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Sample records for energy expenditure

  1. Energy expenditure in caving

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225–287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000–1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue. PMID:28158208

  2. Neural Control of Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Münzberg, Heike; Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Morrison, Christopher D; Yu, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    The continuous rise in obesity is a major concern for future healthcare management. Many strategies to control body weight focus on a permanent modification of food intake with limited success in the long term. Metabolism or energy expenditure is the other side of the coin for the regulation of body weight, and strategies to enhance energy expenditure are a current focus for obesity treatment, especially since the (re)-discovery of the energy depleting brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Conversely, several human illnesses like neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, or autoimmune deficiency syndrome suffer from increased energy expenditure and severe weight loss. Thus, strategies to modulate energy expenditure to target weight gain or loss would improve life expectancies and quality of life in many human patients. The aim of this book chapter is to give an overview of our current understanding and recent progress in energy expenditure control with specific emphasis on central control mechanisms.

  3. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  4. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  5. Energy Expenditure and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    The study of energy expenditure (EE) has deep roots in understanding aging and lifespan in all species. In humans, total EE decreases substantially in advanced age resulting from parallel changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and activity EE. For RMR, this reduction appears to be due to a reduction in organ mass and specific metabolic rates of individual tissues. However, these anatomical changes explain very little regarding the decline in activity EE, which is governed by both genetic and environmental sources. The biological control centers for activity EE are closely coupled with body mass fluctuations and seem to originate in the brain. Several candidate neuromodulators may be involved in the age-related reduction of activity EE that include: orexin, agouti-related proteins and dopaminergic pathways. Unfortunately, the existing body of research has primarily focused on how neuromodulators influence weight gain and only a few studies have been performed in aging models. Recent evidence suggests that activity EE has an important role in dictating lifespan and thus places emphasis on future research to uncover the underlying biological mechanisms. The study of EE continues to unlock clues to aging. PMID:19698803

  6. Energy expenditure in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kosmiski, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Energy intake recommendations for adults should be based preferably on direct measurements of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in corresponding populations who are maintaining healthy body weight and satisfactory physical activity levels. During adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation, energy requirements should be based on TDEE plus the additional energy required to advance these physiologic states. With illness, energy expenditure and energy intake change, but nutritional intervention is not necessarily beneficial. This article reviews data on energy expenditure in HIV infection with a focus on adults, adolescents aged ≥14 y, and pregnant and lactating women. Resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults with untreated asymptomatic HIV is ~ 10% higher than in healthy control subjects. In asymptomatic adults receiving antiretroviral therapy, REE may be similarly increased. HIV wasting and secondary infections are also associated with increased REE. In contrast, TDEE is typically normal in asymptomatic HIV and decreased in HIV wasting and secondary infection. No direct measurements of REE or TDEE are available in adolescents or in pregnant or lactating women with HIV. On the basis of current data, energy intake may need to increase by ~ 10% in adults with asymptomatic HIV to maintain body weight. In adolescents and in pregnant and lactating women with asymptomatic HIV, energy requirements should approximate recommendations for their uninfected counterparts until further data are available. In the resource-rich world, the energy expenditure changes associated with HIV are unlikely to contribute to significant weight loss. More data are needed on energy expenditure in HIV-infected populations from developing nations, where concurrent malnutrition and coinfections are common.

  7. Energy expenditure of nonexercise activity.

    PubMed

    Levine, J A; Schleusner, S J; Jensen, M D

    2000-12-01

    We found recently that changes in nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) mediate resistance to weight gain with overfeeding in sedentary adults. A potentially important, yet seldom investigated, component of NEAT is the energy expenditure of fidgeting-like activities. Our goal was to measure changes in energy expenditure with fidgeting-like activities. Energy expenditure was measured in 24 subjects (17 women and 7 men x+/- SD body weight: 76 +/- 21 kg) while recumbent at rest, sitting motionless, standing motionless, partaking of self-selected fidgeting-like movements while seated and while standing, and walking on a treadmill at 1.6, 3.2, and 4.8 km/h (1, 2, and 3 mph). Measurements were performed by using a high-precision, indirect calorimeter connected to the subject via a transparent, lightweight facemask that enabled almost unrestricted movement. Compared with metabolic rate in the supine position (5.4 +/- 1.5 kJ/min), energy expenditure increased while sitting motionless by 4 +/- 6%, while fidgeting while seated by 54 +/- 29% (P: < 0.0001), while standing motionless by 13 +/- 8% (P: < 0.0001), while fidgeting while standing by 94 +/- 38% (P: < 0.0001), while walking at 1.6 km/h by 154 +/- 38% (P: < 0.0001), while walking at 3.2 km/h by 202 +/- 45% (P: < 0.0001), and while walking at 4.8 km/h by 292 +/- 81% (P: < 0.0001). There was a significant, positive correlation between changes in energy expenditure and body weight for fidgeting-like activities while standing (r = 0.43, P: = 0.02) but not while seated. There is marked variance between subjects in the energy expenditure associated with self-selected fidgeting-like activities. The thermogenic potential of fidgeting-like and low-grade activities is sufficiently great to substantively contribute to energy balance.

  8. Resting energy expenditure among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Mitsuhashi, F; Sugiyama, M

    2002-10-01

    1. Resting energy expenditure (REE) provides appropriate basic data for the calculation of energy requirements. 2. The REE of 6498 subjects according to sex and age (1 year stratification), with a minimum of 10 subjects per group, was measured systematically using the easy portable calorimeter (Metavine; Vine, Tokyo, Japan). 3. The REE or the REE/kg according to age and sex was observed to obtain the amount of standard deviation (20-25%). 4. The REE/kg for male and female subjects was maintained at a steady level after the age of 15 years and was estimated to be around 29 kcal/kg.

  9. Control of energy expenditure in humans.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, K R

    2017-03-01

    Energy expenditure is determined by body size and body composition and by food intake and physical activity. Body size and body composition are the determinants of resting energy expenditure. Higher weight results in higher energy requirement through a higher resting requirement because of a higher maintenance cost of a larger body. Activity-induced energy expenditure is the most variable component of total energy expenditure. Smaller and leaner subjects generally move more as activity energy expenditure in larger subjects is not higher in proportion to the cost of moving with a higher body weight. Food intake induces changes in energy expenditure as a function of changes in body size and body composition. In addition, energy restriction induces an adaptive reduction of energy expenditure through a lowering of tissue metabolism and a reduction of body movement. An exercise-induced increase in activity expenditure is a function of the training status. In untrained subjects, exercise induces a larger increase in total energy expenditure than can be attributed to the energy cost of a training program. Trained subjects have a higher performance at the same expenditure through a higher exercise economy.

  10. State energy price and expenditure report 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-11

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1989 published in September 1991. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1990. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied.

  11. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  12. State energy price and expenditure report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

  13. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  14. Surgical weight loss: impact on energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Brakonieki, Katrina; Duche, Pascale; Morio, Béatrice; Béatrice, Morio; Boirie, Yves; Yves, Boirie; Laferrère, Blandine

    2013-02-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is often limited in its magnitude and often of short duration, followed by weight regain. On the contrary, bariatric surgery now commonly used in the treatment of severe obesity favors large and sustained weight loss, with resolution or improvement of most obesity-associated comorbidities. The mechanisms of sustained weight loss are not well understood. Whether changes in the various components of energy expenditure favor weight maintenance after bariatric surgery is unclear. While the impact of diet-induced weight loss on energy expenditure has been widely studied and reviewed, the impact of bariatric surgery on total energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure, and diet-induced thermogenesis remains unclear. Here, we review data on energy expenditure after bariatric surgery from animal and human studies. Bariatric surgery results in decreased total energy expenditure, mainly due to reduced resting energy expenditure and explained by a decreased in both fat-free mass and fat mass. Limited data suggest increased diet-induced thermogenesis after gastric bypass, a surgery that results in gut anatomical changes and modified the digestion processes. Physical activity and sustained intakes of dietary protein may be the best strategies available to increase non-resting and then total energy expenditure, as well as to prevent the decline in lean mass and resting energy expenditure.

  15. Surgical Weight Loss: Impact on Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Brakonieki, Katrina; Duche, Pascale; Béatrice, Morio; Yves, Boirie; Laferrère, Blandine

    2016-01-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is often limited in its magnitude and often of short duration, followed by weight regain. On the contrary, bariatric surgery now commonly used in the treatment of severe obesity favors large and sustained weight loss, with resolution or improvement of most obesity-associated comorbidities. The mechanisms of sustained weight loss are not well understood. Whether changes in the various components of energy expenditure favor weight maintenance after bariatric surgery is unclear. While the impact of diet-induced weight loss on energy expenditure has been widely studied and reviewed, the impact of bariatric surgery on total energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure, and diet-induced thermogenesis remains unclear. Here, we review data on energy expenditure after bariatric surgery from animal and human studies. Bariatric surgery results in decreased total energy expenditure, mainly due to reduced resting energy expenditure and explained by a decreased in both fat-free mass and fat mass. Limited data suggest increased diet-induced thermogenesis after gastric bypass, a surgery that results in gut anatomical changes and modified the digestion processes. Physical activity and sustained intakes of dietary protein may be the best strategies available to increase non-resting and then total energy expenditure, as well as to prevent the decline in lean mass and resting energy expenditure. PMID:23224568

  16. Aggregrate consumer expenditures on energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, D.W.

    1984-08-01

    This report presents a new economic model for the allocation of aggregate consumer expenditures on energy in the United States. Our model is based on a theory of consumer behavior involving two stages. In the first stage total expenditures are allocated between and nonenergy commodities. Allocation depends on the price of energy, prices of all nonenergy commodities, and the level of total expenditure. Total energy expenditure in the second stage is allocated among individual types of energy. The second stage allocation depends on the prices of individual types of energy and the level of total energy expenditure. Our econometric model can be applied to the generation of projection of aggregrate energy demand in the United States. Projected future energy prices, the future level and distribution of total energy expenditure, and the future demographic development of the population for projections. The model can also be used to make projections for individual consumer groups within the United States, classified by total energy expenditure and by demographic characteristics. Finally, it can be integrated into a model of energy and nonenergy expenditures to provide a complete model of aggregate consumer behavior. Our econometric model of aggregate consumer behavior can be applied to the generation of projection of demand individual types of energy and for all nonenergy commodities in the United States.

  17. State energy price and expenditure report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

  18. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. State energy price and expenditure report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The five economic sectors used in SEPER correspond to those used in SEDR and are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Documentation in appendices describe how the price estimates are developed, provide conversion factors for measures used in the energy analysis, and include a glossary. 65 tabs.

  20. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  1. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    PubMed

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  3. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  4. State energy price and expenditure report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-28

    The average price paid for energy in the United States in 1986 was $7.19 per million Btu, down significantly from the 1985 average of $8.42 per million Btu. While total energy consumption increased slightly to 74.3 quadrillion Btu from 1985 to 1986, expenditures fell from $445 billion to $381 billion. Energy expenditures per capita in 1986 were $1578, down significantly from the 1985 rate. In 1986, consumers used only 94 percent as much energy per person as they had in 1970, but they spent 3.9 times as much money per person on energy as they had in 1970. By state, energy expenditures per capita in 1986 ranged from the lowest rate of $1277 in New York to the highest of $3108 in Alaska. Of the major energy sources, electricity registered the highest price per million Btu ($19.00), followed by petroleum ($5.63), natural gas ($3.97), coal ($1.62), and nuclear fuel ($0.70). The price of electricity is relatively high because of significant costs for converting energy from various forms (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, hydroelectric energy, and geothermal energy) into electricity, and additional, somewhat smaller costs for transmitting and distributing electricity to end users. In addition, electricity is a premium form of energy because of its flexibility and clean nature at energy consumers' sites.

  5. High Throughput Danio Rerio Energy Expenditure Assay.

    PubMed

    Williams, Savannah Y; Renquist, Benjamin J

    2016-01-27

    Zebrafish are an important model organism with inherent advantages that have the potential to make zebrafish a widely applied model for the study of energy homeostasis and obesity. The small size of zebrafish allows for assays on embryos to be conducted in a 96- or 384-well plate format, Morpholino and CRISPR based technologies promote ease of genetic manipulation, and drug treatment by bath application is viable. Moreover, zebrafish are ideal for forward genetic screens allowing for novel gene discovery. Given the relative novelty of zebrafish as a model for obesity, it is necessary to develop tools that fully exploit these benefits. Herein, we describe a method to measure energy expenditure in thousands of embryonic zebrafish simultaneously. We have developed a whole animal microplate platform in which we use 96-well plates to isolate individual fish and we assess cumulative NADH2 production using the commercially available cell culture viability reagent alamarBlue. In poikilotherms the relationship between NADH2 production and energy expenditure is tightly linked. This energy expenditure assay creates the potential to rapidly screen pharmacological or genetic manipulations that directly alter energy expenditure or alter the response to an applied drug (e.g. insulin sensitizers).

  6. A model of human muscle energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Brian R; Gerritsen, Karin G M; Martin, Philip E

    2003-04-01

    A model of muscle energy expenditure was developed for predicting thermal, as well as mechanical energy liberation during simulated muscle contractions. The model was designed to yield energy (heat and work) rate predictions appropriate for human skeletal muscle contracting at normal body temperature. The basic form of the present model is similar to many previous models of muscle energy expenditure, but parameter values were based almost entirely on mammalian muscle data, with preference given to human data where possible. Nonlinear phenomena associated with submaximal activation were also incorporated. The muscle energy model was evaluated at varying levels of complexity, ranging from simulated contractions of isolated muscle, to simulations of whole body locomotion. In all cases, acceptable agreement was found between simulated and experimental energy liberation. The present model should be useful in future studies of the energetics of human movement using forward dynamic computer simulation.

  7. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of ...

  8. Energy Expenditure Ranges and Muscular Work Grades

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. R.; Crowden, G. P.

    1963-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a field study which was planned to ascertain by metabolic measurement the rates of energy expenditure of men and women on productive effort at work in modern factories. The investigation which is described was carried out during a period of peace-time full employment, mainly in factories associated with the Slough Industrial Health Service in which a nutritional survey of the calorie intake of male operatives had been made by the Ministry of Health and the Medical Research Council in 1952. The rates of energy expenditure of 70 men and 54 women in 27 occupational groups were measured by indirect calorimetric methods. On the basis of the criteria for the classification of work according grades to its heaviness, adopted by the Factory Department of the Ministry of Labour, muscular work grades have been ascribed to the occupations studied. From the distribution of 390 metabolic measurements, ranges of energy expenditure have been computed for occupations classed as sedentary, light, moderate, heavy, or very heavy, Observation of recurrent phase variations in types of productive effort in the work-cycle indicated that wider work grades, such as light-to-moderate or moderate-to-heavy, are needed to cover the energy expenditure rates of men and women in many occupations. The data obtained in this study have enabled a table termed the “Slough Scales” to be compiled giving ranges of energy expenditure and pulmonary ventilation rates for the various work grades ascribed to occupations. The mean rates of energy expenditure of 257 workers (in industries in different parts of England and Scotland) which have been calculated from data published by other investigators have been found to fall within the ranges specified in these scales for the work grades of their occupations. It is felt, therefore, that the Slough Scales represent a reasonably true appraisal of the relation between the Ministry of Labour occupational work grades and the

  9. Resting energy expenditure is not influenced by classical music

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Ebba; Helgegren, Hannah; Slinde, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Obesity shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and a decrease in energy expenditure has been suggested to be one of the risk factors for developing obesity. An increase in resting energy expenditure would have a great impact on total energy expenditure. This study shows that classical music do not influence resting energy expenditure compared to complete silence. Further studies should be performed including other genres of music and other types of stress-inductors than music. PMID:16135245

  10. Energy Expenditure in Vinyasa Yoga Versus Walking.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Sally A; Rogers, Renee J; Davis, Kelliann K; Minster, Ryan L; Creasy, Seth A; Mullarkey, Nicole C; O'Dell, Matthew; Donahue, Patrick; Jakicic, John M

    2017-08-01

    Whether the energy cost of vinyasa yoga meets the criteria for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity has not been established. To compare energy expenditure during acute bouts of vinyasa yoga and 2 walking protocols. Participants (20 males, 18 females) performed 60-minute sessions of vinyasa yoga (YOGA), treadmill walking at a self-selected brisk pace (SELF), and treadmill walking at a pace that matched the heart rate of the YOGA session (HR-Match). Energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry. Energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 79.5 ± 44.3 kcal; P < .001) and SELF (difference = 51.7 ± 62.6 kcal; P < .001), but not in SELF compared with HR-Match (difference = 27.8 ± 72.6 kcal; P = .054). A similar pattern was observed for metabolic equivalents (HR-Match = 4.7 ± 0.8, SELF = 4.4 ± 0.7, YOGA = 3.6 ± 0.6; P < .001). Analyses using only the initial 45 minutes from each of the sessions, which excluded the restorative component of YOGA, showed energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 68.0 ± 40.1 kcal; P < .001) but not compared with SELF (difference = 15.1 ± 48.7 kcal; P = .189). YOGA meets the criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity. Thus, YOGA may be a viable form of physical activity to achieve public health guidelines and to elicit health benefits.

  11. Energy expenditure, energy intake, and weight loss in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T; Dvorak, R V

    2000-02-01

    Alzheimer disease is one of the leading causes of death among older individuals. Unexplained weight loss and cachexia are frequent clinical findings in patients with Alzheimer disease. Thus, it has been postulated that Alzheimer disease may be associated with dysfunction in body weight regulation. This brief review examines the interrelations among energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition in Alzheimer disease. We explored whether abnormally high daily energy expenditures, low energy intakes, or both contribute to unexplained weight loss and a decline in nutritional status. Specifically, we considered studies that examined energy intake, body composition, and daily energy expenditure and its components. The application of doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry to understand the etiology of wasting has increased our knowledge regarding the relation among energy expenditure, physical activity levels, and body composition in Alzheimer disease patients. Although the number of studies are limited, results do not support the notion that a hypermetabolic state contributes to unexplained weight loss in Alzheimer disease, even in cachectic patients. Recent findings are presented suggesting an association between abnormally elevated levels of physical activity energy expenditure and elevated appendicular skeletal muscle mass and energy intake in Alzheimer disease patients. Clinical strategies aimed at developing lifestyle and dietary interventions to maintain adequate energy intake, restore energy balance, and maintain skeletal muscle mass should be a future area of investigation in Alzheimer disease research.

  12. Chair-based fidgeting and energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Koepp, Gabriel A; Moore, Graham K; Levine, James A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sedentariness is associated with chronic health conditions, impaired cognitive function and obesity. Work contributes significantly to sedentariness because many work tasks necessitate sitting. Few sustained solutions exist to reverse workplace sedentariness. Here, we evaluated a chair and an under-table device that were designed to promote fidgeting while seated. Our hypothesis was that an under-table leg-fidget bar and/or a fidget-promoting chair significantly increased energy expenditure. We compared these devices with chair-based exercise and walking. Materials and methods We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 16 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, an under-desk device that encourages leg fidgeting and a fidget-promoting chair. We compared outcomes with chair-based exercise and walking. Results Energy expenditure increased significantly while using either an under-table leg-fidget bar or a fidget-promoting chair, when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 76±31 kcal/hour; leg-fidget bar, 98±42 kcal/hour (p<0.001); fidget chair, 89±40 kcal/hour (p=0.03)). However, heart rate did not increase significantly in either case. Bouts of exercise performed while seated provided energetic and heart rate equivalency to walking at 2 mph. Conclusions Chairs and devices that promote fidgeting can increase energy expenditure by ∼20–30% but not increase heart rate. Dynamic sitting may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while at work. PMID:27900194

  13. Chair-based fidgeting and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Koepp, Gabriel A; Moore, Graham K; Levine, James A

    2016-01-01

    Sedentariness is associated with chronic health conditions, impaired cognitive function and obesity. Work contributes significantly to sedentariness because many work tasks necessitate sitting. Few sustained solutions exist to reverse workplace sedentariness. Here, we evaluated a chair and an under-table device that were designed to promote fidgeting while seated. Our hypothesis was that an under-table leg-fidget bar and/or a fidget-promoting chair significantly increased energy expenditure. We compared these devices with chair-based exercise and walking. We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 16 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, an under-desk device that encourages leg fidgeting and a fidget-promoting chair. We compared outcomes with chair-based exercise and walking. Energy expenditure increased significantly while using either an under-table leg-fidget bar or a fidget-promoting chair, when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 76±31 kcal/hour; leg-fidget bar, 98±42 kcal/hour (p<0.001); fidget chair, 89±40 kcal/hour (p=0.03)). However, heart rate did not increase significantly in either case. Bouts of exercise performed while seated provided energetic and heart rate equivalency to walking at 2 mph. Chairs and devices that promote fidgeting can increase energy expenditure by ∼20-30% but not increase heart rate. Dynamic sitting may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while at work.

  14. Closing the energy gap through passive energy expenditure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of obesity is a gradual process occurring when daily energy intake persistently exceeds energy expenditure (EE). Typical daily weight gain is attributed to an energy gap or excess of stored energy of 15 to 50 kcal/day. Sedentary jobs likely promote weight gain. Standing may be a passive ...

  15. Energy expenditure in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C F; Love, L L; Buckley, P A

    1995-04-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are often obese and, in common with obese patients generally, find it difficult to lose weight. Obstructive sleep apnea may be associated with changes in total daily energy expenditure that could contribute to obesity and complicate its management. To determine whether resting metabolic rate and the thermogenic effect of food are reduced in OSA, we have compared postabsorptive resting energy expenditure (REE) and dietary thermogenesis (DT) in 14 patients with moderate to severe symptomatic OSA and 14 control subjects matched for obesity. Anthropometrics, body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance and indirect calorimetry using a metabolic cart and canopy system were performed in all subjects. Dietary thermogenesis after a liquid meal equivalent to 35% of REE was measured in 13 patients and 8 control subjects. Measurements were repeated after chronic (mean +/- SD 12 +/- 5 weeks) nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in 10 patients with OSA. Energy expenditure was expressed in terms of metabolic body size. The patients with OSA were heavier and had larger necks and a larger lean body mass (LBM) than controls, but the two groups were well matched for body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat. REE was greater in OSA patients than controls, but when corrected for LBM there was no difference between the two groups (27 +/- 3 vs. 28 +/- 4 kcal/kg). DT was similar in patients and controls (17 +/- 6 vs. 15 +/- 10%). REE/LBM was quite consistent among patients with OSA, regardless of body weight. REE and DT did not change following chronic nasal CPAP therapy. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Total energy expenditure during arduous wildfire suppression.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Brent C; Shriver, Tim C; Zderic, Theodore W; Sharkey, Brian J; Burks, Catherine; Tysk, Sonja

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the total energy expenditure (TEE) by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) methodology during 5 d of wildfire suppression in Montana, California, Florida, Washington, and Idaho. Seventeen wildland firefighters (from three Interagency Hot Shot crews, N = 8 men, height = 177 +/- 7 cm, weight = 74.6 +/- 6.4 kg, age = 24.5 +/- 1.8 yr; N = 9 women, height = 170 +/- 7 cm, weight = 65.2 +/- 8.0 kg, age = 25.0 +/- 1.3 yr) served as subjects. Before wildland fire suppression, each subject was given an oral dose of 2H2O and H218O (approximately 0.23 g 2H2O.kg estimated TBW-1 and 0.39 g H218O.kg estimated TBW-1). Urine samples were collected between 0400 and 0600 daily. TEE was calculated using the two-point method for days 1-3 and 1-5, with the TEE for days 4-5 calculated by extrapolation. Urine samples from other crew members not participating in the DLW protocol were collected at the same times and used to adjust calculations of isotopic elimination for background shifts. TEE was 17.4 +/- 3.7 and 17.5 +/- 6.9 MJ.d-1 during days 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. The energy expenditure associated with physical activity (EEA) was 8.8 +/- 3.0 and 8.9 +/- 6.1 MJ.d-1 for days 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. The current data demonstrate consistently high daily energy expenditure in the wildland firefighter. These data also demonstrate that the doubly labeled water methodology is an appropriate methodology for the measure of TEE during unpredictable field operations if adjustments are made for changes in background enrichment and elevated water turnover.

  17. State energy price and expenditure report 1990. [Contains a Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-11

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1989 published in September 1991. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1990. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied.

  18. Spatiotemporal drivers of energy expenditure in a coastal marine fish.

    PubMed

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J

    2017-03-01

    Animal behavior and energy expenditure often vary significantly across the landscape, and quantifying energy expenditure over space and time provides mechanistic insight into ecological dynamics. Yet, spatiotemporal variability in energy expenditure has rarely been explored in fully aquatic species such as fish. Our objective was to quantify spatially explicit energy expenditure for a tropical marine teleost fish, bonefish (Albula vulpes), to examine how bonefish energetics vary across landscape features and temporal factors. Using a swim tunnel respirometer, we calibrated acoustic accelerometer transmitters implanted in bonefish to estimate their metabolic rates and energy expenditure, and applied this technology in situ using a fine-scale telemetry system on a heterogeneous reef flat in Puerto Rico. Bonefish energy expenditure varied most among habitats, with significant interactions between habitat and temporal factors (i.e., diel period, tide state, season). The energy expenditure was generally highest in shallow water habitats (i.e., seagrass and reef crest). Variation in activity levels was the main driver of these differences in energy expenditure, which in shallow, nearshore habitats is likely related to foraging. Bonefish moderate energy expenditure across seasonal fluctuations in temperature, by selectively using shallow nearshore habitats at moderate water temperatures that correspond with their scope for activity. Quantifying how animals expend energy in association with environmental and ecological factors can provide important insight into behavioral ecology, with implications for bioenergetics models.

  19. Energy Expenditure in People with Diabetes Mellitus: A Review.

    PubMed

    Caron, Nathan; Peyrot, Nicolas; Caderby, Teddy; Verkindt, Chantal; Dalleau, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure (BEE) than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new BEE estimate equations. Moreover, studies showed a lower activity energy expenditure in patients with DM than in healthy ones. This difference may be partially explained by patient with DMs poor compliance with exercise recommendations and their greater participation in lower intensity activities. These specificities of PA need to be taken into account in the development of adapted tools to assess activity energy expenditure and daily energy expenditure in people with DM. Few estimation tools are tested in subjects with DM and this results in a lack of accuracy especially for their particular patterns of activity. Thus, future studies should examine sensors coupling different technologies or method that is specifically designed to accurately assess energy expenditure in patients with diabetes in daily life.

  20. Energy Expenditure in People with Diabetes Mellitus: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Nathan; Peyrot, Nicolas; Caderby, Teddy; Verkindt, Chantal; Dalleau, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure (BEE) than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new BEE estimate equations. Moreover, studies showed a lower activity energy expenditure in patients with DM than in healthy ones. This difference may be partially explained by patient with DMs poor compliance with exercise recommendations and their greater participation in lower intensity activities. These specificities of PA need to be taken into account in the development of adapted tools to assess activity energy expenditure and daily energy expenditure in people with DM. Few estimation tools are tested in subjects with DM and this results in a lack of accuracy especially for their particular patterns of activity. Thus, future studies should examine sensors coupling different technologies or method that is specifically designed to accurately assess energy expenditure in patients with diabetes in daily life. PMID:28066773

  1. Acutely Decreased Thermoregulatory Energy Expenditure or Decreased Activity Energy Expenditure Both Acutely Reduce Food Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Thaler, Joshua P.; Meek, Thomas H.; Tylee, Tracy; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wisse, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1) increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2) exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21°C to 28°C) rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40±1%) and dark cycle energy expenditure (15±3%) at normal ambient temperature (21°C). Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65±7%), thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14±2% at 21°C; 21±4% at 28°C), while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9±0.1 g) in mice housed at 28°C, but during the light cycle (0.3±0.1 g) in mice housed at 21°C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R2 = 0.51, p<0.01). We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure. PMID:22936977

  2. Development of a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Kate; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Olds, Tim S

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper presents a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for use in scoring physical activity questionnaires and estimating energy expenditure levels in youth. Method/Results Modeled after the adult Compendium of Physical Activities, the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth contains a list of over 200 activities commonly performed by youth and their associated MET intensity levels. A review of existing data collected on the energy cost of youth performing activities was undertaken and incorporated into the compendium. About 35% of the activity MET levels were derived from energy cost data measured in youth and the remaining MET levels estimated from the adult compendium. Conclusion The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is useful to researchers and practitioners interested in identifying physical activity and energy expenditure values in children and adolescents in a variety of settings. PMID:18782458

  3. From the past to future: from energy expenditure to energy intake to energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Geisler, C

    2017-03-01

    Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates. As far as regulation of energy balance is concerned there is recent evidence that EE rather than body weight is under tight control. Biologically, EE is maintained within a narrow physiological range. An EE-set point has been proposed as the width between the upper and lower boundaries of the individual EE range. Regulation of EE may fail in very obese patients with an EI above their upper boundary and after drastic weight loss when patients may go far below their lower EE boundary and thus are loosing control. In population studies, fat-free mass (FFM) and its composition (that is, the proportion of high to low metabolic rate organs) are major determinants of EE. It is tempting to speculate that tight biologic control of EE is related to brain energy need, which is preserved at the cost of peripheral metabolism. There is a moderate heritability of EE, which is independent of the heritability of FFM. In future, metabolic phenotyping should focus on the EE-FFM relationship rather than on EE-values alone.

  4. Estimating Energy Expenditure with the RT3 Triaxial Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Rodgers, Anthony; Rush, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The RT3 is a relatively new triaxial accelerometer that has replaced the TriTrac. The aim of this study was to validate the RT3 against doubly labeled water (DLW) in a free-living, mixed weight sample of adults. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was estimated by…

  5. Estimating Energy Expenditure using Individualized, Power-Specific Gross Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Homestead, E P; Peterman, J E; Kane, L A; Contini, E J; Byrnes, W C

    2016-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine if using an individual's power-specific gross efficiency improves the accuracy of estimating energy expenditure from cycling power. 30 subjects performed a graded cycling test to develop 4 gross efficiencies: individual power-specific gross efficiencies, a group mean power-specific gross efficiency, individual fixed gross efficiencies, and a group mean fixed gross efficiency. Energy expenditure was estimated from power using these different gross efficiencies and compared to measured energy expenditure during moderate- and hard-intensity constant-power and 2 variable-power cycling bouts. Estimated energy expenditures using individual or group mean power-specific gross efficiencies were not different from measured energy expenditure across all cycling bouts (p>0.05). To examine the intra-individual variability of the estimates, absolute difference scores (absolute value of estimated minus measured energy expenditure) were compared, where values closer to zero represent more accurate individual estimates. The absolute difference score using individual power-specific gross efficiencies was significantly lower compared to the other gross efficiencies across all cycling bouts (p<0.01). Significant and strong correlations (r≥0.97, p<0.001) were found across all cycling bouts between estimated and measured energy expenditures using individual power-specific gross efficiencies. In conclusion, using an individual's power-specific gross efficiency significantly improves their energy expenditure estimate across different power outputs.

  6. Estimating Energy Expenditure with the RT3 Triaxial Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Rodgers, Anthony; Rush, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The RT3 is a relatively new triaxial accelerometer that has replaced the TriTrac. The aim of this study was to validate the RT3 against doubly labeled water (DLW) in a free-living, mixed weight sample of adults. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was estimated by…

  7. A Hypothalamic Phosphatase Switch Coordinates Energy Expenditure with Feeding.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Garron T; Andrews, Zane B; Simonds, Stephanie E; Michael, Natalie J; DeVeer, Michael; Brüning, Jens C; Spanswick, David; Cowley, Michael A; Tiganis, Tony

    2017-08-01

    Beige adipocytes can interconvert between white and brown-like states and switch between energy storage versus expenditure. Here we report that beige adipocyte plasticity is important for feeding-associated changes in energy expenditure and is coordinated by the hypothalamus and the phosphatase TCPTP. A fasting-induced and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of TCPTP, inhibited insulin signaling in AgRP/NPY neurons, repressed the browning of white fat and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely feeding reduced hypothalamic TCPTP, to increase AgRP/NPY neuronal insulin signaling, white adipose tissue browning and energy expenditure. The feeding-induced repression of hypothalamic TCPTP was defective in obesity. Mice lacking TCPTP in AgRP/NPY neurons were resistant to diet-induced obesity and had increased beige fat activity and energy expenditure. The deletion of hypothalamic TCPTP in obesity restored feeding-induced browning and increased energy expenditure to promote weight loss. Our studies define a hypothalamic switch that coordinates energy expenditure with feeding for the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  9. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  10. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  11. Resting energy expenditure, substrate use, and video tapes.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, B. G.; Matthews, J. N.; Alberti, K. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effect of watching different types of video on energy expenditure. DESIGN--Randomised study assessing a "pleasant," an "amusing," an "exciting," and no video film clips. SUBJECTS--12 volunteers who did not know the purpose of the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Changes in energy expenditure, substrate use, heart rate, and aural temperature during each film clip. RESULTS--Energy expenditure was raised slightly (0.21 kJ/day) during the "exciting" film. Individual responses varied greatly. CONCLUSION--Watching different types of video seems to have little effect on resting metabolic rate. Images p1664-a PMID:8541750

  12. Human Energy Expenditure and Postural Coordination on the Mechanical Horse.

    PubMed

    Baillet, Héloïse; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vérin, Eric; Tourny, Claire; Benguigui, Nicolas; Komar, John; Leroy, David

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated and compared the energy expenditure and postural coordination of two groups of healthy subjects on a mechanical horse at 4 increasing oscillation frequencies. Energy expenditure was assessed from the oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, and heart rate values, and postural coordination was characterized by relative phase computations between subjects (elbow, head, trunk) and horse. The results showed that the postural coordination of the riders was better adapted (i.e., maintenance of in-phase and antiphase) than that of the nonriders, but the energy expenditure remains the same. Likewise, we observed an energy system shifting only for nonriders (from aerobic to lactic anaerobic mode). Finally, cross-correlations showed a link between energy expenditure and postural coordination in the riders (i.e., effectiveness).

  13. Energy Expenditure in Obese Children with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Ashley H.; Lomenick, Jefferson P.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Wang, Wenli; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cone, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Context Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-1a) develop early-onset obesity. The abnormality in energy expenditure and/or energy intake responsible for this weight gain is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure in children with PHP-1a compared with obese controls. Patients We studied 6 obese females with PHP-1a and 17 obese female controls. Patients were recruited from a single academic center. Measurements Resting energy expenditure and thermogenic effect of a high fat meal were measured using whole room indirect calorimetry. Body composition was assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin and hemoglobin A1C were measured. Results Children with PHP-1a had decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls (P <0.01). After adjustment for fat free mass, the PHP-1a group’s resting energy expenditure was 346.4 kcals/day less than obese controls (95% CI [−585.5 to −106.9], P <0.01). The thermogenic effect of food, expressed as percent increase in postprandial energy expenditure over resting energy expenditure, was lower in PHP-1a patients than obese controls but did not reach statistical significance (absolute reduction of 5.9%, 95% CI [−12.2% to 0.3%], P = 0.06). Conclusions Our data indicate that children with PHP-1a have decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls and that may contribute to the development of obesity in these children. These patients may also have abnormal diet-induced thermogenesis in response to a high fat meal. Understanding the causes of obesity in PHP-1a may allow for targeted nutritional or pharmacologic treatments in the future. PMID:23229731

  14. Physical activity energy expenditure has not declined since the 1980s and matches energy expenditures of wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, K R; Speakman, J R

    2008-08-01

    Obesity results from protracted energy imbalance. Whether this comprises excessive energy intake, lowered physical activity or both, remains disputed. Physical activity energy expenditure, evaluated in three different ways from daily energy expenditure (DEE) measured using doubly labelled water, was examined for trends over time. Data included subjects in Europe (Maastricht, the Netherlands) and North America extending back to the 1980s. These data were compared with measures from the third world, and measures made on wild terrestrial mammals. Physical activity expenditure in Europe (residual of the regression of DEE on basal energy expenditure (BEE)) has slightly but significantly increased since the 1980s. There was no trend over time in physical activity level (PAL=DEE/BEE), or in the residual variance in DEE once mass, sex and age were accounted for. This latter index of physical activity expenditure also significantly increased over time in North America. DEE of individuals in Europe and North America was not significantly different from individuals measured in the third world. In wild terrestrial mammals, DEE mostly depended on body mass and ambient temperature. Predicted DEE for a 78 kg mammal living at 20 degrees C was 9.2 MJ per day (95% CI: 7.9-12.9 MJ per day), not significantly different from the measured DEE of modern humans (around 10.2-12.6 MJ per day). As physical activity expenditure has not declined over the same period that obesity rates have increased dramatically, and daily energy expenditure of modern man is in line with energy expenditure in wild mammals, it is unlikely that decreased expenditure has fuelled the obesity epidemic.

  15. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H.; Carter, Stephen J.; Plaisance, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity related energy expenditure (AEE, kcal/d) and physical activity index (ARTE) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by a decrease in AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free living energy expenditure. Methods 140 pre-menopausal women underwent an average of 25 pound weight loss during an 800 kcal/day diet of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times/wk (40 min/d), another resistance trained 3 times/wk (10 exercises/2 sets x10 repetitions) and the third group did not exercise. DXA was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry to measure resting (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. Results TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no exercise group, but not for the aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. The resistance trainers increased ARTE. Heart rate and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Conclusion Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free living energy expenditure separate from the exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increased physical activity, while ease and economy in walking associates with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. PMID:25606816

  16. Energy expenditure characteristics of weight lifting: 2 sets to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christopher B; Leary, Michael P; Tenbraak, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the work performed and energy expenditure characteristics within and among 2 sets of the bench press at 70%, 80%, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). For both sets fatigue was the end point. We asked: do multiple sets affect subsequent work output along with aerobic, anaerobic, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) contributions? Ten males participated. Work was significantly less for the 2nd set within the 70% and 80% protocols, but not the 90% protocol. Anaerobic (glycolytic) energy expenditure was less for the 2nd set within all protocols. However, within all protocols, the work / energy expenditure ratio was not different between sets. Overall work was significantly different among protocols, becoming less as the weight lifted was increased: 70%, 637.1 ± 122.4 J; 80%, 512.4 ± 93.4 J; 90%, 324.7 ± 92.6 J (p < 0.001). EPOC was not different among protocols after the 1st set, 2nd set, or combined overall. Moreover, the overall EPOC did not correlate with overall work performed (r = 0.31, p = 0.11). EPOC overall did correlate with aerobic (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and anaerobic (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) energy expenditures. In terms of a work / energy expenditure ratio, the least amount of completed work at 90% 1RM required greater energy expenditure as compared with 70% and 80% because of an EPOC that is similar for all. As more work is completed (i.e., lower weight, more repetitions), aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditures appear to increase accordingly, yet absolute EPOC remains essentially unchanged, contributing less to the overall energy expenditure.

  17. Determination of Resting Energy Expenditure After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    equation. In a recent survey of 65 burn centers, Graves et al10 discovered that the most commonly used for- mulas include the Harris -Benedict formula11...accuracy by Table 1. Equations for estimating daily energy expenditure for subjects with burns Predictive Equations for Energy Expenditure Harris -Benedict...predicted by using nine pre- dictive equations including 30 kcal/kg, 35 kcal/kg, 40 kcal/kg, the Harris -Benedict equation multiplied by an injury factor

  18. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  19. Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children.

    PubMed

    Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R

    2009-08-01

    To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.

  20. Circadian rhythm of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Leuck, Marlene; Levandovski, Rosa; Harb, Ana; Quiles, Caroline; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous and intermittent methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration on circadian rhythm. Thirty-four individuals, aged between 52 and 80 years, were fed through a nasoenteric tube. Fifteen individuals received a continuous infusion for 24 hours/d, and 19 received an intermittent infusion in comparable quantities, every 4 hours from 8:00 to 20:00. In each patient, 4 indirect calorimetric measurements were carried out over 24 hours (A: 7:30, B: 10:30, C: 14:30, and D: 21:30) for 3 days. Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the intermittent group than in the continuous group (1782 ± 862 vs 1478 ± 817 kcal/24 hours, P = .05; 257 125 vs 212 117 ml/min, P = .048, respectively). The intermittent group had higher levels of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption at all the measured time points compared with the continuous group. energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in both groups were significantly different throughout the day for 3 days. There is circadian rhythm variation of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption with continuous and intermittent infusion for EN. This suggests that only one indirect daily calorimetric measurement is not able to show the patient's true needs. Energy expenditure is higher at night with both food administration methods. Moreover, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption are higher with the intermittent administration method at all times.

  1. Recent trends in energy research and development expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Kee, J.R.; Lackey, K.C.; Cronin, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    Objective of this report is to analyze recent trends in industrial research and development (R and D) spending. Emphasis is on energy and energy conservation R and D expenditures. This objective was achieved by performing two tasks. The first task was to collect and assemble data on industrial R and D expenditures in the US from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Office of Industrial Studies. The second task was to graphically and numerically analyze recent trends in total, energy-related, and energy conservation R and D expenditures. Total R and D and energy R and D expenditures for the period 1975 to 1982 were analyzed for each of nine industries: chemicals, petroleum, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, aircraft and missiles, professional and scientific instruments, other manufacturing, nonmanufacturing. Energy conservation R and D expenditures for this period were analyzed for each of six industries: chemicals, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, other manufacturing, and nonmanufacturing. In addition, for all three types of R and D, trends in expenditures for all industries combined were analyzed.

