributions of these 9Li fragments have been compared to coupled-reaction-channel and continuum-discretized coupled-channel calculations. The large production of 9Li fragments at small angles can be explained by considering a direct breakup mechanism, while at medium-large angles a competition between direct breakup and neutron transfer to the continuum of the 208Pb target was observed.

  6. Medium-energy ion-scattering study of the structure of clean TiO{sub 2}(110)-(1x1)

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, G. S.; Munoz-Marquez, M. A.; Quinn, P. D.; Gladys, M. J.; Tanner, R. E.; Woodruff, D. P.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.

    2006-06-15

    100 keV H{sup +} medium-energy ion scattering has been applied to investigate the surface relaxations of the clean rutile TiO{sub 2}(110)-(1x1) surface structure. A set of blocking curves in four different incident directions show clear differences between the surface and bulk attributable to surface relaxation. Optimized values of the surface relaxation parameters to give the best fit to the surface structure are generally in quite good agreement with a recent experimental determination of this structure using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction. In particular, both solutions favor an outward relaxation of the bridging O atoms on the surface rather than the strong inward displacement favored by the only previous experimental structure determination based on surface x-ray diffraction.

  7. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer random rough surfaces based on the second-order small perturbation method: energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sanamzadeh, Mohammadreza; Tsang, Leung; Johnson, Joel T; Burkholder, Robert J; Tan, Shurun

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical investigation of energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer media with random rough interfaces using the second-order small perturbation method (SPM2) is presented. The approach is based on the extinction theorem and develops integral equations for surface fields in the spectral domain. Using the SPM2, we calculate the scattered and transmitted coherent fields and incoherent fields. Reflected and transmitted powers are then found in the form of 2D integrations over wavenumber in the spectral domain. In the integrand, there is a summation over the spectral densities of each of the rough interfaces with each weighted by a corresponding kernel function. We show in this paper that there exists a "strong" condition of energy conservation in that the kernel functions multiplying the spectral density of each interface obey energy conservation exactly. This means that energy is conserved independent of the roughness spectral densities of the rough surfaces. Results of this strong condition are illustrated numerically for up to 50 rough interfaces without requiring specification of surface roughness properties. Two examples are illustrated. One is a multilayer configuration having weak contrasts between adjacent layers, random layer thicknesses, and randomly generated permittivity profiles. The second example is a photonic crystal of periodically alternating permittivities of larger dielectric contrast. The methodology is applied to study the effect of roughness on the brightness temperatures of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is characterized by layers of ice with permittivity fluctuations in addition to random rough interfaces. The results show that the influence of roughness can significantly increase horizontally polarized thermal emission while leaving vertically polarized emissions relatively unaffected.

  8. Electronic energy dissipation during scattering of vibrationally excited molecules at metal surfaces: ab initio simulations for HCl/Al(111).

    PubMed

    Grotemeyer, Michael; Pehlke, Eckhard

    2014-01-31

    In this Letter, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory for the electrons and Ehrenfest dynamics for the nuclei are reported that detail the interaction of a vibrating HCl molecule with an Al(111) substrate. The mechanism responsible for the strong electron-hole-pair (EHP)-vibrational coupling in case of highly vibrationally excited molecules is traced back to a large eigenenergy shift of the spz*-like antibonding HCl lowest unoccupied molecular orbital with the bond length. As a consequence of this mechanism, the electronic excitation spectra turn out to be highly asymmetric. The simulations suggest an explanation of how to reconcile a strong EHP-vibrational coupling in case of highly vibrationally excited molecules with the small, but clearly evident, electronic contribution to the v=0 → v=1 vibrational excitation observed experimentally during the scattering of HCl molecules at a hot Au surface by Ran et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 237601 (2007)].

  9. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the differential elastic scattering cross sections for acetone by electron impact energy of 7.0-50 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastega, D. F.; Lange, E.; Ameixa, J.; Barbosa, A. S.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.

    2016-03-01

    We report elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interactions with acetone, C3H6O . The incident electron energy range was 7.0-50 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varied from 10° to 120°. The calculated cross sections were obtained with two different methodologies, the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP), and the independent-atom method with screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculations above 20 eV, and also with the SMC calculations below 30 eV. Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. Comparison with previous DCSs shows good agreement albeit the present data is extended down to lower electron impact energies. We find a low-lying π* shape resonance located at 2.6 eV, in agreement with recent results on electron collisions with acetone [M. G. P. Homem et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 032711 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.032711]. The presence of a σ* resonance is also discussed.

  10. Semiclassical wave packet treatment of scattering resonances: application to the delta zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions.

    PubMed

    Vetoshkin, Evgeny; Babikov, Dmitri

    2007-09-28

    For the first time Feshbach-type resonances important in recombination reactions are characterized using the semiclassical wave packet method. This approximation allows us to determine the energies, lifetimes, and wave functions of the resonances and also to observe a very interesting correlation between them. Most important is that this approach permits description of a quantum delta-zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions and reproduces the anomalous rates of ozone formation.

  11. Fingerprinting analysis of non-crystalline pharmaceutical compounds using high energy X-rays and the total scattering pair distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Timur D.