  2. Energy expenditure of stroke patients during postural control tasks.

    PubMed

    Houdijk, Han; ter Hoeve, Nienke; Nooijen, Carla; Rijntjes, Danielle; Tolsma, Maarten; Lamoth, Claudine

    2010-07-01

    Two common impairments in patients after stroke are loss of balance control and fatigue. We propose that both could be inter-related. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic energy demand for balance control in patients after stroke during upright standing. Ten stroke patients and 12 able-bodied controls performed four 5-min upright standing tasks on a force plate; unperturbed (SU), blindfolded (SUB), on foam surface (SUF) and with feet parallel against each other (SUP). Metabolic energy expenditure, posturography measures and muscle activity (EMG) of lower leg muscles were measured. Patients required on average 125% (33Jkg(-1)s(-1)) more metabolic energy for upright standing under the various conditions than controls. In addition, balance manipulation significantly (p<0.05) affected energy expenditure (21% higher in SUB, 52% in SUF, 40% in SUP compared to SU). Although the increase in energy expenditure was on average twice as high in patients than controls no significant group by condition interaction effect was found. Overall correlations between posturography measures, EMG and energy expenditure (r=0.33-0.60) were significant (p<0.001). We conclude that impaired balance control puts an extra demand on the energy expenditure during motor activities in stroke patients. This should be considered when prescribing interventions aimed at reducing physiological strain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN SUBJECTS WITH AND WITHOUT INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Montgomery, Polly S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication have ischemia of the lower extremities, but little is known how this influences resting energy expenditure. Objective To compare the resting energy expenditure of subjects with and without intermittent claudication. Design One hundred six subjects limited by intermittent claudication and 77 controls who did not have PAD and intermittent claudication participated in this study. Subjects were assessed on resting energy expenditure, body composition, ankle/brachial index (ABI), and calf blood flow. Results Subjects with intermittent claudication had a lower resting energy expenditure (1585 ± 251 kcal/day vs. 1716 ± 277 kcal/day; p = 0.019), higher body fat percentage (33.4 ± 10.7% vs. 29.6 ± 7.7%; p = 0.016), higher fat mass (29.6 ± 10.6 kg vs. 24.2 ± 8.9 kg; p = 0.011, and lower ABI (0.66 ± 0.20 vs. 1.19 ± 0.12; p < 0.001). Resting energy expenditure was predicted by fat free mass (p < 0.001), ABI (p = 0.027), and calf blood flow (p = 0.040). Resting energy expenditure remained lower in the subjects with intermittent claudication after adjusting for clinical characteristics plus fat free mass (1611 ± 171 kcal/day vs. 1685 ± 209 kcal/day; p = 0.035), but was no longer different between groups after further adjustment for ABI and calf blood flow (1622 ± 165 kcal/day vs. 1633 ± 185 kcal/day; p = 0.500). Conclusion Subjects with intermittent claudication have lower resting energy expenditure than controls, which is partially explained by ABI and calf blood flow. PMID:19394975

  4. Energy expenditure in children after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mtaweh, Haifa; Smith, Rebecca; Kochanek, Patrick M; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Fabio, Anthony; Vavilala, Monica S; Adelson, P David; Toney, Nicole A; Bell, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate energy expenditure in a cohort of children with severe traumatic brain injury. A prospective observational study. A pediatric neurotrauma center within a tertiary care institution. Mechanically ventilated children admitted with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale < 9) with a weight more than 10 kg were eligible for study. A subset of children was co-enrolled in a phase 3 study of early therapeutic hypothermia. All children were treated with a comprehensive neurotrauma protocol that included sedation, neuromuscular blockade, temperature control, antiseizure prophylaxis, and a tiered-based system for treating intracranial hypertension. Within the first week after injury, indirect calorimetry measurements were performed daily when the patient's condition permitted. Data from 13 children were analyzed (with a total of 32 assessments). Measured energy expenditure obtained from indirect calorimetry was compared with predicted resting energy expenditure calculated from Harris-Benedict equation. Overall, measured energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure averaged 70.2% ± 3.8%. Seven measurements obtained while children were hypothermic did not differ from normothermic values (75% ± 4.5% vs 68.9% ± 4.7%, respectively, p = 0.273). Furthermore, children with favorable neurologic outcome at 6 months did not differ from children with unfavorable outcome (76.4% ± 6% vs 64.7% ± 4.7% for the unfavorable outcome, p = 0.13). Contrary to previous work from several decades ago that suggested severe pediatric traumatic brain injury is associated with a hypermetabolic response (measured energy expenditure/predicted resting energy expenditure > 110%), our data suggest that contemporary neurocritical care practices may blunt such a response. Understanding the metabolic requirements of children with severe traumatic brain injury is the first step in development of rational nutritional support goals that might lead to improvements in outcome.

  5. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2017-10-10

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  6. Allometric Prediction of Energy Expenditure in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Blinman, Thane; Cook, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Predicting energy needs in children is complicated by the wide range of patient sizes, confusing traditional estimation equations, nonobjective stress-activity factors, and so on. These complications promote errors in bedside estimates of nutritional needs by rendering the estimation methods functionally unavailable to bedside clinicians. Here, the authors develop a simple heuristic energy prediction equation that requires only body mass (not height, age, or sex) as input. Expert estimation of energy expenditure suggested a power-law relationship between mass and energy. A similar mass-energy expenditure relationship was derived from published pediatric echocardiographic data using a Monte Carlo model of energy expenditure based on oxygen delivery and consumption. A simplified form of the equation was compared with energy required for normal growth in a cohort of historical patients weighing 2 to 70 kg. All 3 methods demonstrate that variation in energy expenditure in children is dominated by mass and can be estimated by the following equation: Power(kcal/kg/d) = 200 × [Mass(kg)(−0.4)]. This relationship explains 85% of the variability in energy required to maintain expected growth over a broad range of surgical clinical contexts. A simplified power-law equation predicts real-world energy needs for growth in patients over a wide range of body sizes and clinical contexts, providing a more useful bedside tool than traditional estimators. PMID:22308194

  7. A re-evaluation of energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Quebbeman, E J; Ausman, R K; Schneider, T C

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional support regimens are currently based on estimates of energy expenditure, and these estimates are then increased substantially in patients with severe trauma or sepsis because of a presumed hypermetabolic state. Forty-four patients on parenteral nutrition were evaluated using indirect calorimetry to measure actual energy expenditure, and an attempt was made to correlate metabolic rate with clinical diagnosis. We found no statistical difference in metabolic rates between groups of patients classified as malnourished, stressed, or catabolic, If high levels of nonprotein energy substrates are to be administered to a catabolic or "hypermetabolic" patient group, the justification must be on a basis other than a significant increase in actual rate of energy expenditure. PMID:6800313

  8. Validation of a wireless accelerometer network for energy expenditure measurement.

    PubMed

    Montoye, Alexander H K; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a wireless network of accelerometers and compare it to a hip-mounted accelerometer for predicting energy expenditure in a semi-structured environment. Adults (n = 25) aged 18-30 engaged in 14 sedentary, ambulatory, exercise, and lifestyle activities over a 60-min protocol while wearing a portable metabolic analyser, hip-mounted accelerometer, and wireless network of three accelerometers worn on the right wrist, thigh, and ankle. Participants chose the order and duration of activities. Artificial neural networks were created separately for the wireless network and hip accelerometer for energy expenditure prediction. The wireless network had higher correlations (r = 0.79 vs. r = 0.72, P < 0.01) but similar root mean square error (2.16 vs. 2.09 METs, P > 0.05) to the hip accelerometer. Measured (from metabolic analyser) and predicted energy expenditure from the hip accelerometer were significantly different for the 3 of the 14 activities (lying down, sweeping, and cycle fast); conversely, measured and predicted energy expenditure from the wireless network were not significantly different for any activity. In conclusion, the wireless network yielded a small improvement over the hip accelerometer, providing evidence that the wireless network can produce accurate estimates of energy expenditure in adults participating in a range of activities.

  9. The effect of a dynamic chair on seated energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Synnott, Aoife; Dankaerts, Wim; Seghers, Jan; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic sitting approaches have been advocated to increase seated energy expenditure with the view of lessening the sedentary nature of the task. This study compared energy expenditure (EE) and overall body discomfort on a novel dynamic chair with a standard office chair. Fifteen pain-free participants completed a DVD viewing task on both chairs in a randomised order. Energy expenditure and discomfort were collected simultaneously. Linear mixed models were used to analyse steady-state EE recorded on each of the chairs. Differences in discomfort were analysed using Wilkoxon Signed Rank Tests. Sitting on the novel dynamic chair significantly (p = 0.005) increased energy expenditure compared to a standard office chair. The discomfort experienced was mild overall, but was significantly greater on the dynamic chair (p = 0.004). Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS. Thus, the use of a dynamic chair does not seem to be the most effective measure to prevent sedentary behaviour. Practitioner Summary: Sitting on a dynamic chair increased energy expenditure compared to sitting on a standard office chair among pain-free participants. Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS (low level EE).

  10. Estimation of resistance exercise energy expenditure using triaxial accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Stec, Michael J; Rawson, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that a uniaxial accelerometer worn at the hip could estimate resistance exercise energy expenditure. As resistance exercise takes place in more than 1 plane, the use of a triaxial accelerometer may be more effective in estimating resistance exercise energy expenditure. The aims of this study were to estimate the energy cost of resistance exercise using triaxial accelerometry and to determine the optimal location for wearing triaxial accelerometers during resistance exercise. Thirty subjects (15 men and 15 women; age = 21.7 ± 1.0 years) performed a resistance exercise protocol consisting of 2 sets of 8 exercises (10RM loads). During the resistance exercise protocol, subjects wore triaxial accelerometers on the wrist, waist, and ankle; a heart rate monitor; and a portable metabolic system. Net energy expenditure was significantly correlated with vertical (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), horizontal (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), third axis (r = 0.36, p = 0.048), and sum of 3 axes (r = 0.50, p = 0.005) counts at the waist, and horizontal counts at the wrist (r = -0.40, p = 0.03). Regression analysis using fat-free mass, sex, and the sum of accelerometer counts at the waist as variables was used to develop an equation that explained 73% of the variance of resistance exercise energy expenditure. A triaxial accelerometer worn at the waist can be used to estimate resistance exercise energy expenditure but appears to offer no benefit over uniaxial accelerometry. The use of accelerometers in estimating resistance exercise energy expenditure may prove useful for individuals and athletes who participate in resistance training and are focused on maintaining a tightly regulated energy balance.

  11. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  12. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  13. Influence of sibutramine on energy expenditure in African American women.

    PubMed

    Starling, R D; Liu, X; Sullivan, D H

    2001-04-01

    African American women have a high prevalence of obesity, which partially may be explained by their lower rates of resting energy expenditure (REE). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of acute sibutramine administration on REE and post-exercise energy expenditure in African American women. A total of 15 premenopausal, African American women (age, 29 +/- 5 years; body fat, 38 +/- 7%) completed a randomized, double-blind cross-over design with a 30-mg ingestion of sibutramine or a placebo. Each trial was completed a month apart in the follicular phase and included a 30-minute measurement of REE 2.5 hours after sibutramine or placebo administration. This was followed by 40 minutes of cycling at approximately 70% of peak aerobic capacity and a subsequent 2-hour measurement of post-cycling energy expenditure. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in REE (23.70 +/- 2.81 vs. 23.69 +/- 2.95 kcal/30 min), exercise oxygen consumption (1.22 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.25 +/- 0.15 liter/min), and post-cycling energy expenditure (104.2 +/- 12.7 vs. 104.9 +/- 11.4 kcal/120 min) between the sibutramine and placebo trials, respectively. Cycling heart rate was significantly higher (p = 0.01) during the sibutramine (158 +/- 14 beats/min) vs. placebo (150 +/- 12 beats/min) trials. These data demonstrate that acute sibutramine ingestion does not increase REE or post-exercise energy expenditures but does increase exercising heart rate in overweight African American women. Sibutramine may, therefore, impact weight loss through energy intake and not energy expenditure mechanisms.

  14. A Comparison of Predictive Equations of Energy Expenditure and Measured Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kross, Erin K.; Sena, Matthew; Schmidt, Karyn; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Multiple equations exist for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE). The accuracy of these for estimating caloric requirements of critically ill patients is not clear, especially for obese patients. We sought to compare REE, calculated with published formulas, with measured REE in a cohort of mechanically-ventilated subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively identified all mechanically-ventilated patients with measured body mass index (BMI) who underwent indirect calorimetry (IC) in the ICU. Limits of agreement and Pitman’s test of difference in variance were performed to compare REE by equations with REE measured by IC. RESULTS 927 patients were identified, including 401 obese patients. There was bias and poor agreement between measured REE and REE predicted by the Harris-Benedict, Owen, ACCP, and Mifflin equations (p > 0.05). There was poor agreement between measured and predicted REE by the Ireton-Jones equation, stratifying by gender. Ireton-Jones was the only equation which was unbiased, for men and those in weight categories I and II. In all cases except Ireton-Jones, predictive equations underestimated measured REE. CONCLUSION None of these equations accurately estimated measured REE in this group of mechanically-ventilated patients, most underestimating caloric needs. Development of improved predictive equations for adequate assessment of energy needs is needed. PMID:22425340

  15. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  16. Predicting Energy Expenditure from Accelerometry Counts in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    SCHMITZ, KATHRYN H.; TREUTH, MARGARITA; HANNAN, PETER; MCMURRAY, ROBERT; RING, KIMBERLY B.; CATELLIER, DIANE; PATE, RUSS

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Methods Seventy-four girls aged 13–14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (Kj·min−1) from accelerometer counts. Results Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight–adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ·min−1) for individual activities ranged from −0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ·min−1) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute − 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) − 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute − 3000)/100]2 + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute − 3000)/100) × (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ·min−1. Conclusions We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity. PMID:15632682

  17. Predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry counts in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Treuth, Margarita; Hannan, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Ring, Kimberly B; Catellier, Diane; Pate, Russ

    2005-01-01

    Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Seventy-four girls aged 13-14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (kJ.min(-1)) from accelerometer counts. Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight-adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ.min(-1)) for individual activities ranged from -0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ.min(-1)) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) - 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100](2) + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100) x (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ.min(-1). We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity.

  18. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  19. Daily energy balance in children and adolescents. Does energy expenditure predict subsequent energy intake?

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Aucouturier, Julien; Doucet, Éric; Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals.

  20. Physical activity recommendations: an alternative approach using energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Lanay M; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Pivarnik, James M

    2008-10-01

    Most adults do not meet the American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC) physical activity recommendations. Even fewer meet the more extreme Institute of Medicine (IOM) physical activity recommendations. Compliance with either recommendation has been conventionally assessed by combining frequencies and durations of self-reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure is a cumulative measure of activity that offers an alternative method of defining compliance. To calculate the leisure-time energy expenditure of adults complying with the ACSM/CDC or the IOM physical activity recommendations determined by conventional measures and to reexamine compliance with the IOM recommendation using energy expenditure criteria. National, cross-sectional data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System determined the mode, frequency, and duration of up to two leisure-time activities performed by adults. Four mutually exclusive activity groups (Non-, Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active) were defined on the basis of frequencies and durations of reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1)) was calculated per respondent. The energy expenditure threshold for meeting the IOM recommendation was calculated as 21 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1). Of the 162,669 respondents included in the analyses, 29.9% were Nonactive, whereas 42.3%, 23.3%, and 4.5% were Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active, respectively. Median leisure-time energy expenditure values were 9.0, 27.4, and 63.0 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1) for Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active groups, respectively. When using energy expenditure criteria, compliance with the IOM recommendation rose to 27.7% of respondents. Compliance with the IOM physical activity recommendation dramatically increased when assessed by energy expenditure compared with conventional criteria, thereby highlighting the potential bias of conventional methods. A significant proportion of adults

  1. Plant-derived food ingredients for stimulation of energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Yuliana, Nancy Dewi; Korthout, Henrie; Wijaya, Christofora Hanny; Kim, Hye Kyong; Verpoorte, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The development of obesity is related to the regulation of energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy storage in the body. Increasing energy expenditure by inducing lipolysis followed by fat oxidation is one of the alternatives which could help to reverse this increasingly widespread condition. Currently, there is no approved drug targeting on stimulation of energy expenditure available. The use of herbal medicines has become a preferred alternative, supported by the classical consensus on the innocuity of herbal medicine vs synthetic drugs, something that often lacks a scientific basis (ban on Ephedra, for example). The inclusion of functional food in the daily diet has also been promoted although its efficacy requires further investigation. This review summarizes the results of recent work focused on the investigation of edible plant materials targeted at various important pathways related to stimulation of energy expenditure. The aim is to evaluate a number of plants that may be of interest for further studies because of their potential to provide novel lead compounds or functional foods which may be used to combat obesity, but require further studies to evaluate their antiobesity activity in humans.

  2. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-02-01

    Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) < 300 pounds played a Dance Dance Revolution game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA < .001; 90% CI = .000-.206; p = .692. Enjoyment mediated the relationship between engagement and energy expenditure (indirect effect = .138, p = .028), but other mediated effects were not significant. Engagement, enjoyment, and BMI affect energy expended during active video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Energy Needs and Expenditures on U.S. Public Schools. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy; Porch, Rebecca; Farris, Elizabeth; Fowler, William

    This report provides national estimates on energy needs and expenditures of U.S. public school districts. The survey provides estimates of Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 energy expenditures, FY 2001 energy budgets and expenditures, and FY 2002 energy budgets; methods used to cover energy budget shortfalls in FY 2001; and possible reasons for those…

  4. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  5. Modeling energy expenditure in children and adolescents using quantile regression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in energy expenditure (EE). Study objective is to apply quantile regression (QR) to predict EE and determine quantile-dependent variation in covariate effects in nonobese and obes...

  6. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  7. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  8. Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nawi, N M; Yahya, A; Chen, G; Bockari-Gevao, S M; Maraseni, T N

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production.

  9. Metabolic efficiency and energy expenditure during short-term overfeeding.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Bakker, Arjen H F; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2005-08-07

    To investigate whether efficiency of weight gain during a short period of overfeeding is related to adaptive differences in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity. Fourteen healthy females (age 25+/-4 years, BMI 22.1+/-2.3 kg/m2). Subjects were overfed with a diet supplying 50% more energy than baseline energy requirements for 14 days. Overfeeding diets provided 7% of energy from protein, 40% from fat and 53% from carbohydrates. Body composition was determined using hydrodensitometry and isotope dilution, total energy expenditure (TEE) with doubly labeled water and basal metabolic rate (BMR) with indirect calorimetry. Physical activity (PA) was recorded with a tri-axial accelerometer. Body weight increased by 1.45+/-0.86 kg (mean+/-S.D.) (P<0.0001), fat mass increased by 1.05+/-0.75 kg. Energy storage was 57.0+/-17.9 MJ, which is the difference between energy intake (207.2 MJ) and energy expenditure (150.2 MJ) during overfeeding. There was no difference between metabolically efficient and metabolically inefficient subjects in changes in BMR and PA. These results indicate that the metabolic efficiency of weight gain was not related to adaptive changes in energy expenditure.

  10. Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles. Besides, energy expenditure is often abnormally high in ALS, and this is associated with a negative prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory neck muscles and reduce resting energy expenditure (REE). Methods Using indirect calorimetry, we measured REE during spontaneous breathing (REESB) and NIV (REENIV) in 16 ALS patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction, during the first 3 months of NIV. Measured values were compared with predicted REE (REEpred)(Harris-Benedict equation). Results NIV abolished inspiratory neck muscle activity. Even though our patients were not hypermetabolic, on the contrary, with a REESB that was lower than REEpred (average 11%), NIV did reduce energy expenditure. Indeed, median REENIV, in this population with a mean body mass index of 21.4 kg.m-2, was 1149 kcal/24 h [interquartile 970-1309], lower than REESB (1197 kcal/24 h, 1054-1402; mean difference 7%; p = 0.03, Wilcoxon). REESB and REENIV were correlated with forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure. Conclusions NIV can reduce energy expenditure in ALS patients probably by alleviating the ventilatory burden imposed on inspiratory neck muscles to compensate diaphragm weakness. It remains to be elucidated whether or not, in which population, and to what extent, NIV can be beneficial in ALS through the corresponding reduction in energy expenditure. PMID:24507664

  11. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Christian; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lassen, Arne; Mahnke, Christin; Schultes, Bernd; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans. According to a balanced crossover design, we examined 14 normal-weight male subjects on 2 occasions during a regular 24-h sleep-wake cycle (including 8 h of nocturnal sleep) and a 24-h period of continuous wakefulness. On the morning after regular sleep and total sleep deprivation, resting and postprandial energy expenditures were assessed by indirect calorimetry, and the free-choice food intake from an opulent buffet was tested in the late afternoon at the end of the experiment. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, norepinephrine, cortisol, thyreotropin, glucose, and insulin were repeatedly measured over the entire 24-h session. In comparison with normal sleep, resting and postprandial energy expenditures assessed on the subsequent morning were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation by ≈5% and 20%, respectively (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Nocturnal wakefulness increased morning plasma ghrelin concentrations (P < 0.02) and nocturnal and daytime circulating concentrations of thyreotropin, cortisol, and norepinephrine (P < 0.05) as well as morning postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Changes in food intakes were variable, and no differences between wake and sleep conditions were detected. Our findings show that one night of sleep deprivation acutely reduces energy expenditure in healthy men, which suggests that sleep contributes to the acute regulation of daytime energy expenditure in humans.

  12. Energy Expenditure During Walking with Hand Weights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makalous, Susan L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of 11 obese adults who exercised with hand weights concludes that using the weights increases the energy demands of walking but only slightly. Research and results are presented and analyzed. (JL)

  13. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

  14. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  15. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Cooper, Richard S.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Luke, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4], but challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we test a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n=332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology. PMID:26832439

  16. A minireview of effects of green tea on energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Türközü, Duygu; Tek, Nilüfer Acar

    2017-01-22

    In recent years, individuals have begun to tend more frequently to some natural and herbal products to be used alone or as a combination with diet and exercise for ensuring the weight loss. Green tea is the leading one of these products. In some studies, it is reported that the green tea causes an increase in thermogenesis and substrate with fat oxidation by affecting on the sympathetic nervous system. It is reported that green tea has two main components that are associated with energy expenditure. One of them is caffeine and the other is catechin content. Each of these two components has an impact on energy mechanism separately. In this minireview article, mechanisms of action and effects of caffeine and catechin, which are found in green tea composition, on energy expenditure are assessed.

  17. Mathematical modelling of energy expenditure during tissue deposition.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-07-01

    Predicting the magnitude and rate of weight gain for a given increase of energy intake requires a model of whole-body energy expenditure that includes the energy cost of tissue deposition. Here, I introduce a mathematical framework for modelling energy expenditure that elucidates conceptual problems with the classical Kielanowski method for estimating the efficiencies of body fat and protein deposition. An alternative approach uses the theoretical biochemical efficiencies for protein and fat synthesis in combination with models of energy expenditure that include body fat and protein turnover costs. I illustrate this alternative approach using a simple mathematical model applied to previously published data from growing rats and human infants and compare the simple model results with the classical Kielanowski model. While both models fit the data reasonably well (R2>0.87 in rats and R2>0.67 in infants), the Kielanowski method resulted in parameter estimates that varied widely across experiments, had poor precision, and occasionally produced efficiency estimates greater than 1. In contrast, the new method provided precise parameter values and revealed consistencies across different experiments. The proposed mathematical framework has implications for interpreting studies of animal nutrition as well as providing a roadmap for future modelling efforts.

  18. Energy expenditure in obese children with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, A H; Lomenick, J P; Saville, B R; Wang, W; Buchowski, M S; Cone, R D

    2013-08-01

    Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-1a) develop early-onset obesity. The abnormality in energy expenditure and/or energy intake responsible for this weight gain is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure in children with PHP-1a compared with obese controls. We studied 6 obese females with PHP-1a and 17 obese female controls. Patients were recruited from a single academic center. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and thermogenic effect of a high fat meal were measured using whole room indirect calorimetry. Body composition was assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1C were measured. Children with PHP-1a had decreased REE compared with obese controls (P<0.01). After adjustment for fat-free mass, the PHP-1a group's REE was 346.4 kcals day(-1) less than obese controls (95% CI (-585.5--106.9), P<0.01). The thermogenic effect of food (TEF), expressed as percent increase in postprandial energy expenditure over REE, was lower in PHP-1a patients than obese controls, but did not reach statistical significance (absolute reduction of 5.9%, 95% CI (-12.2-0.3%), P=0.06). Our data indicate that children with PHP-1a have decreased REE compared with the obese controls, and that may contribute to the development of obesity in these children. These patients may also have abnormal diet-induced thermogenesis in response to a high-fat meal. Understanding the causes of obesity in PHP-1a may allow for targeted nutritional or pharmacologic treatments in the future.

  19. Height-adjustable desks: Energy expenditure, liking, and preference of sitting and standing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Sedentary occupations likely promote weight gain. Standing may be a passive means of increasing energy expenditure throughout the workday. The purpose was to determine the energy expenditure and liking of word processing while sitting and standing. Methods: Energy expenditure was measu...

  20. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    PubMed

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  1. Characterizing Energy Expenditure During Sedentary Behavior After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, Olaf; de Haan, Femke; Mead, Gillian; Fengler, Ben; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2016-02-01

    To measure and calculate the energy expended by people with stroke during near sedentary behaviors (lying, supported and unsupported sitting, standing, wheelchair propulsion, walking), under controlled laboratory conditions, and to compare these values with the energy expenditure of 1.5 metabolic equivalent task (MET) within the definition of sedentary behavior. Cross-sectional cohort study. Rehabilitation institutions. People with stroke (N=27; mean age, 61.0±11.7y), categorized at Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC) 0 to 5. Not applicable. Energy expenditure (measured using indirect calorimetry) expressed in METs. The recorded values were calculated for every participant and averaged for each activity: lying, supported and unsupported sitting, standing, wheelchair propulsion, and walking. Calculations were done for the total group and categorized by the FAC. For the total group the mean METs ± SDs were 1.04±.11 for sitting supported, 1.09±.15 for sitting unsupported, 1.31±.25 for standing, 1.91±.42 for wheelchair propulsion, and 2.52±.55 for walking. People with stroke in all FAC had METs values >1.5 when propelling a wheelchair or walking. Energy expenditure during typical sedentary behaviors (ie, sitting) is narrowly bounded at approximately 1.0 MET. Energy expenditure during sitting and standing was ≤1.5 MET for all FAC, with the exception of FAC 0 (1.6 MET during standing). Independent wheelchair propulsion and walking can be categorized as light activities (≥1.5 MET). Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Sadie B.; Wright, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF) consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF) meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%), carbohydrate (40–50%), and fat (33–39%) composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12) and men (n=5) studied in a crossover design. Results There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy) was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy). Conclusion Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity. PMID:20613890

  3. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  4. Role of leptin in energy expenditure: the hypothalamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Pandit, R; Beerens, S; Adan, R A H

    2017-06-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a peripheral signal that informs the brain about the metabolic status of an organism. Although traditionally viewed as an appetite-suppressing hormone, studies in the past decade have highlighted the role of leptin in energy expenditure. Leptin has been shown to increase energy expenditure in particular through its effects on the cardiovascular system and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis via the hypothalamus. The current review summarizes the role of leptin signaling in various hypothalamic nuclei and its effects on the sympathetic nervous system to influence blood pressure, heart rate, and BAT thermogenesis. Specifically, the role of leptin signaling on three different hypothalamic nuclei, the dorsomedial hypothalamus, the ventromedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus, is reviewed. It is known that all of these brain regions influence the sympathetic nervous system activity and thereby regulate BAT thermogenesis and the cardiovascular system. Thus the current work focuses on how leptin signaling in specific neuronal populations within these hypothalamic nuclei influences certain aspects of energy expenditure. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Measured energy expenditure in critically ill infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Chwals, W J; Lally, K P; Woolley, M M; Mahour, G H

    1988-05-01

    Technological limitations have impeded accurate energy expenditure assessment in critically ill infants and young children. Instead, a predicted energy expenditure (PEE) is derived based on weight, heat loss, activity, growth requirements, and degree of stress. This study compared actual measured energy expenditure (MEE) with conventional predicted values in 20 critically ill infants and children using a validated metabolic cart designed for use in this age group. All patients were studied either within 4 days of major surgery or during an acute disease process necessitating intensive care. All were severely stressed clinically and were studied while mechanically ventilated in a temperature-controlled environment. The study interval ranged from 1 to 12 hr and averaged 4 hr after a stabilization period of 30 min. The mean MEE was significantly lower than the mean PEE (52.2 +/- 16 kcal/kg/day vs 101.8 +/- 17 kcal/kg/day, P less than 0.001) with a mean MEE/PEE of 52.6 +/- 17% (range 26 to 92%). In a subgroup of 7 paralyzed patients, the mean MEE was significantly lower than in the 13 nonparalyzed patients when compared with PEE and predicted basal metabolic rate (PBMR). The coefficient of variance, conventionally recognized to be approximately 15% for PEE, averaged 6.35% for MEE in this study. These data indicate that if PEE is used as the sole guide for caloric repletion in the stressed infant or child, these patients will be substantially overfed.

  6. Physiological responses and energy expenditure during competitive fencing.

    PubMed

    Milia, Raffaele; Roberto, Silvana; Pinna, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Sanna, Irene; Omeri, Massimo; Piredda, Simone; Migliaccio, Gianmario; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Fencing is an Olympic sport in which athletes fight one against one using bladed weapons. Contests consist of three 3-min bouts, with rest intervals of 1 min between them. No studies investigating oxygen uptake and energetic demand during fencing competitions exist, thus energetic expenditure and demand in this sport remain speculative. The aim of this study was to understand the physiological capacities underlying fencing performance. Aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of lactic anaerobic metabolism were determined in 15 athletes (2 females and 13 males) during a simulation of fencing by using a portable gas analyzer (MedGraphics VO2000), which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and heart rate. Blood lactate was assessed by means of a portable lactate analyzer. Average group energetic expenditure during the simulation was (mean ± SD) 10.24 ± 0.65 kcal·min(-1), corresponding to 8.6 ± 0.54 METs. Oxygen uptakeand heart rate were always below the level of anaerobic threshold previously assessed during the preliminary incremental test, while blood lactate reached its maximum value of 6.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L(-1) during the final recovery minute between rounds. Present data suggest that physical demand in fencing is moderate for skilled fencers and that both aerobic energy metabolism and anaerobic lactic energy sources are moderately recruited. This should be considered by coaches when preparing training programs for athletes.

  7. Energy expenditure in frontotemporal dementia: a behavioural and imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Collet, Tinh-Hai; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Devenney, Emma; Henning, Elana; Kiernan, Matthew C; Piguet, Olivier; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hodges, John R

    2017-01-01

    SEE FINGER DOI101093/AWW312 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Abnormal eating behaviour and metabolic parameters including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and body mass index are increasingly recognized as important components of neurodegenerative disease and may contribute to survival. It has previously been established that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with abnormal eating behaviour characterized by increased sweet preference. In this study, it was hypothesized that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia might also be associated with altered energy expenditure. A cohort of 19 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 13 with Alzheimer's disease and 16 (age- and sex-matched) healthy control subjects were studied using Actiheart devices (CamNtech) to assess resting and stressed heart rate. Actiheart devices were fitted for 7 days to measure sleeping heart rate, activity levels, and resting, active and total energy expenditure. Using high resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging the neural correlates of increased resting heart rate were investigated including cortical thickness and region of interest analyses. In behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, resting (P = 0.001), stressed (P = 0.037) and sleeping heart rate (P = 0.038) were increased compared to control subjects, and resting heart rate (P = 0.020) compared to Alzheimer disease patients. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was associated with decreased activity levels compared to controls (P = 0.002) and increased resting energy expenditure (P = 0.045) and total energy expenditure (P = 0.035). Increased resting heart rate correlated with behavioural (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory) and cognitive measures (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination). Increased resting heart rate in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia correlated with atrophy involving the mesial temporal cortex, insula, and amygdala, regions previously

  8. Bicarbonate kinetics and predicted energy expenditure in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Sy, Jama; Gourishankar, Anand; Gordon, William E; Griffin, Debra; Zurakowski, David; Roth, Rachel M; Coss-Bu, Jorge; Jefferson, Larry; Heird, William; Castillo, Leticia

    2008-08-01

    To determine nutrient requirements by the carbon oxidation techniques, it is necessary to know the fraction of carbon dioxide produced during the oxidative process but not excreted. This fraction has not been described in critically ill children. By measuring the dilution of (13)C infused by metabolically produced carbon dioxide, the rates of carbon dioxide appearance can be estimated. Energy expenditure can be determined by bicarbonate dilution kinetics if the energy equivalents of carbon dioxide (food quotient) from the diet ingested are known. We conducted a 6-h, primed, continuous tracer infusion of NaH(13)CO(3) in critically ill children fed parenterally or enterally or receiving only glucose and electrolytes, to determine bicarbonate fractional recovery, bicarbonate rates of appearance, and energy expenditure. Thirty-one critically ill children aged 1 mo-20 y who were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit at a tertiary-care center were studied. Patients were stratified by age, BMI, and severity score (PRISM III). Fractional bicarbonate recovery was 0.69, 0.70, and 0.63, respectively, for the parenterally fed, enterally fed, and glucose-electrolytes groups, and it correlated with the severity of disease in the parenteral (P < 0.01) and glucose-electrolytes (P < 0.05) groups. Rates of appearance varied between 0.17 and 0.19 micromol . kg(-1) . h(-1) With these data and estimates of the energy equivalents of carbon dioxide (a surrogate for respiratory quotient), energy expenditure was determined. The 2001 World Health Organization and Schofield predictive equations overestimated and underestimated, respectively, energy requirements compared with those obtained by bicarbonate dilution kinetics. Bicarbonate kinetics allows accurate determination of energy needs in critically ill children.

  9. Validity of reported energy expenditure and energy and protein intakes in Swedish adolescent vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christel L; Westerterp, Klaas R; Johansson, Gunnar K

    2002-02-01

    It is difficult to obtain accurate reports of dietary intake; therefore, reported dietary intakes must be validated. Researchers need low-cost methods of estimating energy expenditure to validate reports of energy intake in groups with different lifestyles and eating habits. We sought to validate the reported energy expenditure and energy and protein intakes of Swedish adolescent vegans and omnivores. We compared 16 vegans (7 females and 9 males; mean age: 17.4 +/- 0.8 y) with 16 omnivores matched for sex, age, and height. Energy expenditure as reported in a physical activity interview and energy and protein intakes as reported by diet history were validated by using the doubly labeled water method and by measuring urinary nitrogen excretion. The validity of reported energy expenditure and energy and protein intakes was not significantly different between vegans and omnivores. The physical activity interview had a bias toward underestimating energy expenditure by 1.4 +/- 2.6 MJ/d (95% CI: 2.4, 0.5 MJ/d). The diet-history interview had a bias toward underestimating energy intake by 1.9 +/- 2.7 MJ/d (95% CI: 2.9, 1.0 MJ/d) but showed good agreement with the validation method for nitrogen (protein) intake (underestimate of 0.40 +/- 1.90 g N/d; 95% CI: 1.10, 0.29 g N/d). The physical activity and diet-history interviews underestimated energy expenditure and energy intake, respectively. Energy intake and expenditure were underestimated to the same extent, and the degree of underestimation was not significantly different between vegans and omnivores. Valid protein intakes were obtained with the diet-history method for both vegans and omnivores.

  10. Unstable shoes increase energy expenditure of obese patients.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Malatesta, Davide; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Ergonomic unstable shoes, which are widely available to the general population, could increase daily non-exercise activity thermogenesis as the result of increased muscular involvement. We compared the energy expenditure of obese patients during standing and walking with conventional flat-bottomed shoes versus unstable shoes. Twenty-nine obese patients were asked to stand quietly and to walk at their preferred walking speed while wearing unstable or conventional shoes. The main outcome measures were metabolic rate of standing and gross and net energy cost of walking, as assessed with indirect calorimetry. Metabolic rate of standing was higher while wearing unstable shoes compared with conventional shoes (1.11 ± 0.20 W/kg(-1) vs 1.06 ± 0.23 W/kg(-1), P=.0098). Gross and net energy cost of walking were higher while wearing unstable shoes compared with conventional shoes (gross: 4.20 ± 0.42 J/kg(-1)/m(-1)vs 4.01 ± 0.39 J/kg(-1)/m(-1), P=.0035; net: 3.37 ± 0.41 J/kg(-1)/m(-1) vs 3.21 ± 0.37 J/kg(-1)/m(-1); P=.032). In obese patients, it is possible to increase energy expenditure of standing and walking by means of ergonomic unstable footwear. Long-term use of unstable shoes may eventually prevent a positive energy balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Core temperature: a forgotten variable in energy expenditure and obesity?

    PubMed

    Landsberg, L

    2012-12-01

    A substantial proportion of energy expenditure is utilized for maintenance of the 'warm-blooded' or homoeothermic state. In normally active humans, this compartment of energy output approximates 40% of total energy expenditure. Many mammalian species utilize regulated decreases in temperature, such as hibernation or shallow torpor, as a means of energy conservation. Inherited forms of rodent obesity (ob/ob mouse, fa/fa rat) have lower core temperatures and withstand cold poorly. Obese humans, however, have normal core temperatures. This review addresses the role of core temperature in the metabolic economy of the obese state and raises the possibility that (i) lower temperatures may contribute to the increase in metabolic efficiency that accompanies weight loss in the obese; and (ii) that lower core temperatures may have initiated weight gain in the pre-obese state and that the normal temperatures in the obese may represent metabolic compensation to restore energy balance and limit further weight gain. © 2012 The Author. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Energy expenditure of swimmers during high volume training.

    PubMed

    Trappe, T A; Gastaldelli, A; Jozsi, A C; Troup, J P; Wolfe, R R

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the total energy expenditure (TEE) of swimmers during high volume training (17.5 +/- 1.0 km.d-1) using the doubly labeled water method. Five female swimmers (age, 19 +/- 1 yr; height, 178.3 +/- 2.2 cm; weight 65.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were administered a dose of 2H2(18)O and monitored for 5 days. Training consisted of two sessions per day, lasting a total of 5-6 h. Energy intake (EI) was calculated from dietary records. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured on a non-training day and averaged 7.7 +/- 0.5 MJ.d-1 (1840 +/- 130 kcal.d-1). There were no changes in body weight (day 1, 65.4 +/- 1.6; day 5, 65.2 +/ 1.5 kg) over the measurement period. TEE of the swimmers during the training period averaged 23.4 +/- 2.1 MJ.d-1 (5593 +/- 495 kcal.d-1). EI averaged 13.1 +/- 1.0 MJ.d-1 (3136 +/- 227 kcal.d-1), implying a negative energy balance of 43 +/- 2%. TEE expressed as a multiple of REE was 3.0 +/- 0.2. The results of this investigation describe the total energy demands of high volume swimming training, which may be used to address the dietary concerns of the competitive swimming athlete.

  13. Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure of level versus downhill running.

    PubMed

    Robergs, R A; Wagner, D R; Skemp, K M

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare submaximal oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure (kJ) while running at 0, -1.8, -3.6, and -5.4% grades for three individually selected running speeds (9.4 + 0.79, 10.3 + 0.74, 11.3 + 0.73 km.h-1). Subjects completed the four grade conditions in random order via a modified Latin squares design at three self-selected submaximal running speeds for each condition. Thirteen (5 females and 8 males) recreational (< 35 km.wk-1) runners (age: 27.7 +/- 4.3 yrs) volunteered for the study. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA (Grade x Speed) was used to analyze steady-state VO2 and kJ expenditure. Stepwise linear multiple regression was used to develop an equation for predicting VO2 for running at recreational speeds on moderately negative grades. VO2 and kJ mean values were significantly different between all speed and % grade comparisons. Compared to level grade, the average reductions in VO2 and kJ expenditure ranged from approximately 9% at a grade of -1.8% to 22% at a grade of -5.4%. The relationship between VO2 and % grade for each running speed was linear. For a given speed, running at a modest negative grade can significantly decrease VO2 and kJ expenditure compared to level running. The following regression equation can be used to estimate VO2 (ml.kg-1.min-1) for running at recreational speeds on slight downhills: VO2 = 6.8192 + 0.1313 (speed in m.min-1) + 1.2367 (% grade).

  14. Resting Energy Expenditure Is Decreased in Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1A

    PubMed Central

    Danzig, Jennifer; Groleau, Veronique; McCormack, Shana; Casella, Alex; Harrington, Jennifer; Sochett, Etienne; Tershakovec, Andrew; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Levine, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is caused by loss-of-function mutations on the maternally inherited GNAS allele and is associated with early-onset obesity, neurocognitive defects, and resistance to multiple hormones. The role of energy intake vs central regulation of energy expenditure in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) in participants with PHP1A. Design: We assessed REE, biochemical, endocrine, and auxological status of 12 participants with PHP1A who had normal or elevated body mass index; controls were a cohort of 156 obese participants. Setting: This study took place at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia and Sick Children's Hospital in Toronto. Main Outcome Measures: REE as a percent of predicted REE was the outcome measure. Results: PHP1A participants had normal endocrine status while receiving appropriate hormone replacement therapy, but had significantly decreased REE as a percent of predicted REE (using the modified Schofield equation). Conclusion: Our results are consistent with REE being the principal cause of obesity in PHP1A rather than it being caused by excessive energy intake or endocrine dysfunction. PMID:26709970

  15. Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A; Wood, Brian M; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Racette, Susan B; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Marlowe, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of total energy expenditure, (TEE; kcal/day) among traditional populations have challenged current models relating habitual physical activity to daily energy requirements. Here, we examine the relationship between physical activity and TEE among traditional Hadza hunter-gatherers living in northern Tanzania. Hadza adults were studied at two camps, with minimal intervention so as to monitor energy expenditure and activity during normal daily life. We measured daily walking distance and walking speed using wearable GPS units for 41 adults. For a subset of 30 adults, we measured TEE using doubly labeled water, three indices of work load (foraging return rate, maternal status, and number of dependent children), and urinary biomarkers of metabolic activity and stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, cortisol, and testosterone). Fat-free mass was the single strongest predictor of TEE among Hadza adults (r(2)  = 0.66, P < 0.001). Hadza men used greater daily walking distances and faster walking speeds compared with that of Hadza women, but neither sex nor any measure of physical activity or work load were correlated with TEE in analyses controlling for fat-free mass. Compared with developed, industrial populations, Hadza adults had similar TEE but elevated levels of metabolic stress as measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Our results indicate that daily physical activity may not predict TEE within traditional hunter-gatherer populations like the Hadza. Instead, adults with high levels of habitual physical activity may adapt by reducing energy allocation to other physiological activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Analysis of energy expenditure in diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Assaad, Houssein; Yao, Kang; Tekwe, Carmen D.; Feng, Shuo; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zhou, Lan; Carroll, Raymond J.; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Development of obesity in animals is affected by energy intake, dietary composition, and metabolism. Useful models for studying this metabolic problem are Sprague-Dawley rats fed low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets beginning at 28 days of age. Through experimental design, their dietary intakes of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals per kg body weight (BW) do not differ in order to eliminate confounding factors in data interpretation. The 24-h energy expenditure of rats is measured using indirect calorimetry. A regression model is constructed to accurately predict BW gain based on diet, initial BW gain, and the principal component scores of respiratory quotient and heat production. Time-course data on metabolism (including energy expenditure) are analyzed using a mixed effect model that fits both fixed and random effects. Cluster analysis is employed to classify rats as normal-weight or obese. HF-fed rats are heavier than LF-fed rats, but rates of their heat production per kg non-fat mass do not differ. We conclude that metabolic conversion of dietary lipids into body fat primarily contributes to obesity in HF-fed rats. PMID:24896330

  17. Comparison of total energy expenditure between school and summer months.

    PubMed

    Zinkel, S R J; Moe, M; Stern, E A; Hubbard, V S; Yanovski, S Z; Yanovski, J A; Schoeller, D A

    2013-10-01

    Childhood obesity has increased 3 to 4 fold. Some children gain excess weight in summer. Total energy expenditure increases almost linearly with fat-free mass. A lower total energy expenditure was not detected in summer. Recent data report that the youth experience greater weight gain during summer than during school months. We tested the hypothesis that a difference in total energy expenditure (TEE) between school and summer months exists and may contribute to summer weight gain. A secondary analysis was performed on cross-sectional TEE data from school-age, sedentary African-American and Caucasian youth based in or near the District of Columbia who were at-risk for adult obesity because they had body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile or had overweight parents. TEE was estimated from 18-O and deuterium measurements during 1-week intervals using urine samples collected after ingestion of doubly labelled water. Differences in summer- and school-time TEE were assessed using analysis of covariance. The data were adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) as determined by deuterium dilution to adjust for the effect of body size on TEE. Data were collected from 162 youth (average age 10 ± 2 years, BMI 28 ± 8 kg m(-2) and BMI z-score 1.96 + 0.96). Of these, 96 youth had TEE measured during the school year (September-June); 66 different youths had TEE measured during summer months (June-August). After adjustment for FFM, average summertime TEE was 2450 ± 270 kcal d(-1) and average school-time TEE was 2510 ± 350 kcal d(-1) (P = 0.26). No difference in TEE was detected between the school year and the summer months. These data suggest that seasonal differences in youth weight gain are not necessarily due to differences in energy expenditures. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Laboratory and field methods for measuring human energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R

    2012-01-01

    Energetics research is central to the field of human biology. Energy is an important currency for measuring adaptation, because both its acquisition and allocation for biological processes have important implications for survival and reproduction. Recent technological and methodological advances are now allowing human biologists to study variation in energy dynamics with much greater accuracy in a wide variety of ecological contexts. This article provides an overview of the methods used for measuring human energy expenditure (EE) and considers some of the important ecological and evolutionary questions that can be explored from an energetics perspective. Basic principles of calorimetry are first presented, followed by an overview of the equipment used for measuring human EE and work capacity. Methods for measuring three important dimensions of human EE-resting metabolic rate, working/exercising EE, and total EE-are then presented, highlighting key areas of ongoing research.

  19. Comparative accuracy of fitness tracking modalities in quantifying energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Dondzila, Christopher; Garner, Dena

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of wrist-worn, consumer-grade pedometers and earbud sensor technology in quantifying energy expenditure. Nineteen participants (24.6 ± 3.1 years) performed 5 min exercise stages on a treadmill (80.5 m/min, 107.3 m/min, 134.1 m/min and 160.9 m/min) while measuring energy expenditure via the Fitbit Charge pedometer and Jabra Sport Pulse Wireless Earbuds, comparing with indirect calorimetry. Paired samples t-tests were used to calculate differences and Pearson correlations to examine associations between kcals measured from the Fitbit and Jabra earbuds from indirect calorimetry. Results indicate significant underestimations of kcals for both devices at all speeds except one (Jabra earbuds at 107.3 m/min). Moderate correlations were observed for the Fitbit at 107.3 m/min and 107.3 m/min, and 134.1 m/min for the Jabra earbuds. Both devices considerably underestimated kcals, suggesting that caution be used when incorporating such data into fitness/health goals.

  20. Effects of robotic knee exoskeleton on human energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Gams, Andrej; Petric, Tadej; Debevec, Tadej; Babic, Jan

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies discuss the design and control of various exoskeleton mechanisms, yet relatively few address the effect on the energy expenditure of the user. In this paper, we discuss the effect of a performance augmenting exoskeleton on the metabolic cost of an able-bodied user/pilot during periodic squatting. We investigated whether an exoskeleton device will significantly reduce the metabolic cost and what is the influence of the chosen device control strategy. By measuring oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, heart rate, blood oxygenation, and muscle EMG during 5-min squatting series, at one squat every 2 s, we show the effects of using a prototype robotic knee exoskeleton under three different noninvasive control approaches: gravity compensation approach, position-based approach, and a novel oscillator-based approach. The latter proposes a novel control that ensures synchronization of the device and the user. Statistically significant decrease in physiological responses can be observed when using the robotic knee exoskeleton under gravity compensation and oscillator-based control. On the other hand, the effects of position-based control were not significant in all parameters although all approaches significantly reduced the energy expenditure during squatting.

  1. Energy expenditure and physiological responses during indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Mermier, C M; Robergs, R A; McMinn, S M; Heyward, V H

    1997-09-01

    To report the physiological responses of indoor rock climbing. Fourteen experienced climbers (nine men, five women) performed three climbing trials on an indoor climbing wall. Subjects performed three trials of increasing difficulty: (a) an easy 90 degrees vertical wall, (b) a moderately difficult negatively angled wall (106 degrees), and (c) a difficult horizontal overhang (151 degrees). At least 15 minutes separated each trial. Expired air was collected in a Douglas bag after four minutes of climbing and heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a telemetry unit. Arterialised blood samples were obtained from a hyperaemised ear lobe at rest and one or two minutes after each trial for measurement of blood lactate. Significant differences were found between trials for HR, lactate, oxygen consumption (VO2), and energy expenditure, but not for respiratory exchange ratio. Analysis of the HR and VO2 responses indicated that rock climbing does not elicit the traditional linear HR-VO2 relationship characteristic of treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. During the three trials, HR increased to 74-85% of predicted maximal values and energy expenditure was similar to that reported for running at a moderate pace (8-11 minutes per mile). These data indicate that indoor rock climbing is a good activity to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance. In addition, the traditional HR-VO2 relationship should not be used in the analysis of this sport, or for prescribing exercise intensity for climbing.

  2. Energy expenditure on recreational visits to different natural environments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Lewis R; White, Mathew P; Taylor, Adrian H; Herbert, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity poses a significant challenge to physical and mental health. Environmental approaches to tackle physical inactivity have identified natural environments as potentially important public health resources. Despite this, little is known about characteristics of the activity involved when individuals visit different types of natural environment. Using Natural England's Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment Survey, we examined 71,603 English respondents' recreational visits to natural environments in the past week. Specifically, we examined the intensity of the activities they undertook on the visits (METs), the duration of their visit, and the associated total energy expenditure (MET minutes). Visits to countryside and urban greenspace environments were associated with more intense activities than visits to coastal environments. However, visits to coastal environments were associated with the most energy expenditure overall due to their relatively long duration. Results differed by the urbanity or rurality of the respondent's residence and also how far respondents travelled to their destination. Knowledge of what types of natural environment afford the highest volumes and intensities of physical activity could inform landscape architecture and exercise prescriptions. Isolating activity-supporting characteristics of natural environments that can be translated into urban design is important in providing physical activity opportunities for those less able to access expansive environments.

  3. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  4. Minimal resistance training improves daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Erik P.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Smith, Bryan K; Honas, Jeff; LeCheminant, James D.; Bailey, Bruce W.; Jacobsen, Dennis J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term resistance training (RT) may result in a chronic increase in 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation to a level sufficient to assist in maintaining energy balance and prevent weight gain. However, the impact of a minimal RT program on these parameters in an overweight college age population, a group at high risk for developing obesity, is unknown. Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect of 6-months of supervised minimal RT in previously sedentary, overweight (mean±SEM, BMI=27.7±0.5kg/m2) young adults (21.0±0.5yrs) on 24-hr EE, resting metabolic rate (RMR), sleep metabolic rate (SMR) and substrate oxidation using whole room indirect calorimetry 72-h after the last RT session. Methods Participants were randomized to RT (1 set, 3 d/wk, 3–6 repetition maximum, 9 exercises) (N=22) or control (C, N=17) groups and completed all assessments at baseline and 6 months. Results There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in 24-hr EE in the RT (527 ± 220kJ/d) and C (270 ± 168kJ/d) groups, however, the difference between groups was not significant (P=0.30). Twenty-four hour fat oxidation (g/day) was not altered after RT, however; reductions in RQ assessed during both rest (P<0.05) and sleep (P<0.05) suggested increased fat oxidation in RT compared with C during these periods. SMR (8.4±8.6%) and RMR (7.4±8.7%) increased significantly in RT (P<0.001) but not in C, resulting in significant (P<0.001) between group differences for SMR with a trend for significant (P=0.07) between group differences for RMR. Conclusion A minimal RT program that required little time to complete (11 min per session) resulted in a chronic increase in energy expenditure. This adaptation in energy expenditure may have a favorable impact on energy balance and fat oxidation sufficient to assist with the prevention of obesity in sedentary, overweight young adults, a group at high risk for developing obesity. PMID:19346974

  5. Minimal resistance training improves daily energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Erik P; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Honas, Jeff; Lecheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Jacobsen, Dennis J; Washburn, Richard A

    2009-05-01

    Long-term resistance training (RT) may result in a chronic increase in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation to a level sufficient to assist in maintaining energy balance and preventing weight gain. However, the impact of a minimal RT program on these parameters in an overweight college-aged population, a group at high risk for developing obesity, is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of 6 months of supervised minimal RT in previously sedentary, overweight (mean +/- SEM, BMI = 27.7 +/- 0.5 kg x m(-2)) young adults (21.0 +/- 0.5 yr) on 24-h EE, resting metabolic rate (RMR), sleep metabolic rate (SMR), and substrate oxidation using whole-room indirect calorimetry 72 h after the last RT session. Participants were randomized to RT (one set, 3 d x wk(-1), three to six repetition maximums, nine exercises; N = 22) or control (C, N = 17) groups and completed all assessments at baseline and at 6 months. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in 24-h EE in the RT (527 +/- 220 kJ x d(-1)) and C (270 +/- 168 kJ x d(-1)) groups; however, the difference between groups was not significant (P = 0.30). Twenty-four hours of fat oxidation (g x d(-1)) was not altered after RT; however, reductions in RT assessed during both rest (P < 0.05) and sleep (P < 0.05) suggested increased fat oxidation in RT compared with C during these periods. SMR (8.4 +/- 8.6%) and RMR (7.4 +/- 8.7%) increased significantly in RT (P < 0.001) but not in C, resulting in significant (P < 0.001) between-group differences for SMR with a trend for significant (P = 0.07) between-group differences for RMR. A minimal RT program that required little time to complete (11min per session) resulted in a chronic increase in energy expenditure. This adaptation in energy expenditure may have a favorable impact on energy balance and fat oxidation sufficient to assist with the prevention of obesity in sedentary, overweight young adults, a group at high risk for developing obesity.

  6. Documentation for the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System 1970-1987: Diskettes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) is the database that supports the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1987'' (SEPER). The SEPEDS diskettes contain annual energy price and expenditure estimated for 1970-1987. The State data are grouped with one Census Region per diskette. In addition to the States in the Region, each diskette contains data utility programs which will format the data for use by the most widely used spreadsheet and database software products.

  7. Information Integration and Energy Expenditure in Gene Regulation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Javier; Wong, Felix; DePace, Angela; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-06-30

    The quantitative concepts used to reason about gene regulation largely derive from bacterial studies. We show that this bacterial paradigm cannot explain the sharp expression of a canonical developmental gene in response to a regulating transcription factor (TF). In the absence of energy expenditure, with regulatory DNA at thermodynamic equilibrium, information integration across multiple TF binding sites can generate the required sharpness, but with strong constraints on the resultant "higher-order cooperativities." Even with such integration, there is a "Hopfield barrier" to sharpness; for n TF binding sites, this barrier is represented by the Hill function with the Hill coefficient n. If, however, energy is expended to maintain regulatory DNA away from thermodynamic equilibrium, as in kinetic proofreading, this barrier can be breached and greater sharpness achieved. Our approach is grounded in fundamental physics, leads to testable experimental predictions, and suggests how a quantitative paradigm for eukaryotic gene regulation can be formulated.

  8. Energy expenditure and balance among long term liver recipients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helem S; Anastácio, Lucilene R; Ferreira, Lívia G; Lima, Agnaldo S; Correia, Maria Isabel T D

    2014-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in patients undergoing liver transplantation has been well documented. The etiology for this complication is not well defined, although it has a high prevalence in post-transplant patients. Reduced energy expenditure may be related to excessive weight gain. Thus, the assessment of the resting energy expenditure (REE) in this patient population is of utmost importance. Therefore, patients who underwent liver transplantation had their REEs measured by indirect calorimetry (IC). These results were compared with the demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle variables assessed by uni- and multivariate statistical analyses. The REEs were also compared to estimates using the Harris-Benedict formula, and the patients were classified as hypo-, normo- and hypermetabolic. We evaluated 42 patients with an average of 6.5 years post-transplant and an REE of 1449.7 kcal/day (measured by IC) or 1404.5 kcal/day (predicted by the HB formula). There was great correlation between the methods, and the best predictors of REE were age, weight, amount of lean mass and amount of total body water. Excessive weight was observed in 57% of patients, and obesity was observed in 26.2%. Underreporting of energy intake was observed in 65.8% of patients, and most patients (92.7%) were classified as sedentary or less active. No patient was classified as hypometabolic. These results indicate that hypometabolism should be discarded as cause of the high prevalence of overweight and obese patients in the population undergoing LT. However, energy consumption and low levels of physical activity may be risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Fat free mass explains the relationship between stunting and energy expenditure in urban Mexican Maya children.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Hoffman, Daniel J; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2012-09-01

    Childhood stunting has been associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood, but the causes are unclear. This study hypothesizes that stunting significantly reduces both resting and activity energy expenditure. To assess and describe energy expenditure of low socio-economic Maya children and to determine whether stunting is independently related to energy expenditure after controlling for lean mass. Thirty-three urban Maya children, 17 boys, aged 7-9 years, living in Merida, Mexico, were measured for height, weight and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body composition was estimated from BIA. Energy expenditure was measured for one week using the Actiheart (combined heart rate and accelerometer). Stunting (height-for-age below the 5(th) percentile of NHANES III based references) affected 35% of these physically active children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, greater lean body mass predicted higher resting and activity energy expenditure. Stature was not a significant predictor of resting energy expenditure. A lower height-for-age z-score, but not stunting as a categorical variable, significantly predicted lower activity energy expenditure. The hypothesis that stunting reduces total energy expenditure (resting + active) in children is not supported. Rather, children with shorter stature and less lean body mass have lower total energy expenditure. Complex interactions between body size, body composition, and metabolic activity appear to elevate the risk for later life obesity in these Maya children.

  10. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-20

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  11. National patterns of energy demand and expenditures by Hispanics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research, at Argonne National Laboratory, being done for the Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) of the US Department of Energy. Under its legislative mandate MI is required to assess the impact of government policy, programs, and actions on US minorities. In line with this mission Argonne is currently involved in characterizing and analyzing the patterns of energy demand and expenditures of minorities. A major barrier associated with this task is the availability of sufficient data. With the possible exception of blacks, analysis of the patterns of energy demand for most minority population categories is all but impossible because of small sample sizes. The major source of residential energy consumption data, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, only collects data on 5000 to 7000 households. For many minority population categories, this number of observations make any meaningful statistical analysis at least at the regional Census level practically impossible, with any further refinement of the analysis becoming even more difficult. In this paper our primary purpose is to describe the patterns of energy demand for Hispanics and nonhispanics but ancillary to that briefly present one possible solution to the data availability problem.

  12. Energy Expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks in 2 cities

    Treesearch

    Luis J. Suau; Myron F. Floyd; John O. Spengler; Jay E. Maddock; Paul H. Gobster

    2012-01-01

    Context: Availability of public neighborhood parks is associated with physical activity. Little is known about how parks contribute to population energy balance. Purpose: This study estimated energy expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks and compared energy expenditure by activity areas within parks and by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income....

  13. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, C. W.

    2010-10-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  14. Scaling of free-ranging primate energetics with body mass predicts low energy expenditure in humans.

    PubMed

    Simmen, Bruno; Darlu, Pierre; Hladik, Claude Marcel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Studies of how a mammal's daily energy expenditure scales with its body mass suggest that humans, whether Westerners, agro-pastoralists, or hunter-gatherers, all have much lower energy expenditures for their body mass than other mammals. However, non-human primates also differ from other mammals in several life history traits suggestive of low energy use. Judging by field metabolic rates of free-ranging strepsirhine and haplorhine primates with different lifestyle and body mass, estimated using doubly labeled water, primates have lower energy expenditure than other similar-sized eutherian mammals. Daily energy expenditure in humans fell along the regression line of non-human primates. The results suggest that thrifty energy use could be an ancient strategy of primates. Although physical activity is a major component of energy balance, our results suggest a need to revise the basis for establishing norms of energy expenditure in modern humans.

  15. Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure for Determining Excess Weight Gain in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L Anne; Butte, Nancy F; Ravussin, Eric; Han, Hongmei; Burton, Jeffrey H; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI 25 or greater [n=12]) were measured preconceptionally and at 22 and 36 weeks of gestation. Energy intake was calculated as the sum of total energy expenditure measured by doubly-labeled water and energy deposition determined by the four-compartment body composition model. Measurements of weight, body composition, and basal metabolic rate were completed preconceptionally and 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter and activity energy expenditure by doubly-labeled water. Energy intake from 22 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly higher in high gainers (n=19) (3,437±99 kcal per day) compared with low+ideal gainers (n=26) (2,687±110, P<.001) within both BMI categories. Basal metabolic rate increased in proportion to gestational weight gain; however, basal metabolic rate adjusted for body composition changes with gestational weight gain was not significantly different between high gainers and low+ideal gainers (151±33 compared with 129±36 kcal per day; P=.66). Activity energy expenditure decreased throughout pregnancy in both groups (low+ideal gainers: -150±70 kcal per day; P=.04 and high gainers: -230±92 kcal per day; P=.01), but there was no difference between high gainers and low+ideal gainers (P=.49). Interventions designed to increase adherence to the Institute of Medicine guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy may have increased efficacy if focused on limiting energy intake while increasing nutrient density and maintaining levels of physical activity.

  16. Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure for Determining Excess Weight Gain in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Butte, Nancy F.; Ravussin, Eric; Han, Hongmei; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Redman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is due to increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. Methods In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n=33 and BMI ≥ 25, n=12) were measured preconceptionally 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Energy intake was calculated as the sum of total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water and energy deposition determined by the 4-compartment body composition model. Weight, body composition, and metabolic chamber measurement were completed preconceptionally, 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter and activity energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Results Energy intake from 22 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly higher in high gainers (n=19) (3437 ± 99 kcal/d) versus low + ideal gainers (n=26) (2687 ± 110 p< .001) within both BMI categories. Basal metabolic rate increased in proportion to gestational weight gain; however, basal metabolic rate adjusted for body composition changes with gestational weight gain was not significantly different between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (151 ± 33 vs. 129 ± 36 kcal/d; p=.66). Activity energy expenditure decreased throughout pregnancy in both groups (low + ideal gainers: −150 ± 70 kcal/d; p=.04 and high gainers: −230 ± 92 kcal/day; p=.01), but there was no difference between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (p=.49). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase adherence to the IOM guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy may have increased efficacy if focused on limiting energy intake while increasing nutrient density and maintaining levels of physical activity. PMID:27054928

  17. Low energy intake plus low energy expenditure (low energy flux), not energy surfeit, predicts future body fat gain12

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of studies that have prospectively tested the energy surfeit theory of obesity with the use of objectively estimated energy intake and energy expenditure in humans. An alternative theory is that homeostatic regulation of body weight is more effective when energy intake and expenditure are both high (high energy flux), implying that low energy flux should predict weight gain. Objective: We aimed to examine the predictive relations of energy balance and energy flux to future weight gain and tested whether results were replicable in 2 independent samples. Design: Adolescents (n = 154) and college-aged women (n = 75) underwent 2-wk objective doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, and percentage of body fat measures at baseline. Percentage of body fat was measured annually for 3 y of follow-up for the adolescent sample and for 2 y of follow-up for the young adult sample. Results: Low energy flux, but not energy surfeit, predicted future increases in body fat in both studies. Furthermore, high energy flux appeared to prevent fat gain in part because it was associated with a higher resting metabolic rate. Conclusion: Counter to the energy surfeit model of obesity, results suggest that increasing energy expenditure may be more effective for reducing body fat than caloric restriction, which is currently the treatment of choice for obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02084836. PMID:27169833

  18. Low energy intake plus low energy expenditure (low energy flux), not energy surfeit, predicts future body fat gain.

    PubMed

    Hume, David John; Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric

    2016-06-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have prospectively tested the energy surfeit theory of obesity with the use of objectively estimated energy intake and energy expenditure in humans. An alternative theory is that homeostatic regulation of body weight is more effective when energy intake and expenditure are both high (high energy flux), implying that low energy flux should predict weight gain. We aimed to examine the predictive relations of energy balance and energy flux to future weight gain and tested whether results were replicable in 2 independent samples. Adolescents (n = 154) and college-aged women (n = 75) underwent 2-wk objective doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, and percentage of body fat measures at baseline. Percentage of body fat was measured annually for 3 y of follow-up for the adolescent sample and for 2 y of follow-up for the young adult sample. Low energy flux, but not energy surfeit, predicted future increases in body fat in both studies. Furthermore, high energy flux appeared to prevent fat gain in part because it was associated with a higher resting metabolic rate. Counter to the energy surfeit model of obesity, results suggest that increasing energy expenditure may be more effective for reducing body fat than caloric restriction, which is currently the treatment of choice for obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02084836. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Oxytocin in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus reduces feeding and acutely increases energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Emily E.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Central oxytocin reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is associated with energy balance and contains a high density of oxytocin receptors. We hypothesized that oxytocin in the VMN is a negative regulator of energy balance acting to reduce feeding and increase energy expenditure. To test this idea, oxytocin or vehicle was injected directly into the VMN of Sprague-Dawley rats during fasted and nonfasted conditions. Energy expenditure (via indirect calorimetry) and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were recorded simultaneously. Animals were also exposed to a conditioned taste aversion test, to determine whether oxytocin's effects on food intake were associated with malaise. When food was available during testing, oxytocin-induced elevations in energy expenditure lasted for 1 h, after which overall energy expenditure was reduced. In the absence of food during the testing period, oxytocin similarly increased energy expenditure during the first hour, but differences in 12-h energy expenditure were eliminated, implying that the differences may have been due to the thermic effects of feeding (digestion, absorption, and metabolic processing). Oxytocin acutely elevated SPA and reduced feeding at doses that did not cause a conditioned taste aversion during both the fed and fasted states. Together, these data suggest that oxytocin in the VMN promotes satiety and acutely elevates energy expenditure and SPA and implicates the VMN as a relevant site for the antiobesity effects of oxytocin. PMID:24990860

  20. Total energy expenditure estimated using foot-ground contact pedometry.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Reed W; Buller, Mark J; Santee, William R; Yokota, Miyo; Weyand, Peter G; Delany, James P

    2004-02-01

    Routine walking and running, by increasing daily total energy expenditure (TEE), can play a significant role in reducing the likelihood of obesity. The objective of this field study was to compare TEE estimated using foot-ground contact time (Tc)-pedometry (TEE(PEDO)) with that measured by the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eight male U.S. Marine test volunteers [27 +/- 4 years of age (mean +/- SD); weight = 83.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height = 182.2 +/- 4.5 cm; body fat = 17.0 +/- 2.9%] engaged in a field training exercise were studied over 2 days. TEE(PEDO) was defined as (calculated resting energy expenditure + estimated thermic effect of food + metabolic cost of physical activity), where physical activity was estimated by Tc-pedometry. Tc-pedometry was used to differentiate inactivity, activity other than exercise (i.e., non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or NEAT), and the metabolic cost of locomotion (M(LOCO)), where M(LOCO) was derived from total weight (body weight + load weight) and accelerometric measurements of Tc. TEE(PEDO) data were compared with TEEs measured by the DLW (2H2(18)O) method (TEE(DLW)): TEE(DLW) = 15.27 +/- 1.65 MJ/day and TEE(PEDO) = 15.29 +/- 0.83 MJ/day. Mean bias (i.e., TEE(PEDO) - TEE(DLW)) was 0.02 MJ, and mean error (SD of individual differences between TEE(PEDO) and TEE(DLW)) was 1.83 MJ. The Tc-pedometry method provided a valid estimate of the average TEE of a small group of physically active subjects where walking was the dominant activity.

  1. A practical method of estimating energy expenditure during tennis play.

    PubMed

    Novas, A M P; Rowbottom, D G; Jenkins, D G

    2003-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical method of estimating energy expenditure (EE) during tennis. Twenty-four elite female tennis players first completed a tennis-specific graded test in which five different Intensity levels were applied randomly. Each intensity level was intended to simulate a "game" of singles tennis and comprised six 14 s periods of activity alternated with 20 s of active rest. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously and each player's rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded at the end of each intensity level. Rate of energy expenditure (EE(VO2)) during the test was calculated using the sum of VO2 during play and the 'O2 debt' during recovery, divided by the duration of the activity. There were significant individual linear relationships between EE(VO2) and RPE, EE(VO2) and HR (r > or = 0.89 & r > or = 0.93; p < 0.05). On a second occasion, six players completed a 60-min singles tennis match during which VO2, HR and RPE were recorded; EE(VO2) was compared with EE predicted from the previously derived RPE and HR regression equations. Analysis found that EE(VO2) was overestimated by EE(RPE) (92 +/- 76 kJ x h(-1)) and EE(HR) (435 +/- 678 kJ x h(-1)), but the error of estimation for EE(RPE) (t = -3.01; p = 0.03) was less than 5% whereas for EE(HR) such error was 20.7%. The results of the study show that RPE can be used to estimate the energetic cost of playing tennis.

  2. Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure Following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yimin; Kintner, Jennifer; Rifkin, Sam K; Keim, Kathryn S; Tangney, Christy C

    2016-08-01

    There is no consensus whether resting energy expenditure (REE) following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is altered. The objectives of this investigation were to describe changes in measured REE (mREE) using indirect calorimetry in 25 OLT patients on days 5, 10, and 15 after baseline (within 72 hours following OLT) and compare mREE changes with those calculated with 2 predicted equations for energy expenditure (pREE): the Harris-Benedict and Schofield equations. Patients were 57 ± 5.4 years of age, 44% were male, 36% were black, and 72% had liver disease of viral etiology. Measured REE (at baseline and days 5, 10, and 15, per kcal/d: 1832 ± 952, 1565 ± 383, 1538 ± 345, 1578 ± 418) and kcal per kilogram of body weight (22.7 ± 12.8, 18.4 ± 4, 18.7 ± 3.8, 21 ± 6.5) did not change over time. In contrast, changes in pREE based on either the Harris-Benedict (P < .001) or Schofield (P = .006) equation using measured weights at each corresponding time point and lowest body weight during the study to estimate dry weight were significant. Wide ranges in both mREE and mREE expressed per kilogram of body weight at each study time point were observed in contrast to pREE, which declined by day 15. The observed differences in mREE over time suggest indirect calorimetry is indicated if available following OLT. Additional research is warranted to determine the most appropriate predictive equation with suitable stress factors to use when indirect calorimetry is not available. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  4. [Energy expenditure of anesthesiologists estimated from number of steps].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Kato, Shinya; Morita, Shigeho

    2009-12-01

    The physical activity can be mainly evaluated by the number of steps. We estimated the energy expenditure from the number of steps in the different job specifications of anesthesiologists using digital pedometer Walk Life CH-200 (Crecer Co, Tokyo, Japan). The average number of steps in the anesthesiologists (n = 41, 31 +/- 5 yr. old, M/F = 34/7, body mass index (BMI) 23 +/- 4 kg x m(-2)] during daily working hours was 7,778 and almost as same as the average number of steps in Japanese people for one day or manufacturer during daily working hours. The average numbers of steps in the residents (n = 26, 29 +/- 4 yr. old, M/F = 20/6, BMI 21 +/- 2 kg x m(-2)), instructors (n = 10, 35 +/- 5 yr. old, M/F = 9/1, BMI 24 +/- 4 kg x m(-2)), and supervisors (n = 5, 38 +/- 6 yr. old, M/F = 5/0, BMI 27 +/- 3 kg x m(-2)) were 7,249, 8,399, and 11,599, respectively. The number of steps in supervisor was significantly more than resident. Our present findings about the numbers of steps in the anesthesiologists were contrary to the general reports that the number of step in manager is less than laborer and the number of step decreases with aging and increasing BMI. No sex difference with the numbers of steps in anesthesiologists was contrary to the general report that the number of step in male is more than female. From our present results, the energy expenditure estimated from the number of steps in anesthesiologists, residents, instructors, and supervisors might correspond to 285, 246, 331, and 516 kcal, respectively.

  5. Resting Energy Expenditure of Rats Acclimated to Hyper-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro; Schwenke, David; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To determine the influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EE) following acclimation to hyper-gravity, oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured to calculate resting energy expenditure (EE), in male rats, ages 40 to 400 days, acclimated to 1.23 or 4.1 G for a minimum of two weeks. Animals were maintained on a centrifuge to produce the hyper-gravity environment. Measurements were made over three hours in hyper-gravity during the period when the lights were on, the inactive period of rats. In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g) hyper-gravity increased VO2 by 18% and VCO2 by 27% compared to controls, resulting in an increase in RER, 0.80 to 0.87. There were increases in resting EE with an increase in gravity. This increase was greater when the mass of the rat was larger. Rating EE for 400g animals were increased from 47 +/- 1 kcal/kg/day at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 5.8 +/- 2.2 kcal/kg/day at 2,3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference between the two hyper-gravity environments. When differences in age of the animals were accounted for, the increase in resting EE adjusted for body mass was increased by over 36% in older animals due to exposure to hyper-gravity. Acclimation to hyper-gravity increases the resting EE of rats, dependent upon body mass and age, and appears to alter substrate metabolism. Increasing the level of hyper-gravity, from 2.3 to 4.1 G, produced no further changes raising questions as to a dose effect of gravity level on resting metabolism.

  6. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  7. Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires?

    PubMed

    Neilson, Heather K; Robson, Paula J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2008-02-01

    Activity energy expenditure (AEE) is the modifiable component of total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from all activities, both volitional and nonvolitional. Because AEE may affect health, there is interest in its estimation in free-living people. Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) could be a feasible approach to AEE estimation in large populations, but it is unclear whether or not any PAQ is valid for this purpose. Our aim was to explore the validity of existing PAQs for estimating usual AEE in adults, using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a criterion measure. We reviewed 20 publications that described PAQ-to-DLW comparisons, summarized study design factors, and appraised criterion validity using mean differences (AEE(PAQ) - AEE(DLW), or TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)), 95% limits of agreement, and correlation coefficients (AEE(PAQ) versus AEE(DLW) or TEE(PAQ) versus TEE(DLW)). Only 2 of 23 PAQs assessed most types of activity over the past year and indicated acceptable criterion validity, with mean differences (TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)) of 10% and 2% and correlation coefficients of 0.62 and 0.63, respectively. At the group level, neither overreporting nor underreporting was more prevalent across studies. We speculate that, aside from reporting error, discrepancies between PAQ and DLW estimates may be partly attributable to 1) PAQs not including key activities related to AEE, 2) PAQs and DLW ascertaining different time periods, or 3) inaccurate assignment of metabolic equivalents to self-reported activities. Small sample sizes, use of correlation coefficients, and limited information on individual validity were problematic. Future research should address these issues to clarify the true validity of PAQs for estimating AEE.

  8. AMPK and the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Stark, Romana; Ashley, Sarah E; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-25

    This review highlights recent advances in the hormonal control of hypothalamic AMPK activity and the impact on appetite and energy metabolism. AMPK is an intracellular energy sensor that switches off ATP-consuming pathways and switches on ATP-producing pathways such as glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. In this regard, it is well positioned to respond to dynamic changes in metabolic state and nutritional over- or under-supply. Within the hypothalamus, AMPK responds to peripheral hormones that convey metabolic information based on increased plasma concentrations. For example, negative energy balance increases plasma ghrelin concentrations, increases hypothalamic AMPK and drives food intake. Conversely, plasma leptin concentrations are secreted in proportion to adipose levels and leptin suppresses hypothalamic AMPK activity and restricts food intake. This review explains that hypothalamic AMPK mediates neuroendocrine feedback control of energy metabolism. A current working model suggests that endocrine feedback influences hypothalamic AMPK via a number of mechanisms designed to shift an organism from negative to neutral energy balance. These mechanisms include (1) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in NPY/AgRP in the arcuate nucleus (2) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, (3) a novel ghrelin-stimulated AMPK-dependent presynaptic mechanism that sustains AgRP neuron firing via a local synaptic memory system, (4) adiponectin stimulation of hypothalamic AMPK and (5) hypothalamic AMPK control of energy expenditure by thyroid hormone or leptin. The number of diverse mechanisms ensures hypothalamic AMPK drives the shift from negative to neutral energy balance and underscores the fundamental importance of hypothalamic AMPK to maintain neutral energy balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative Imaging of Energy Expenditure in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Qiao, Hongyan; Du, Fei; Xiong, Qiang; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Despite the essential role of the brain energy generated from ATP hydrolysis in supporting cortical neuronal activity and brain function, it is challenging to noninvasively image and directly quantify the energy expenditure in the human brain. In this study, we applied an advanced in vivo 31P MRS imaging approach to obtain regional cerebral metabolic rates of high-energy phosphate reactions catalyzed by ATPase (CMRATPase) and creatine kinase (CMRCK), and to determine CMRATPase and CMRCK in pure grey mater (GM) and white mater (WM), respectively. It was found that both ATPase and CK rates are three times higher in GM than WM; and CMRCK is seven times higher than CMRATPase in GM and WM. Among the total brain ATP consumption in the human cortical GM and WM, 77% of them are used by GM in which approximately 96% is by neurons. A single cortical neuron utilizes approximately 4.7 billion ATPs per second in a resting human brain. This study demonstrates the unique utility of in vivo 31P MRS imaging modality for direct imaging of brain energy generated from ATP hydrolysis, and provides new insights into the human brain energetics and its role in supporting neuronal activity and brain function. PMID:22487547

  10. Quantitative imaging of energy expenditure in human brain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Qiao, Hongyan; Du, Fei; Xiong, Qiang; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Despite the essential role of the brain energy generated from ATP hydrolysis in supporting cortical neuronal activity and brain function, it is challenging to noninvasively image and directly quantify the energy expenditure in the human brain. In this study, we applied an advanced in vivo(31)P MRS imaging approach to obtain regional cerebral metabolic rates of high-energy phosphate reactions catalyzed by ATPase (CMR(ATPase)) and creatine kinase (CMR(CK)), and to determine CMR(ATPase) and CMR(CK) in pure gray mater (GM) and white mater (WM), respectively. It was found that both ATPase and CK rates are three times higher in GM than WM; and CMR(CK) is seven times higher than CMR(ATPase) in GM and WM. Among the total brain ATP consumption in the human cortical GM and WM, 77% of them are used by GM in which approximately 96% is by neurons. A single cortical neuron utilizes approximately 4.7 billion ATPs per second in a resting human brain. This study demonstrates the unique utility of in vivo(31)P MRS imaging modality for direct imaging of brain energy generated from ATP hydrolysis, and provides new insights into the human brain energetics and its role in supporting neuronal activity and brain function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An analysis of energy expenditure in Goodwin Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Peter; Ramírez, Jorge A.

    The local optimality hypothesis that natural river systems adjust their average channel properties toward an optimal state in which the rate of energy dissipation per unit channel area, Pa, is constant throughout the river network is explored on an analysis of Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. River network parameters describing the variation of channel forming and maintaining discharge, channel downstream hydraulic geometry, bed slope, and sediment concentration as a function of cumulative drainage area are estimated from Goodwin Creek data. Optimal channel characteristics that produce constant Pa are determined and superposed onto the digital elevation model-extracted river network with reach averaged bed slopes, and the spatial distribution of the energy dissipation rate Pa throughout the network is analyzed. Channel reaches with average energy dissipation rates different from the constant value of the optimal network are identified. We argue that these reaches are potentially unstable relative to the remainder of the network, and that their average channel properties will adjust in the direction of constant Pa. Qualitative statements are made about the direction of this adjustment through differences between the observed and optimal channel widths, and comparisons are made with recent observations of channel change in Goodwin Creek. This energy expenditure analysis suggests that the hypothesis of local optimality can be a useful tool for studying the relative stability and potential channel adjustment of river networks.

  12. Is Obesity Associated with Altered Energy Expenditure?12

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Isabella P; Elliott, Sarah A; Siervo, Mario; Padwal, Raj; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto; Prado, Carla M

    2016-01-01

    Historically, obese individuals were believed to have lower energy expenditure (EE) rates than nonobese individuals (normal and overweight), which, in the long term, would contribute to a positive energy balance and subsequent weight gain. The aim of this review was to critically appraise studies that compared measures of EE and its components, resting EE (REE), activity EE (AEE), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), in obese and nonobese adults to elucidate whether obesity is associated with altered EE. Contrary to popular belief, research has shown that obese individuals have higher absolute REE and total EE. When body composition (namely the metabolically active component, fat-free mass) is taken into account, these differences between obese and nonobese individuals disappear, suggesting that EE in obese individuals is not altered. However, an important question is whether AEE is lower in obese individuals because of a decrease in overall physical activity or because of less energy expended while performing physical activity. AEE and DIT could be reduced in obese individuals, mostly because of unhealthy behavior (low physical activity, higher intake of fat). However, the current evidence does not support the hypothesis that obesity is sustained by lower daily EE or REE. Future studies, comparing EE between obese and nonobese and assessing potential physiologic abnormalities in obese individuals, should be able to better answer the question of whether these individuals have altered energy metabolism. PMID:27184275

  13. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population. PMID:26193314

  14. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  15. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training.

  16. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training. PMID:28212449

  17. Prediction of Energy Expenditure from Wrist Accelerometry in People with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Motl, Robert W.; Foley, John T.; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS…

  18. Prediction of Energy Expenditure from Wrist Accelerometry in People with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Motl, Robert W.; Foley, John T.; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS…

  19. Energy Expenditure during Physically Interactive Video Game Playing in Male College Students with Different Playing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Katie; Lillie, Tia; Taylor, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Researchers have yet to explore the effect of physically interactive video game playing on energy expenditure, despite its potential for meeting current minimal daily activity and energy expenditure recommendations. Participants and Methods: Nineteen male college students-12 experienced "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) players and 7…

  20. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  1. Effects of dietary composition of energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced energy expenditure following weight loss is thought to contribute to weight gain. However, the effect of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance has not been studied. To examine the effects of 3 diets differing widely in macronutrient composition and glycemic...

  2. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11-13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088.

  3. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  4. Energy Expenditure during Physically Interactive Video Game Playing in Male College Students with Different Playing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Katie; Lillie, Tia; Taylor, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Researchers have yet to explore the effect of physically interactive video game playing on energy expenditure, despite its potential for meeting current minimal daily activity and energy expenditure recommendations. Participants and Methods: Nineteen male college students-12 experienced "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) players and 7…

  5. Mex3c mutation reduces adiposity and increases energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yan; George, Sunil K; Zhao, Qingguo; Hulver, Matthew W; Hutson, Susan M; Bishop, Colin E; Lu, Baisong

    2012-11-01

    The function of MEX3C, the mammalian homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA-binding protein muscle excess 3 (MEX-3), was unknown until our recent report that MEX3C is necessary for normal postnatal growth and enhances the expression of local bone Igf1 expression. Here we report the pivotal role of Mex3c in energy balance regulation. Mex3c mutation caused leanness in both heterozygous and homozygous transgenic mice, as well as a more beneficial blood glucose and lipid profile in homozygous transgenic mice, in both sexes. Although transgenic mice showed normal food intake and fecal lipid excretion, they had increased energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Mutant mice had normal body temperature, Ucp1 expression in brown adipose tissue, and muscle and liver fatty acid oxidation. Mex3c is expressed in neurons and is detectable in the arcuate nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus, and the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Mex3c was not detected in NPY or POMC neurons but was detected in leptin-responsive neurons in the ventromedial nucleus. Mex3c and Leptin double mutant mice were growth retarded and obese and had blood profiles similar to those of ob/ob mice but showed none of the steatosis observed in ob/ob mice. Our data show that Mex3c is involved in energy balance regulation.

  6. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing.

    PubMed

    Blanksby, B A; Reidy, P W

    1988-06-01

    Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interaction and main effects on the sex and dance factors. Overall mean heart rate values for the Modern dance sequence were 170 beats.min-1 and 173 beats.min-1 for males and females respectively. During the Latin American sequence mean overall heart rate for males was 168 beats.min-1 and 177 beats.min-1 for females. Predicted mean gross values of oxygen consumption for the males were 42.8 +/- 5.7 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 42.8 +/- 6.9 ml.kg-1 min-1 for the Modern and Latin American sequences respectively. Corresponding gross estimates of oxygen consumption for the females were 34.7 +/- 3.8 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 ml.kg-1 min-1. Males were estimated to expand 54.1 +/- 8.1 kJ.min-1 of energy during the Modern sequence and 54.0 +/- 9.6 kJ.min-1 during the Latin American sequence, while predicted energy expenditure for females was 34.7 +/- 3.8 kJ.min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 kJ.min-1 for Modern and Latin American dance respectively. The results suggested that both males and females were dancing at greater than 80% of their maximum oxygen consumption. A significant difference between males and females was observed for predicted gross and net values of oxygen consumption (in L.min-1 and ml.kg-1 min-1).

  7. Body Segment Kinematics and Energy Expenditure in Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Birgit; Hartmann, Michael; Böhm, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) in active videogames (AVGs) is a component for assessing its benefit for cardiovascular health. Existing evidence suggests that AVGs are able to increase EE above rest and when compared with playing passive videogames. However, the association between body movement and EE remains unclear. Furthermore, for goal-directed game design, it is important to know the contribution of body segments to EE. This knowledge will help to acquire a certain level of exercise intensity during active gaming. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the best predictors of EE from body segment energies, acceleration, and heart rate during different game situations. EE and body segment movement of 17 subjects, aged 22.1 ± 2.5 years, were measured in two different AVGs. In randomized order, the subjects played a handheld-controlled Nintendo(®) Wii™ tennis (NWT) game and a whole body-controlled Sony EyeToy(®) waterfall (ETW) game. Body segment movement was analyzed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. From the video data, mean values of mechanical energy change and acceleration of 10 body segments were analyzed. Measured EE was significantly higher in ETW (7.8 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]) than in NWT (3.4 ± 1.0 METs). The best prediction parameter for the more intense ETW game was the energy change of the right thigh and for the less intense hand-controlled NWT game was the energy change of the upper torso. Segment acceleration was less accurate in predicting EE. The best predictors of metabolic EE were the thighs and the upper torso in whole body and handheld-controlled games, respectively. Increasing movement of these body segments would lead to higher physical activity intensity during gaming, reducing sedentary behavior.

  8. Does the energy expenditure status in obstructive sleep apnea favour a positive energy balance?

    PubMed

    Major, Geneviève C; Sériès, Frédéric; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on energy expenditure is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between 24-hr energy expenditure or sleeping metabolic rate and features of the obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four apneic men took part in this cross-sectional study and were classified in quartiles of nocturnal desaturation severity, i.e. of percentage total sleep time with SaO2 < 90% determined with polysomnography. 24-hr energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate were measured with a whole body indirect calorimetry (respiratory chamber), and body composition by hydrodensitometry. During the stay in the respiratory chamber, urine was collected to assess catecholamine concentration and percentage recording time with SaO2 < 90% (%TRT SaO2 < 90%) was measured with nocturnal oximetry. Mean fat free mass and fat mass were greater in quartile 4 than in quartile 1 (P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was higher in quartile 4 than in other quartiles (P < 0.0001). 24-hr energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate were similar among quartiles. However, when expressed on a per kg body weight basis (kcal/kg), these variables were negatively correlated with the %TRT SaO2 < 90% in the whole group (r = -0.46 and -0.48, respectively, P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was found to be a predictor of sleeping metabolic rate which explained, together with fat mass and fat free mass, 86% of this variance (P < 0.05). In apneic men energy expenditure relative to body weight decreases with increasing severity of oxygen desaturation which could favour a positive energy balance.