    2011-12-01

    In the development of new medicinal products, poor oral bioavailability, due to the low solubilities of many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), is increasingly a barrier for treatments to be administered using tablet or capsule formulations and one of the main challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry. Non-crystalline phases such as the amorphous and nanostructured states can confer increased solubility to a drug, and therefore, have recently garnered a lot of interest from pharmaceutical researchers. However, little is known about local ordering in non-crystalline pharmaceuticals due to the lack of reliable experimental probes, hindering the clinical application of these compounds. The powerful tools of crystallography begin to lose their potency for structures on the nanoscale; conventional X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns become broad and featureless in these cases and are not useful for differentiating between different local molecular packing arrangements. In this thesis, we introduce the use of high energy X-rays coupled with total scattering pair distribution function (TSPDF) and fingerprinting analysis to investigate the local structures of non-crystalline pharmaceutical compounds. The high energy X-rays allow us to experimentally collect diffuse scattering intensities, which contain information about a sample's local ordering, in addition to the Bragg scattering available in conventional XRPD experiments, while the TSPDF allows us to view the intra- and inter-molecular correlations in real space. The goal of this study was to address some fundamental problems involving fingerprinting non-crystalline APIs using TSPDF in order to lay the groundwork for the proper use of the technique by the pharmaceutical community. We achieved this by developing the methodology as well as the exploring the scientific implications. On the methodology side, we introduced PDFGetX3, a new software program for calculating TSPDFs that simplifies the procedure

  12. Search for Electron Neutrino Appearance in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Orchanian, Mhair; /Caltech

    2011-09-01

    The MINOS Collaboration continues its search for {nu}{sub e} appearance in the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam at Fermilab. Neutrinos in the beam interact in the Near Detector, located 1 km from the beam source, allowing us to characterize the backgrounds present in our analysis. In particular, we can estimate the number of {nu}{sub e} candidate events we expect to see in the Far Detector (735 km away, in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota) in the presence or absence of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillation. Recent efforts to improve the sensitivity of the analysis, including upgrades to the event identification algorithm and fitting procedure, are discussed, and the latest results from the search are presented.

  13. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Orchanian, Mhair-armen Hagop

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for ve appearance in the two-detector long-baseline MINOS neutrino experiment at Fermilab, based on a data set representing an exposure of 8.2×1020 protons on the NuMI target. The analysis detailed herein represents an increase in sensitivity to the θ13 mixing angle of approximately 25% over previous analyses, due to improvements in the event discriminant and fitting technique. Based on our observation, we constrain the value of θ13 further, finding 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13< 0.12(0.20) at the 90% confidence level for δCP = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The best-fit value is 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13 = 0.041+0.047 -0.031(0.079+0.071 -0.053) under the same assumptions. We exclude the θ 13 = 0 hypothesis at the 89% confidence level.

  14. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Holin, Anna Maria

    2010-02-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which sends a high intensity muon neutrino beam through two functionally identical detectors, a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, 1km from the beam source, and a Far detector, 734km away, in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. MINOS may be able to measure the neutrino mixing angle parameter sin213 for the rst time. Detector granularity, however, makes it very hard to distinguish any e appearance signal events characteristic of a non-zero value of θ 13 from background neutral current (NC) and short-track vμ charged current (CC) events. Also, uncertainties in the hadronic shower modeling in the kinematic region characteristic of this analysis are relatively large. A new data-driven background decomposition method designed to address those issues is developed and its results presented. By removing the long muon tracks from vμ-CC events, the Muon Removed Charge Current (MRCC) method creates independent pseudo-NC samples that can be used to correct the MINOS Monte Carlo to agree with the high-statistics Near detector data and to decompose the latter into components so as to predict the expected Far detector background. The MRCC method also provides an important cross-check in the Far detector to test the background in the signal selected region. MINOS finds a 1.0-1.5 σ ve-CC excess above background in the Far detector data, depending on method used, for a total exposure of 3.14 x 1020 protons-on-target. Interpreting this excess as signal, MINOS can set limits on sin213. Using the MRCC method, MINOS sets a limit of sin2 2 θ 13 < 0.265 at the 90% confidence limit for a CP-violating phase δ = 0.

  15. Landau-Zener model for electron loss of low-energy negative fluorine ions to surface cations during grazing scattering on a LiF(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wang; Zhang, Meixiao; Zhou, Lihua; Zhou, Hu; Ma, Yulong; Guo, Yanling; Chen, Lin; Chen, Ximeng

    2016-11-01

    There is no available theoretical description of electron transfer from negative projectiles at a velocity below 0.1 a.u. during grazing scattering on insulating surfaces. In this low-velocity range, electron-capture and electron-loss processes coexist. For electron capture, the Demkov model has been successfully used to explain the velocity dependence of the negative-ion fraction formed from fast atoms during grazing scattering on insulating surfaces. For electron loss, we consider that an electron may be transferred from the formed ionic diabatic quasi-molecular state to the formed covalent diabatic quasi-molecular state by the crossing of the potential curves of negative projectiles approaching the surface cations, which can be described by the Landau-Zener two-energy-level crossing model. Combining these two models, we obtain good agreement between the experimental and calculated data for the F--LiF(001) collision system, which is briefly discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175075, 11405078, 11474140, 11404152, and 11305083).