  9. Measuring energy expenditure in clinical populations: rewards and challenges.

    PubMed

    Psota, T; Chen, K Y

    2013-05-01

    The measurement of energy expenditure (EE) is recommended as an important component of comprehensive clinical nutrition assessments in patients with altered metabolic states, who failed to respond to nutrition support and with critical illness that require individualized nutrition support. There is evidence that EE is variable in patients with metabolic diseases, such as chronic renal disease, cirrhosis, HIV, cancer cachexia, cystic fibrosis and patients under intensive care. By using appropriate techniques and interpretations of basal or resting EE, clinicians can facilitate the adequate nutrition support with minimum negative impacts from under- or overfeeding in these patients. This review is based on our current understanding of the different components of EE and the techniques to measure them, and to re-examine advances and challenges to determine energy needs in clinical populations with more focuses on the obese, pediatric and elderly patients. In addition, technological advances have expanded the choices of market-available equipments for assessing EE, which also bring specific challenges and rewards in selecting the right equipment with specific performance criteria. Lastly, analytical considerations of interpreting the results of EE in the context of changing body composition are presented and discussed.

  10. Cooperative breeding and maternal energy expenditure among Aka foragers.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Courtney L; Quinlan, Robert; Malcom, Courtney D

    2013-01-01

    Previous research among foragers and theory suggests that nonmaternal caregivers offer essential assistance, which supports female reproduction and the costs associated with lengthy child development. Mothers' face trade-offs in energy allocation between work and childcare, particularly when mothers have an infant. These trade-offs likely have crucial impacts on the pace of reproduction and child health. Caregivers can help mothers with childcare or they can reduce a mother's nonchildcare workload. If caregivers assist mothers by substituting childcare, then maternal energy expenditure (EE) in other work activities should increase. If caregivers assist mothers by substituting labor, then maternal EE in work activities should decrease when caregivers are present. Utilizing detailed, quantitative behavioral observations and EE data, we test these propositions with data from 28 Aka forager mothers with children <35 months old. We isolate paternal, grandmaternal, and other caregiver effects on maternal EE and childcare in multivariate analyses. Our results show that caregivers (largely grandmothers) significantly reduce mothers' work EE by as much 216 kcal across a 9-hour observation period, while fathers and juveniles appear to increase maternal EE. Direct childcare from grandmothers decreases maternal direct care by about one-to-one indicating a labor substitution. Direct childcare from fathers decreases maternal care by almost 4 to 1, resulting in a net reduction of total direct care from all caregivers. Our results indicate that there are multiple pathways by which helpers offset maternal work/childcare trade-offs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

  12. Energy expenditure estimates during school physical education: Potential vs. reality?

    PubMed

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-02-01

    Schools are salient locations for addressing the high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Most US states require some physical education (PE) and the energy expended during PE has potential to positively affect energy balance. We previously used 2012 data to examine state policies for PE to calculate estimated student energy expenditure (EEE) under potential (i.e., recommendations followed) and existing conditions. Since then, data have been updated on both state policies and the conduct of PE. Based on updated data, we used PE frequency, duration, and intensity, student mass, and class size to calculate EEE for the delivery of PE under (a) national professional recommendations, (b) 2016 state policies, and (c) school-reported conditions. Although increased from four years ago, only 22 states currently have policies mandating specific PE minutes. EEE over 10years shows the enormous impact PE could have on energy balance. For the average recommended-size PE class, resultant annual EEE based on professional recommendations for min/week far exceeded those based on average state (n=22) policy for min/week by 44.5% for elementary, 62.7% for middle, and 59.5% for high schools. Since 2012 more states adopted policies for PE minutes than dropped them, however, EEE over 10years showed a net loss of 1200kcal/student. With no overall recent improvements in state PE policy and professional recommendations currently not being met, PE remains an underutilized public health resource for EEE. Strong policies, coupled with enhanced accountability of PE teachers and administrators, are needed to ensure PE exists in schools.

  13. Regulation of energy expenditure by estradiol in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Shea, Karen L; Wolfe, Pamela; Wierman, Margaret E; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2015-11-01

    Suppressing sex hormones in women for 1 wk reduces resting energy expenditure (REE). The effects of more chronic suppression on REE and other components of total energy expenditure (TEE), and whether the reduction in REE is specifically due to loss of estradiol (E2), are not known. We compared the effects of 5 mo of sex hormone suppression (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy, GnRHAG) with placebo (PL) or E2 add-back therapy on REE and the components of TEE. Premenopausal women received GnRHAG (leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg/mo) and were randomized to receive transdermal therapy that was either E2 (0.075 mg/d; n = 24; means ± SD, aged = 37 ± 8 yr, BMI = 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 21; aged = 34 ± 9 yr, BMI = 26.8 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)). REE was measured by using a metabolic cart, and TEE, sleep EE (SEE), exercise EE (ExEE, 2 × 30 min bench stepping), non-Ex EE (NExEE), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured by using whole room indirect calorimetry. REE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [mean (95% CI), -54 (-98, -15) kcal/d], but not GnRHAG+E2 [+6 (-33, +45) kcal/d] (difference in between-group changes, P < 0.05). TEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-128 (-214, -41) kcal/d] and GnRHAG+E2 [-96 (-159, -32) kcal/d], with no significant difference in between-group changes (P = 0.55). SEE decreased similarly in both GnRHAG+PL [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.03) kcal/min] and GnRHAG+E2 [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.02) kcal/min]. ExEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-0.46 (-0.79, -0.13) kcal/min], but not GnRHAG+E2 [-0.30 (-0.65, +0.06) kcal/min]. There were no changes in TEF or NExEE in either group. In summary, chronic pharmacologic suppression of sex hormones reduced REE and this was prevented by E2 therapy.

  14. Increased energy expenditure after dilutional exchange transfusion for neonatal polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Dollberg, Shaul; Marom, Ronela; Mimouni, Francis B; Littner, Yoav

    2007-10-01

    Hypothermia is a known symptom of neonatal polycythemia (NP) and its pathophysiology is unclear. The effect of partial dilutional exchange transfusion (PET) upon resting energy expenditure (REE) is unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that PET leads to an increase in REE. 11 patients with NP who underwent PET and 10 controls without polycythemia were studied. NP was defined as a venous HCT >/=0.65. Per protocol, symptomatic infants and/or those with venous HCT > or =0.70 underwent PET. REE was measured just prior and 23 hours after PET in patients with NP and at identical ages in the control group. Infants were studied in a skin servo controlled radiant warmer, while clinically and thermally stable, prone and asleep. Measurements were stopped during body movements (less than 5% of the time of measurement). Metabolic measurements were performed by indirect calorimetry, using the Deltatrac II Metabolic monitor (Datex-Ohmeda, Helsinki, Finland). This instrument uses the principle of the open circuit system that allows continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and carbon dioxide production (Vco(2)) using a constant flow generator. REE measurements were corrected for the infant weight (Kcal/kg/d). Comparison of REE values between groups was performed using paired Wilcoxon ranked test. Patients with and without NP had nearly identical baseline REE. In patients with NP, REE increased from 44.0 +/- 6.6 Kcal/Kg/d to 48.3 +/- 5.1 Kcal/Kg/d after PET (P<0.05). Furthermore, the increase in REE following PET correlated inversely with the decrease in hematocrit. There was no significant change in REE over time in the control group. In the NP group, symptomatic infants (n=5) had a significantly greater increase in REE following PET than non-symptomatic ones (1.4 +/- 6.3 vs. 7.8 +/- 4.9 Kcal/Kg/d, p<0.05). Energy expenditure of polycythemic infants increases following PET, in a manner proportional to the decrease in hematocrit. Symptomatic polycythemic infants have

  15. Evaluation of the energy expenditure in competitive swimming strokes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T M; Fernandes, R; Keskinen, K L; Colaço, P; Cardoso, C; Silva, J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the total energy expenditure of the four competitive swimming strokes. Twenty-six swimmers of international level were submitted to an incremental set of 200-m swims (5 swimmers at Breaststroke, 5 swimmers at Backstroke, 4 swimmers at Butterfly and 12 swimmers at Front Crawl). The starting velocity was approximately 0.3 m x s (-1) less than a swimmer's best performance and thereafter increased by 0.05 m x s (-1) after each swim until exhaustion. Cardio-pulmonary and gas exchange parameters were measured breath-by-breath (BxB) for each swim to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2) and other energetic parameters by portable metabolic cart (K4b(2), Cosmed, Rome, Italy). A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to measure pulmonary ventilation and to collect breathing air samples. Blood samples from the ear lobe were collected before and after each swim to analyze blood lactate concentration (YSI 1500 L, Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA). Total energy expenditure (E(tot)), was calculated for each 200-m stage. E (tot) differed significantly between the strokes at all selected velocities. At the velocity of 1.0 m x s (-1) and of 1.2 m x s (-1) the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.4 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Backstroke than in Freestyle, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.6 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. As a conclusion, E(tot) of well-trained competitive swimmers was measured over a large range of velocities utilising a new BxB technique. Freestyle was shown to be the most economic among the competitive swimming strokes, followed by the Backstroke, the Butterfly and the Breaststroke.

  16. Regulation of energy expenditure by estradiol in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Kathleen M.; Shea, Karen L.; Wolfe, Pamela; Wierman, Margaret E.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Suppressing sex hormones in women for 1 wk reduces resting energy expenditure (REE). The effects of more chronic suppression on REE and other components of total energy expenditure (TEE), and whether the reduction in REE is specifically due to loss of estradiol (E2), are not known. We compared the effects of 5 mo of sex hormone suppression (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy, GnRHAG) with placebo (PL) or E2 add-back therapy on REE and the components of TEE. Premenopausal women received GnRHAG (leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg/mo) and were randomized to receive transdermal therapy that was either E2 (0.075 mg/d; n = 24; means ± SD, aged = 37 ± 8 yr, BMI = 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m2) or placebo (n = 21; aged = 34 ± 9 yr, BMI = 26.8 ± 6.2 kg/m2). REE was measured by using a metabolic cart, and TEE, sleep EE (SEE), exercise EE (ExEE, 2 × 30 min bench stepping), non-Ex EE (NExEE), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured by using whole room indirect calorimetry. REE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [mean (95% CI), −54 (−98, −15) kcal/d], but not GnRHAG+E2 [+6 (−33, +45) kcal/d] (difference in between-group changes, P < 0.05). TEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [−128 (−214, −41) kcal/d] and GnRHAG+E2 [−96 (−159, −32) kcal/d], with no significant difference in between-group changes (P = 0.55). SEE decreased similarly in both GnRHAG+PL [−0.07 (−0.12, −0.03) kcal/min] and GnRHAG+E2 [−0.07 (−0.12, −0.02) kcal/min]. ExEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [−0.46 (−0.79, −0.13) kcal/min], but not GnRHAG+E2 [−0.30 (−0.65, +0.06) kcal/min]. There were no changes in TEF or NExEE in either group. In summary, chronic pharmacologic suppression of sex hormones reduced REE and this was prevented by E2 therapy. PMID:26338457

  17. Energy expenditure and balance during spaceflight on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Hoyt, R. W.; Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. E.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to measure human energy expenditure (EE) during spaceflight on a shuttle mission by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; 2) to determine whether the astronauts were in negative energy balance during spaceflight; 3) to use the comparison of change in body fat as measured by the intake DLW EE, 18O dilution, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to validate the DLW method for spaceflight; and 4) to compare EE during spaceflight against that found with bed rest. Two experiments were conducted: a flight experiment (n = 4) on the 16-day 1996 life and microgravity sciences shuttle mission and a 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest study with controlled dietary intake (n = 8). The bed rest study was designed to simulate the flight experiment and included exercise. Two EE determinations were done before flight (bed rest), during flight (bed rest), and after flight (recovery). Energy intake and N balance were monitored for the entire period. Results were that body weight, water, fat, and energy balance were unchanged with bed rest. For the flight experiment, decreases in weight (2.6 +/- 0.4 kg, P < 0.05) and N retention (-2. 37 +/- 0.45 g N/day, P < 0.05) were found. Dietary intake for the four astronauts was reduced in flight (3,025 +/- 180 vs. 1,943 +/- 179 kcal/day, P < 0.05). EE in flight was 3,320 +/- 155 kcal/day, resulting in a negative energy balance of 1,355 +/- 80 kcal/day (-15. 7 +/- 1.0 kcal. kg-1. day-1, P < 0.05). This corresponded to a loss of 2.1 +/- 0.4 kg body fat, which was within experimental error of the fat loss determined by 18O dilution (-1.4 +/- 0.5 kg) and DEXA (-2.4 +/- 0.4 kg). All three methods showed no change in body fat with bed rest. In conclusion, 1) the DLW method for measuring EE during spaceflight is valid, 2) the astronauts were in severe negative energy balance and oxidized body fat, and 3) in-flight energy (E) requirements can be predicted from the equation: E = 1.40 x resting

  18. Energy expenditure and balance during spaceflight on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Hoyt, R. W.; Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. E.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to measure human energy expenditure (EE) during spaceflight on a shuttle mission by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; 2) to determine whether the astronauts were in negative energy balance during spaceflight; 3) to use the comparison of change in body fat as measured by the intake DLW EE, 18O dilution, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to validate the DLW method for spaceflight; and 4) to compare EE during spaceflight against that found with bed rest. Two experiments were conducted: a flight experiment (n = 4) on the 16-day 1996 life and microgravity sciences shuttle mission and a 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest study with controlled dietary intake (n = 8). The bed rest study was designed to simulate the flight experiment and included exercise. Two EE determinations were done before flight (bed rest), during flight (bed rest), and after flight (recovery). Energy intake and N balance were monitored for the entire period. Results were that body weight, water, fat, and energy balance were unchanged with bed rest. For the flight experiment, decreases in weight (2.6 +/- 0.4 kg, P < 0.05) and N retention (-2. 37 +/- 0.45 g N/day, P < 0.05) were found. Dietary intake for the four astronauts was reduced in flight (3,025 +/- 180 vs. 1,943 +/- 179 kcal/day, P < 0.05). EE in flight was 3,320 +/- 155 kcal/day, resulting in a negative energy balance of 1,355 +/- 80 kcal/day (-15. 7 +/- 1.0 kcal. kg-1. day-1, P < 0.05). This corresponded to a loss of 2.1 +/- 0.4 kg body fat, which was within experimental error of the fat loss determined by 18O dilution (-1.4 +/- 0.5 kg) and DEXA (-2.4 +/- 0.4 kg). All three methods showed no change in body fat with bed rest. In conclusion, 1) the DLW method for measuring EE during spaceflight is valid, 2) the astronauts were in severe negative energy balance and oxidized body fat, and 3) in-flight energy (E) requirements can be predicted from the equation: E = 1.40 x resting

  19. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  20. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  1. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts.

    PubMed

    Kresge, Daniel L; Melanson, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Chewing has been associated with improved satiation and satiety, but little is known about the metabolic impact of gum chewing. We tested the hypothesis that gum chewing would increase energy expenditure (EE) and reduce respiratory exchange ratio (RER) before and after a controlled test meal. Seventeen males and 13 females (age 21.5 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum for a total of 1 h (3 sessions of 20 min) on the test day (GC) and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). EE and RER were measured by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast. Subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured energy needs, and then postprandial EE and RER were measured for 3 h. Blood glucose (GLC) was measured in the fasting and postprandial states at regular intervals. Fasting EE was higher during GC (1.23 ± 0.04 kcal/min; 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) than during NG (1.17 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p = 0.016). Postprandial EE was also higher during GC (1.46 ± 0.05 kcal/min) than during NG (1.42 ± 0.05 kcal/min; p = 0.037). Fasting and postprandial RER and GLC did not differ between GC and NG. The findings demonstrate that GC is associated with higher fasting and postprandial EE without altering blood glucose or substrate oxidation as measured by RER. These data suggest that gum chewing potentially could influence short-term energy balance in this population; however, longer-term research is needed.

  2. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  3. Poor Agreement between Predictive Equations of Energy Expenditure and Measured Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Acute Kidney Injury Patients.

    PubMed

    de Góes, Cassiana R; Berbel-Bufarah, Marina N; Sanches, Ana Claudia S; Xavier, Patrícia S; Balbi, André L; Ponce, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    There are multiple equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE), but how accurate they are in severe acute kidney injury (AKI) patients is not clear. Our aim was to determine if predictive equations for estimated REE accurately reflect the requirements of AKI patients. We included in this prospective and observational study AKI patients AKIN-3 assessed by indirect calorimetry (IC). Bland-Altman, intraclass correlation coefficient and precision (percentagem of predicted values within 10% of measured values) were performed to compare REE by equations with REE measured by IC. IC was applied in 125 AKI patients. The mean age was 62.5 ± 16.6 and 65.6% were male. Mean REE measured was 2,029.11 ± 760.4 kcal/day. There were low precision, and poor agreement between measured and predicted REE by the Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin, Ireton-Jones, Penn state, American College of Chest Physicians, and Faisy equations. HB without using injury factor was the least precise (18% of precision). Modified Penn state equation had the best precision, although the precision rate was only 41%. For all equations, the limits of agreement range were large leading to the potential under or overfeeding of individual patients. None of these equations accurately estimated measured REE in severe AKI patients and most of them underestimated energy needs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Acute effects of capsaicin on energy expenditure and fat oxidation in negative energy balance.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-01

    Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase energy expenditure; therefore capsaicin is an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the 24 h effects of CAPS on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure during 25% negative energy balance. Subjects underwent four 36 h sessions in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. They received 100% or 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions '100%CAPS', '100%Control', '75%CAPS' and '75%Control'. CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units (SHU)) with every meal. An induced negative energy balance of 25% was effectively a 20.5% negative energy balance due to adapting mechanisms. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and resting energy expenditure (REE) at 75%CAPS did not differ from DIT and REE at 100%Control, while at 75%Control these tended to be or were lower than at 100%Control (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02 respectively). Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) at 75%CAPS did not differ from SMR at 100%CAPS, while SMR at 75%Control was lower than at 100%CAPS (p = 0.04). Fat oxidation at 75%CAPS was higher than at 100%Control (p = 0.03), while with 75%Control it did not differ from 100%Control. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was more decreased at 75%CAPS (p = 0.04) than at 75%Control (p = 0.05) when compared with 100%Control. Blood pressure did not differ between the four conditions. In an effectively 20.5% negative energy balance, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal supports negative energy balance by counteracting the unfavorable negative energy balance effect of decrease in components of energy expenditure. Moreover, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal promotes fat oxidation in negative energy balance and does not increase blood pressure significantly. Nederlands Trial Register; registration number NTR2944.

  5. Is there spontaneous energy expenditure compensation in response to intensive exercise in obese youth?

    PubMed

    Thivel, D; Aucouturier, J; Metz, L; Morio, B; Duché, P

    2014-04-01

    Physical activity is mainly used in weight control strategies to favour energy expenditure. Some evidence suggests that exercise might not have the expected impact on energy balance, and may actually cause a decrease in the subsequent physical activity energy expenditure. To question the impact of an acute exercise session of varying intensities on daily energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents. Data from three separate studies conducted in lean and obese 12-15 years old adolescents (study 1: 12 obese; study 2: 10 obese and nine lean; study 3: 15 obese) have been used. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was assessed in studies 1 and 2 during an exercise condition with an exercise bout at 70%VO(2max) (EX) and a rest day (REST) (using Actiheart and Armbands, respectively). In study 3, DEE was assessed in calorimetric chambers during (i) a high intensity exercise condition (HIE - 75%VO(2max)) and (ji) a condition with a low intensity exercise (LIE - 40%VO(2max)) and (iii) a rest condition (REST). Morning energy expenditure was significantly higher during the exercise conditions whatever the intensity compared with rest. Afternoon energy expenditure was significantly lower following HIE compared to the rest condition in studies 2 and 3. Afternoon energy expenditure was not significantly different between LIE and REST in study 2. Total DEE was not significantly different between conditions in the three studies. Obese adolescents seem to show a compensatory response to an acute session of HIE (>70%VO(2max)) by decreasing their following physical activity energy expenditure. Although HIE favours body composition, physical fitness and metabolic profile improvements, this induced compensatory energy expenditure response has to be considered to optimize its effect on weight loss. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Estimating Energy Expenditure from Heart Rate in Older Adults: A Case for Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Schrack, Jennifer A.; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. Objective To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using different levels of calibration. Design Heart rate and energy expenditure were assessed across five levels of exertion in 290 adults participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Correlation and random effects regression analyses assessed the linearity of the relationship between heart rate and energy expenditure and cross-validation models assessed predictive performance. Results Heart rate and energy expenditure were highly correlated (r = 0.98) and linear regardless of age or sex. Intra-person variability was low but inter-person variability was high, with substantial heterogeneity of the random intercept (s.d. = 0.372) despite similar slopes. Cross-validation models indicated individual calibration data substantially improves accuracy predictions of energy expenditure from heart rate, reducing the potential for considerable measurement bias. Although using five calibration measures provided the greatest reduction in the standard deviation of prediction errors (1.08 kcals/min), substantial improvement was also noted with two (0.75 kcals/min). Conclusion These findings indicate standard regression equations may be used to make population-level inferences when estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults but caution should be exercised when making inferences at the individual level without proper calibration. PMID:24787146

  7. Energy expenditure, sex, and endogenous fuel availability in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Søren; Guo, ZengKui; Albu, Jeanine B.; Klein, Samuel; O’Brien, Peter C.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis supplies circulating FFAs, which largely meet lipid fuel needs; however, excess FFAs, can contribute to the adverse health consequences of obesity. Because “normal” FFA release has not been well defined, average (mean of 4 days) basal FFA release and its potential regulation factors were measured in 50 lean and obese adults (25 women). Resting energy expenditure (REE), but not body composition, predicted most of the interindividual variation in FFA release. There was a significant, positive linear relationship between palmitate release and REE; however, women released approximately 40% more FFA than men relative to REE. Neither plasma palmitate concentrations nor respiratory quotient by indirect calorimetry differed between men and women. Glucose release rates were not different in men and women whether related to REE or fat free mass. These findings indicate that nonoxidative FFA clearance is greater in women than in men. This could be an advantage at times of increased fuel needs. We conclude that “normal” adipose tissue lipolysis is different in men and women and that the fuel export role of adipose tissue in obesity will need to be reassessed. PMID:12671047

  8. Using Smartphone Sensors for Improving Energy Expenditure Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jindan; Das, Aveek K.; Zeng, Yunze; Mohapatra, Prasant; Han, Jay J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) estimation is an important factor in tracking personal activity and preventing chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Accurate and real-time EE estimation utilizing small wearable sensors is a difficult task, primarily because the most existing schemes work offline or use heuristics. In this paper, we focus on accurate EE estimation for tracking ambulatory activities (walking, standing, climbing upstairs, or downstairs) of a typical smartphone user. We used built-in smartphone sensors (accelerometer and barometer sensor), sampled at low frequency, to accurately estimate EE. Using a barometer sensor, in addition to an accelerometer sensor, greatly increases the accuracy of EE estimation. Using bagged regression trees, a machine learning technique, we developed a generic regression model for EE estimation that yields upto 96% correlation with actual EE. We compare our results against the state-of-the-art calorimetry equations and consumer electronics devices (Fitbit and Nike+ FuelBand). The newly developed EE estimation algorithm demonstrated superior accuracy compared with currently available methods. The results were calibrated against COSMED K4b2 calorimeter readings. PMID:27170901

  9. Energy Expenditure and Intensity in Healthy Young Adults during Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Tzu; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chu, I-Hua

    2015-07-01

    To examine and compare the energy expenditure (EE) and intensity of Xbox 360 Kinect exergames in healthy young adults. Seventeen young adults (22.0 ± 2.9 years; 7 men) were enrolled and asked to complete 6 exergames using Xbox 360 Kinect. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout each exergame, and metabolic equivalents (METs) and EE were calculated from VO2. Boxing (6.8 ± 1.9 METs) and soccer (6.2 ± 1.7 METs) provided vigorous intensity of physical activity, which was significantly greater than track and field, ping-pong, and bowling (5.0 ± 1.5, 4.0 ± 1.6, and 2.6 ± 0.8 METs, respectively; all p < .01). Beach volleyball (5.7 ± 1.8 METs) was greater than ping-pong and bowling (both p < .01). EE exhibited a similar pattern. These results remained after adjusting for participants' previous exergaming experience and resting HR. Kinect Sports from Xbox 360 Kinect is capable of providing a moderate-to-vigorous level of physical activity in young healthy adults. These exergames may be used as an alternative mode of exercise to promote physical activity participation in this population. Future research that evaluates the feasibility of using exergames as an alternative mode of exercise in other populations is warranted.

  10. Using Smartphone Sensors for Improving Energy Expenditure Estimation.

    PubMed

    Pande, Amit; Zhu, Jindan; Das, Aveek K; Zeng, Yunze; Mohapatra, Prasant; Han, Jay J

    2015-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) estimation is an important factor in tracking personal activity and preventing chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Accurate and real-time EE estimation utilizing small wearable sensors is a difficult task, primarily because the most existing schemes work offline or use heuristics. In this paper, we focus on accurate EE estimation for tracking ambulatory activities (walking, standing, climbing upstairs, or downstairs) of a typical smartphone user. We used built-in smartphone sensors (accelerometer and barometer sensor), sampled at low frequency, to accurately estimate EE. Using a barometer sensor, in addition to an accelerometer sensor, greatly increases the accuracy of EE estimation. Using bagged regression trees, a machine learning technique, we developed a generic regression model for EE estimation that yields upto 96% correlation with actual EE. We compare our results against the state-of-the-art calorimetry equations and consumer electronics devices (Fitbit and Nike+ FuelBand). The newly developed EE estimation algorithm demonstrated superior accuracy compared with currently available methods. The results were calibrated against COSMED K4b2 calorimeter readings.

  11. Effect of endurance training on gross energy expenditure during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A W; Poehlman, E T; Corrigan, D L

    1989-08-01

    We compared the effect of endurance exercise training on gross energy expenditure (GEE) during steady-state exercise in 20 younger men (31.2 +/- 0.6 years) and 20 middle-aged men (49.2 +/- 1.1 years). The subjects trained for eight months. The training program consisted of three 45-min walking and jogging exercise sessions per week at an intensity of approximately 60-85% of the heart rate at peak VO2. We administered bicycle ergometer tests at 0, 4, and 8 months into training. Participants exercised at a power output of 100 W for 10 min using a pedaling frequency of 50 rpm. We determined GEE (kcal/min) by measuring the oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio. We found a significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in GEE (0.7-1.3 kcal/min) following 4 months of endurance training in both age groups, with a further reduction (p less than 0.05) noted in only the middle-aged group at month 8. We found no difference (p greater than 0.05) in GEE between the younger and middle-aged men. We conclude that chronic exercise may modify GEE during a submaximal exercise bout and that this adaptation is similar in magnitude in younger and middle-aged men.

  12. Energy expenditure during competitive Latin American dancing simulation.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Cugusi, Lucia; Ibba, Maurizio; Tradori, Iosto; Calò, Carla Maria

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the intensity of physical activity (PA) during a competitive simulation of Latin American dancing and to evaluate the differences in PA and EE values between the sexes, between different dance types, and between the various phases of the competition. Ten Italian dancers (five couples, 5 males and 5 females) competing in Latin American dancing at the international level were examined in this study. The EE (kcal) was measured during the semifinal and final phases of the competition using the SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA). Paired-sample t-tests were used to determine differences in the metabolic equivalent (MET) and EE values between the semifinal and final phases and between each dance. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in the MET and EE values between the sexes. The intensity of PA during the dance sequence ranged from moderate (3 to 6 METs) to vigorous (6 to 9 METs). The male dancers had higher EE values than the female dancers during all phases of the simulation. Similar MET values were observed in both sexes. The PA intensity during the finals phase was vigorous for 56% of the time of dance. Of all the dance styles, the rumba had the lowest MET and EE values. Our results demonstrate that competitive Latin American dancing is a heavy exercise and suggest that monitoring variables during normal training can improve training protocols and the dancers' fitness levels.

  13. Energy expenditure, aerodynamics and medical problems in cycling. An update.

    PubMed

    Faria, I E

    1992-07-01

    The cyclist's ability to maintain an extremely high rate of energy expenditure for long durations at a high economy of effort is dependent upon such factors as the individual's anaerobic threshold, muscle fibre type, muscle myoglobin concentration, muscle capillary density and certain anthropometric dimensions. Although laboratory tests have had some success predicting cycling potential, their validity has yet to be established for trained cyclists. Even in analysing the forces producing propulsive torque, cycling effectiveness cannot be based solely on the orientation of applied forces. Innovations of shoe and pedal design continue to have a positive influence on the biomechanics of pedalling. Although muscle involvement during a complete pedal revolution may be similar, economical pedalling rate appears to differ significantly between the novice and racing cyclist. This difference emanates, perhaps, from long term adaptation. Air resistance is by far the greatest retarding force affecting cycling. The aerodynamics of the rider and the bicycle and its components are major contributors to cycling economy. Correct body posture and spacing between riders can significantly enhance speed and efficiency. Acute and chronic responses to cycling and training are complex. To protect the safety and health of the cyclist there must be close monitoring and cooperation between the cyclist, coach, exercise scientist and physician.

  14. Global positioning system watches for estimating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Orr, Barron J; Roe, Denise J; Reed, Rebecca G; Going, Scott B

    2013-11-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) watches have been introduced commercially, converting frequent measurements of time, location, speed (pace), and elevation into energy expenditure (EE) estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare EE estimates of 4 different GPS watches (Forerunner, Suunto, Polar, Adeo), at various walking speeds, with EE estimate from a triaxial accelerometer (RT3), which was used as a reference measure in this study. Sixteen healthy young adults completed the study. Participants wore 4 different GPS watches and an RT3 accelerometer and walked at 6-minute intervals on an outdoor track at 3 speeds (3, 5, and 7 km/hr). The statistical significance of differences in EE between the 3 watches was assessed using linear contrasts of the coefficients from the overall model. Reliability across trials for a given device was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients as estimated in the mixed model. The GPS watches demonstrated lower reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) across trials when compared with the RT3, particularly at the higher speed, 7 km/hr. Three GPS watches (Forerunner, Polar, and Suunto) significantly and consistently underestimated EE compared with the reference EE given by the RT3 accelerometer (average mean difference: Garmin, -50.5%; Polar, -41.7%; and Suunto, -41.7%; all p < 0.001). Results suggested that caution should be exercised when using commercial GPS watches to estimate EE in athletes during field-based testing and training.

  15. Energy expenditure, productivity, and physical work capacity of sugarcane loaders.

    PubMed

    Spurr, G B; Maksud, M G; Barac-Nieto, M

    1977-10-01

    VO2, E and heart rates (fH) were measured in 28 Colombian sugarcane loaders while loading cane and in the laboratory during a VO2max test. Productivity (metric tons-day-1) of the workers was also obtained. During work, VO2 was 1.251-min-1, VE 38.81 min-1, and fH 120 beats-min-1. The subjects worked at 42% of VO2max (6.3 +/- 1.0 kcal-min-1) during the field measurement periods. Energy expenditure was estimated to average 3,281 kcal-24 hr-1. Productivity was higher in men with lower fat content, resting fH and fH at VO2 = 1.25 1-min-1, indicating a positive relationship between productivity and physical fitness. Productivity was not related to age but, since VO2max decreased with age, the relative effort required to maintain productivity increased in the older workers. Efficiency (kg cane loaded-1 VO2-1) and estimated sustained effort (percent VO2max) were not significantly correlated with productivity in this type of discontinuous, moderate work.

  16. Effect of neuromuscular electrical muscle stimulation on energy expenditure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE) model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender) associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females) participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1), motor threshold (E2), and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3). Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject's demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  17. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.

    PubMed

    Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration.

  18. Inertial sensors to estimate the energy expenditure of team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maximal sustained levels of energy expenditure in humans during exercise.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jamie A; Nguyen, David D; Ruby, Brent C; Schoeller, Dale A

    2011-12-01

    Migrating birds have been able to sustain an energy expenditure (EE) that is five times their basal metabolic rate. Although humans can readily reach these levels, it is not yet clear what levels can be sustained for several days. The study's purposes were 1) to determine the upper limits of human EE and whether or not those levels can be sustained without inducing catabolism of body tissues and 2) to determine whether initial body weight is related to the levels that can be sustained. We compiled data on documented EE as measured by doubly labeled water during high levels of physical activity (minimum of five consecutive days). We calculated the physical activity level (PAL) of each individual studied (PAL = total EE / basal metabolic rate) from the published data. Correlations were run to examine the relationship between initial body weight and body weight lost with both total EE and PAL. The uppermost limit of EE was a peak PAL of 6.94 that was sustained for 10 consecutive days of a 95-d race. Only two studies reported PALs above 5.0; however, significant decreases in body mass were found in each study (0.45-1.39 kg·wk(-1) of weight loss). To test whether initial weight affects the ability to sustain high PALs, we found a significant positive correlation between TEE and initial body weight (r = 0.46, P < 0.05) but no correlation between PAL and body weight (r = 0.27, not statistically significant). Some elite humans are able to sustain PALs above 5.0 for a minimum of 10 d. Although significant decreases in body weight occur at this level, catabolism of body tissue may be preventable in situations with proper energy intake. Further, initial body weight does not seem to affect the sustainability of PALs.

  20. Resting energy expenditure in girls with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Binder, Gerhard; Frank, Laura; Ziegler, Julian; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Schweizer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge concerning energy metabolism in Turner syndrome (TS) is lacking. We compared the resting energy expenditure per fat-free mass (REE/FFM) in TS with other girls with short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) and age-related controls. We measured prospectively REE by spirometry under fasting conditions in the morning in 85 short prepubertal girls at the start of GH treatment. Diagnoses were TS (n=20), GH deficiency (GHD) (n=38) and small for gestational age (SGA) short stature (n=27). Additionally, 20 age-related controls were studied. Mean ages were 8.3 (TS), 7.1 (GHD), 6.9 (SGA) and 8.5 years (controls). Mean heights were -2.90 (TS), -3.32 (GHD), -3.69 (SGA) and -0.03 standard deviation scores (SDS) (controls). FFM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). At the start of GH girls with TS showed insignificantly higher REE per FFM (REE/FFM) (mean±SD; 65±9 kcal/kg×day) than did the other female patients (62±9 kcal/kg×day) (p>0.23). The healthy controls had significantly lower REE/FFM (35±4 kcal/kg×day) (p<0.001). Follow-up examination of the patients after 6 or 12 months revealed decreasing REE/FFM in TS (62±9 kcal/kg×day) resulting in comparable REE/FFM in all three patient groups. At baseline short girls with TS had insignificantly higher REE/FFM than short children with SGA or GHD, but in follow-up this difference was not detectable any more. Future studies are necessary to understand this observation.

  1. Measuring slope to improve energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2013-03-01

    This technical note describes methods to improve activity energy expenditure estimates by using a multi-sensor board (MSB) to measure slope. Ten adults walked over a 4-km (2.5-mile) course wearing an MSB and mobile calorimeter. Energy expenditure was estimated using accelerometry alone (base) and 4 methods to measure slope. The barometer and global positioning system methods improved accuracy by 11% from the base (p < 0.05) to 86% overall. Measuring slope using the MSB improves energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

  2. Energy expenditure and energy intake - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 3.

    PubMed

    Kreymann, G; Adolph, M; Mueller, M J

    2009-11-18

    The energy expenditure (24h total energy expenditure, TEE) of a healthy individual or a patient is a vital reference point for nutritional therapy to maintain body mass. TEE is usually determined by measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry or by estimation with the help of formulae like the formula of Harris and Benedict with an accuracy of +/-20%. Further components of TEE (PAL, DIT) are estimated afterwards. TEE in intensive care patients is generally only 0-7% higher than REE, due to a low PAL and lower DIT. While diseases, like particularly sepsis, trauma and burns, cause a clinically relevant increase in REE between 40-80%, in many diseases, TEE is not markedly different from REE. A standard formula should not be used in critically ill patients, since energy expenditure changes depending on the course and the severity of disease. A clinical deterioration due to shock, severe sepsis or septic shock may lead to a drop of REE to a level only slightly (20%) above the normal REE of a healthy subject. Predominantly immobile patients should receive an energy intake between 1.0-1.2 times the determined REE, while immobile malnourished patients should receive a stepwise increased intake of 1.1-1.3 times the REE over a longer period. Critically ill patients in the acute stage of disease should be supplied equal or lower to the current TEE, energy intake should be increased stepwise up to 1.2 times (or up to 1.5 times in malnourished patients) thereafter.

  3. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure is the primary etiology for excess weight gain. Increased energy expenditure via exercise and energy restriction via diet are commonly used approaches to induce weight loss. Such behavioral interventions, however, have generally resulted in a smaller than expected weight loss, which in part has been attributed to compensatory adaptations in other components contributing to energy balance. Current research points to a loose coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, and evidence for long-term adaptations has been inconsistent. The lack of conclusive evidence on compensatory adaptations in response to alterations in energy balance can be attributed to differences in intervention type and study population. Physical activity (PA) levels may be reduced in response to aerobic exercise but not in response to resistance exercise. Furthermore, athletic and lean adults have been shown to increase their energy intake in response to exercise, whereas no such response was observed in obese adults. There is also evidence that caloric restriction is associated with a decline in PA. Generally, humans seem to be better equipped to defend against weight loss than avoid weight gain, but results also show a large individual variability. Therefore, individual differences rather than group means should be explored to identify specific characteristics of "compensators" and "noncompensators." This review emphasizes the need for more research with simultaneous measurements of all major components contributing to energy balance to enhance the understanding of the regulation of energy balance, which is crucial to address the current obesity epidemic. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Comparison of effects of lower extremity orthoses on energy expenditure in patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Caliskan Uckun, Asli; Celik, Canan; Ucan, Halil; Ordu Gokkaya, Nilufer Kutay

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of lower extremity orthoses on energy expenditure in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). We included 48 children with CP using lower extremity orthosis. Energy expenditures determined based on heart rate, yielded an energy expenditure index (EEI) with and without orthosis during walking. RESULTS were compared statistically between orthosis groups (solid polyethylene ankle foot orthosis (PAFO), articulated PAFO, ground reaction foot orthosis (GRAFO), plastic and metallic knee-ankle-foot-orthosis (KAFO), and metallic AFO). It was found that an advancement in energy expenditure was seen with plastic orthoses which is more prominent by solid PAFO (p = 0.008). It was concluded that especially solid PAFO can be more beneficial in terms of energy consumption in CP patients. In rehabilitation phase, the EEI measurement was seen to be a useful and practical method for choosing the proper orthosis type.

  5. Sensitivity of methods for calculating energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, J.; Miles, C.; Bodwell, C.E.

    1989-02-01

    Attempts to estimate human energy expenditure by use of doubly labeled water have produced three methods currently used for calculating carbon dioxide production from isotope disappearance data: (1) the two-point method, (2) the regression method, and (3) the integration method. An ideal data set was used to determine the error produced in the calculated energy expenditure for each method when specific variables were perturbed. The analysis indicates that some of the calculation methods are more susceptible to perturbations in certain variables than others. Results from an experiment on one adult human subject are used to illustrate the potential for error in actual data. Samples of second void urine, 24-h urine, and breath collected every other day for 21 days are used to calculate the average daily energy expenditure by three calculation methods. The difference between calculated energy expenditure and metabolizable energy on a weight-maintenance diet is used to estimate the error associated with the doubly labeled water method.

  6. Energy expenditure of paraplegic patients standing and walking with two knee-ankle-foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Merkel, K D; Miller, N E; Westbrook, P R; Merritt, J L

    1984-03-01

    To determine which kind of knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) is more efficient, we measured energy expenditure in standing, walking with a walker, and walking with crutches by eight subjects using the Scott-Craig KAFO and a single-stopped long-leg KAFO. All subjects had complete motor paralysis below the level of their lesion and had been fully trained to use KAFOs. Every subject used both types of KAFO, and energy expenditure--per minute and per meter traveled--was measured by oxygen consumption. No significant difference in energy expenditure appeared during standing. During ambulation, however, mean energy expenditure was less with the Scott-Craig KAFO than with the single-stopped type: 31% less kcal/m with a walker and 25% less kcal/min with crutches. These results suggest that the Scott-Craig KAFO is more energy-efficient than the single-stopped long-leg KAFO.

  7. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis on the annual energy outlook 2000 forecast.

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D. A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-05-31

    The changes in the patterns of energy use and expenditures by population group are analyzed by using the 1993 and 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Surveys. Historically, these patterns have differed among non-Hispanic White households, non-Hispanic Black households, and Hispanic households. Patterns of energy use and expenditures are influenced by geographic and metropolitan location, the composition of housing stock, economic and demographic status, and the composition of energy use by end-use category. As a consequence, as energy-related factors change across groups, patterns of energy use and expenditures also change. Over time, with changes in the composition of these factors by population group and their variable influences on energy use, the impact on energy use and expenditures has varied across these population groups.

  8. Nutritional state, energy intakes and energy expenditure of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients.

    PubMed

    Genton, L; Viatte, V; Janssens, J-P; Héritier, A-C; Pichard, C

    2011-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) alters nutritional state, energy intake and energy expenditure. This article aims at reviewing present knowledge on these topics in order to determine energy requirements for maintaining a neutral energy balance in ALS patients. Maintaining a neutral energy balance prevents malnutrition and its complications and may improve physical functioning, quality of life and survival. Prevalence of malnutrition varies between 16 and 55% in ALS patients. Energy intakes are below recommended dietary allowances in 70% of ALS patients at least. These elements suggest a chronic negative energy balance with an imbalance between requirements and intakes. While insufficient intakes can be compensated with nutritional support, the energy requirements are unclear. Studies generally report hypermetabolism in ALS patients. Estimation of total energy expenditure and as a corollary energy needs, necessitates taking into account this hypermetabolism, physical activity and possibly mechanical ventilation. The review suggests a flow chart for optimal nutritional follow-up in clinics. Further studies are required to assess whether optimal nutritional follow-up improves outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an Assay for High-Throughput Energy Expenditure Monitoring in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Williams, Savannah Y.; Cone, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Energy homeostasis is maintained by balancing energy intake and expenditure. Many signals regulating energy intake are conserved between the human and teleost. However, before this work, there was no sensitive high-throughput system to monitor energy expenditure in the teleost. We exploit the nonfluorescent and fluorescent properties of resazurin and its reduced form resorufin (alamarBlue®) to monitor energy expenditure responses to drug application and genetic manipulation. We show that leptin, insulin, and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase energy expenditure dose dependently in the larval zebrafish. As previously established in the mouse, etomoxir, a carnitine palmitoyl transferase I inhibitor, blocks leptin-induced energy expenditure in the zebrafish. Metformin, the most commonly prescribed insulin sensitizer, increases the insulin-induced metabolic rate. Using genetic knockdown, we observed that α-MSH treatment increases the metabolic rate, as does knockdown of the melanocortin antagonist, agouti-related protein. The agouti-related protein and multiple melanocortin receptors are shown to be involved in these effects. These studies confirm that aspects of hormonal regulation of energy expenditure are conserved in the teleost, and suggest that this assay may provide a unique tool to perform in vivo screens for drugs or genes that affect the metabolic rate, including insulin or leptin sensitizers. PMID:23705823

  10. Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber.

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, E; Lillioja, S; Anderson, T E; Christin, L; Bogardus, C

    1986-01-01

    Daily human energy requirements calculated from separate components of energy expenditure are inaccurate and usually in poor agreement with measured energy intakes. Measurement of energy expenditure over periods of 24 h or longer is needed to determine more accurately rates of daily energy expenditure in humans. We provide a detailed description of a human respiratory chamber and methods used to determine rates of energy expenditure over 24-h periods in 177 subjects. The results show that: fat-free mass (FFM) as estimated by densitometry is the best available determinant of 24-h energy expenditures (24EE) and explains 81% of the variance observed between individuals (24EE [kcal/d] = 597 + 26.5 FFM); 24EE in an individual is very reproducible (coefficient of variation = 2.4%); and even when adjusted for differences in FFM, there is still considerable interperson variability of the daily energy expenditure. A large portion of the variability of 24EE among individuals, independent of differences in body size, was due to variability in the degree of spontaneous physical activity, i.e., "fidgeting," which accounted for 100-800 kcal/d in these subjects. Images PMID:3782471

  11. Modeling energy expenditure in children and adolescents using quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunwen; Adolph, Anne L; Puyau, Maurice R; Vohra, Firoz A; Butte, Nancy F; Zakeri, Issa F

    2013-07-15

    Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in energy expenditure (EE). Study objective is to apply quantile regression (QR) to predict EE and determine quantile-dependent variation in covariate effects in nonobese and obese children. First, QR models will be developed to predict minute-by-minute awake EE at different quantile levels based on heart rate (HR) and physical activity (PA) accelerometry counts, and child characteristics of age, sex, weight, and height. Second, the QR models will be used to evaluate the covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR across the conditional EE distribution. QR and ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are estimated in 109 children, aged 5-18 yr. QR modeling of EE outperformed OLS regression for both nonobese and obese populations. Average prediction errors for QR compared with OLS were not only smaller at the median τ = 0.5 (18.6 vs. 21.4%), but also substantially smaller at the tails of the distribution (10.2 vs. 39.2% at τ = 0.1 and 8.7 vs. 19.8% at τ = 0.9). Covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR on EE for the nonobese and obese children differed across quantiles (P < 0.05). The associations (linear and quadratic) between PA and HR with EE were stronger for the obese than nonobese population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, QR provided more accurate predictions of EE compared with conventional OLS regression, especially at the tails of the distribution, and revealed substantially different covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR on EE in nonobese and obese children.

  12. Energy expenditure responses to exercise training in older women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; Bowyer, Kimberly P; Porter, Ryan R; Breneman, Charity B; Custer, Sabra S

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding how structured exercise affects energy expenditure (EE). This study was designed to determine the changes in EE and physical activity following exercise training in older women. Nonobese (body mass index = 25.8 ± 3.4 kg·m(-2)) women (60-75 years, n = 72) completed a 4-month supervised aerobic exercise training of lower- or higher-dose (33.6 and 58.8 kJ·kg(-1) body weight weekly, respectively) at 50-55% of heart rate reserve. Total daily EE (TDEE) by the doubly labeled water method, resting metabolic rate (RMR) via indirect calorimetry, and physical activity by accelerometer were determined before and at the end of exercise training. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) was calculated. Following exercise training, the changes in components of TDEE and total physical activity did not differ by group. In the entire sample, TDEE, RMR, NEAT and total physical activity did not change (P > 0.05 for all). However, a significant baseline physical activity × time interaction was found for several of the variables. Data were therefore stratified into tertiles of baseline physical activity. In the high tertile, TDEE remained unchanged, but total physical activity decreased (P = 0.012). In contrast, in the middle and low tertiles, NEAT remained unchanged, and total physical activity increased (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, aerobic exercise training did not change TDEE, RMR, NEAT, or total physical activity in this sample of older women. Exercise dose did not, but baseline physical activity levels might, influence EE responses and total physical activity changes. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Are Predictive Energy Expenditure Equations in Ventilated Surgery Patients Accurate?

    PubMed

    Tignanelli, Christopher J; Andrews, Allan G; Sieloff, Kurt M; Pleva, Melissa R; Reichert, Heidi A; Wooley, Jennifer A; Napolitano, Lena M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R

    2017-01-01

    While indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard used to calculate specific calorie needs in the critically ill, predictive equations are frequently utilized at many institutions for various reasons. Prior studies suggest these equations frequently misjudge actual resting energy expenditure (REE) in medical and mixed intensive care unit (ICU) patients; however, their utility for surgical ICU (SICU) patients has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the REE measured by IC with REE calculated using specific calorie goals or predictive equations for nutritional support in ventilated adult SICU patients. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed on all adults (n = 419, 18-91 years) mechanically ventilated for >24 hours, with an Fio2 ≤ 60%, who met IC screening criteria. Caloric needs were estimated using Harris-Benedict equations (HBEs), and 20, 25, and 30 kcal/kg/d with actual (ABW), adjusted (ADJ), and ideal body (IBW) weights. The REE was measured using IC. The estimated REE was considered accurate when within ±10% of the measured REE by IC. The HBE, 20, 25, and 30 kcal/kg/d estimates of REE were found to be inaccurate regardless of age, gender, or weight. The HBE and 20 kcal/kg/d underestimated REE, while 25 and 30 kcal/kg/d overestimated REE. Of the methods studied, those found to most often accurately estimate REE were the HBE using ABW, which was accurate 35% of the time, and 25 kcal/kg/d ADJ, which was accurate 34% of the time. This difference was not statistically significant. Using HBE, 20, 25, or 30 kcal/kg/d to estimate daily caloric requirements in critically ill surgical patients is inaccurate compared to REE measured by IC. In SICU patients with nutrition requirements essential to recovery, IC measurement should be performed to guide clinicians in determining goal caloric requirements.

  14. Energy expenditure, metabolic power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running.

    PubMed

    Oxendale, Chelsea L; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare measures of energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry and micro-technology, as well as high power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running. Repeated measures. Twelve university standard team sport players completed a linear and multi-directional running condition. Estimated energy expenditure, as well as time at high speed (>14.4kmh(-1)) and high power (>20Wkg(-1)) were quantified using a 10Hz micro-technology device and compared with energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry. Measured energy expenditure was higher during the multi-directional condition (9.0±2.0 cf. 5.9±1.4kcalmin(-1)), whereas estimated energy expenditure was higher during the linear condition (8.7±2.1 cf. 6.5±1.5kcalmin(-1)). Whilst measures of energy expenditure were strongly related (r>0.89, p<0.001), metabolic power underestimated energy expenditure by 52% (95% LoA: 20-93%) and 34% (95% LoA: 12-59%) during the multi-directional and linear condition, respectively. Time at high power was 41% (95% LoA: 4-92%) greater than time at high speed during the multi-directional condition, whereas time at high power was 5% (95% LoA: -17-9%) lower than time at high speed during the linear condition. Estimated energy expenditure and time at high metabolic power can reflect changes in internal load. However, micro-technology cannot be used to determine the energy cost of intermittent running. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in heat production, or energy expenditure (EE). Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), is a nonparametric method that estimates complex nonlinear relationships by a seri...

  16. Physical activity and energy expenditure of laying hens as affected by light intensity.

    PubMed

    Boshouwers, F M; Nicaise, E

    1987-03-01

    The influence of light intensity using incandescent bulbs in a 16L:8D day:night schedule on the number and strength of movements and on total, resting and activity-related energy expenditure was investigated. Movements were classified into 10 activity levels of progressively increasing vigour. The number of movements at all activity levels was significantly positively correlated with the logarithm of the light intensity. Movements of low activity strength were less affected by increasing light intensities than vigorous movements. Activity-related energy expenditure was highly significant and positively affected by light intensity. A decrease of the light intensity from 120 to 1 lux may reduce total energy expenditure by 18%. A decrease in energy expenditure by 9% may be achieved by reducing the light intensity to about 15 lux, measured perpendicular to the main axis of radiation.

  17. Assessing the Energy Expenditure of Elite Female Soccer Players: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total and exercise energy expenditure of elite female soccer players during a training week. Eight elite female soccer players wore SenseWear Mini Armbands (SWAs) for 7 consecutive days during the preseason phase of a national league competition. In addition, players wore 15-Hz GPSports tracking devices during 4 training sessions and a friendly game. Total energy expenditure, exercise energy expenditure, and training and game demands were collected from the SWA and GPSports devices. Mean daily energy expenditure for the game day, training days, and rest days were 12,242 kJ (SD = 603 kJ), 11,692 (SD = 274 kJ), and 9,516 (SD = 369 kJ), respectively, with significant differences shown between activities (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.357), as well as between individual days (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.517). Mean values for energy expenditure during the friendly game (mean = 2,695 kJ, SD = 301 kJ) and training sessions (mean = 2,538 kJ, SD = 316 kJ) were similar (p = 0.278, Cohen's d = 0.5). However, there were significant differences found between individual training sessions (p = 0.001-0.035). Total and exercise energy expenditure differs throughout the week in female soccer players. Nutritional intake should be adjusted accordingly to avoid energy imbalances for optimal performance and recovery.

  18. Physiologic responses and energy expenditure of kinect active video game play in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Stephen R; Morris, Michael M; Fallows, Stephen J; Buckley, John P

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the physiologic responses and energy expenditure of active video gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360. Comparison study. Kirkby Sports College Centre for Learning, Liverpool, England. Eighteen schoolchildren (10 boys and 8 girls) aged 11 to 15 years. A comparison of a traditional sedentary video game and 2 Kinect activity-promoting video games, Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing, each played for 15 minutes. Physiologic responses and energy expenditure were measured using a metabolic analyzer. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure were considerably higher (P < .05) during activity-promoting video game play compared with rest and sedentary video game play. The mean (SD) corresponding oxygen uptake values for the sedentary, dance, and boxing video games were 6.1 (1.3), 12.8 (3.3), and 17.7 (5.1) mL · min-1 · kg-1, respectively. Energy expenditures were 1.5 (0.3), 3.0 (1.0), and 4.4 (1.6) kcal · min-1, respectively. Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing increased energy expenditure by 150% and 263%, respectively, above resting values and were 103% and 194% higher than traditional video gaming. This equates to an increased energy expenditure of up to 172 kcal · h-1 compared with traditional sedentary video game play. Played regularly, active gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360 could prove to be an effective means for increasing physical activity and energy expenditure in children.

  19. Cardiovascular Fitness and Energy Expenditure Response during a Combined Aerobic and Circuit Weight Training Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Pedro J.; Alvarez-Sánchez, María; Díaz, Víctor; Morencos, Esther; Peinado, Ana B.; Cupeiro, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study describes the oxygen uptake and total energy expenditure (including both aerobic and anaerobic contribution) response during three different circuit weight training (CWT) protocols of equivalent duration composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, and a combination of free weight exercises intercalating aerobic exercise. Design Controlled, randomized crossover designs. Methods Subjects completed in a randomized order three circuit weight training protocols of the same duration (3 sets of 8 exercises, 45min 15s) and intensity (70% of 15 repetitions maximum). The circuit protocols were composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, or a combination of free weight exercises with aerobic exercise. Oxygen consumption and lactate concentration were measured throughout the circuit to estimate aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure respectively. Results Energy expenditure is higher in the combined exercise protocol (29.9±3.6 ml/kg/min), compared with Freeweight (24.2±2.8ml/kg/min) and Machine (20.4±2.9ml/kg/min). The combined exercise protocol produced the highest total energy expenditure but the lowest lactate concentration and perceived exertion. The anaerobic contribution to total energy expenditure was higher in the machine and free weight protocols compared with the combined exercise protocol (6.2%, 4.6% and 2.3% respectively). Conclusions In the proposed protocols, the combined exercise protocol results in the highest oxygen consumption. Total energy expenditure is related to the type of exercise included in the circuit. Anaerobic contributions to total energy expenditure during circuit weight training may be modest, but lack of their estimation may underestimate total energy expenditure. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01116856 PMID:27832062

  20. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub-thorn woodland-thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. The authors compared body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with double labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =50 lizards/ha.). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 site J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/ influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. We suggest causal factors for the difference in daily activity period, and discuss implications of length of daily forging period for adult body size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards.

  1. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub - thorn woodland - thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. Body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with doubly labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient were compared. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =100 lizards/ha) than at the thorn scrub site near the ocean (approx. =50 lizards/ha). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/,> and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/O influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. Causal factors for the difference in daily activity period are suggested, and implications of length of daily foraging period for adult body, size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards are discussed.

  2. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  3. Total daily energy expenditure and incidence of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in young females.

    PubMed

    Novas, A; Rowbottom, D; Jenkins, D

    2002-10-01

    A group of 31 young females, tennis players and non-athletes, aged 16 +/- 2 years (range: 14 - 21 years), with a wide range of physical activity levels was used to investigate the relationship between total daily energy expenditure and the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. During a 12 week winter period, habitual daily activity (excluding training) was evaluated using a 3-day physical activity record. Tennis training was quantified using a validated method of estimating energy expenditure during play. Total daily energy expenditure was calculated from the sum of daily training plus mean habitual daily activity energy expenditures. The total group of subjects was divided in quartiles for total daily energy expenditure. A validated symptom checklist was used to assess the incidence and severity of upper respiratory tract infections, on a daily basis. The girls in the highest quartile of total daily energy expenditure (> or = 17,322 kJ/day) and in the lowest quartile (< or = 10,047 kJ/day) had the greatest incidence of URTI symptomatology, although the moderately active girls in quartile three (12,290 - 16,410 kJ/day) presented the lowest incidence. Significant differences in number of upper respiratory tract infection episodes, sickness days and symptomatology index were found between quartiles three and one (p < 0.05) and quartiles three and four (p < 0.01). Peak severity of symptoms was significantly lower in quartile three compared with all other quartiles (p < 0.05).

  4. Daily energy intake, energy expenditure and activity patterns of selected Malaysian sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Wannudri, W; Zawiah, H

    1995-09-01

    Seventeen members of the national sepaktakraw squad undergoing centralised training participated in a comprehensive study to determine their daily food intake, activity patterns and energy requirements. Food intake was recorded as a mean of 3-days weighed food intake and the nutrient contents were calculated using a local food composition table. The energy cost of standardised activities was determined by indirect calorimetry while time and motion study was used to estimate the daily energy expenditure of each subject. The mean daily energy intake was 2784±373 kcal (11.6±1.6 MJ) while the mean daily energy expenditure was 3004±298 kcal (12.6±1.2 MJ), with a negative energy balance of 220 kcal ((0.9 MJ). Intake of other nutrients were adequate when compared with the Malaysian RDA, with the exception of niacin. The results of the activity pattern study indicated that the subjects spent about 80% of the day doing light activities while 20% of the day was devoted to their training programme comprising of moderate to heavy activities. This data set represents the first of its kind in Malaysia and should provide impetus for further research in this area which would help establish dietary guidelines for Malaysian sportsmen.

  5. Central Neural Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Tupone, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is the specific, neurally-regulated, metabolic function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and contributes to the maintenance of body temperature during cold exposure and to the elevated core temperature during several behavioral states, including wakefulness, the acute phase response (fever), and stress. BAT energy expenditure requires metabolic fuel availability and contributes to energy balance. This review summarizes the functional organization and neurochemical influences within the CNS networks governing the level of BAT sympathetic nerve activity to produce the thermoregulatory and metabolically-driven alterations in BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure that contribute to overall energy homeostasis. PMID:24630813

  6. [Analysis of energy expenditure in adults with cystic fibrosis: comparison of indirect calorimetry and prediction equations].

    PubMed

    Fuster, Casilda Olveira; Fuster, Gabriel Olveira; Galindo, Antonio Dorado; Galo, Alicia Padilla; Verdugo, Julio Merino; Lozano, Francisco Miralles

    2007-07-01

    Undernutrition, which implies an imbalance between energy intake and energy requirements, is common in patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to compare resting energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry with that obtained with commonly used predictive equations in adults with cystic fibrosis and to assess the influence of clinical variables on the values obtained. We studied 21 patients with clinically stable cystic fibrosis, obtaining data on anthropometric variables, hand grip dynamometry, electrical bioimpedance, and resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. We used the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman method to assess agreement between the values obtained for resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry and those obtained with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Harris-Benedict prediction equations. The prediction equations underestimated resting energy expenditure in more than 90% of cases. The agreement between the value obtained by indirect calorimetry and that calculated with the prediction equations was poor (ICC for comparisons with the WHO and Harris-Benedict equations, 0.47 and 0.41, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a variable bias between the results of indirect calorimetry and those obtained with prediction equations, irrespective of the resting energy expenditure. The difference between the values measured by indirect calorimetry and those obtained with the WHO equation was significantly larger in patients homozygous for the DeltaF508 mutation and in those with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The WHO and Harris-Benedict prediction equations underestimate resting energy expenditure in adults with cystic fibrosis. There is poor agreement between the values for resting energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry and those estimated with prediction equations. Underestimation was greater in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and

  7. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m(2); gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) was inversely associated with the change in fat

  8. [Energy expenditure in reading and watching TV studied on 30 young females].

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Piao, Jian-Hua; Tian, Yuan; Li, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jian-Min; Tian, Ying; Li, Min; Dong, Jie; Gou, Ling-You; Yang, Xiao-Guang

    2008-03-01

    To measure the energy expenditure of reading and watching TV for young women. All 30 girls in the college were selected according to questionnaire, medical examination, blood test, liver function and thyroid gland level. Energy expenditure of reading and watching TV was measured respectively by the Cosmid K4b2 portable gas analysis system from Italy. Basic metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured as to analyzing results conveniently. The energy expenditure in reading was (226.35 +/- 56.07) kJ/h and the heart rate was (69 +/- 5) bmp. For watching TV it was (220.79 +/- 65.69) kJ/h and the heart rate was (68 +/- 5) bmp. BMR was (178.53 +/- 53.51) kJ/h and the heart rate was (62 +/- 6) bmp. RMR was (214.76 +/- 44.56) kJ/h and the heart rate was (65 +/- 6) bpm. The energy expenditure in reading should be higher than that of watching TV, however, the difference was not obvious. The expenditure rates might get closer to those of RMR. It might be regarded as an expenditure of very light physical active in Chinese.

  9. Energy expenditure in brass and woodwind instrumentalists: the effect of body posture.

    PubMed

    Baadjou, Vera A E; van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D F; Samama-Polak, Ans L W; Smeets, Rob J E M; Passos, Valéria Lima; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2011-12-01

    Body posture appears to influence fatigue and musculoskeletal complaints in musicians. Our aim was to determine energy expenditure and to investigate whether energy expenditure is affected by body posture in brass and woodwind instrumentalists. Eighteen musicians (10 women, 8 men; 6 brass, 12 woodwinds), with a mean age of 39 ± 14 years and mean body mass index of 23.8 ± 4.9 kg/m², played their instruments for 30 minutes twice: once in nonoptimized body posture (posture A), and once in a posture according to the postural exercise therapy method Mensendieck (posture B). Patients were randomized to the order of postures in a crossover design AB/BA. Playing sessions were preceded and followed by 60 minutes of rest. Energy expenditure was measured in a respiration chamber with indirect calorimetry. Basal metabolic rate was measured with a ventilated hood. Mean metabolic equivalents (MET) for playing a wind instrument in the sitting position in a nonoptimized posture and posture according postural exercise therapy were 1.69 (SD 0.18) and 1.80 (SD 0.22), respectively. Percent change between resting metabolic rate and total energy expenditure while playing was 32% (95% CI 25-39%) in posture B and 23% (95% CI 17-30%) in posture A (p = 0.021). Average physical activity while playing a wind instrument approximates 1.8 MET. Our data show an association between energy expenditure and body posture while playing a brass or woodwind instrument: playing a musical instrument in a posture according to postural exercise therapy leads to higher energy expenditure as compared to a nonoptimized body posture. These results suggest that fatigue and the general feeling of lack of energy after playing a musical instrument are not related to actual higher energy expenditure.

  10. Putting desire on a budget: dopamine and energy expenditure, reconciling reward and resources

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the “reward deficiency hypothesis” as a perceived energy deficit

  11. Putting desire on a budget: dopamine and energy expenditure, reconciling reward and resources.

    PubMed

    Beeler, Jeff A; Frazier, Cristianne R M; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the "reward deficiency hypothesis" as a perceived energy deficit. We

  12. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Energy expenditure during tennis play: a preliminary video analysis and metabolic model approach.

    PubMed

    Botton, Florent; Hautier, Christophe; Eclache, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate, using video analysis, what proportion of the total energy expenditure during a tennis match is accounted for by aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively. The method proposed involved estimating the metabolic power (MP) of 5 activities, which are inherent to tennis: walking, running, hitting the ball, serving, and sitting down to rest. The energy expenditure concerned was calculated by sequencing the activity by video analysis. A bioenergetic model calculated the aerobic energy expenditure (EEO2mod) in terms of MP, and the anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated by subtracting this (MP - EEO2mod). Eight tennis players took part in the experiment as subjects (mean ± SD: age 25.2 ± 1.9 years, weight 79.3 ± 10.8 kg, VO2max 54.4 ± 5.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The players started off by participating in 2 games while wearing the K4b2, with their activity profile measured by the video analysis system, and then by playing a set without equipment but with video analysis. There was no significant difference between calculated and measured oxygen consumptions over the 16 games (p = 0.763), and these data were strongly related (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). The EEO2mod was quite weak over all the games (49.4 ± 4.8% VO2max), whereas the MP during points was up to 2 or 3 times the VO2max. Anaerobic metabolism reached 32% of the total energy expenditure across all the games 67% for points and 95% for hitting the ball. This method provided a good estimation of aerobic energy expenditure and made it possible to calculate the anaerobic energy expenditure. This could make it possible to estimate the metabolic intensity of training sessions and matches using video analysis.

  14. Energy Expenditure of Standing Compared to Sitting While Conducting Office Tasks.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jill; Forde, Cuisle; Dockrell, Sara

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits. Method A repeated measures laboratory-based study compared the energy expenditure of common office tasks in sitting and standing using indirect calorimetry ( n = 22). Four standardized tasks (sitting/standing quietly, reading, typing, sorting paper) under two postural conditions (sitting, standing) were performed in a randomized order. Results The mean energy expenditure for all tasks in sitting and standing was <1.5 METs. There were no significant differences in the energy expenditure of doing the same task in sitting compared to standing. In a repeated measures ANOVA, task ( p < .001) had a greater influence on METs expended than posture ( p = .030). Conclusion The study confirmed that the difference in energy expenditure of tasks carried out in sitting compared to standing is negligible. Application The ubiquitous use and utility of sit-stand workstations in the workplace needs to be reviewed. Notwithstanding the potential benefits of movement that may occur naturally, this study confirmed that standing as opposed to sitting does not produce a clinically important increase in energy expenditure.

  15. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age, 11.5 y). Mean total energy expenditure was 2073 kcal/d, which was nearly 500 kcal/d lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies.

  16. 'Energy expenditure genes' or 'energy absorption genes': a new target for the treatment of obesity and Type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Braud, Sandrine; Ciufolini, Marco; Harosh, Itzik

    2010-12-01

    Several hundred genes associated or linked to obesity have been described in the scientific literature. Whereas many of these genes are potential targets for the treatment of obesity and associated conditions, none of them have permitted the developement of an efficient drug therapy. As proposed by the 'thrifty genotype' theory, obesity genes may have conferred an evolutionary advantage in times of food shortage through efficient energy exploitation, while 'lean' or 'energy expenditure' genes may have become very rare during the same periods. It is therefore a challenge to identify 'energy expenditure genes' or 'energy absorption genes,' whose mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms do result in reduced energy intake. We submit that such 'energy absorption' or 'energy expenditure' genes (crucial genes) are potential new targets for the treatment of obesity. These genes can be identified in rare genetic diseases that produce a lean, failure-to-thrive, energy malabsorption or starvation phenotype.

  17. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  18. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  19. RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN PATIENTS WITH INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION AND CRITICAL LIMB ISCHEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Montgomery, Polly S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to compare the resting energy expenditure of patients with intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. A secondary aim was to identify predictors of resting energy expenditure, Design One hundred patients limited by intermittent claudication and 40 patients with critical limb ischemia participated in this study. Patients were assessed on resting energy expenditure, body composition, ankle/brachial index (ABI), and calf blood flow. Results Patients with critical limb ischemia had a lower resting energy expenditure than patients with intermittent claudication (1429 ± 190 kcal/day vs. 1563 ± 229 kcal/day; p = 0.004), as well as higher body fat percentage (34.8 ± 7.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.8%; p = 0.037), higher fat mass (30.0 ± 9.3 kg vs. 26.2 ± 8.9 kg; p = 0.016), and lower ABI (0.31 ± 0.11 vs. 0.79 ± 0.23; p < 0.001). Resting energy expenditure was predicted by fat free mass (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), ABI (p < 0.0001), ethnicity (p < 0.0001), calf blood flow (p = 0.005), and diabetes (p = 0.008). Resting energy expenditure remained lower in the patients with critical limb ischemia after adjusting for clinical characteristics plus fat free mass (1473 ± 27.8 kcal/day [mean ± SEM] vs. 1527 ± 19.3 kcal/day; p = 0.031), but was no longer different between groups after further adjustment for ABI and calf blood flow (1494 ± 25.2 kcal/day vs. 1505 ± 17.7 kcal/day (p = 0.269). Conclusion Resting energy expenditure is decreased with a progression in PAD symptoms from intermittent claudication to critical limb ischemia. Furthermore, patients with critical limb ischemia who are most susceptible for decline in resting energy expenditure are older, African-American patients with diabetes. The lower resting energy expenditure of patients with critical limb ischemia, combined with their sedentary lifestyle, suggests that they are at high risk for long-term positive energy balance and weight gain. PMID:20382493

  20. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-15

    Short sleep duration and obesity are common occurrence in today's society. An extensive literature from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies shows a relationship between short sleep and prevalence of obesity and weight gain. However, causality cannot be inferred from such studies. Clinical intervention studies have examined whether reducing sleep in normal sleepers, typically sleeping 7-9 h/night, can affect energy intake, energy expenditure, and endocrine regulators of energy balance. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies that have assessed food intake, energy expenditure, and leptin and ghrelin levels after periods of restricted and normal sleep. Most studies support the notion that restricting sleep increases food intake, but the effects on energy expenditure are mixed. Differences in methodology and component of energy expenditure analyzed may account for the discrepancies. Studies examining the effects of sleep on leptin and ghrelin have provided conflicting results with increased, reduced, or unchanged leptin and ghrelin levels after restricted sleep compared to normal sleep. Energy balance of study participants and potential sex differences may account for the varied results. Studies should strive for constant energy balance and feeding schedules when assessing the role of sleep on hormonal profile. Although studies suggest that restricting sleep may lead to weight gain via increased food intake, research is needed to examine the impact on energy expenditure and endocrine controls. Also, studies have been of short duration, and there is little knowledge on the reverse question: does increasing sleep duration in short sleepers lead to negative energy balance?

  1. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-09-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  2. Doubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promise.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ((2)H) and heavy oxygen ((18)O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ((2)H 2(18) O) to increase background enrichment of body water for (18)O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for (2)H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm. Subsequently, the difference between the apparent turnover rates of the hydrogen and oxygen of body water is assessed from blood-, saliva-, or urine samples, collected at the start and end of the observation interval of 1-3 weeks. Samples are analyzed for (18)O and (2)H with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The doubly labelled water method is the indicated method to measure energy expenditure in any environment, especially with regard to activity energy expenditure, without interference with the behavior of the subjects. Applications include the assessment of energy requirement from total energy expenditure, validation of dietary assessment methods and validation of physical activity assessment methods with doubly labelled water measured energy expenditure as reference, and studies on body mass regulation with energy expenditure as a determinant of energy balance.

  3. Leptin Signaling Is Required for Leucine Deprivation-enhanced Energy Expenditure*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Liu, Bin; Cheng, Ying; Meng, Qingshu; Xia, Tingting; Jiang, Lei; Chen, Shanghai; Liu, Yong; Guo, Feifan

    2014-01-01

    Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus is crucial in energy homeostasis. We have previously shown that dietary deprivation of the essential amino acid leucine in mice stimulates fat loss by increasing energy expenditure. The involvement of leptin signaling in this regulation, however, has not been reported. Here, we show that leucine deprivation promotes leptin signaling in mice maintained on an otherwise normal diet and restores leptin responses in mice maintained on a high fat diet, a regimen known to induce leptin resistance. In addition, we found that leucine deprivation stimulated energy expenditure, and fat loss was largely blocked in db/db mice homozygous for a mutation in leptin receptor and a knock-in mouse line Y3F with abrogation of leptin receptor Tyr1138-mediated signal transducer and activator transcript 3 signaling. Overall, our studies describe a novel link between hypothalamic leptin signaling and stimulation of energy expenditure under leucine deprivation. PMID:24302741

  4. Proxies of energy expenditure for marine mammals: an experimental test of "the time trap".

    PubMed

    Ladds, Monique A; Rosen, David A S; Slip, David J; Harcourt, Robert G

    2017-09-18

    Direct measures of energy expenditure are difficult to obtain in marine mammals, and accelerometry may be a useful proxy. Recently its utility has been questioned as some analyses derived their measure of activity level by calculating the sum of accelerometry-based values and then comparing this summation to summed (total) energy expenditure (the so-called "time trap"). To test this hypothesis, we measured oxygen consumption of captive fur seals and sea lions wearing accelerometers during submerged swimming and calculated total and rate of energy expenditure. We compared these values with two potential proxies of energy expenditure derived from accelerometry data: flipper strokes and dynamic body acceleration (DBA). Total number of strokes, total DBA, and submergence time all predicted total oxygen consumption [Formula: see text] ml kg(-1)). However, both total DBA and total number of strokes were correlated with submergence time. Neither stroke rate nor mean DBA could predict the rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text] ml min(-1) kg(-1)). The relationship of total DBA and total strokes with total oxygen consumption is apparently a result of introducing a constant (time) into both sides of the relationship. This experimental evidence supports the conclusion that proxies derived from accelerometers cannot estimate the energy expenditure of marine mammals.

  5. An Under-the-Table Leg-Movement Apparatus and Changes in Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Koepp, Gabriel A; Moore, Graham; Levine, James A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Deskwork contributes substantially to sedentariness. Here, we evaluated an under-the-table apparatus that was designed to promote leg movement (fidgeting) while seated. Our hypothesis was that the under-the-table apparatus would increase energy expenditure. Methods: We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 26 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, walked on a treadmill, and sat and worked using an under-the-desk apparatus that encouraged leg movement. Results: Energy expenditure increased significantly while using the under-the-table apparatus when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 81 ± 18 kcal/h; under-the-table apparatus, 96 ± 23 kcal/h) (P < 0.001); representing an 18 ± 16% increase. The changes in energy expenditure were not as great as walking (1 mph, 168 ± 46 kcal/h, P < 0.001; 2 mph, 205 ± 51 kcal/, P < 0.001), representing 107 ± 37% and 155 ± 48% increases over baseline, respectively. Conclusions: An under-the-table apparatus that promotes leg movement can increase energy expenditure by approximately 20%. Dynamic sitting is promoted by this apparatus and may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while seated at work.

  6. An Under-the-Table Leg-Movement Apparatus and Changes in Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Koepp, Gabriel A.; Moore, Graham; Levine, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Deskwork contributes substantially to sedentariness. Here, we evaluated an under-the-table apparatus that was designed to promote leg movement (fidgeting) while seated. Our hypothesis was that the under-the-table apparatus would increase energy expenditure. Methods: We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 26 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, walked on a treadmill, and sat and worked using an under-the-desk apparatus that encouraged leg movement. Results: Energy expenditure increased significantly while using the under-the-table apparatus when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 81 ± 18 kcal/h; under-the-table apparatus, 96 ± 23 kcal/h) (P < 0.001); representing an 18 ± 16% increase. The changes in energy expenditure were not as great as walking (1 mph, 168 ± 46 kcal/h, P < 0.001; 2 mph, 205 ± 51 kcal/, P < 0.001), representing 107 ± 37% and 155 ± 48% increases over baseline, respectively. Conclusions: An under-the-table apparatus that promotes leg movement can increase energy expenditure by approximately 20%. Dynamic sitting is promoted by this apparatus and may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while seated at work. PMID:28572774

  7. Overnight energy expenditure determined by whole-body indirect calorimetry does not differ during different sleep stages.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Drummen, Mathijs; Rosique Esteban, Núria; Schoffelen, Paul F M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-10-01

    Sleep has been associated with the regulation of energy balance, yet the relation between sleep stages and energy expenditure remains unclear. The objective was to investigate the relation between sleep stages and energy expenditure, with sleep stage and overnight energy expenditure patterns taken into account. Thirteen subjects aged (mean ± SD) 24.3 ± 2.5 y with a BMI (in kg/m(2)) of 23.6 ± 1.7 slept in a respiration chamber while sleep was polysomnographically recorded to determine wake after sleep onset (WASO), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Energy expenditure was calculated during each sleep stage for the whole night and separately for sleeping metabolic rate (SMR; ie, 3-h period during the night with the lowest mean energy expenditure) and non-SMR. Energy expenditure and sleep stages showed characteristic patterns during the night, independently of each other. Sleep stages exerted no effect on energy expenditure during the whole night, except for WASO compared with SWS (P < 0.05) and WASO compared with REM sleep (P < 0.05). During the SMR and non-SMR periods of the night, no overall effect of sleep stage on energy expenditure, except for WASO compared with SWS (P < 0.05) and WASO compared with REM sleep (P < 0.01) during the non-SMR period of the night, was found. Energy expenditure and activity counts during the night were positively correlated (r = 0.927, P < 0.001). Energy expenditure does not vary according to sleep stage overnight, except for higher energy expenditure during wake episodes than during SWS and REM sleep. Coincidence of the sleep stage pattern and the overnight energy expenditure pattern may have caused accidental relations in previous observations. This trial was registered at http://apps.who.int/trialsearch as NTR2926.

  8. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis of the annual energy outlook 1999 forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Balsley, J.H.

    2000-01-07

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impact of the base-case scenario used in Annual Energy Outlook 1999 on different population groups. Projections of energy consumption and expenditures, as well as energy expenditure as a share of income, from 1996 to 2020 are given. The projected consumption of electricty, natural gas, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas during this period is also reported for each population group. In addition, this report compares the findings of the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 report with the 1998 report. Changes in certain indicators and information affect energy use forecasts, and these effects are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, John E.; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-01-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that “the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy”. However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity. PMID:22915022

  10. New-Generation Active Videogaming Maintains Energy Expenditure in Children Across Repeated Bouts.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Michael; Lay, Brendan; Lee, Marcus; Derbyshire, Amanda; Kur, Jonathan; Ferguson, Renee; Maitland, Clover; Mills, Andrew; Davies, Christina; Pratt, Iain Stephen; Braham, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) remain popular among 10-15-year-old children. The Xbox 360 Kinect™ from Microsoft (Redmond, WA) represents a new generation of AVGs where body movements are used to control gameplay. The purpose of this study was to measure energy expenditure required to play repeated bouts of six Microsoft Xbox 360 Kinect games ("Motion Sports Adrenaline™," "Sonic Free Riders™," "Virtua Tennis 4™," "Kinect Sports™," "Kinect Adventures™," and "Just Dance 3™"). Forty-seven children (between 10 and 15 years) participated in a repeated-measures experiment, completing five 1-hour sessions (one familiarization and four separate gaming sessions). Three different AVGs were played for 15 minutes during each gaming session in a counterbalanced order. An Actiheart (CamNtech Ltd., Cambridge, United Kingdom) was used to monitor heart rate and acceleration during gameplay. Average energy expended across the six AVGs during 15 minutes of gameplay was 3.0±0.17 metabolic equivalents/minute, significantly higher than resting energy expenditure (P<0.01). Similar levels of energy expenditure were observed between the first and fourth gaming session for all six games, although the energy expenditure between each game over the four sessions was similar. Boys expended more energy than girls within each AVG and across the four gaming sessions. The Microsoft Xbox 360 Kinect games in this study were found to elicit moderate-intensity exercise over four gaming sessions, with no decay in energy expenditure over several gaming sessions. Although small differences in the energy expenditure between the six Microsoft Xbox Kinect games were found, they are all likely to contribute toward reduced sitting time in children.

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Increases Energy Expenditure: Relation to Brown Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Leenen, Loes; Rijkers, Kim; Cornips, Erwin; Majoie, Marian; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. Methods and Findings Fifteen patients with stable VNS therapy (age: 45±10yrs; body mass index; 25.2±3.5 kg/m2) were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%). Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUVMean; 0.55±0.25 versus 0.67±0.46, P = 0.619). However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off) was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001). Conclusions VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. Trial Registration The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282. PMID:24194874

  12. Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lynne M; Maddison, Ralph; Pfaeffli, Leila A; Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Gant, Nicholas; Kerse, Ngaire M

    2012-12-01

    Tayl To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. Cross-sectional study. University research center. Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental expenditure of time and energy in the Abert's Towhee (Pipilo aberti)

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1984-01-01

    Daily activity budgets of male and female Abert's Towhees (Pipilo aberti) were measured in 1980 during the reproductive cycle and then converted into energy budgets to determine the relative demands of different nesting phases. Mean daily energy expenditures (DEEtot) in males reached a seasonal maximum of 126.7 kJ, or 2.16 times basal metabolic rate (BMR), in the...

  14. The Role of Sleep Duration in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Effects on Energy Intakes and Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration and obesity are common occurrence in today's society. An extensive literature from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies shows a relationship between short sleep and prevalence of obesity and weight gain. However, causality cannot be inferred from such studies. Clinical intervention studies have examined whether reducing sleep in normal sleepers, typically sleeping 7–9 h/night, can affect energy intake, energy expenditure, and endocrine regulators of energy balance. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies that have assessed food intake, energy expenditure, and leptin and ghrelin levels after periods of restricted and normal sleep. Most studies support the notion that restricting sleep increases food intake, but the effects on energy expenditure are mixed. Differences in methodology and component of energy expenditure analyzed may account for the discrepancies. Studies examining the effects of sleep on leptin and ghrelin have provided conflicting results with increased, reduced, or unchanged leptin and ghrelin levels after restricted sleep compared to normal sleep. Energy balance of study participants and potential sex differences may account for the varied results. Studies should strive for constant energy balance and feeding schedules when assessing the role of sleep on hormonal profile. Although studies suggest that restricting sleep may lead to weight gain via increased food intake, research is needed to examine the impact on energy expenditure and endocrine controls. Also, studies have been of short duration, and there is little knowledge on the reverse question: does increasing sleep duration in short sleepers lead to negative energy balance? Citation: St-Onge MP. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):73–80. PMID:23319909

  15. Using Passive Sensing to Estimate Relative Energy Expenditure for Eldercare Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Skubic, Marjorie; Zhu, Yingnan; Galambos, Colleen

    2011-03-21

    This paper describes ongoing work in analyzing sensor data logged in the homes of seniors. An estimation of relative energy expenditure is computed using motion density from passive infrared motion sensors mounted in the environment. We introduce a new algorithm for detecting visitors in the home using motion sensor data and a set of fuzzy rules. The visitor algorithm, as well as a previous algorithm for identifying time-away-from-home (TAFH), are used to filter the logged motion sensor data. Thus, the energy expenditure estimate uses data collected only when the resident is home alone. Case studies are included from TigerPlace, an Aging in Place community, to illustrate how the relative energy expenditure estimate can be used to track health conditions over time.

  16. Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2012-08-01

    Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake - expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured. Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P < 0.001) was higher, and the energy surplus (P = 0.038) was lower, in MC than in television or VG groups. All conditions produced a mean (±SD) energy surplus as follows: 638 ± 408 kcal in television, 655 ± 533 kcal in VG, and 376 ± 487 kcal in MC groups. The OR for consuming ≥500 kcal in the television compared with the MC group was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.4). Secondary analyses, in which the 2 sedentary conditions were collapsed, showed an intake that was 178 kcal (95% CI: 8, 349 kcal) lower in the MC condition than in the sedentary groups (television and VG). MCs may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen time because of a lower energy surplus, but the playing of these games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795.

  17. Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming123

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. Objective: Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake − expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. Design: Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured. Results: Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P < 0.001) was higher, and the energy surplus (P = 0.038) was lower, in MC than in television or VG groups. All conditions produced a mean (±SD) energy surplus as follows: 638 ± 408 kcal in television, 655 ± 533 kcal in VG, and 376 ± 487 kcal in MC groups. The OR for consuming ≥500 kcal in the television compared with the MC group was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.4). Secondary analyses, in which the 2 sedentary conditions were collapsed, showed an intake that was 178 kcal (95% CI: 8, 349 kcal) lower in the MC condition than in the sedentary groups (television and VG). Conclusion: MCs may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen time because of a lower energy surplus, but the playing of these games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795. PMID:22760571

  18. Effects of Levothyroxine Replacement or Suppressive Therapy on Energy Expenditure and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Mary H; Kolobova, Irina; Smeraglio, Anne; Peters, Dawn; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Schuff, Kathryn G

    2016-03-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4) have adverse effects on bone and cardiac function, but it is unclear whether metabolic function is also affected. The objective of this study was to determine whether women receiving TSH-suppressive LT4 doses have alterations in energy expenditure or body composition. This study was a cross-sectional comparison between three groups of women: 26 women receiving chronic TSH-suppressive LT4 doses, 80 women receiving chronic replacement LT4 doses, and 16 untreated euthyroid control women. Subjects underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation, and thermic effect of food by indirect calorimetry; physical activity energy expenditure by accelerometer; caloric intake by 24-hour diet recall; and body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry. REE per kilogram lean body mass in the LT4 euthyroid women was 6% lower than that of the LT4-suppressed group, and 4% lower than that of the healthy control group (p = 0.04). Free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were directly correlated with REE, and were 10% lower in the LT4 euthyroid women compared with the other two groups (p = 0.007). The groups of subjects did not differ in other measures of energy expenditure, caloric intake, or body composition. LT4 suppression therapy does not adversely affect energy expenditure or body composition in women. However, LT4 replacement therapy is associated with a lower REE, despite TSH levels within the reference range. This may be due to lower fT3 levels, suggesting relative tissue hypothyroidism may contribute to impaired energy expenditure in LT4 therapy.