  16. Structure Functions in Deep Inelastic Lepton Scattering: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gehrmann, T; Roberts, R. G.; Whalley, M. R.; Durham HEP Database Group

    Gehrmann, Roberts, and Whalley in their 1999 paper, A Compilation of Structure Functions in Deep Inelastic Scattering, published in volume 25 of Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics) note that these data will continue to be relevant to the next generation of hadron colliders. They present data on the unpolarized structure functions F2 and xF3, R D ._L=_T /, the virtual photon asymmetries A1 and A2 and the polarized structure functions g1 and g2, from deep inelastic lepton scattering off protons, deuterium and nuclei. Data are presented in both tabular and graphical format and include predictions based on the MRST98 and CTEQ4 parton distribution functionsö as well. The data gathered from the relevant collaborations at DOE's Fermilab, SLAC, and JLAB are available, and so are data from related collaborations based at CERN and DESY. The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also include in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  17. Ag Nanoparticle-Functionalized Open-Ended Freestanding TiO₂ Nanotube Arrays with a Scattering Layer for Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Rho, Won-Yeop; Chun, Myeung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Sub; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays functionalized with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the channel to create a plasmonic effect, and then coated with large TiO₂ NPs to create a scattering effect in order to improve energy conversion efficiency. Compared to closed-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube array-based DSSCs without Ag or large TiO₂ NPs, the energy conversion efficiency of closed-ended DSSCs improved by 9.21% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.40%) with Ag NPs, 6.48% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.24%) with TiO₂ NPs, and 14.50% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.71%) with both Ag NPs and TiO₂ NPs. By introducing Ag NPs and/or large TiO₂ NPs to open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube array-based DSSCs, the energy conversion efficiency was improved by 9.15% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 6.68%) with Ag NPs and 8.17% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 6.62%) with TiO₂ NPs, and by 15.20% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 7.05%) with both Ag NPs and TiO₂ NPs. Moreover, compared to closed-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays, the energy conversion efficiency of open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays increased from 6.71% to 7.05%. We demonstrate that each component-Ag NPs, TiO₂ NPs, and open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays-enhanced the energy conversion efficiency, and the use of a combination of all components in DSSCs resulted in the highest energy conversion efficiency.

  18. Review of Low Energy Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, J. D.

    2007-04-01

    Some issues regarding low energy neutrinos are reviewed. We focus on three aspects i)We show that by employing very low energy (a few keV) electron neutrinos, neutrino disappearance oscillations can be investigated by detecting recoiling electrons with low threshold spherical gaseous TPC's. In such an experiment, which is sensitive to the small mixing angle θ13, the novel feature is that the oscillation length is so small that the full oscillation takes place inside the detector. Thus one can determine accurately all the oscillation parameters and, in particular, measure or set a good limit on θ13. ii) Low threshold gaseous TPC detectors can also be used in detecting nuclear recoils by exploiting the neutral current interaction. Thus these robust and stable detectors can be employed in supernova neutrino detection. iii) The lepton violating neutrinoless double decay is investigated focusing on how the absolute neutrino mass can be extracted from the data.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulations of Scattering and Energy Loss in Beta Decay for the Nab and UCNB Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Jonathan; Nab Collaboration; UCNB Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of beta decay spectra are sensitive to both Standard Model physics and modifications of the Standard Model through extraction of correlation parameters. Extraction of these parameters requires accurate energy reconstruction of measured particles stemming a precise understanding of the energy loss. Simulations of neutron decay products in a magnetic spectrometer, per the design of the UCNB and Nab experiments, and energy collection in thick, segmented silicon wafer detectors have been performed to probe the effects of silicon dead layers, sub-threshold events, bremsstrahlung in order to generate Monte Carlo corrections from the simulated spectra. In addition, simulations with sources implanted on foils allow characterization of the detector response and performing fundamental weak interaction studies, such as measuring the beta spectra from 45Ca decays. We present an overview of simulations for the UCNB and Nab experiments as well as the current status of the Monte Carlo corrections.

  20. Nuclear-plus-interference-scattering effect on the energy deposition of multi-MeV protons in a dense Be plasma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Fu, Zhenguo; He, Bin; Hu, Zehua; Zhang, Ping

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear plus interference scattering (NIS) effect on the stopping power of hot dense beryllium (Be) plasma for multi-MeV protons is theoretically investigated by using the generalized Brown-Preston-Singleton (BPS) model, in which a NIS term is taken into account. The analytical formula of the NIS term is detailedly derived. By using this formula, the density and temperature dependence of the NIS effect is numerically studied, and the results show that the NIS effect becomes more and more important with increasing the plasma temperature or density. Different from the cases of protons traveling through the deuterium-tritium plasmas, for a Be plasma, a prominent oscillation valley structure is observed in the NIS term when the proton's energy is close to E_{p}=7MeV. Furthermore, the penetration distance is remarkably reduced when the NIS term is considered.