  19. Low-Force Muscle Activity Regulates Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Woelfel, Jessica R; Kimball, Amy L; Yen, Chu-Ling; Shields, Richard K

    2017-05-01

    Reduced physical activity is a primary risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. People with spinal cord injury (SCI) have reduced activity for a lifetime, as they cannot volitionally activate affected skeletal muscles. We explored whether low-force and low-frequency stimulation is a viable strategy to enhance systemic energy expenditure in people with SCI. This study aimed to determine the effects of low stimulation frequency (1 and 3 Hz) and stimulation intensity (50 and 100 mA) on energy expenditure in people with SCI. We also examined the relationship between body mass index and visceral adipose tissue on energy expenditure during low-frequency stimulation. Ten individuals with complete SCI underwent oxygen consumption monitoring during electrical activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 1 and 3 Hz and at 50 and 100 mA. We calculated the difference in energy expenditure between stimulation and rest and estimated the number of days that would be necessary to burn 1 lb of body fat (3500 kcal) for each stimulation protocol (1 vs 3 Hz). Both training frequencies induced a significant increase in oxygen consumption above a resting baseline level (P < 0.05). Energy expenditure positively correlated with stimulus intensity (muscle recruitment) and negatively correlated with adiposity (reflecting the insulating properties of adipose tissue). We estimated that 1 lb of body fat could be burned more quickly with 1 Hz training (58 d) as compared with 3 Hz training (87 d) if an identical number of pulses were delivered. Low-frequency stimulation increased energy expenditure per pulse and may be a feasible option to subsidize physical activity to improve metabolic status after SCI.

  20. Dihydrocapsiate improved age-associated impairments in mice by increasing energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Kana; Suzuki, Katsuya

    2017-08-15

    Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether DCT supplementation in aged mice improves age-associated impairments. We obtained five-week-old and one-year-old male C57BL/6J mice and randomly assigned the aged mice to two groups, resulting in a total of three groups: 1) young mice, 2) old mice, and 3) old mice supplemented with 0.3% DCT. After 12 weeks of supplementation, blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed. DCT significantly suppressed age-associated fat accumulation, adipocyte hypertrophy, and liver steatosis. In addition, the DCT treatment dramatically suppressed age-associated increases in hepatic inflammation, immune cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. DCT exerted these suppression effects by increasing energy expenditure linked to upregulation of both the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that DCT efficiently improves age-associated impairments, including liver steatosis and inflammation, in part by increasing energy expenditure via activation of the fat oxidation pathway in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  1. Effects of Levothyroxine Replacement or Suppressive Therapy on Energy Expenditure and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kolobova, Irina; Smeraglio, Anne; Peters, Dawn; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Schuff, Kathryn G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4) have adverse effects on bone and cardiac function, but it is unclear whether metabolic function is also affected. The objective of this study was to determine whether women receiving TSH-suppressive LT4 doses have alterations in energy expenditure or body composition. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional comparison between three groups of women: 26 women receiving chronic TSH-suppressive LT4 doses, 80 women receiving chronic replacement LT4 doses, and 16 untreated euthyroid control women. Subjects underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation, and thermic effect of food by indirect calorimetry; physical activity energy expenditure by accelerometer; caloric intake by 24-hour diet recall; and body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: REE per kilogram lean body mass in the LT4 euthyroid women was 6% lower than that of the LT4-suppressed group, and 4% lower than that of the healthy control group (p = 0.04). Free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were directly correlated with REE, and were 10% lower in the LT4 euthyroid women compared with the other two groups (p = 0.007). The groups of subjects did not differ in other measures of energy expenditure, caloric intake, or body composition. Conclusions: LT4 suppression therapy does not adversely affect energy expenditure or body composition in women. However, LT4 replacement therapy is associated with a lower REE, despite TSH levels within the reference range. This may be due to lower fT3 levels, suggesting relative tissue hypothyroidism may contribute to impaired energy expenditure in LT4 therapy. PMID:26700485

  2. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on caloric intake and activity energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Calvin, Andrew D; Carter, Rickey E; Adachi, Taro; Macedo, Paula G; Albuquerque, Felipe N; van der Walt, Christelle; Bukartyk, Jan; Davison, Diane E; Levine, James A; Somers, Virend K

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of sleep restriction on caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. We conducted a randomized study of usual sleep vs a sleep restriction of two-thirds of normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcomes were caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Caloric intake in the sleep-restricted group increased by +559 kcal/d (SD, 706 kcal/d, P=.006) and decreased in the control group by -118 kcal/d (SD, 386 kcal/d, P=.51) for a net change of +677 kcal/d (95% CI, 148-1,206 kcal/d; P=.014). Sleep restriction was not associated with changes in activity energy expenditure (P=.62). No change was seen in levels of leptin (P=.27) or ghrelin (P=.21). Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in caloric consumption with no change in activity energy expenditure or leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Increased caloric intake without any accompanying increase in energy expenditure may contribute to obesity in people who are exposed to long-term sleep restriction. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01334788; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  3. Heart rate during basketball game play and volleyball drills accurately predicts oxygen uptake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Scribbans, T D; Berg, K; Narazaki, K; Janssen, I; Gurd, B J

    2015-09-01

    There is currently little information regarding the ability of metabolic prediction equations to accurately predict oxygen uptake and exercise intensity from heart rate (HR) during intermittent sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and, cross-validate equations appropriate for accurately predicting oxygen cost (VO2) and energy expenditure from HR during intermittent sport participation. Eleven healthy adult males (19.9±1.1yrs) were recruited to establish the relationship between %VO2peak and %HRmax during low-intensity steady state endurance (END), moderate-intensity interval (MOD) and high intensity-interval exercise (HI), as performed on a cycle ergometer. Three equations (END, MOD, and HI) for predicting %VO2peak based on %HRmax were developed. HR and VO2 were directly measured during basketball games (6 male, 20.8±1.0 yrs; 6 female, 20.0±1.3yrs) and volleyball drills (12 female; 20.8±1.0yrs). Comparisons were made between measured and predicted VO2 and energy expenditure using the 3 equations developed and 2 previously published equations. The END and MOD equations accurately predicted VO2 and energy expenditure, while the HI equation underestimated, and the previously published equations systematically overestimated VO2 and energy expenditure. Intermittent sport VO2 and energy expenditure can be accurately predicted from heart rate data using either the END (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.008-17.17) or MOD (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.2-32) equations. These 2 simple equations provide an accessible and cost-effective method for accurate estimation of exercise intensity and energy expenditure during intermittent sport.

  4. Energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry and doubly labeled water: do they agree?

    PubMed

    Leenders, Nicole Y; Sherman, William Michael; Nagaraja, Haikady N

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure derived from regression equations determined from accelerometry with energy expenditure obtained from the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Thirteen subjects participated in a 7-d protocol during which total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was measured with DLW. Simultaneously, during the 7 d, subjects wore a Tritrac-R3D and an Actigraph (ACT). Pearson and concordance correlations and one-sample t-tests were used to determine the agreement of six Tritrac and eight ACT regression equations that convert body acceleration to energy expenditure with the DLW measurements. Tritrac TDEE determined from the different Tritrac regression equations under- and overestimated TDEE determined with DLW that ranged from -10 to +101%. For ACT, the percent difference between DLW and ACT-TDEE determined with the regression equation developed by Hendelman and Swartz were not statistically significantly different from zero. The mean of the difference was -2 and -4%, but the range of the difference was large for both equations, -29 to +24%. TDEE determined with the six other ACT equations were significantly different compared with DLW. Of the 14 different regression equations from the literature, only two developed for ACT compared favorably with DLW; however, the difference in TDEE between these two methods was variable and rather large. These results reemphasize the difficulty in converting body movement into energy expenditure on an individual basis from accelerometry. These results imply that researchers may want to avoid using accelerometers to predict energy expenditure in free-living conditions, instead using these instruments only to measure patterns of physical activity.

  5. Prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry in children and adolescents using multivariate adaptive regression splines modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Free-living measurements of 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) are required to better understand the metabolic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance and contributing to the global epidemic of childhood obesity. The spec...

  6. Validation and reliability of two activity monitors for energy expenditure assessment.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Beaudoin, Nadia; Bélisle, Virginie; Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the reliability and validity of the SenseWear Armband (SWA) and Actical (ACT) for free-living total energy expenditure, and energy expenditure during rest and light-to-moderate exercises (walking, ergocycling). Participants wore the 2 devices during 7 days (free-living) and then participated to 3 days of testing in our laboratory. SWA and ACT estimates of total energy expenditure was compared to the doubly labeled water technique (7 days), and energy expenditure during rest (60min), treadmill (45min; intensities ∼22% to ∼41% VO2peak) and ergocycling (45min; ∼50% VO2peak) were compared to indirect calorimetry over the following 3 days. Paired T-tests and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence interval (CI95) were computed. Twenty adults were recruited (BMI 23.1±2.3kg/m(2)). Compared to doubly labelled water, SWA overestimated energy expenditure by 94kcal/d (±319; P=0.2) and ACT underestimated by -244kcal/d (±258; P=0.001). Energy expenditure during rest (SWA 210±116, ACT 124±133kcal/d; p<0.05) and treadmill (according on intensity: SWA 54±46 to 67±38, ACT 68±25 to 84±40kcal; p<0.05) were overestimated and underestimated during ergocycling (SWA -93±65, ACT -269±111kcal; p<0.05) compared to indirect calorimetry. High ICC were observed at rest (SWA 0.994 CI95 0.987-0.997; ACT 0.998 CI95 0.996-0.999) and during ergocycling (SWA 0.941 CI95 0.873-0.975; ACT 0.854 CI95 0.687-0.939). Acceptable estimation of total energy expenditure was observed with the SWA. Both devices were reliable but not accurate for energy expenditure's estimations during rest and for specific exercises. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChickensNara; Lee, Sang-rak; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chickens were exposed to 6 cycles of 2 h light/2 h dark period per day. In experiment 2, the broiler chickens that had been used in experiment 1 were used to evaluate the effect of 4 different wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. The LEDs used in this study had the following wavelength bands; white (control), red (618 to 635 nm), green (515 to 530 nm) and blue (450 to 470 nm). The chickens were randomly exposed to a 2-h LED light in a random and sequential order per day for 3 days. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of the chickens were recorded using an open-circuit calorimeter system, and energy expenditure was calculated based on the collected data. The behavior of the chickens was analyzed based on following categories i.e., resting, standing, and pecking, and closed-circuit television was used to record these behavioral postures. The analysis of data from experiment 1 showed that the energy expenditure was higher (p<0.001) in chickens under light condition compared with those under dark condition. The chickens spent more time with pecking during a light period, but they frequently exhibited resting during a dark period. Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in terms of energy expenditure and behavior based on the color of light (white, red, green, and blue) to which the chickens were exposed. In conclusion, the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens were found to be

  8. Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nara; Lee, Sang-Rak; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chickens were exposed to 6 cycles of 2 h light/2 h dark period per day. In experiment 2, the broiler chickens that had been used in experiment 1 were used to evaluate the effect of 4 different wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. The LEDs used in this study had the following wavelength bands; white (control), red (618 to 635 nm), green (515 to 530 nm) and blue (450 to 470 nm). The chickens were randomly exposed to a 2-h LED light in a random and sequential order per day for 3 days. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of the chickens were recorded using an open-circuit calorimeter system, and energy expenditure was calculated based on the collected data. The behavior of the chickens was analyzed based on following categories i.e., resting, standing, and pecking, and closed-circuit television was used to record these behavioral postures. The analysis of data from experiment 1 showed that the energy expenditure was higher (p<0.001) in chickens under light condition compared with those under dark condition. The chickens spent more time with pecking during a light period, but they frequently exhibited resting during a dark period. Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in terms of energy expenditure and behavior based on the color of light (white, red, green, and blue) to which the chickens were exposed. In conclusion, the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens were found to be

  9. Comparing Metabolic Energy Expenditure Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor Network and Single Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Montoye, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation details, system architecture and performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity recognition and energy expenditure estimation. We also included ActiGraph GT3X+ as a popular single sensor solution for detailed comparison with the proposed wearable sensor network. Linear regression and Artificial Neural Network are implemented and tested. Through a rigorous system study and experiment, it is shown that the wearable multi-sensor network outperforms the single sensor solution in terms of energy expenditure estimation. PMID:24110325

  10. Age-related variation in energy expenditure in a long-lived bird within the envelope of an energy ceiling.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Gaston, Anthony J; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Hare, James F; Speakman, John R; Croll, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Energy expenditure in wild animals can be limited (i) intrinsically by physiological processes that constrain an animal's capacity to use energy, (ii) extrinsically by energy availability in the environment and/or (iii) strategically based on trade-offs between elevated metabolism and survival. Although these factors apply to all individuals within a population, some individuals expend more or less energy than other individuals. To examine the role of an energy ceiling in a species with a high and individually repeatable metabolic rate, we compared energy expenditure of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) with and without handicaps during a period of peak energy demand (chick-rearing, N = 16). We also compared energy expenditure of unencumbered birds (N = 260) across 8 years exhibiting contrasting environmental conditions and correlated energy expenditure with fitness (reproductive success and survival). Murres experienced an energy ceiling mediated through behavioural adjustments. Handicapped birds decreased time spent flying/diving and chick-provisioning rates such that overall daily energy expenditure remained unchanged across the two treatments. The energy ceiling did not reflect energy availability or trade-offs with fitness, as energy expenditure was similar across contrasting foraging conditions and was not associated with reduced survival or increased reproductive success. We found partial support for the trade-off hypothesis as older murres, where prospects for future reproduction would be relatively limited, did overcome an energy ceiling to invest more in offspring following handicapping by reducing their own energy reserves. The ceiling therefore appeared to operate at the level of intake (i.e. digestion) rather than expenditure (i.e. thermal constraint, oxidative stress). A meta-analysis comparing responses of breeding animals to handicapping suggests that our results are typical: animals either reduced investment in themselves or in their offspring to

  11. Control of food intake and energy expenditure by Nos1 neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Amy K; Pei, Hongjuan; Burnett, Korri H; Myers, Martin G; Rhodes, Christopher J; Olson, David P

    2014-11-12

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) contains a heterogeneous cluster of Sim1-expressing cell types that comprise a major autonomic output nucleus and play critical roles in the control of food intake and energy homeostasis. The roles of specific PVH neuronal subtypes in energy balance have yet to be defined, however. The PVH contains nitric oxide synthase-1 (Nos1)-expressing (Nos1(PVH)) neurons of unknown function; these represent a subset of the larger population of Sim1-expressing PVH (Sim1(PVH)) neurons. To determine the role of Nos1(PVH) neurons in energy balance, we used Cre-dependent viral vectors to both map their efferent projections and test their functional output in mice. Here we show that Nos1(PVH) neurons project to hindbrain and spinal cord regions important for food intake and energy expenditure control. Moreover, pharmacogenetic activation of Nos1(PVH) neurons suppresses feeding to a similar extent as Sim1(PVH) neurons, and increases energy expenditure and activity. Furthermore, we found that oxytocin-expressing PVH neurons (OXT(PVH)) are a subset of Nos1(PVH) neurons. OXT(PVH) cells project to preganglionic, sympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and increase energy expenditure upon activation, though not to the same extent as Nos1(PVH) neurons; their activation fails to alter feeding, however. Thus, Nos1(PVH) neurons promote negative energy balance through changes in feeding and energy expenditure, whereas OXT(PVH) neurons regulate energy expenditure alone, suggesting a crucial role for non-OXT Nos1(PVH) neurons in feeding regulation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415306-13$15.00/0.

  12. Net energy expenditure of gravity-independent high-speed resistive exercise done by women.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Borgsmiller, Jake A; Riner, Rebekah D; Mason, Melissa L; Lutz, Brant R; Nelson, Colbert C

    2012-02-01

    Elevated metabolism is common to spaceflight while exercise in microgravity exacerbates energy costs. Thus in-flight exercise countermeasures must be devised that minimize energy costs as they are performed on hardware operable in microgravity. Female subjects (N = 28), subdivided into athletic and sedentary groups, each performed two workouts on a resistive exercise device (Impulse Training Systems; Newnan, GA). Comprised exclusively of either tonic or phasic repetitions, each exercise bout entailed two 1 -min sets interspersed by a 90-s rest from which the work volume was determined. Oxygen consumption was measured before, during, and after workouts until gas uptake returned to pre-exercise levels. Net oxygen consumption was converted to net energy expenditures via indirect calorimetry. Mean net energy expenditure and work volume values were each compared with 2 (athletes, sedentaries) x 2 (tonic, phasic) ANOVAs, with repeated measures for workout. In addition, multivariate regression employed three predictor (body mass, body fat percentage, work volume) variables to account for the net energy expenditure variance. Workouts yielded a metabolic cost of approximately 14 kcal, yet the data produced no significant intergroup or workout differences. However, work volume analysis yielded a significant (tonic > phasic) effect. The multivariate analysis explained small yet significant amounts of net energy expenditure variance. Current results: 1) are partly attributable to higher series elastic element activity seen with Impulse repetitions; and 2) offer new information with respect to in-flight exercise protocols for female astronauts.

  13. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  14. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects

    PubMed Central

    Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1–1.2 and a maximum of 2.0–2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7–1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size. PMID:23637685

  15. Differences of energy intake and energy expenditure of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang Ok

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the energy expenditure and energy intake as an experiment of energy balance of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training. The summer training group (STG, n = 15) and the winter training group (WTG, n = 18) wore an accelerometer for the measurement of energy expenditure and maintained a daily dietary record for measurement of energy intake, for seven consecutive days during summer or winter intensive training. The total energy expenditure (TEE) (834.1 kcal, p < .001), the total counts (1,867 counts, p = .038), and the energy expenditure during moderate (384.6 kcal, p < .001) and vigorous activity (351.8 kcal, p < .001) were significantly lower in the STG than in the WTG. On the other hand, the macronutrient intake showed that intake of energy (902.7 kcal, p < .001), carbohydrates (82.6g, p < .001), and protein (93.9g, p < .001) in the STG were significantly lower than those of the WTG. When comparing TEE and total energy intake, the STG consumed 902.7 kcal less as energy than the WTG, while the STG performed 834.1 kcal more as TEE than that of the WTG. In conclusion, both of the summer and winter intensive training are not proper for energy balance condition. Therefore, to promote the optimal energy balance during the summer or winter intensive training period, a training and sports nutrition program based on the amount of energy expenditure and energy intake for Taekwondo players should be considered.

  16. Differences of energy intake and energy expenditure of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Ok

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the energy expenditure and energy intake as an experiment of energy balance of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training. [Methods] The summer training group (STG, n = 15) and the winter training group (WTG, n = 18) wore an accelerometer for the measurement of energy expenditure and maintained a daily dietary record for measurement of energy intake, for seven consecutive days during summer or winter intensive training. [Results] The total energy expenditure (TEE) (834.1 kcal, p < .001), the total counts (1,867 counts, p = .038), and the energy expenditure during moderate (384.6 kcal, p < .001) and vigorous activity (351.8 kcal, p < .001) were significantly lower in the STG than in the WTG. On the other hand, the macronutrient intake showed that intake of energy (902.7 kcal, p < .001), carbohydrates (82.6g, p < .001), and protein (93.9g, p < .001) in the STG were significantly lower than those of the WTG. When comparing TEE and total energy intake, the STG consumed 902.7 kcal less as energy than the WTG, while the STG performed 834.1 kcal more as TEE than that of the WTG. [Conclusion] In conclusion, both of the summer and winter intensive training are not proper for energy balance condition. Therefore, to promote the optimal energy balance during the summer or winter intensive training period, a training and sports nutrition program based on the amount of energy expenditure and energy intake for Taekwondo players should be considered. PMID:25566452

  17. Technical note: Comparison of two methods to quantify exercise energy expenditure in trotters.

    PubMed

    Fortier, J; Deley, G; Julliand, V

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at quantifying energy expenditure during 4 specific training exercises, that is, promenade, jogging, parcours, and interval exercises, using field measurements of oxygen consumption and heart rate in trotters. Six animals performed 2 preliminary tests to determine their individual maximum velocity and to establish their individual oxygen consumption/heart rate relationship from an incremental test. Then, they undertook each of the 4 specific exercises separated by 1 wk to avoid fatigue. The intensity of the 4 exercises was expressed in percent of individual maximum velocity as well as duration and distance set according to current training practices of French trotter trainers. Throughout the incremental test and the 4 exercises, oxygen consumption and heart rate were continuously recorded using a portable respiratory gas analyzer. Energy expenditure of the 3 different phases (warm-up, exercise, and recovery) of the 4 exercises and the total energy expended during exercises (sum of energy expended during the 3 phases) were calculated from direct oxygen uptake measurements and from estimated oxygen uptake using heart rate and O caloric equivalent. The quantification of total energy expenditure from the 2 methods was not significantly different. However, estimated energy expenditure was significantly lower from estimated oxygen consumption than direct oxygen uptake method concerning the warm-up and exercise phase of parcours. Our results indicate that the estimated oxygen uptake from heart rate measurements could be used to evaluate total energy expenditure of exercises in trotters. Whereas this method requires previous establishment of an individual oxygen consumption/heart rate curve, it is easy to record using commercially available instruments under practical conditions and opens new perspectives to assess energy balance in trotters' nutrition.

  18. Central chronic apelin infusion decreases energy expenditure and thermogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Drougard, Anne; Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Meunier, Etienne; Abot, Anne; Bautzova, Tereza; Duparc, Thibaut; Louche, Katie; Batut, Aurelie; Lucas, Alexandre; Le-Gonidec, Sophie; Lesage, Jean; Fioramonti, Xavier; Moro, Cedric; Valet, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D.; Knauf, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Apelin is a bioactive peptide involved in the control of energy metabolism. In the hypothalamus, chronic exposure to high levels of apelin is associated with an increase in hepatic glucose production, and then contributes to the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms behind deleterious effects of chronic apelin in the brain and consequences on energy expenditure and thermogenesis are currently unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of apelin in normal mice on hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression, energy expenditure, thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue functions. We have shown that chronic icv infusion of apelin increases the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the hypothalamus associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-1 beta. In parallel, mice infused with icv apelin exhibit a significant lower energy expenditure coupled to a decrease in PGC1alpha, PRDM16 and UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue which could explain the alteration of thermogenesis in these mice. These data provide compelling evidence that central apelin contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes by altering energy expenditure, thermogenesis and fat browning. PMID:27549402

  19. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Delikanaki-Skaribas, Evangelia; Trail, Marilyn; Wong, William Wai-Lun; Lai, Eugene C

    2009-04-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (PA) energy expenditure (PAEE), are elevated in WL compared with weight stable (WS) PD patients. We measured DEE in 10 PD WL patients and 10 PD WS patients using doubly labeled water (DLW). PAEE was estimated with DLW, activity monitors, and activity questionnaires. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry. We evaluated energy intake (EI) with a patient's 3-day food diary. Data was assessed employing SPSS, Spearman correlation coefficients, and Bland and Altman plots. There was no difference in DEE between the WL and WS groups measured with DLW. There were no differences in REE and EI between groups. DEE (r = 0.548, P < 0.05) and PAEE (r = 0.563, P < 0.01) are related with caloric intake. The WL group had higher PA than the WS group (P < 0.042) only when measured with wrist activity monitors. Results suggest that WL in PD patients cannot be fully explained by an increase in DEE. Large longitudinal studies to examine multiple relationships between variables might provide us with a better understanding of WL among PD patients.

  20. Central chronic apelin infusion decreases energy expenditure and thermogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Drougard, Anne; Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Meunier, Etienne; Abot, Anne; Bautzova, Tereza; Duparc, Thibaut; Louche, Katie; Batut, Aurelie; Lucas, Alexandre; Le-Gonidec, Sophie; Lesage, Jean; Fioramonti, Xavier; Moro, Cedric; Valet, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-08-23

    Apelin is a bioactive peptide involved in the control of energy metabolism. In the hypothalamus, chronic exposure to high levels of apelin is associated with an increase in hepatic glucose production, and then contributes to the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms behind deleterious effects of chronic apelin in the brain and consequences on energy expenditure and thermogenesis are currently unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of apelin in normal mice on hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression, energy expenditure, thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue functions. We have shown that chronic icv infusion of apelin increases the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the hypothalamus associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-1 beta. In parallel, mice infused with icv apelin exhibit a significant lower energy expenditure coupled to a decrease in PGC1alpha, PRDM16 and UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue which could explain the alteration of thermogenesis in these mice. These data provide compelling evidence that central apelin contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes by altering energy expenditure, thermogenesis and fat browning.

  1. An Obligate Role of Oxytocin Neurons in Diet Induced Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhaofei; Xu, Yuanzhong; Zhu, Yaming; Sutton, Amy K.; Zhao, Rongjie; Lowell, Bradford B.; Olson, David P.; Tong, Qingchun

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin neurons represent one of the major subsets of neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH), a critical brain region for energy homeostasis. Despite substantial evidence supporting a role of oxytocin in body weight regulation, it remains controversial whether oxytocin neurons directly regulate body weight homeostasis, feeding or energy expenditure. Pharmacologic doses of oxytocin suppress feeding through a proposed melanocortin responsive projection from the PVH to the hindbrain. In contrast, deficiency in oxytocin or its receptor leads to reduced energy expenditure without feeding abnormalities. To test the physiological function of oxytocin neurons, we specifically ablated oxytocin neurons in adult mice. Our results show that oxytocin neuron ablation in adult animals has no effect on body weight, food intake or energy expenditure on a regular diet. Interestingly, male mice lacking oxytocin neurons are more sensitive to high fat diet-induced obesity due solely to reduced energy expenditure. In addition, despite a normal food intake, these mice exhibit a blunted food intake response to leptin administration. Thus, our study suggests that oxytocin neurons are required to resist the obesity associated with a high fat diet; but their role in feeding is permissive and can be compensated for by redundant pathways. PMID:23028821

  2. Accuracy of energy expenditure estimation by activity monitors differs with ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, A-S; Suppere, C; Strychar, I; Belisle, V; Demers, S-P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this project is to explore the accuracy of 2 activity monitors (SenseWear Armband & Actical) to estimate energy expenditure during rest and light to moderate intensity exercises in 2 ethnic groups. 18 Caucasian and 20 Black adults (age: 26.8±5.2 years; body mass index: 23.9±3.0 kg/m(2)) wore the 2 devices simultaneously during 3 standardised activities: 30-min rest, 45-min of treadmill at 40% of their V˙O2peak and 45-min of stationary cycling at 50% of their V˙O2peak. Energy estimated with the 2 devices was compared to indirect calorimetry measurements. Both devices overestimated energy expenditure during rest (SenseWear: 36% in Black vs. 16% in Caucasian; Actical: 26% vs. 11%, p<0.01 between groups) and treadmill (SenseWear: 50% vs. 25%; Actical: 67% vs. 32%, p<0.01 between groups). Both devices significantly underestimated energy expenditure during stationary cycling (SenseWear: 24% vs. 26%; Actical: 58% vs. 70%, p=NS between groups). Equations used to estimate energy expenditure from accelerometer data is less precise among Black adults than Caucasian adults. Ethnic-specific formulas are probably required.

  3. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure of flapping and gliding in black-browed albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Takahashi, Akinori; Iwata, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Maki; Trathan, Philip N

    2013-08-15

    Albatrosses are known to expend only a small amount of energy during flight. The low energy cost of albatross flight has been attributed to energy-efficient gliding (soaring) with sporadic flapping, although little is known about how much time and energy albatrosses expend in flapping versus gliding during cruising flight. Here, we examined the heart rates (used as an instantaneous index of energy expenditure) and flapping activities of free-ranging black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophrys) to estimate the energy cost of flapping as well as time spent in flapping activities. The heart rate of albatrosses during flight (144 beats min(-1)) was similar to that while sitting on the water (150 beats min(-1)). In contrast, heart rate was much higher during takeoff and landing (ca. 200 beats min(-1)). Heart rate during cruising flight was linearly correlated with the number of wing flaps per minute, suggesting an extra energy burden of flapping. Albatrosses spend only 4.6±1.4% of their time flapping during cruising flight, which was significantly lower than during and shortly after takeoff (9.8±3.5%). Flapping activity, which amounted to just 4.6% of the time in flight, accounted for 13.3% of the total energy expenditure during cruising flight. These results support the idea that albatrosses achieve energy-efficient flight by reducing the time spent in flapping activity, which is associated with high energy expenditure.

  4. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. Methods The effect of environmental temperature (4–33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3-/y, lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Results Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4–16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3-/y mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. Conclusions At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis. PMID:26042200

  5. The effect of huffing and directed coughing on energy expenditure in young asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Pontifex, Edward; Williams, Marie T; Lunn, Rebecca; Parsons, David

    2002-01-01

    Coughing and huffing have been shown to be effective airway clearance techniques and some authors have anecdotally reported that a huff requires less energy than a series of coughs commencing and finishing at the same lung volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the energy expenditure between periods of huffing and directed voluntary coughing commencing from the same initial lung volume in young asymptomatic subjects. Energy expenditure was measured using open-circuit indirect calorimetry equipment. Twenty-four non-smoking asymptomatic subjects (12 male, 12 female, aged 18-24 years), without any form of disease and within 10% of their predicted pulmonary function, completed the study. Energy expenditure was measured over three 10min, randomly ordered sessions of huffing, directed coughing and rest. The forced expiratory sessions comprised a single huff or double-barrel cough (both starting at total lung capacity) at the end of every two minutes. Each session was separated by a 5min washout period. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found between the huffing and directed coughing periods (mean difference 0.003 mL/kg/min (95% CI -0.160 to 0.114) and both produced significantly greater energy expenditure than rest (rest and huff mean difference 0.309 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.080 to 0.549) and rest and cough mean difference 0.306 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.074 to 0.508)). The suggested benefits of huffing versus coughing in terms of energy conservation are yet to be shown.

  6. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2015-06-01

    We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. The effect of environmental temperature (4-33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3 (-/y) , lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4-16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3 (-/y) mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  7. Modulation of Energy Intake and Expenditure Due to Habitual Physical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matoulek; Krystof, Slaby; Jiri, Radvansky; Martina, Dankova; Renata, Vetrovska; Ondrej, Mikes; Stepan, Svacina; Vladimir, Tuka

    2016-01-01

    The 20th and 21st centuries are marked by an increase in life expectancy on one hand and on the other hand by the increase of so called civilization diseases. Their share one common trait: the energy metabolism imbalance, with low energy expenditure and high energy uptake. Our age can be viewed as the age of inactivity and wealth. The aim of the present review is to highlight the influence of habitual physical activity on energy metabolism and balance. Energy balance is the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy expenditure further divides into resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of feeding and energy used by physical activity. In general population, resting metabolic rate remains constant and proportional to muscle body mass. Muscle mass increases with exercise, especially resistance exercise, concomitantly with increasing energy expenditure. The effect of exercise on appetite is very strong, proportional to exercise intensity. An acute bout of aerobic exercise suppresses appetite by decreasing ghrelin plasma levels, and increasing gut hormones. Different subgroups of patients respond differently to the same exercise or habitual activity and have thus distinct effects on energy balance. Different myokines plasma levels after exercise could explain these different reactions although most of their effect is still unclear. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many disorders, like obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric and neurologic disorders. It is evident, that physical activity has an effect not only on energy balance but also has a direct effect on other body organ via its own molecules - myokines. The pharmacological effect of myokines gives hope that one day we could have a "myokine drug" that could be used in patients who are unable to exercise. Until then we should use our &

  8. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  9. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  10. The influence of vessel movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen in relation to activities and occupational tasks on board.

    PubMed

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of professional fishing activities have indicated that vessel movements correlate to fishermen's energy expenditure. We have previously demonstrated that even in calm weather, the heel and pitch significantly increase the fishermen's energy expenditure, ignoring the activities carried out on board. This continuation of the study goes further by exploring the relation between the exposure to the ship's movements and the fishermen's energy expenditure during various physical activities on board. Four fishermen on 2 contemporary steel trawlers recorded their work activities on an hourly basis during a 4 days fishing voyage. The energy expenditure was estimated with a body monitoring system (SenseWear Pro 3) carried as an armband, placed on the right upper arm. The vessels' movements were assessed by a gyroscope placed in the wheelhouse. The additional energy expenditure relative to the energy expenditure during sleep was recorded during activities such as navigation, fishing, and machine handling and was correlated to the vessels' recorded movements (pitch/roll). Data were analysed by linear regression. Roll and pitch were less than 10o for both vessels during the voyages. The fishermen's energy expenditure differed with the tasks undertaken and correlated with the vessels' movements, but for navigation and fishing the correlation was only significant in the highest - fourth quartile of - pitch/roll. This study has demonstrated that vessel's movements in calm weather increase the energy expenditure during navigation, fishing, and machine handling and that the relation differs in between these activities on board and rest.

  11. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  12. A NEW MODEL TO ESTIMATE DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR WINTERING WATERFOWL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity budgets of wintering waterfowl have been widely used to assess habitat quality. However, when factors such as prey abundance or protection from exposure to cold or wind determine quality, measures of daily energy expenditure (DEE) may be more appropriate for this purpos...

  13. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-10

    conditions . Test volunteers (n = 13) experienced low levels of thermal- work strain during missions as indicated by mean physiological strain index...on 29 August 2013: 0600-1400. 22 DISCUSSION Thermal- Work Strain The environmental conditions during the August 2013 missions were...TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T15-7 DATE August 2015 ADA THERMAL- WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE

  14. Tail suspension increases energy expenditure independently of the melanocortin system in mice.

    PubMed

    Lew, Pei San; Wong, Davie; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Leckstrom, Arnold; Schwartz, Jacquie; Dodd, Janice G; Mizuno, Tooru M

    2009-10-01

    Space travelers experience anorexia and body weight loss in a microgravity environment, and microgravity-like situations cause changes in hypothalamic activity. Hypothalamic melanocortins play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that microgravity affects metabolism through alterations in specific hypothalamic signaling pathways, including melanocortin signaling. To address this hypothesis, the microgravity-like situation was produced by an antiorthostatic tail suspension in wild-type and agouti mice, and the effect of tail suspension on energy expenditure and hypothalamic gene expression was examined. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry before and during the tail suspension protocol. Hypothalamic tissues were collected for gene expression analysis at the end of the 3 h tail suspension period. Tail suspension significantly increased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and heat production in wild-type mice. Tail suspension-induced increases in energy expenditure were not attenuated in agouti mice. Although tail suspension did not alter hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) mRNA levels, it significantly increased hypothalamic interleukin 6 (Il-6) mRNA levels. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that microgravity increases energy expenditure and suggest that these effects are mediated through hypothalamic signaling pathways that are independent of melanocortins, but possibly used by Il-6.

  15. Prediction Equations of Energy Expenditure in Chinese Youth Based on Step Frequency during Walking and Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Yu; Li, Jing Xian; Li, Haipeng; Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to examine the relationship between step frequency and velocity to develop a step frequency-based equation to predict Chinese youth's energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Method: A total of 173 boys and girls aged 11 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants walked and ran on a…

  16. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  17. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  18. Male weasels decrease activity and energy expenditure in response to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zub, Karol; Fletcher, Quinn E; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The heat dissipation limit (HDL) hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response to high ambient temperatures (T(a)). We used an extensive data set on the daily energy expenditure (DEE, n = 27) and the daily activity time (AT, n = 48) of male weasels (Mustela nivalis) during the spring and summer breeding season to test these predictions. We found that T(a) was related in a "hump-shaped" (i.e. convex) manner to AT, DEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic scope (the ratio of DEE to RMR). These results support the HDL hypothesis because in response to warm Tas male weasels reduced their AT, DEE, and RMR. Although the activity and energy expenditure of large endotherms are most likely to be constrained in response to warm Tas because they are less able to dissipate heat, our results suggest that small endotherms may also experience constraints consistent with the HDL hypothesis.

  19. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  20. Oxygen uptake and energy expenditure for children during rock climbing activity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip Baxter; Ostrowski, Megan L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in children during rock climbing activity. 29 children (age = 10.9 ± 1.7 yr) participated in the study. A commercially available rock climbing structure with ample features for submaximal effort climbing provided continuous terrain. Participants were instructed to climb at a comfortable pace. Following an initial 5-min rest, each child climbed one sustained 5-min bout followed by 5-min sitting recovery for a total of 10 min (SUS). This was immediately followed by five 1-min climbing + 1-min recovery intervals for a second total of 10 min (INT). Expired air was analyzed continuously. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined via the Weir method for 10-s intervals throughout the full protocol. The total energy expenditure in kilocalories during the 10-min SUS period was 34.3 ± 11.3 kcal. Energy expenditure during the 10-min INT period averaged 39.3 ± 13.1 kcal and was significantly higher than during SUS (p < .05). The mean total EE for SUS + INT was 73.7 ± 24.2 kcal. EE was correlated with body mass; r = .86. The rock climbing tasks employed in this study produced EE levels similar to what have been reported in children for stair climbing, sports/games activities, and easy jogging.

  1. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  2. The Effect of Restricted Arm Swing on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizhar, Ziva; Boulos, Spiro; Inbar, Omri; Carmeli, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Arm swing in human walking is an active natural motion involving the upper extremities. Earlier studies have described the interrelationship between arms and legs during walking, but the effect of arm swing on energy expenditure and dynamic parameters during normal gait, is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  3. Adaptive Thermogenesis in Resistance to Obesity Therapies: Issues in Quantifying Thrifty Energy Expenditure Phenotypes in Humans.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Schutz, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Dieting and exercise are likely to remain the core approaches in the management of obesity in the foreseeable future despite their well-documented failures for achieving long-term weight loss. Explanations for such poor prognosis are centered on patient's self-regulatory failure and lack of compliance to the prescribed diet or exercise regimen. While a role for physiological adaptations leading to diminished rates of heat production has also been advocated, there are considerable uncertainties about the quantitative importance of such regulated heat production (i.e., adaptive thermogenesis) to the less-than-expected weight loss and ease for weight regain. This paper first reviews the most compelling evidence of what is often considered as weight loss-induced adaptive thermogenesis in various compartments of daily energy expenditure. It then discusses the major limitations and issues in quantifying such thrifty energy expenditure phenotypes and underscores the plausibility of diminished core temperature as a thrifty metabolic trait in resistance to weight loss. Although an accurate quantification of adaptive thermogenesis will have to await the applications of deep body composition phenotyping and better discrimination of physical activity energy expenditures, the magnitude of diminished energy expenditure in response to weight loss in certain individuals is large enough to support the concept that adaptive thermogenesis contribute importantly to their resistance to obesity therapies.

  4. What are the clinical determinants of early energy expenditure in critically injured adults?

    PubMed

    Boulanger, B R; Nayman, R; McLean, R F; Phillips, E; Rizoli, S B

    1994-12-01

    The clinical determinants of energy expenditure in critically injured adults require definition. Among adult blunt trauma victims who required mechanical ventilation, the resting energy expenditure was calculated with the Harris-Benedict equation (HBEE) and the early (< or = 5 days postinjury) energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry (MEE) (n = 115). The MEE was 2052 +/- 531 kcal/day and MEE/HBEE ("stress factor") was 1.24 +/- 0.2. The MEE was correlated with HBEE, age, height, weight, sex, temperature, and paralytic agents (p < 0.01). However, MEE did not correlate with ISS, admission GCS score, admission base deficit, initial systolic blood pressure, or the number of units of packed red blood cells transfused in the first 24 hours after injury (p = NS). Temperature and paralysis correlated with MEE/HBEE (p < 0.01). A regression model of MEE was developed with the clinical variables HBEE, temperature, and the presence or absence of paralytic agents (r2 = 0.62; p < 0.001): MEE (kcal/d) = 1.4(HBEE) + 71.4(temperature) + 274(paralytics; + = 1, - = 2) - 3485. In mechanically ventilated trauma victims, both the early energy expenditure and the stress factor are determined by host factors but are independent of the severity of the anatomic and physiologic insult. The degree of hypermetabolism observed in this population was less than previously reported.

  5. Long–term effects of caloric restriction on total and resting energy expenditure in healthy adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans is uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of a 30% CR regimen on TEE and RMR. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of 30% CR in 29 healthy overweight adults (me...

  6. The Effect of Restricted Arm Swing on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizhar, Ziva; Boulos, Spiro; Inbar, Omri; Carmeli, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Arm swing in human walking is an active natural motion involving the upper extremities. Earlier studies have described the interrelationship between arms and legs during walking, but the effect of arm swing on energy expenditure and dynamic parameters during normal gait, is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  7. Effects of Neonatal Overfeeding on Juvenile and Adult Feeding and Energy Expenditure in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Stefanidis, Aneta; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanim(s) underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL) compared with those from control litters (CL). There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active) phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males) had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages. PMID:23251693

  8. Prediction Equations of Energy Expenditure in Chinese Youth Based on Step Frequency during Walking and Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Yu; Li, Jing Xian; Li, Haipeng; Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to examine the relationship between step frequency and velocity to develop a step frequency-based equation to predict Chinese youth's energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Method: A total of 173 boys and girls aged 11 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants walked and ran on a…

  9. Counting calories in cormorants: dynamic body acceleration predicts daily energy expenditure measured in pelagic cormorants.

    PubMed

    Stothart, Mason R; Elliott, Kyle H; Wood, Thomas; Hatch, Scott A; Speakman, John R

    2016-07-15

    The integral of the dynamic component of acceleration over time has been proposed as a measure of energy expenditure in wild animals. We tested that idea by attaching accelerometers to the tails of free-ranging pelagic cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) and simultaneously estimating energy expenditure using doubly labelled water. Two different formulations of dynamic body acceleration, [vectorial and overall DBA (VeDBA and ODBA)], correlated with mass-specific energy expenditure (both R(2)=0.91). VeDBA models combining and separately parameterizing flying, diving, activity on land and surface swimming were consistently considered more parsimonious than time budget models and showed less variability in model fit. Additionally, we observed evidence for the presence of hypometabolic processes (i.e. reduced heart rate and body temperature; shunting of blood away from non-essential organs) that suppressed metabolism in cormorants while diving, which was the most metabolically important activity. We concluded that a combination of VeDBA and physiological processes accurately measured energy expenditure for cormorants.

  10. A NEW MODEL TO ESTIMATE DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR WINTERING WATERFOWL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity budgets of wintering waterfowl have been widely used to assess habitat quality. However, when factors such as prey abundance or protection from exposure to cold or wind determine quality, measures of daily energy expenditure (DEE) may be more appropriate for this purpos...

  11. Energy expenditure and metabolism during exercise in persons with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Resting energy expenditure of persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally lower than that seen in able-bodied (AB) individuals due to the reduced amounts of muscle mass and sympathetic nervous system available. However, outside of clinical studies, much less data is available regarding athletes with an SCI. In order to predict the energy expenditure of persons with SCI, the generation and validation of prediction equations in relation to specific levels of SCI and training status are required. Specific prediction equations for the SCI would enable a quick and accurate estimate of energy requirements. When compared with the equivalent AB individuals, sports energy expenditure is generally reduced in SCI with values representing 30-75% of AB values. The lowest energy expenditure values are observed for sports involving athletes with tetraplegia and where the sport is a static version of that undertaken by the AB, such as fencing. As with AB sports there is a lack of SCI data for true competition situations due to methodological constraints. However, where energy expenditure during field tests are predicted from laboratory-based protocols, wheelchair ergometry is likely to be the most appropriate exercise mode. The physiological and metabolic responses of persons with SCI are similar to those for AB athletes, but at lower absolute levels. However, the underlying mechanisms pertaining to substrate utilization appear to differ between the AB and SCI. Carbohydrate feeding has been shown to improve endurance performance in athletes with generally low levels of SCI, but no data have been reported for mid to high levels of SCI or for sport-specific tests of an intermittent nature. Further research within the areas reviewed may help to bridge the gap between what is known regarding AB athletes and athletes with SCI (and other disabilities) during exercise and also the gap between clinical practice and performance.

  12. Energy expenditure and enjoyment during video game play: differences by game type.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2011-10-01

    Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Energy expenditure (METs) and enjoyment were measured across 10 games in 100 young adults age 18-35 yr (50 women). All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < 0.001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322% (mean ± SD = 3.10 ± 0.89 METs) and 298% (2.91 ± 0.87 METs), which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 ± 0.28 METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 ± 0.16 METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < 0.001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than in overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < 0.001). Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior.

  13. Energy Expenditure and Bone Formation Share a Common Sensitivity to AP-1 Transcription in the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Glenn C.; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa; Saito, Hiroaki; Yin, Min; Green, Thomas A.; Lotinun, Sutada; Kveiborg, Marie; Horne, William C.; Nestler, Eric J.; Baron, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of bone and fat homeostasis and its relationship to energy expenditure has recently been the focus of increased attention due to its potential relevance to osteoporosis, obesity and diabetes. Although central effectors within the hypothalamus have been shown to contribute to the regulation of both energy balance and bone homeostasis, little is known of the underlying mechanisms, including the possible involvement of transcriptional factors within the hypothalamus. Transgenic mice overexpressing ΔFosB, a splice variant of the AP1 transcription factor FosB with mixed agonist-antagonistic properties, have increased energy expenditure and bone mass. Since these mice express ΔFosB in bone, fat and hypothalamus, we sought to determine 1) whether overexpression of ΔFosB within the hypothalamus was sufficient to regulate energy expenditure and whether it would also regulate bone mass, and 2) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ΔFosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass. This effect was phenocopied, at an even stronger level, by overexpressiong of a dominant-negative DNJunD, a pure AP1 antagonist. Taken together these results suggest that downregulation of AP1 activity in the hypothalamus profoundly increases energy expenditure and bone formation, leading to both a decrease in adipose mass and an increase in bone mass. These findings may have physiological implications since ΔFosB is expressed and regulated in the hypothalamus. PMID:22461201

  14. Energy Expenditure and Enjoyment during Video Game Play: Differences by Game Type

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Methods Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents [METs]) and enjoyment were measured across ten games in 100 young adults aged 18 to 35 (50 females). Results All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < .001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322 (mean [SD] 3.10 [0.89] METs) and 298 (2.91 [0.87] METs) percent, which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 [0.28] METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 [0.16] METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < .001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < .001). Conclusions Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:21364477

  15. Physical activity and energy expenditure in rheumatoid arthritis patients and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Henchoz, Yves; Bastardot, François; Guessous, Idris; Theler, Jean-Marc; Dudler, Jean; Vollenweider, Peter; So, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    To compare daily energy expenditure between RA patients and matched controls, and to explore the relationship between daily energy expenditure or sedentariness and disease-related scores. One hundred and ten patients with RA and 440 age- and sex-matched controls were included in this study. Energy expenditure was assessed using the validated physical activity (PA) frequency questionnaire. Disease-related scores included disease activity (DAS-28), functional status (HAQ), pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and fatigue VAS. Total energy expenditure (TEE) and the amount of energy spent in low- (TEE-low), moderate- (TEE-mod) and high-intensity (TEE-high) PAs were calculated. Sedentariness was defined as expending <10% of TEE in TEE-mod or TEE-high activities. Between-group comparisons were computed using conditional logistic regression. The effect of disease-related scores on TEE was investigated using linear regression. TEE was significantly lower for RA patients compared with controls [2392 kcal/day (95% CI 2295, 2490) and 2494  kcal/day (2446, 2543), respectively, P = 0.003]. A significant difference was found between groups in TEE-mod (P = 0.015), but not TEE-low (P = 0.242) and TEE-high (P = 0.146). All disease-related scores were significantly poorer in sedentary compared with active patients. TEE was inversely associated with age (P < 0.001), DAS-28 (P = 0.032) and fatigue VAS (P = 0.029), but not with HAQ and pain VAS. Daily energy expenditure is significantly lower in RA patients compared with matched controls, mainly due to less moderate-intensity PAs performed. Disease activity and fatigue are important contributing factors. These points need to be addressed if promoting PA in RA patients is a health goal. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01228812.

  16. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-06-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake.

  17. Accuracy of a novel multi-sensor board for measuring physical activity and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Goh, Jorming; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    The ability to relate physical activity to health depends on accurate measurement. Yet, none of the available methods are fully satisfactory due to several factors. This study examined the accuracy of a multi-sensor board (MSB) that infers activity types (sitting, standing, walking, stair climbing, and running) and estimates energy expenditure in 57 adults (32 females) 39.2 ± 13.5 years. In the laboratory, subjects walked and ran on a treadmill over a select range of speeds and grades for 3 min each (six stages in random order) while connected to a stationary calorimeter, preceded and followed by brief sitting and standing. On a different day, subjects completed scripted activities in the field connected to a portable calorimeter. The MSB was attached to a strap at the right hip. Subjects repeated one condition (randomly selected) on the third day. Accuracy of inferred activities compared with recorded activities (correctly identified activities/total activities × 100) was 97 and 84% in the laboratory and field, respectively. Absolute accuracy of energy expenditure [100 - absolute value (kilocalories MSB - kilocalories calorimeter/kilocalories calorimeter) × 100] was 89 and 76% in the laboratory and field, the later being different (P < 0.05) from the calorimeter. Test-retest reliability for energy expenditure was significant in both settings (P < 0.0001; r = 0.97). In general, the MSB provides accurate measures of activity type in laboratory and field settings and energy expenditure during treadmill walking and running although the device underestimates energy expenditure in the field.

  18. The association between different types of exercise and energy expenditure in young nonoverweight and overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Jakicic, John M.; Hebert, James R.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energy expenditure data, assessed via the SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc.). Frequency and duration of participation in various exercise types was self-reported. Weight status was based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) with body weight and height being measured according to standard procedures. Eighty-four percent of the participants reported regular exercise engagement with no difference in participation rate by sex or BMI category. Exercise time along with sex and ethnicity explained roughly 60% of the variability in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) while the association between exercise and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA or being sedentary was low or nonsignificant. Engagement in endurance exercise and sports contributed predominantly to the variability in energy expenditure and PA in nonoverweight participants. In overweight/obese participants engagement in resistance exercise and swimming contributed significantly to variability in TDEE. Current exercise recommendations focus primarily on aerobic exercise, but results of the present study suggest that nonweight-bearing exercises, such as resistance exercise and swimming, contribute significantly to the variability in TDEE in overweight/obese adults, which would make these types of activities viable options for exercise interventions. PMID:25647557

  19. The association between different types of exercise and energy expenditure in young nonoverweight and overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Jakicic, John M; Hebert, James R; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N

    2015-03-01

    With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energy expenditure data, assessed via the SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc.). Frequency and duration of participation in various exercise types was self-reported. Weight status was based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) with body weight and height being measured according to standard procedures. Eighty-four percent of the participants reported regular exercise engagement with no difference in participation rate by sex or BMI category. Exercise time along with sex and ethnicity explained roughly 60% of the variability in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) while the association between exercise and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA or being sedentary was low or nonsignificant. Engagement in endurance exercise and sports contributed predominantly to the variability in energy expenditure and PA in nonoverweight participants. In overweight/obese participants engagement in resistance exercise and swimming contributed significantly to variability in TDEE. Current exercise recommendations focus primarily on aerobic exercise, but results of the present study suggest that nonweight-bearing exercises, such as resistance exercise and swimming, contribute significantly to the variability in TDEE in overweight/obese adults, which would make these types of activities viable options for exercise interventions.

  20. Impact of physical fitness and daily energy expenditure on sleep efficiency in young and older humans.

    PubMed

    Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H; Eijsvogels, Thijs H M; Verheggen, Rebecca J H M; Poelkens, Fleur; Hopman, Maria T E; Jones, Helen; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is known to influence sleep efficiency. Relatively little is known about the relationship between physical activity and sleep efficiency in young and older humans and the impact of exercise training on sleep efficiency in healthy older individuals. To determine the relationship between physical fitness and daily energy expenditure with sleep efficiency in young and older subjects, and assess the effect of 12-month exercise training on sleep efficiency in healthy older participants. The relationship between physical fitness (maximal cycling test) and daily energy expenditure (accelerometry) with sleep efficiency (accelerometry) was examined cross-sectionally in 12 healthy young adults (27 ± 5 years) and 21 healthy older participants (69 ± 3 years). Subsequently, the effect of 12-month exercise training (n = 11) or control period (n = 10) on sleep efficiency in older participants was examined using a randomized controlled trial. Daily energy expenditure and sleep efficiency did not differ between young and older subjects. A significant correlation was found between energy expenditure and sleep efficiency (r = 0.627, p = 0.029) in young adults, but not in older participants (r = -0.158, p = 0.49). Physical fitness did not correlate with sleep efficiency in either group. Exercise training significantly improved physical fitness (15.0%, p < 0.001), but failed to alter sleep characteristics such as sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency and awakenings. We found that young adults with higher daily energy expenditure have greater sleep efficiency, whilst this relationship is diminished with advanced age. In contrast, we found no correlation between physical fitness and sleep characteristics in healthy young or older participants, which may explain the lack of improvement in sleep characteristics in older participants with 12-month exercise training. Exercise training may be more successful in subjects with existing sleep disturbances to improve sleep

  1. Effect of Diet Composition on Energy Expenditure during Weight Loss: The POUNDS LOST Study

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; DeJonge, Lilian; de Souza, Russell; Rood, Jennifer; Champagne, Catherine M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Obarzanek, Eva; Loria, Catherine M.; Anton, Stephen D.; Ryan, Donna H.; Greenway, Frank L.; Williamson, Donald; Sacks, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but the contribution of different macronutrients to this change is unclear. Hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that macronutrient composition of the diet might affect the partitioning of energy expenditure during weight loss. Design A sub-study of 99 participants from the POUNDS LOST trial had total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water and resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry at baseline and repeated at 6 months in 89 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 diets with either 15% or 25% protein and 20% or 40% fat. Results TEE and REE were positively correlated with each other and with fat free mass and body fat, at baseline and 6 months. The average weight loss of 8.1±0.65 kg (LSmean±SE) reduced TEE by 120±56 kcal/d and REE by 136±18 kcal/d. A greater weight loss at 6 months was associated with a greater decrease in TEE and REE. Participants eating the high fat diet lost significantly more fat free mass (1.52±0.55 kg) than the low fat diet group (p<0.05). Participants eating the low fat diet had significantly higher measures of physical activity than the high fat group. Conclusion A greater weight loss was associated with a larger decrease in both TEE and REE. The low fat diet was associated with significant changes in fat free body mass and energy expenditure from physical activity compared to the high fat diet. PMID:21946707

  2. Energy expenditure and enjoyment of common children's games in a simulated free-play environment.

    PubMed

    Howe, Cheryl A; Freedson, Patty S; Feldman, Henry A; Osganian, Stavroula K

    2010-12-01

    To measure the energy expenditure and enjoyment of children's games to be used in developing a school-based intervention for preventing excessive weight gain. Healthy weight (body mass index [BMI] < 85th percentile) and overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) third-grade children (15 boys; 13 girls) were recruited. In a large gymnasium, children performed 10 games randomly selected from 30 games used in previous interventions. Total energy expenditure was measured with a portable metabolic unit and perceived enjoyment was assessed using a 9-point Likert scale of facial expressions. Mean physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE = total energy expenditure minus resting metabolism) and enjoyment of the games were adjusted for sex and BMI classification. PAEE and enjoyment were compared using a repeated-measures ANOVA with sex, BMI classification, and games as main effects. The games elicited a moderate intensity effort (mean ± standard deviation = 5.0 ± 1.3 metabolic equivalents, 123 ± 36 kcal/30 min). PAEE was higher for boys than for girls (0.12 ± 0.04 versus 0.11 ± 0.04 kcal/kg/min) and for healthy weight compared with overweight children (0.13 ± 0.04 versus 0.11 ± 0.03 kcal/kg/min). Twenty-two of the 30 games elicited a sufficiently high PAEE (≥ 100 kcal/30 min) and enjoyment (≥ neutral expression) for inclusion in future school-based interventions. Not all children's games are perceived as enjoyable or resulted in an energy expenditure that was sufficiently high for inclusion in future physical activity interventions to prevent the excess weight gain associated with childhood obesity. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Using wearable physiological sensors to predict energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ingraham, Kimberly A; Ferris, Daniel P; David Remy, C

    2017-07-01

    Lower-limb assistive robotic devices are often evaluated by measuring a reduction in the user's energy cost. Using indirect calorimetry to estimate energy cost is poorly suited for real-time estimation and long-term collection. The goal of this study was to use data from wearable sensors to predict energy cost with better temporal resolution and less variability than breath measurements. We collected physiological data (heart rate, electrodermal activity, skin temperature) and mechanical data (EMG, accelerometry) from three healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at various speeds on level ground, inclined, and backwards. Ground truth energy cost was established by averaging steady-state breath measurements. Raw physiological signals correlated well with ground truth energy cost, but raw mechanical signals did not. Correlation of mechanical signals was improved by calculating accelerometer magnitudes and linear envelope EMG signals, and further improved by averaging the signals over several seconds. A multiple linear regression including physiological and mechanical data accurately predicted ground truth energy cost across all subjects and activities tested, with less variability and better temporal resolution than breath measurements. The sensors used in this study were fully portable, and such algorithms could be used to estimate energy cost of users in the real world. This could greatly improve the design, control, and evaluation of lower-limb assistive robotic devices.

  5. Energy expenditure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-evaluation of simple measures.

    PubMed

    Slinde, F; Grönberg, A M; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Larsson, S

    2011-12-01

    Almost 50% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients become underweight. One possible reason for nutritional treatment to fail could be miscalculation of patients' energy requirements. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate simple measures that may be used to assess the energy requirement of COPD patients. This cross-sectional evaluation study includes 68 COPD patients (42 women). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed by indirect calorimetry, while total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed by a 7-day monitoring using the ActiReg. Simple measures to evaluate was body weight (kg) multiplied by 125  kJ (30  kcal), predicted RMR multiplied by 1.7 and two simple questionnaires. Mean physical activity level (PAL) from the ActiReg was 1.46. Calculation of energy expenditure multiplying body weight with 125  kJ resulted in a TEE of 8614  kJ compared with ActiReg 8317 kJ (P=0.10). To multiply predicted RMR by 1.7 resulted in a statistically significant overestimation of 1335 kJ (P<0.01). Both questionnaires showed a clear 'dose-response' regarding PAL from ActiReg in the different activity categories. This study shows that simple measures of energy expenditure could, on group level, assess COPD patient's energy needs. However, for individual assessment of energy need, more thorough procedures are necessary.

  6. Total energy expenditure by the doubly-labeled water method in rural preschool children in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Salazar, Gabriela; Díaz, Erik; Sánchez, Vivian; Basabe, Beatriz; González, Soraya; Díaz, Maria Elena

    2002-09-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of the Cuban Nutrition Program for covering the energy requirements of children was carried out in children 5.0 +/- 1.0 years of age in a rural mountain community in Cuba. Five males and six females (19 +/- 3.05 kg average weight) with a mean BMI 15.4 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) were included in the study. Six of the subjects were well-nourished, three were undernourished, and two were overweight. Total energy expenditure was determined by the doubly-labeled water technique. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry. Energy intake, measured by a three-day weighed dietary record, was 1,527 kcal/day (6.39 MJ). The total energy expenditure of the well-nourished children was 11.8% lower than present energy recommendations (1,773 kcal). This implies that well-nourished children who are moderately to heavily physically active require 82.6 kcal/kg per day. The physical activity level of normal Cuban children is nearly 1.8, which is much higher than that reported in studies of children from industrialized countries using the doubly-labeled water technique. The measured daily energy intake was 1.7 times the resting metabolic rate RMR and 1.04 times the total energy expenditure.

  7. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Paul; Wittert, Gary A

    2009-02-01

    Endocannabinoids, a lipid-derived signaling system, regulate appetite and motivation to eat via effects in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens. Not all the effects of endocannabinoids on fat mass can be explained by the regulation of food intake alone. Endocannabinoids and their receptors are located in areas of the central nervous system and multiple peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of intermediary metabolism and energy expenditure. In addition to regulating food intake by both central and peripherally mediated effects, endocannabinoids modify glucose and lipid metabolism so as to promote energy storage via lipogenesis and reduce energy expenditure. The endocannabinoid system appears to be overactive in obesity and may serve to maintain fat mass and underlies some of the metabolic consequences of obesity. Inhibition of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor ameliorates the effects of endocannabinoids on food intake and energy metabolism; lipogenesis is inhibited, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake increase.

  8. Nutrition concepts for elite distance runners based on macronutrient and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sandra; Fischer, Alexandra; Vock, Christina; Böhme, Mike; Schmelzer, Constance; Döpner, Myriam; Hülsmann, Olaf; Döring, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Elite distance runners (EDR) must optimize their nutrition to maintain their demanding training schedules. To develop a nutrition concept for EDR based on energy and macronutrient expenditures. This theoretical study provides calculations for macronutrient and energy expenditures of EDR. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of EDR were assumed based on average real EDR. University of Kiel. Three prototypic types of male EDR described in the literature as type I (TI; body mass = 72 kg, respiratory quotient = 0.9 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers = 60% to 70%), type II (TII; body mass = 67 kg, respiratory quotient = 0.82 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers = 50%), and type III (TIII; body mass = 60 kg, respiratory quotient = 0.75 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers = 30% to 40%). We calculated the macronutrient and energy expenditures of the 3 types of EDR according to body mass, respiratory quotient, and percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers. We found that the average energy expenditure was 3750 kcal . d(-1) for TI runners, 3463 kcal . d(-1) for TII runners, and 3079 kcal . d(-1) for TIII runners. The carbohydrate (CHO) expenditure reached an average value of 10.0 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) for TI runners, 8.0 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) for TII runners, and 4.7 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) for TIII runners. When the EDR accomplished running sessions at a pace >or=100% of maximum oxygen consumption, all types of runners had a CHO demand of about 10 g . kg(-1) . d(-1). The TI and TII runners need a CHO intake of 8 to 10 g . kg(-1) . d(-1). For the TIII runners, a CHO intake >6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) is necessary during anaerobic training sessions. Nutrition concepts must be differentiated for EDR according to metabolic and anthropometric characteristics of the runners and their special training emphases.

  9. Annual cycle of energy and time expenditure in a golden-mantled ground squirrel population.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, G J; Sharbaugh, S M; Nagy, K A

    1989-02-01

    We have analyzed seasonal shifts of energy and time allocation in a population of golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus saturatus) by directly measuring total daily energy expenditure (DEE) with an isotopic technique ("doubly labeled water"=dlw), and by estimating components of total DEE through an integration of field behavioral observations with laboratory-measured rates of energy expenditure (oxygen consumption) associated with major behavioral and physiological states. Hibernation laster about 7 1/2 months, and the 4 1/2-month activity season consisted of mating, a 28-d gestation of 3-5 young, 5 1/2 weeks of postnatal growth building to a peak in lactation just before the young emerged above ground, an additional 2-3-week period of maternal care before dispersal, and finally restoration of body mass preceding hibernation. Although the hibernation season comprised nearly two-thirds of the year, it involved only 13-17% of annual energy expenditure, leaving about 85% of energy expenditure for the active season. Ground squirrels were actually present on the surface for only about 11% of the year's time, and the foraging time required to obtain the total annual energy supply amounted to only about 2% of the year's time. The squirrels fed mainly on herbs in the early season and hypogeous fungi later; both were used extensively during peak lactation when female energy expenditure and demand were maximal. Average daily foraging time increased steadily throughout the season to a maximum of 28% of aboveground time as availability of greens diminished and fungus predominated in the diet; time availability did not limit foraging since the animals sat on average for 65% of the daily surface time of about 7 h. Timing of reproduction is apparently optimized such that peak reproductive energy demands are matched with maximal food availability and moderate thermal conditions that minimize energy demand. Despite the greater body mass of males, the greatest total DEE

  10. Total Energy Expenditure and Body Composition in Two Free-Living Sympatric Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Simmen, Bruno; Bayart, Françoise; Rasamimanana, Hanta; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane; Pasquet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp.) of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. Methodology and Results Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. Discussion We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship between energy

  11. [Energy expenditure on different physical activities of rural adults in North China].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhimin; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhuo, Qin; Wang, Jing; Hu, Feng; Piao, Jianhua; Liu, Fenghai; Cao, Haiyi

    2012-01-01

    To test the energy metabolism of healthy adults in rural north China and to obtain the data of energy expenditure on different physical activities, in order to provide the basis for the Dietary Reference Intakes for Chinese people and the prevention and treatment of diseases related to energy and nutrition imbalance. The energy expenditures on different physical activities of 30 healthy adult men and women were investigated under strictly controlled experimental conditions by using portable cardiopulmonary function determinator k4b2 to examine the oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during basal metabolic conditions and seven kinds of physical activities (walking, brisk walking, jogging, cycling, stair climbing, and watching TV). The content of 24-hour urine nitrogen was measured by micro Kjeldahl method. Combining with the change of body weight, the energy expenditures on different physical activities of normal adult men and women in north China were obtained. The average energy expenditure on physical activities (kJ x h(-1) x kg(-1)) were: walking 12.60 +/- 5.54 (11.46 +/- 2.19 for male and 15.47 +/- 6.97 for female), brisk walking 20.79 +/- 10.46 (15.95 +/- 3.59 for male and 25.33 +/- 12.70 for female), jogging 34.78 +/- 16.00 (30.45 +/- 5.07 for male and 38.84 +/- 21.58 for female) cycling 16.47 +/- 3.95 (14.77 +/- 2.57 for male and 18.74 +/- 4.85 for female), going up stairs 23.55 +/- 5.05 (23.61 +/- 3.43 for male and 23.49 +/- 6.41 for female) going down stairs 12.46 +/- 6.30 (10.43 +/- 1.27 for male and 14.49 +/- 8.48 for female) and watching TV 3.85 +/- 1.97 (3.56 +/- 0.86 for male and 4.16 +/- 2.79 for female). The average energy expenditure on physical activities of males was lower than that of females (P < 0.05), except of going up stairs, which was roughly equal in males and females. The average energy expenditure on various physical activities was different. Walking, watching TV and going downstairs are low-intensity physical

  12. Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

  13. Embryonic developmental patterns and energy expenditure are affected by incubation temperature in wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Hepp, G R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in birds has demonstrated that incubation temperature influences a suite of traits important for hatchling development and survival. We explored a possible mechanism for the effects on hatchling quality by determining whether incubation temperature influences embryonic energy expenditure of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Because avian embryos are ectothermic, we hypothesized that eggs incubated at higher temperatures would have greater energy expenditure at any given day of incubation. However, because eggs incubated at lower temperatures take longer to hatch than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, we hypothesized that the former would expend more energy during incubation. We incubated eggs at three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, and 37.0°C) that fall within the range of temperatures of naturally incubated wood duck nests. We then measured the respiration of embryos every 3 d during incubation, immediately after ducks externally pipped, and immediately after hatching. As predicted, embryos incubated at the highest temperature had the highest metabolic rates on most days of incubation, and they exhibited faster rates of development. Yet, because of greater energy expended during the hatching process, embryos incubated at the lowest temperature expended 20%-37% more energy during incubation than did embryos incubated at the higher temperatures. Slower developmental rates and greater embryonic energy expenditure of embryos incubated at the lowest temperature could contribute to their poor physiological performance as ducklings compared with ducklings that hatch from eggs incubated at higher temperatures.

  14. Energy expenditure and nutritional status of coal miners: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Saniye; Saglam, Fatma; Beyhan, Yasemin; Barut-Uyar, Banugul; Dikmen, Derya; Goktas, Zeynep; Attar, A James; Mucka, Patrick; Uyar, M Fatih

    2016-09-02

    The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritional status, daily energy intake, and daily energy expenditure of coal miners in Turkey. A total of 135 healthy coal miners (aged 19-64 years) were evaluated. Heart rates were measured using Polar watches, and the total energy expenditure was calculated using physical activity level formula and Hiilloskorpi equation. The average body mass index of the participants was 25.7 ± 3.98 kg/m(2), and the average energy intake was 3,973.7 ± 420.85 kcal. According to Dietary Reference Intakes, the energy and nutrient intakes of the miners were adequate, except for the intake of vitamin D. The coal miners were found to be at moderate (43.0%), heavy (41.5%), and very heavy (13.3%) activity levels. Calculations of the energy expenditure at work were found to be 2,189.8 ± 376.19 to 2,788.8 ± 359.89 kcal per day. Further studies have to be conducted for developing national standards for each occupation.

  15. Energy conservation: States' expenditures of Warner amendment oil overcharge funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Under the Warner Amendment, oil overcharge funds are designated for states' use in certain authorized energy conservation and assistance programs. During FY 1982-87 Warner funds accounted for $200 million of the $3.3 billion states received from the oil overcharge escrow account.

  16. Relationships between leisure-time energy expenditure and individual coping strategies for shift-work

    PubMed Central

    Fullick, S.; Grindey, C.; Edwards, B.; Morris, C.; Reilly, T.; Richardson, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Atkinson, G.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 13 to 14% of European and North American workers are involved in shift work. The present aim is to explore the relationships between coping strategies adopted by shift workers and their leisure-time energy expenditure. Twenty-four female and 71 male shift workers (mean ± SD age: 37 ± 9 years) completed an adapted version of the Standard Shift-work Index (SSI), together with a leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Predictors of age, time spent in shift work, gender, marital status and the various shift-work coping indices were explored with step-wise multiple regression. Leisure-time energy expenditure over a 14-d period was entered as the outcome variable. Gender (β = 7168.9 kJ/week, p = 0.023) and time spent in shift work (β = 26.36 kJ/week, p = 0.051) were found to be predictors of energy expenditure, with the most experienced, male shift workers expending the most energy during leisure-time. Overall ‘disengagement’ coping scores from the SSI were positively related to leisure-time energy expenditure (β = 956.27 kJ/week, p = 0.054). In males disengagement of sleep problems (β = −1078.1 kJ/week, p = 0.086) was found to be negatively correlated to energy expenditure, whereas disengagement of domestic-related problems was found to be positively related to energy expenditure (β = 1961.92 kJ/week, p = 0.001). These relations were not found in female shift workers (p = 0.762). These data suggest that experienced male shift workers participate in the most leisure-time physical activity. These people ‘disengage’ more from their domestic-related problems, but less from their sleep-related problems. It is recommended that physical activity interventions for shift workers should be designed with careful consideration of individual domestic responsibilities and perceived disruption to sleep. PMID:19401896

  17. A Creatine-Driven Substrate Cycle Enhances Energy Expenditure and Thermogenesis in Beige Fat

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T.; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Erickson, Brian K.; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z.; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C.; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial Creatine Kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces the adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PMID:26496606

  18. Adipose Tissue and Energy Expenditure: Central and Peripheral Neural Activation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Blaszkiewicz, Magdalena; Townsend, Kristy L

    2016-06-01

    Increasing energy expenditure is an appealing therapeutic target for the prevention and reversal of metabolic conditions such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. However, not enough research has investigated how to exploit pre-existing neural pathways, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), in order to meet these needs. Here, we review several research areas in this field, including centrally acting pathways known to drive the activation of sympathetic nerves that can increase lipolysis and browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) or increase thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as other central and peripheral pathways able to increase energy expenditure of these tissues. In addition, we describe new work investigating the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on metabolically important sensory nerves, as well as the role of the vagus nerve in regulating energy balance.

  19. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance.

  20. Activity Related Energy Expenditure, Appetite and Energy Intake: Potential Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, D.M.; Martin, C.K.; Ravussin, E.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4 years; BMI 23.5 kg/m2) and 42 female (26.9 years; BMI 22.4 kg/m2) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. PMID:23523668

  1. Energy expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks in 2 cities.

    PubMed

    Suau, Luis J; Floyd, Myron F; Spengler, John O; Maddock, Jay E; Gobster, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Availability of public neighborhood parks is associated with physical activity. Little is known about how parks contribute to population energy balance. This study estimated energy expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks and compared energy expenditure by activity areas within parks and by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income. The System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity among Youth (SOPLAY), a direct observation approach, was used to estimate energy expenditure in 10 Tampa (Florida) parks and 19 Chicago (Illinois) parks. Parks were selected from census tracts with a moderate to high representation of white, Latino, and African American populations. A total of 9454 park users were observed. Sedentary, moderate, and vigorous activities were assigned metabolic equivalence intensity (MET) values of 1.5, 3, and 6, respectively. Park use in Tampa generated 15 336 total METs over the study period. Chicago parks generated 7305.6 METs. Mean METs varied by activity areas in parks. For Chicago parks, mean METs were higher for parks in African American and higher-income neighborhoods. Public parks can contribute to population energy balance. Policies to make parks available, promotions to encourage park use, and programs to encourage active use of parks are necessary to achieve this potential.

  2. Behavioral and ecological factors account for variation in the mass-independent energy expenditures of endotherms.

    PubMed

    McNab, B K

    2015-01-01

    A persistent controversy has concerned the identification of the factors that influence the quantitative variation in the physiological characters of species, an example of which is the basal rate of metabolism of endotherms. The most important factor accounting for its variation is body mass as long as the range in mass is appreciable. But mass never accounts for all of the variation and none if species have the same mass. Most of the residual variation around the mass curve is associated with behavioral characters, ecological factors, and phylogeny, i.e., history. These agents influence energy expenditure by different means and at different stages in the life history of species. Phylogeny describes the historic origin, evolution, and distribution of character states in contemporary species. However, the level of energy expenditure is quantitatively determined by the collective of realized states in combination with conditions in the environment. Therefore, two stages determine energy expenditure: (1) the evolution of character states and (2) their impact in conjunction with conditions on the environment. Behavioral characters and ecological factors, when coupled with log10 mass, usually account for >94 % of the variation in the log10 basal rates of birds and mammals, a capacity not found in phylogenetic analyses. The difficulty of determining a direct impact of phylogeny on physiological characters results from its correlation with behavioral characters. When appropriate, the passerine/non-passerine dichotomy in birds and the sub/infraclass dichotomy in mammals combine with behavioral characters, ecological factors, and log10 mass to increase r (2) to account for 96-99 % of the variation in log10 basal rate. This occurs because dichotomies incorporate factors other than those already in the analyses. The clearest demonstration of the direct impact of character states is the equality of energy expenditure in species convergent with species from other clades

  3. Energy expenditure of transfemoral amputees during floor and treadmill walking with different speeds.

    PubMed

    Starholm, Inger Marie; Mirtaheri, Peyman; Kapetanovic, Nihad; Versto, Tarjei; Skyttemyr, Gjermund; Westby, Fredrik Tobias; Gjovaag, Terje

    2016-06-01

    Walking energy expenditure, calculated as the percent utilization of the maximal aerobic capacity, is little investigated in transfemoral amputees. Compare the energy expenditure of healthy participants (control participants) and transfemoral amputees walking with their respective preferred walking speeds on the treadmill (TPWS) and floor (FPWS). Randomized cross-over study. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured when walking with the FPWS and TPWS. VO2max was measured by an incremental treadmill test. Mean ± standard deviation VO2max of the transfemoral amputees and control participants were 30.6 ± 8.7 and 49.0 ± 14.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1), respectively (p < 0.05). TPWS for the transfemoral amputees and control participants was 0.89 ± 0.2 and 1.33 ± 0.3 m s(-1), respectively (p < 0.01). FPWS for the transfemoral amputees and control participants was 1.22 ± 0.2 and 1.52 ± 0.1 m s(-1), respectively (p < 0.01). Walking on floor with the FPWS, the energy expenditure of the transfemoral amputees and control participants was 54% and 31% of VO2max, respectively (p < 0.01). Walking on the treadmill with the TPWS, the energy expenditure of the transfemoral amputees and control participants was 42% and 29% of the VO2max, respectively (p < 0.05). Energy expenditure is higher for the transfemoral amputees than the control participants, regardless of walking surface. There are minimal differences in energy expenditure between treadmill and floor walking for the control participants but large differences for the transfemoral amputees. During walking, the transfemoral amputees expend a larger percentage of their maximal aerobic capacity than healthy participants. With a low VO2max, ordinary activities, such as walking, become physically more challenging for the transfemoral amputees than the control participants, and this may, in turn, have a negative effect on the walking range of the transfemoral amputees. © The

  4. Yeast adaptation to weak acids prevents futile energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Azmat; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Brul, Stanley; Smits, Gertien J.

    2013-01-01

    Weak organic acids (WOAs) are widely used preservatives to prevent fungal spoilage of foods and beverages. Exposure of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to WOA leads to cellular acidification and anion accumulation. Pre-adaptation of cultures reduced the rate of acidification caused by weak acid exposure, most likely as a result of changes in plasma membrane or cell wall composition. In order to adapt to sublethal concentrations of the acids and grow, yeast cells activate ATP consuming membrane transporters to remove protons and anions. We explored to what extent ATP depletion contributes to growth inhibition in sorbic or acetic acid treated cells. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of the reduction of proton and anion pumping activity on intracellular pH (pHi), growth, and energy status upon exposure to the hydrophilic acetic acid (HA) and the lipophilic sorbic acid (HS). ATP concentrations were dependent on the severity of the stress. Unexpectedly, we observed a stronger reduction of ATP with growth reducing than with growth inhibitory concentrations of both acids. We deduce that the not the ATP reduction caused by proton pumping, but rather the cost of sorbate anion pumping contributes to growth inhibition. A reduction of proton pumping activity may reduce ATP consumption, but the resulting decrease of pHi affects growth more. ATP utilization was differentially regulated during moderate and severe stress conditions. We propose that the energy depletion alone is not the cause of growth inhibition during HA or HS stress. Rather, the cells appear to reduce ATP consumption in high stress conditions, likely to prevent futile cycling and maintain energy reserves for growth resumption in more favorable conditions. The mechanism for such decision making remains to be established. PMID:23781215

  5. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-02

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  6. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  7. Examining Energy Expenditure in Youth Using XBOX Kinect: Differences by Player Mode.

    PubMed

    Barkman, Jourdin; Pfeiffer, Karin; Diltz, Allie; Peng, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Replacing sedentary time with physical activity through new generation exergames (eg, XBOX Kinect) is a potential intervention strategy. The study's purpose was to compare youth energy expenditure while playing different exergames in single- vs. multiplayer mode. Participants (26 male, 14 female) were 10 to 13 years old. They wore a portable metabolic analyzer while playing 4 XBOX Kinect games for 15 minutes each (2 single-, 2 multiplayer). Repeated-measures ANOVA (with Bonferroni correction) was used to examine player mode differences, controlling for age group, sex, weight status, and game. There was a significant difference in energy expenditure between single player (mean = 15.4 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.5) and multiplayer mode (mean = 16.8 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.7). Overweight and obese participants (mean = 13.7 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.2) expended less energy than normal weight (mean = 17.8 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.5) during multiplayer mode (d = 0.93). Player mode, along with personal factors such as weight status, may be important to consider in energy expenditure during exergames.

  8. Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barenys, M; Recasens, M A; Martí-Henneberg, C; Salas-Salvadó, J

    1993-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of physical exercise and protein intake on Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and Postprandial Energy Expenditure (PEE), 16 healthy, normal-weight, 15 year-old, adolescent males at the same stage of pubertal development were studied. They were assigned to two dietary groups receiving the same energy intake (1.3 x by measured RMR) and different proportions of macronutrients (13% protein, 39% fat, 48% CHO in Group A; 30% protein, 32% fat, 38% CHO in Group B). An increase in postprandial energy expenditure, relative to basal, was observed in all individuals. The postprandial energy expenditure was higher in group B than in group A. Postprandial Post-exercise Thermogenesis (expressed as Kcal/3 h) was significantly higher in group B than group A (p < 0.05). Although the RMR on the test day was not different between the groups, the RMR on day 2 was significantly higher than on day 1 in group B (p < 0.01). In group B, the post-exercise RQ was significantly lower than the preexercise RQ (p < 0.01). It is concluded that in normal-weight-adolescents, a hyperproteic diet followed by moderately-intensive exercise induces increases in EE and decreases in RQ in the postprandial post-exercise period and is accompanied by increase in the RMR the following day.

  9. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN.

  10. Validation of the Fitbit wireless activity tracker for prediction of energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Hickey, Amanda; Mavilia, Marianna; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; John, Dinesh; Kozey Keadle, Sarah; Freedson, Patty S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the Fitbit wireless activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure (EE) for different activities. Twenty participants (10 males, 10 females) wore the Fitbit Classic wireless activity tracker on the hip and the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (criterion). Participants performed walking and running trials on a treadmill and a simulated free-living activity routine. Paired t tests were used to test for differences between estimated (Fitbit) and criterion (Oxycon) kcals for each of the activities. Mean bias for estimated energy expenditure for all activities was -4.5 ± 1.0 kcals/6 min (95% limits of agreement: -25.2 to 15.8 kcals/6 min). The Fitbit significantly underestimated EE for cycling, laundry, raking, treadmill (TM) 3 mph at 5% grade, ascent/descent stairs, and TM 4 mph at 5% grade, and significantly overestimated EE for carrying groceries. Energy expenditure estimated by the Fitbit was not significantly different than EE calculated from the Oxycon Mobile for 9 activities. The Fitbit worn on the hip significantly underestimates EE of activities. The variability in underestimation of EE for the different activities may be problematic for weight loss management applications since accurate EE estimates are important for tracking/monitoring energy deficit.

  11. Energy expenditure: how much does it matter in infant and pediatric chronic disorders?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nilesh M

    2015-01-01

    A sound understanding of energy needs during chronic illness is necessary to avoid imbalances in energy intake and requirements. Failure to accurately estimate energy needs results in both underfeeding and overfeeding in chronically ill children. Suboptimal energy and protein intake may lead to deterioration in body composition, particularly lean body mass loss, which eventually impacts functional outcomes in these vulnerable groups. Furthermore, infants and children with chronic illnesses have a high prevalence of malnutrition and can ill afford further nutritional deterioration from suboptimal nutrient delivery. On the other hand, unintended delivery of excessive energy in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency results in increased respiratory burden and poor outcomes. Hence, awareness of the energy requirements and attention to energy and protein balance are important when caring for children with chronic illnesses. The basic concepts of the metabolic stress response, measurement of energy expenditure, and the impact of energy imbalance on clinical outcomes in children with chronic illness are reviewed.

  12. Engaging inner city middle school students in development of an energy expenditure food label.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Carol J; Mcneal, Catherine J; Coppin, John David; Shimek, Christine; Field, Lindsey; Murano, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Using food labels can be an important component of maintaining healthy weight, but young adolescents are unlikely to have the requisite skills to make use of food labeling information. Our objectives were to determine knowledge about calories and comprehension and use of the Nutrition Facts Panel among a group of inner city African-American and Hispanic middle school students, and to engage the students in refining a Calorie Converter energy expenditure food label. We used quantitative and qualitative methods including questionnaires, focus groups, and hands-on graphic design activities. Correctly defining the word "calorie" was associated with correct answers to three of four questions requiring interpretation of the Nutrition Facts Panel [χ(2)(1, 138, p < .05) = 4.56, 4.14, and 5.61.] We incorporated students' design and content modifications for the Calorie Converter label, and the majority indicated that the energy expenditure label would influence their food selection practices.

  13. Prediction of energy expenditure during walking in adults with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Mendonca, Goncalo V; McCubbin, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-08-16

    When developing walking programmes for improving health in adults with Down syndrome (DS), physical activity professionals are in need of an equation for predicting energy expenditure. We therefore developed and cross-validated an equation for predicting the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2 ; an index of energy expenditure) for adults with and without DS. A total of 469 VO2 observations during walking across different speeds were available from 54 adults with DS and 61 adults without DS. Significant predictors of VO2 were speed, speed square, group and group-by-speed interaction. Separate models for each group showed that speed and its square significantly predicted VO2 . Absolute per cent error was small and did not differ between groups. Adults with DS have different VO2 response to walking speed from persons without DS. VO2 is predicted from speed with acceptable accuracy for persons with DS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  15. Conjugated fatty acids increase energy expenditure in part by increasing voluntary movement in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2012-07-15

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated nonadecadienoic acid (CNA) have been previously shown to effectively reduce body fat. However, it is not clear if these effects persist with extended feeding, including potential mechanisms of increased energy expenditure. Thus the current investigation was conducted to determine the influence of dietary conjugated fatty acids on non-exercise form of voluntary movement and lipid and glucose metabolisms for 4-12 week feeding of male mice. CLA and CNA significantly reduced body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, in part by increasing voluntary movement. CLA and CNA significantly reduced serum leptin and tumour necrosis factor-α, while modulating the mRNA levels of genes associated with lipid and glucose metabolisms. The current results of increased physical activity along with modulation of lipid and glucose metabolisms by conjugated fatty acids will help contribute to future applications of these toward controlling obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computing DIT from energy expenditure measures in a respiratory chamber: a direct modeling method.

    PubMed

    Marino, S; De Gaetano, A; Giancaterini, A; Giordano, D; Manco, M; Greco, A V; Mingrone, G

    2002-07-01

    The possibility of computing Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) is an important feature of metabolic investigations. However, methodological problems have affected the determination of DIT in the indirect calorimetric chamber. DIT has been commonly estimated by regressing energy expenditure on a measure of physical activity. Although used for many years as the only feasible approach to calculate DIT in a respiratory chamber, this traditional method has been criticized because of an apparent underestimation of the DIT, but no alternative method has been suggested so far. The present work proposes to estimate DIT directly by means of a mathematical model. This approach also allows to simultaneously estimate other parameters, namely resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity (PA) and physical exercise (PE).

  17. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  18. GPR10 deficiency in mice results in altered energy expenditure and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Lennerås, Maria; Göransson, Melker; Elmgren, Anders; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2007-11-23

    In this study, mice carrying a disrupted gene encoding GPR10 (GPR10 KO) were studied to elucidate the function and importance of this receptor regarding metabolism. Female and male GPR10 KO mice had higher body weight after 11 and 15 weeks of age, respectively. The increased body weight was a result of increased fat mass. The obesity was much more pronounced in female mice, which also had a significant decrease in energy expenditure. In correlation to obesity, higher plasma levels of leptin, total cholesterol, and fractions of LDL and HDL were found in GPR10 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, GPR10 KO female mice had decreased relative food intake in correlation to higher hypothalamic expression levels of the anorexic signals CRH and POMC. In conclusion, female mice deficient of the gene encoding GPR10 develop higher body weight and obesity due to lower energy expenditure.

  19. The Central Control of Energy Expenditure: Exploiting Torpor for Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Matteo

    2017-02-10

    Autonomic thermoregulation is a recently acquired function, as it appears for the first time in mammals and provides the brain with the ability to control energy expenditure. The importance of such control can easily be highlighted by the ability of a heterogeneous group of mammals to actively reduce metabolic rate and enter a condition of regulated hypometabolism known as torpor. The central neural circuits of thermoregulatory cold defense have been recently unraveled and could in theory be exploited to reduce energy expenditure in species that do not normally use torpor, inducing a state called synthetic torpor. This approach may represent the first steps toward the development of a technology to induce a safe and reversible state of hypometabolism in humans, unlocking many applications ranging from new medical procedures to deep space travel.

  20. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102

  1. The federal energy policy: An example of its potential impact on energy consumption and expenditures in minority and poor households

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impacts of the National Energy Strategy on majority and minority households and on nonpoor and poor households. (Minority households are defined as those headed by black or Hispanic persons; poor households are defined as those having combined household income less than or equal to 125% of the Office of Management and Budget`s poverty-income threshold.) Energy consumption and expenditures, and projected energy expenditures as a share of income, for the period 1987 to 2009 are reported. Projected consumptions of electricity and nonelectric energy over this period are also reported for each group. An analysis of how these projected values are affected under different housing growth scenarios is performed. The analysis in this report presents a preliminary set of projections generated under a set of simplifying assumptions. Future analysis will rigorously assess the sensitivity of the projected values to various changes in a number of these assumptions.

  2. Influence of Weight Classification on Walking and Jogging Energy Expenditure Prediction in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heden, Timothy D.; LeCheminant, James D.; Smith, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of weight classification on predicting energy expenditure (EE) in women. Twelve overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) and 12 normal-weight (BMI = 18.5-24.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) women walked and jogged 1,609 m at 1.34 m.s[superscript -1] and 2.23 m.s[superscript…

  3. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G.; Butte, Nancy F.; Crouter, Scott E.; Trost, Stewart G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Bassett, David R.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Berrigan, David; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. Methods A secondary analysis of oxygen uptake (VO2) data obtained from five sites was completed, that included 947 children ages 5 to 18 years, who engaged in 14 different activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was computed based on Schofield Equations [Hum Nutr Clin Nut. 39(Suppl 1), 1985]. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min-1), oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass (VO2 in ml.kg-1.min-1), net oxygen uptake (VO2 – resting metabolic rate), allometric scaled oxygen uptake (VO2 in ml.kg-0.75.min-1) and YOUTH-MET (VO2.[resting VO2] -1) were calculated. These metrics were regressed with age, sex, height, and body mass. Results Net and allometric-scaled VO2, and YOUTH-MET were least associated with age, sex and physical characteristics. For moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, allometric scaling was least related to age and sex. For sedentary and low-intensity activities, YOUTH-MET was least related to age and sex. Conclusions No energy expenditure metric completely eliminated the influence of age, physical characteristics, and sex. The Adult MET consistently overestimated EE. YOUTH-MET was better for expressing energy expenditure for sedentary and light activities, whereas allometric scaling was better for moderate and vigorous intensity activities. From a practical perspective, The YOUTH-MET may be the more feasible metric for improving of the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. PMID:26102204

  4. Evaluation of energy expenditure in forward and backward movements performed by soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Paes, M.R.; Fernandez, R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the energy expenditure for locomotor activities usually performed by soccer referees during a match (walking, jogging, and running) under laboratory conditions, and to compare forward with backward movements. The sample was composed by 10 male soccer referees, age 29±7.8 years, body mass 77.5±6.2 kg, stature 1.78±0.07 m and professional experience of 7.33±4.92 years. Referees were evaluated on two separate occasions. On the first day, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was determined by a maximal treadmill test, and on the second day, the oxygen consumption was determined in different speeds of forward and backward movements. The mean VO2max was 41.20±3.60 mL·kg-1·min-1 and the mean heart rate achieved in the last stage of the test was 190.5±7.9 bpm. When results of forward and backward movements were compared at 1.62 m/s (walking speed), we found significant differences in VO2, in metabolic equivalents, and in kcal. However, the same parameters in forward and backward movements at jogging velocities (2.46 m/s) were not significantly different, showing that these motor activities have similar intensity. Backward movements at velocities equivalent to walking and jogging are moderate-intensity activities, with energy expenditure less than 9 kcal. Energy expenditure was overestimated by at least 35% when calculated by mathematical equations. In summary, we observed that backward movements are not high-intensity activities as has been commonly reported, and when calculated using equations available in the literature, energy expenditure was overestimated compared to the values obtained by indirect calorimetry. PMID:27074169

  5. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  6. Comparison of energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes.

    PubMed

    Wickham, James B; Mullen, Nicholas J; Whyte, Douglas G; Cannon, Jack

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor. STEP and RIDE produced significantly (p<0.05) higher average heart rates (HRavg) (85.8±5.1% and 86.4±4.3% of HRmax, respectively) compared to PUMP (73.7±7% of HRmax). HRpeak was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in STEP and RIDE (97.1±4.7% and 95.6±4.5% of HRmax, respectively) when compared with the PUMP class (90±5.9% of HRmax). Total energy expenditure (TEE), both absolute and relative, were significantly (p<0.05) higher for STEP (2101.7±560.2kJ and 0.59±0.07kJkg(-1)min(-1)) and RIDE (1880.4±420kJ and 0.58±0.03kJkg(-1)min(-1)) when compared with the PUMP class (1385.1±504kJ and 0.36±0.07kJkg(-1)min(-1)). These data suggest that overall exercise intensity and energy expenditure was highly comparable between RIDE and STEP, which suggests these group fitness classes are more effective for developing cardiovascular fitness and assisting with weight management compared with group resistance exercise classes when performed on a regular basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William; McCarthy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. Methods Seventy-two women, 60 – 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. Results All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Non-exercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1×1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (−150 kcal/day). Conclusion Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training. Key words: physical activity, older adults, total energy expenditure, maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:23774582

  8. Estimation of free-living energy expenditure using a novel activity monitor designed to minimize obtrusiveness.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Plasqui, Guy; Goris, Annelies H C; Westerterp, Klass R

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a novel activity monitor designed to be minimally obtrusive in predicting free-living energy expenditure. Subjects were 18 men and 12 women (age: 41 +/- 11 years, BMI: 24.4 +/- 3 kg/m(2)). The habitual physical activity was monitored for 14 days using a DirectLife triaxial accelerometer for movement registration (Tracmor(D)) (Philips New Wellness Solutions, Lifestyle Incubator, the Netherlands). Tracmor(D) output was expressed as activity counts per day (Cnts/d). Simultaneously, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in free living conditions using doubly labeled water (DLW). Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and the physical activity level (PAL) were determined from TEE and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR). A multiple-linear regression model predicted 76% of the variance in TEE, using as independent variables SMR (partial-r(2) = 0.55, P < 0.001), and Cnts/d (partial r(2) = 0.21, P < 0.001). The s.e. of TEE estimates was 0.9 MJ/day or 7.4% of the average TEE. A model based on body mass (partial-r(2) = 0.31, P < 0.001) and Cnts/d (partial-r(2) = 0.23, P < 0.001) predicted 54% of the variance in TEE. Cnts/d were significantly and positively associated with AEE (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), PAL (r = 0.68, P < 0.001), and AEE corrected by body mass (r = 0.71, P < 0.001). This study showed that the Tracmor(D) is a highly accurate instrument for predicting free-living energy expenditure. The miniaturized design did not harm the ability of the instrument in measuring physical activity and in determining outcome parameters of physical activity such as TEE, AEE, and PAL.

  9. Daily Energy Expenditure and Its Relation to Health Care Costs in Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    George, Jason; Abdulla, Rami Khoury; Yeow, Raymond; Aggarwal, Anshul; Boura, Judith; Wegner, James; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-02-15

    Our increasingly sedentary lifestyle is associated with a heightened risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Using the recently developed heart rate index formula in 843 patients (mean ± SD age 62.3 ± 15.7 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, we estimated average and peak daily energy expenditure, expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), and related these data to subsequent hospital encounters and health care costs. In this cohort, estimated daily average and peak METs were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Patients who achieved daily bouts of peak energy expenditure ≥5 METs had fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.006) and median health care costs that were nearly 50% lower (p <0.001) than their counterparts who attained <5 METs. In patients whose body mass index was ≥30 kg/m(2), there were significant differences in health care costs depending on whether they achieved <5 or ≥5 METs estimated by ambulatory ECG monitoring (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients who achieved ≥5 METs had lower and no significant difference in their health care costs, regardless of their body mass index (p = 0.46). Patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who achieved ≥5 METs had lower health care costs (p = 0.044) and fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.004) than those who achieved <5 METs. In conclusion, average and peak daily energy expenditures estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring may provide useful information regarding health care utilization in patients with and without previous percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of body habitus. Our findings are the first to link lower intensities of peak daily energy expenditure, estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring, with increased health care utilization.

  10. Feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Denlinger, LeAnn; Duveneck, Ellen; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Kong, Lan; Freivalds, Andris; Ray, Chester A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities. A secondary aim was to evaluate if two accelerometers attached to the elliptical device could provide reliable and valid assessments of participants’ frequency and duration of elliptical device use. Design Physically inactive adults (n = 32, age range = 25–65) were recruited through local advertisements and selected using stratified random sampling based on sex, body mass index (BMI), and age. Methods Indirect calorimetry was used to assess participants’ energy expenditure while seated and while using the elliptical device at a self-selected intensity level. Participants also self-reported their interest in using the elliptical device during sedentary activities. Two Actigraph GT3X accelerometers were attached to the elliptical device to record time-use patterns. Results Participants expended a median of 179.1 kilocalories per hour while using the elliptical device (range = 108.2–269.0), or a median of 87.9 more kilocalories (range = 19.7–178.6) than they would expend per hour of sedentary sitting. Participants reported high interest in using the elliptical device during TV watching and computer work, but relatively low interest in using the device during office meetings. Women reported greater interest in using the elliptical device than men. The two accelerometers recorded identical time-use patterns on the elliptical device and demonstrated concurrent validity with time-stamped computer records. Conclusions Compact elliptical devices could increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities, and may provide proximal environmental cues for increasing energy expenditure across multiple life domains. PMID:24035273

  11. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Robert G; Butte, Nancy F; Crouter, Scott E; Trost, Stewart G; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Bassett, David R; Puyau, Maurice R; Berrigan, David; Watson, Kathleen B; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-01-01

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. A secondary analysis of oxygen uptake (VO2) data obtained from five sites was completed, that included 947 children ages 5 to 18 years, who engaged in 14 different activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was computed based on Schofield Equations [Hum Nutr Clin Nut. 39(Suppl 1), 1985]. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min-1), oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass (VO2 in ml.kg-1.min-1), net oxygen uptake (VO2 - resting metabolic rate), allometric scaled oxygen uptake (VO2 in ml.kg-0.75.min-1) and YOUTH-MET (VO2.[resting VO2] -1) were calculated. These metrics were regressed with age, sex, height, and body mass. Net and allometric-scaled VO2, and YOUTH-MET were least associated with age, sex and physical characteristics. For moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, allometric scaling was least related to age and sex. For sedentary and low-intensity activities, YOUTH-MET was least related to age and sex. No energy expenditure metric completely eliminated the influence of age, physical characteristics, and sex. The Adult MET consistently overestimated EE. YOUTH-MET was better for expressing energy expenditure for sedentary and light activities, whereas allometric scaling was better for moderate and vigorous intensity activities. From a practical perspective, The YOUTH-MET may be the more feasible metric for improving of the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth.

  12. Influence of Weight Classification on Walking and Jogging Energy Expenditure Prediction in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heden, Timothy D.; LeCheminant, James D.; Smith, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of weight classification on predicting energy expenditure (EE) in women. Twelve overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) and 12 normal-weight (BMI = 18.5-24.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) women walked and jogged 1,609 m at 1.34 m.s[superscript -1] and 2.23 m.s[superscript…

  13. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  14. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-02

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  15. The effects of total energy expenditure from all levels of physical activity vs. physical activity energy expenditure from moderate-to-vigorous activity on visceral fat and insulin sensitivity in obese Type 2 diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Koo, B K; Han, K A; Ahn, H J; Jung, J Y; Kim, H C; Min, K W

    2010-09-01

    We examined the effects of physical activity with or without dietary restriction for 3 months on regional fat and insulin sensitivity and compared the effect of total energy expenditure from all levels of physical activity with that of physical activity energy expenditure from moderate-to-vigorous exercise in obese women with Type 2 diabetes. In this randomized, controlled trial, we assessed change of body weight, abdominal visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area and insulin sensitivity, expressed as K(ITT), and monitored total energy expenditure and physical activity energy expenditure using an accelerometer during a 12-week intervention in four groups: control, diet, exercise and diet plus exercise. The mean body mass index was 28.0 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2) and the mean duration of diabetes was 8 +/- 6 years. Both the diet and diet plus exercise groups showed significant body weight loss compared with the control group (P < 0.05). However, the visceral fat area was reduced only in the diet and exercise group (P = 0.017) and the subcutaneous fat area was reduced only in the diet group (P = 0.009). Mean energy intake was an independent determinant of the change in subcutaneous fat area (P = 0.020) and mean total anergy expenditure was an independent determinant of visceral fat area (P = 0.002). Insulin sensitivity K(ITT) was associated with physical activity energy expenditure (P = 0.006), energy intake (P = 0.047) and the change in fructosamine level (P = 0.016) but not with changes in body weight, subcutaneous fat area, visceral fat area or adipokine level. Exercise had an additive effect to dietary restriction on visceral fat reduction. Visceral fat area was associated with total energy expenditure, but insulin sensitivity was associated with physical activity energy expenditure.

  16. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization.

  17. Aerobic, anaerobic, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption energy expenditure of muscular endurance and strength: 1-set of bench press to muscular fatigue.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christopher B; Leighton, Brian H; Ahearn, Kelly J; McManus, James J

    2011-04-01

    We use a new approach to the estimation of energy expenditure for resistance training involving nonsteady state measures of work (weight × displacement), exercise O2 uptake, blood lactate, and recovery O2 uptake; all lifts were performed to muscular failure. Our intent was to estimate and compare absolute and relative aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditure and recovery energy expenditure. Single-set bench press lifts of ∼ 37, ∼ 46, and ∼ 56% (muscular endurance-type exercise) along with 70, 80, and 90% (strength-type exercise) of a 1 repetition maximum were performed. Collectively, the muscular endurance lifts resulted in larger total energy expenditure (60.2 ± 14.5 kJ) as compared with the strength lifts (43.2 ± 12.5 kJ) (p = 0.001). Overall work also was greater for muscular endurance (462 ± 131 J) as opposed to strength (253 ± 93 J) (p = 0.001); overall work and energy expenditure were related (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). Anaerobic exercise and recovery energy expenditure were significantly larger for all strength lifts as compared with aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001). For the muscular endurance lifts, anaerobic energy expenditure was larger than recovery energy expenditure (p < 0.001) that in turn was larger than aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001). We conclude that for a single set of resistance training to fatigue, the anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure contributions can be significantly larger than aerobic energy expenditure during the exercise. To our surprise, recovery energy expenditure was similar both within strength and muscular-endurance protocols and between protocols; moreover, recovery energy expenditure had little to no relationship with aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditure or work.

  18. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis

    PubMed Central

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds trained to follow an ultra-light aircraft. Because these birds were tame, with foster parents, we were able to bleed them immediately prior to and after each flight. Flight duration was experimentally designed ranging between one and almost four hours continuous flights. Energy expenditure during flight was estimated using doubly-labelled-water while physiological properties were assessed through blood chemistry including plasma metabolites, enzymes, electrolytes, blood gases, and reactive oxygen compounds. Instantaneous energy expenditure decreased with flight duration, and the birds appeared to balance aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, using fat, carbohydrate and protein as fuel. This made flight both economic and tolerable. The observed effects resemble classical exercise adaptations that can limit duration of exercise while reducing energetic output. There were also in-flight benefits that enable power output variation from cruising to manoeuvring. These adaptations share characteristics with physiological processes that have facilitated other athletic feats in nature and might enable the extraordinary long flights of migratory birds as well. PMID:26376193

  19. Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity.

  20. FGF21, energy expenditure and weight loss – How much brown fat do you need?

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Leon; Wolfrum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) belongs to the large family of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Even though FGF signaling has been mainly implicated in developmental processes, recent studies have demonstrated that FGF21 is an important regulator of whole body energy expenditure and metabolism, in obesity. Scope of review Given the fact that obesity has developed epidemic proportions, not just in industrialized countries, FGF21 has emerged as a novel therapeutic avenue to treat obesity as well as associated metabolic disorders. While the metabolic effects of FGF21 are undisputed, the mechanisms by which FGF21 regulate weight loss have not yet been fully resolved. Until recently it was believed that FGF21 induces brown fat activity, thereby enhancing energy expenditure, which concomitantly leads to weight loss. Novel studies have challenged this concept as they could demonstrate that a part of the FGF21 mediated effects are retained in a mouse model of impaired brown adipose tissue function. Major conclusions The review illustrates the recent advances in FGF21 research and discusses the role of FGF21 in the regulation of energy expenditure linked to brown fat activity. PMID:26413466

  1. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  2. Do patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes have impaired physical fitness, and energy expenditures?

    PubMed

    Ucok, K; Yalcinkaya, H; Acay, A; Coban, N F; Aslanalp, S; Akkan, G; Aydin, S; Celikagi, C; Ahsen, A

    2015-07-01

    The disease-related components such as physical fitness and daily energy expenditure may change in each progressive period of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), muscle strength, trunk flexibility, total energy expenditure, daily physical activity, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and body fat distribution in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with those of healthy controls. Eighty patients (40 male, 40 female) with type 2 diabetes and 80 (40 male, 40 female) controls were included in this study. All participants completed the measurements. It was determined that the VO2 max, muscle strength, daily number of steps, and total energy expenditure were lower, and the body fat percentage, and central obesity were higher in male and female type 2 diabetic patients, when compared with the controls. In addition, the lean body mass was decreased in male diabetic patients, compared with the controls. The fasting plasma glucose showed negative correlations with the maximal aerobic capacity, daily number of steps, and muscle strength in the patients in both genders. RMR and trunk flexibility values were not significantly different between the patients and the controls in either gender. We suggest that using exercise intervention especially comprised of strength training and aerobic activities, including not only daily slow activities but also moderate to vigorous activities, as a lifestyle modification in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients might be helpful for the development of earlier and more successful illness management strategies.

  3. INFLUENCE OF INHALATION INJURY ON ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN SEVERELY BURNED CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Przkora, Rene; Fram, Ricki Y.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.; Mlcak, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine the effect of inhalation injury on burn-induced hypermetabolism in children. Design Prospective study comparing hypermetabolism (i.e., resting energy expenditure and oxygen consumption) in burned children with and without inhalation injury during acute hospitalization. Setting Single pediatric burn center. Patients Eighty-six children (1–18 years) with ≥ 40% total body surface area burns were stratified to two groups: no inhalation injury and inhalation injury. Interventions None. Main Measurements and Results Inhalation injury was diagnosed based on bronchoscopic evaluation. At admission, PaO2:FiO2 ratios (an index of respiratory distress) were significantly higher in patients with no inhalation injury than in patient with inhalation injury. No differences were detected in resting energy expenditure or percent of the predicted basal metabolic rate between groups. Additionally, oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions Inhalation injury does not augment the burn-induced hypermetabolic stress response in children, as reflected by resting energy expenditure and oxygen consumption. PMID:24893760

  4. Smart approaches for assessing free-living energy expenditure following identification of types of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Plasqui, G

    2017-02-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure has been a research focus for many decades. A variety of wearable sensors have been developed to objectively capture physical activity patterns in daily life. These sensors have evolved from simple pedometers to tri-axial accelerometers, and multi sensor devices measuring different physiological constructs. The current review focuses on how activity recognition may help to improve daily life energy expenditure assessment. A brief overview is given about how different sensors have evolved over time to pave the way for recognition of different activity types. Once the activity is recognized together with the intensity of the activity, an energetic value can be attributed. This concept can then be tested in daily life using the independent reference technique doubly labeled water. So far, many studies have been performed to accurately identify activity types, and some of those studies have also successfully translated this into energy expenditure estimates. Most of these studies have been performed under standardized conditions, and the true applicability in daily life has rarely been addressed. The results so far however are highly promising, and technological advancements together with newly developed algorithms based on physiological constructs will further expand this field of research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis.

    PubMed

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A J; Verhulst, Simon; Dittami, John

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds trained to follow an ultra-light aircraft. Because these birds were tame, with foster parents, we were able to bleed them immediately prior to and after each flight. Flight duration was experimentally designed ranging between one and almost four hours continuous flights. Energy expenditure during flight was estimated using doubly-labelled-water while physiological properties were assessed through blood chemistry including plasma metabolites, enzymes, electrolytes, blood gases, and reactive oxygen compounds. Instantaneous energy expenditure decreased with flight duration, and the birds appeared to balance aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, using fat, carbohydrate and protein as fuel. This made flight both economic and tolerable. The observed effects resemble classical exercise adaptations that can limit duration of exercise while reducing energetic output. There were also in-flight benefits that enable power output variation from cruising to manoeuvring. These adaptations share characteristics with physiological processes that have facilitated other athletic feats in nature and might enable the extraordinary long flights of migratory birds as well.

  6. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    SciTech Connect

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2.

  7. Physical exercise, energy expenditure and tobacco consumption in adolescents from Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; López Villalba, Francisco José; López Miñarro, Pedro Ángel; García Cantó, Eliseo

    2014-02-01

    Physical and sports activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle and is considered a prevention factor for several harmful habits on health. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the level of physical activity, energy expenditure and tobacco consumption among adolescent students. Adolescent students aged 14 to 17 years old from the province of Murcia were included. Their level of physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and smoking was evaluated using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. Out of 344 adolescents, 20.3% were overweight and 5.8%, obese. Of the total, 44.2% reported being active on a regular basis, while 55.8% were irregularly active or inactive. The level of physical exercise was higher among boys than girls. Tobacco was consumed by 20.3% of the sample, but no significant differences were observed based on sex. The highest energy expenditure from physical activity was positively associated with non consumption of tobacco. Among adolescents, a higher level of physical activity and a higher energy expenditure are positively associated with non consumption of tobacco.

  8. SenseWear Armband and Stroke: Validity of Energy Expenditure and Step Count Measurement during Walking.

    PubMed

    Manns, Patricia J; Haennel, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA) for the measurement of energy expenditure (EE) and step count against a criterion in persons with stroke. Twelve participants with chronic stroke (mean age 64.2 ± 10.4 years; mean gait speed 0.67 ± 0.25 m/sec) completed two trials of a six-minute walk test, while wearing a SenseWear Armband (SWA) on each arm and being continuously monitored using a portable metabolic cart. Agreement between estimates of energy expenditure from the SWA and the metabolic cart was fair for the armband on the hemiplegic arm (intraclass correlation cefficient (ICC) = 0.586) and good for the armband on the unaffected arm (ICC = 0.702). Agreement between the SWA estimate of step count, and step count as measured by the Step Activity Monitor was poor (ICC < 0.352), with significant underestimation by the SWA. Our results show that, for these moderately impaired persons with stroke, the SWA should be used with caution for the measurement of energy expenditure and should not be used to measure step count.

  9. Influence of inhalation injury on energy expenditure in severely burned children.

    PubMed

    Przkora, Rene; Fram, Ricki Y; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Mlcak, Ronald P

    2014-12-01

    Determine the effect of inhalation injury on burn-induced hypermetabolism in children. Prospective study comparing hypermetabolism (i.e., resting energy expenditure and oxygen consumption) in burned children with and without inhalation injury during acute hospitalization. Single pediatric burn center. Eighty-six children (1-18 years) with ≥40% total body surface area burns were stratified to two groups: no inhalation injury and inhalation injury. None. Inhalation injury was diagnosed based on bronchoscopic evaluation. At admission, PaO2:FiO2 ratios (an index of respiratory distress) were significantly higher in patients with no inhalation injury than in patients with inhalation injury. No differences were detected in resting energy expenditure or percent of the predicted basal metabolic rate between groups. Additionally, oxygen consumption did not significantly differ between groups. Inhalation injury does not augment the burn-induced hypermetabolic stress response in children, as reflected by resting energy expenditure and oxygen consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy equivalents of CO sub 2 and their importance in assessing energy expenditure when using tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Carbon dioxide production in free living animals and humans can be measured using tracer techniques, but the prediction of energy expenditure also requires an estimate of the energy equivalents of CO2 (energy expended/CO2 produced; EeqCO2). This work is concerned with assessing the variation in EeqCO2 with the use of dietary information, indirect calorimetry, and theoretical concepts. The EeqCO2 for diets (EeqCO2 diet) ingested by 63 individuals living in a Cambridgeshire village, UK, was found to vary by less than 10%. The EeqCO2 diet for different populations varied by greater than 10% and for artificial enteral feeds by approximately 20%. Alcohol increases this variability because it has a particularly high EeqCO2. Variation in the nitrogenous end products of metabolism may also have a substantial effect on the EeqCO2 for a subject (EeqCO2 body), especially when a large proportion of energy expenditure is derived from protein oxidation, as in strict carnivores. Nutrient/energy imbalances such as those associated with growth, hypercaloric feeding, or starvation may also have major effects on EeqCO2 body. It is concluded that the calculation of energy expenditure from CO2 production should not employ a universal value for EeqCO2 body. The value should take into account the physiological and clinical state under investigation. Practical recommendations are suggested.

  11. A low-cost method for estimating energy expenditure during soccer refereeing.

    PubMed

    Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Padulo, Johnny; Zuliani, Andrea; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to apply a validated bioenergetics model of sprint running to recordings obtained from commercial basic high-sensitivity global positioning system receivers to estimate energy expenditure and physical activity variables during soccer refereeing. We studied five Italian fifth division referees during 20 official matches while carrying the receivers. By applying the model to the recorded speed and acceleration data, we calculated energy consumption during activity, mass-normalised total energy consumption, total distance, metabolically equivalent distance and their ratio over the entire match and the two halves. Main results were as follows: (match) energy consumption = 4729 ± 608 kJ, mass normalised total energy consumption = 74 ± 8 kJ · kg(-1), total distance = 13,112 ± 1225 m, metabolically equivalent distance = 13,788 ± 1151 m and metabolically equivalent/total distance = 1.05 ± 0.05. By using a very low-cost device, it is possible to estimate the energy expenditure of soccer refereeing. The provided predicting mass-normalised total energy consumption versus total distance equation can supply information about soccer refereeing energy demand.

  12. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Physical Activity in Soccer Referees During Match-Play

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alberto Inácio; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Fernandez, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs). The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer) was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil), Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint). The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765), with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006), and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs) with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play. Key points

  13. Comparison of measured and predicted energy expenditure in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Arisa; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Urano, Eri; Nakamura-Kutsuzawa, Taki; Sugihara, Kohei; Katayama, Takafumi; Miyake, Hidenori; Imura, Satoru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the onset of liver cancer in patients with cirrhosis. To prevent overfeeding and obesity, estimation of energy requirement is important, but energy expenditure in patients with liver cirrhosis has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in patients with cirrhosis and determine adequate energy intake criteria. In this cross-sectional study, indirect calorimetry measurement was conducted in 488 Japanese inpatients with cirrhosis. We compared REE measured by indirect calorimetry (M-REE) with basal energy expenditure (BEE) predicted by the Harris-Benedict equation (H-BEE) and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Japanese (D-BEE). Mean M-REE (1256 kcal) was significantly lower than H-BEE (1279 kcal); however, it was not significantly different from D-BEE (1254 kcal). Mean M-REE expressed in relation to body weight (BW; REE/kg BW) was 21.7 kcal/kg BW. H-BEE was significantly higher than M-REE in patients in the first and second quartiles of BMI, and D-BEE was significantly different from MREE in patients in the highest and lowest quartiles of BMI. Average energy intake was 30.5 kcal/kg BW, which was 1.4 times greater than REE/kg BW. Although DRI is a useful tool for the estimation of REE in patients in the second and third quartiles of BMI, M-REE is recommended to ensure the provision of adequate nutritional care to patients with cirrhosis, including those in the highest and lowest quartiles of BMI.

  14. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Marini, Juan C; Sosa, Horacio A; Castillo, Liliana I; Grounds, Miranda D; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old) and adult (12- to 14-wk-old) male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing) adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles.

  15. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  16. Neuronal receptor activity-modifying protein 1 promotes energy expenditure in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongming; Liu, Xuebo; Morgan, Donald A; Kuburas, Adisa; Thedens, Daniel R; Russo, Andrew F; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2011-04-01

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) 1, 2, and 3 are unusual accessory proteins that dictate the binding specificity of two G protein-coupled receptors involved in energy homeostasis: calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and amylin receptors. These proteins are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), including in the brain regions involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, but the significance of CNS RAMPs in the control of energy balance remains unknown. To examine the functional significance of modulating neuronal RAMP1, we assessed the effect of overexpressing human RAMP1 (hRAMP1) in the CNS on body energy balance. Nestin/hRAMP1 transgenic mice have a remarkably decreased body weight associated with reduced fat mass and circulating leptin levels. The transgenic mice exhibited higher energy expenditure as indicated by increased oxygen consumption, body temperature, and sympathetic tone subserving brown adipose tissue (BAT). Consistent with this, the nestin/hRAMP1 transgenic mice had elevated BAT mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and uncoupling protein 1 and 3, and these changes can be reversed by chronic blockade of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Furthermore, metabolic response to amylin was enhanced in the nestin/hRAMP1 mice whereas the response to CGRP was blunted, possibly the result of higher expression of CGRP in the CNS. These data demonstrate that CNS RAMP1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by promoting energy expenditure.

  17. Effects of the R and D tax credit on energy R and D expenditures: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Kee, J.R.; Lackey, K.C.; Cronin, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    Objective of the study was to estimate the effects on industrial energy research and development (R and D) expenditures of the R and D Tax Credit component of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Two tasks were performed. The first task was to collect data on industrial R and D expenditures, sales, oil prices, and price deflators. The R and D expenditure data were obtained from the National Science Foundation; other data were collected from Commerce Department and Department of Energy publications. The second task was to perform an econometric analysis of the effects of the tax credit on industrial R and D expenditures. Equations relating: (1) total; and (2) energy-related R and D expenditures to sales, oil prices, and a variable representing the availability of the tax credit were estimated, using data for each of seven manufacturing industries and eleven years. The analysis showed that the tax credit caused real total industrial R and D expenditures to be 9.1% greater than they would have been without the credit, but caused real energy industrial R and D expenditures to be 13.8% less than they would have been without the tax credit.

  18. Energy Expenditure in Older Adults Who Are Frail: A Doubly Labeled Water Study.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Bastone, Alessandra; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; de Souza Moreira, Bruno; Diz, Juliano Bergamaschine Mata; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2017-08-03

    Frailty is a common and important geriatric syndrome, distinct from any single chronic disease, and an independent predictor of mortality. It is characterized by age-associated decline in physiological reserve and function across multiple systems, culminating in a vicious cycle of altered energy expenditure. The total energy expenditure (TEE) of an individual includes the resting metabolic rate (RMR), the thermic effect of feeding, and the energy expenditure in physical activity (PAEE). The investigation of the energy expenditure of older adults who are frail is essential for better understanding the syndrome. Therefore, we compared the RMR, the PAEE, the physical activity level (PAL), and the TEE of older adults who were frail with those who were not frail. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 26 community-dwelling older adults (66-86 years of age). Older adults in the frail and nonfrail groups were matched for age and gender, and the matched pairs were randomly selected to continue the study. The RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. The TEE was obtained by the multipoint, doubly labeled water method. After collecting a baseline urine sample, each participant received an oral dose of doubly labeled water composed of deuterium oxide and oxygen-18 (H2O). Subsequently, urine samples were collected on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 13th, and 14th days after the baseline collection and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The older adults who were frail presented significantly lower PAEE (1453.7 [1561.9] vs 3336.1 [1829.3] kj/d, P < .01), PAL (1.4 [0.3] vs 1.9 [0.6], P = .04), and TEE (7919.0 [2151.9] vs 10442.4 [2148.0] kj/d, P < .01) than the older adults who were nonfrail. There was no difference in their RMRs (5673.3 [1569.2] vs 6062.0 [1891.7] kj/d, P = .57). Frailty has been associated with a smaller lean body mass and with a disease-related hypermetabolic state, which might explain the lack of difference in the RMR. The PAL of the older adults who were frail

  19. Geomorphically Effective Energy Expenditure for Quantifying Channel Responses to Extreme Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, William; Righini, Margherita; Wohl, Ellen E.; Borga, Marco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rathburn, Sara L.; Surian, Nicola; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatio-temporal rainfall variability and therefore show variations in energy expenditure and associated geomorphic impacts that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on variations in flood intensity. Geomorphic modification is expected to occur in river channels when driving forces (i.e., hydraulic and abrasive forces of water and sediment acting on the channel) exceed threshold of resisting forces (i.e., the ability of channel boundaries to remain unchanged by the passage of water and sediments). However, these forces that determine the capacity of floods to modify existing channel configuration are extremely difficult to quantify. Geomorphic impacts or hazards usually take the form of erosional and depositional modification of the pre-flood channel and valley geometry. A central question in hydrogeomorphology relates to why flash floods of similar magnitudes and intensities sometimes produce dissimilar geomorphic results? In fact, some less magnitude floods in terms of discharge per unit of drainage area have been found to produce major geomorphic damage than some high magnitude events. Furthermore, the use of peak instantaneous flow parameters such as discharge, velocity, shear stress and stream power to quantify geomorphic changes have often been non-deterministic and/or inconclusive. Investigations are therefore needed on how factors such as channel geometry, substrate, riparian vegetation, sediment supply, and flood magnitude and duration can interact and influence geomorphic effectiveness of high magnitude floods. The main objective of this study is to assess the coupled influence of flood-flow duration and total energy expenditure on geomorphic response to extreme flash floods, which is aimed at developing an index that combines flow duration, stream power per unit area and threshold for major channel erosion to be evaluated as a predictor of geomorphic adjustment

  20. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. Exceptionally low daily energy expenditure in the bamboo-eating giant panda.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yonggang; Speakman, John R; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Hu, Yibo; Xia, Maohua; Yan, Li; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, Lu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinguo; Wei, Fuwen

    2015-07-10

    The carnivoran giant panda has a specialized bamboo diet, to which its alimentary tract is poorly adapted. Measurements of daily energy expenditure across five captive and three wild pandas averaged 5.2 megajoules (MJ)/day, only 37.7% of the predicted value (13.8 MJ/day). For the wild pandas, the mean was 6.2 MJ/day, or 45% of the mammalian expectation. Pandas achieve this exceptionally low expenditure in part by reduced sizes of several vital organs and low physical activity. In addition, circulating levels of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) averaged 46.9 and 64%, respectively, of the levels expected for a eutherian mammal of comparable size. A giant panda-unique mutation in the DUOX2 gene, critical for thyroid hormone synthesis, might explain these low thyroid hormone levels. A combination of morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic adaptations, leading to low energy expenditure, likely enables giant pandas to survive on a bamboo diet.

  1. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance123

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure is the primary etiology for excess weight gain. Increased energy expenditure via exercise and energy restriction via diet are commonly used approaches to induce weight loss. Such behavioral interventions, however, have generally resulted in a smaller than expected weight loss, which in part has been attributed to compensatory adaptations in other components contributing to energy balance. Current research points to a loose coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, and evidence for long-term adaptations has been inconsistent. The lack of conclusive evidence on compensatory adaptations in response to alterations in energy balance can be attributed to differences in intervention type and study population. Physical activity (PA) levels may be reduced in response to aerobic exercise but not in response to resistance exercise. Furthermore, athletic and lean adults have been shown to increase their energy intake in response to exercise, whereas no such response was observed in obese adults. There is also evidence that caloric restriction is associated with a decline in PA. Generally, humans seem to be better equipped to defend against weight loss than avoid weight gain, but results also show a large individual variability. Therefore, individual differences rather than group means should be explored to identify specific characteristics of “compensators” and “noncompensators.” This review emphasizes the need for more research with simultaneous measurements of all major components contributing to energy balance to enhance the understanding of the regulation of energy balance, which is crucial to address the current obesity epidemic. PMID:26374181

  2. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p < 0.001) or indirect calorimetry (2.64 vs. 2.92 kcal/kg/h, p = 0.017). Conclusion Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry gave similar estimates of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was 10% lower in the prone position than in the supine position.

  3. Beta2-adrenergic stimulation increases energy expenditure at rest, but not during submaximal exercise in active overweight men.

    PubMed

    Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn; Narkowicz, Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kalsen, Anders; Kreiberg, Michael; Jessen, Søren; Bangsbo, Jens; Hostrup, Morten

    2017-07-12

    β2-Agonists have been proposed as weight-loss treatment, because they elevate energy expenditure. However, it is unknown what effect β2-agonists have on energy expenditure in overweight individuals. Furthermore, the influence of β2-agonist R- and S-enantiomer ratio for the increased energy expenditure is insufficiently explored. Nineteen males were included in the study of which 14 completed. Subjects were 31.6 (±3.5) years [mean (±95% CI)] and had a fat percentage of 22.7 (±2.1)%. On separate days, subjects received either placebo or inhaled racemic (rac-) formoterol (2 × 27 µg). After an overnight fast, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were estimated by indirect calorimetry at rest and during submaximal exercise. Plasma (R,R)- and (S,S)-formoterol enantiomer levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. At rest, energy expenditure and fat oxidation were 12% (P ≤ 0.001) and 38% (P = 0.006) higher for rac-formoterol than placebo. Systemic (R,R):(S,S) formoterol ratio was correlated with change in energy expenditure at rest in response to rac-formoterol (r = 0.63, P = 0.028), whereas no association was observed between fat percentage and rac-formoterol-induced change in energy expenditure. During exercise, energy expenditure was not different between treatments, although carbohydrate oxidation was 15% higher (P = 0.021) for rac-formoterol than placebo. Rac-formoterol-induced shift in substrate choice from rest to exercise was related to plasma ln-rac-formoterol concentrations (r = 0.75, P = 0.005). Selective β2-adrenoceptor agonism effectively increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in overweight individuals. The potential for weight loss induced by β2-agonists may be greater for R-enantiopure formulations.

  4. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Western, Max J.; Nightingale, Thomas E.; Peacock, Oliver J.; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  5. Nutrition Concepts for Elite Distance Runners Based on Macronutrient and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sandra; Fischer, Alexandra; Vock, Christina; Böhme, Mike; Schmelzer, Constance; Döpner, Myriam; Hülsmann, Olaf; Döring, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Context: Elite distance runners (EDR) must optimize their nutrition to maintain their demanding training schedules. Objective: To develop a nutrition concept for EDR based on energy and macronutrient expenditures. Design: This theoretical study provides calculations for macronutrient and energy expenditures of EDR. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of EDR were assumed based on average real EDR. Setting: University of Kiel. Patients Or Other Participants: Three prototypic types of male EDR described in the literature as type I (TI; body mass  =  72 kg, respiratory quotient  =  0.9 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers  =  60% to 70%), type II (TII; body mass  =  67 kg, respiratory quotient  =  0.82 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers  =  50%), and type III (TIII; body mass  =  60 kg, respiratory quotient  =  0.75 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers  =  30% to 40%). Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the macronutrient and energy expenditures of the 3 types of EDR according to body mass, respiratory quotient, and percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Results: We found that the average energy expenditure was 3750 kcal · d−1 for TI runners, 3463 kcal · d−1 for TII runners, and 3079 kcal · d−1 for TIII runners. The carbohydrate (CHO) expenditure reached an average value of 10.0 g · kg−1 · d−1 for TI runners, 8.0 g · kg−1 · d−1 for TII runners, and 4.7 g · kg−1 · d−1 for TIII runners. When the EDR accomplished running sessions at a pace ≥100% of maximum oxygen consumption, all types of runners had a CHO demand of about 10 g · kg−1 · d−1. The TI and TII runners need a CHO intake of 8 to 10 g · kg−1 · d−1. For the TIII runners, a CHO intake >6 g · kg−1 · d−1 is necessary during anaerobic training sessions. Conclusions: Nutrition concepts must be differentiated for EDR according to metabolic and anthropometric

  6. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  7. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day−1, 768 kJ day−1, and 1,935 kJ day−1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day−1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16–192 μg day−1.

  8. Evaluation of a smartphone food diary application using objectively measured energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Felicity J; Ridgers, Nicola D; Worsley, Anthony; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-03-14

    Dietary assessment methods are limited in their ability to adequately measure food and beverage consumption. Smartphone applications may provide a novel method of dietary assessment to capture real-time food intake and the contextual factors surrounding eating occasions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of a Smartphone meal diary app ("FoodNow") to measure food intake using a validated objective method for assessing energy expenditure among young adults. Participants (18-30 years) used FoodNow over four non-consecutive days recording all eating occasions through a combination of written text, and/or optional images and voice recordings. A series of contextual questions were also completed. Participants wore the validated SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc, USA) during the same period to measure free-living energy expenditure. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) estimated the reliability of FoodNow to measure estimated energy intake compared to measured energy expenditure. Ninety participants (71 female, 19 male; mean age = 24.9 ± 4.1 years) were recruited to use the FoodNow app to record their eating occasions. Thirteen were excluded as they did not meet minimum requirements for number of reporting days (n = 3) or SenseWear Armband wear time (5 days of 11 h), while 21 participants were excluded after being identified as mis-reporters (Huang method). Among the remaining sample (n = 56), reliability between estimated energy intake and measured energy expenditure was high (ICC, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.61-0.84). FoodNow is a suitable method for capturing estimated energy intake data from young adults. Despite wide levels of agreement at the individual level (-3709 kJ to 2056 kJ), at the group level, FoodNow appears to have potential as a dietary assessment tool. This new dietary assessment method will offer an alternative and novel method of dietary assessment which is capable of collecting both estimated energy intake and

  9. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  10. Early Effects of Neutering on Energy Expenditure in Adult Male Cats

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Alfreda; Fascetti, Andrea J.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Lee, Ada; Graham, James L.; Havel, Peter J.; Ramsey, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    The initial cause of post-neutering weight gain in male cats is not entirely known. There is evidence that energy intake (EI) increases rapidly post-neutering, but it is not clear if neutering also decreases energy expenditure (EE) prior to weight gain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a decrease in EE contributes to the initial shift toward positive energy balance in neutered male cats. To determine the influence of neutering on EE independent of changes in EI and body weight (BW), male cats were fed at their pre-neutering maintenance EI and EE was measured at 4 days pre-neutering, 3–4 days post-neutering, and 9 days post- neutering. Ad libitum food access was then provided for 6 months. Body composition was measured and blood samples collected for serum chemistry at pre-neutering and 7 days, 13 days and 6 months post-neutering. Total energy expenditure (TEE) adjusted for lean body mass (LBM) did not change in cats from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. However, TEE adjusted for BW and resting energy expenditure adjusted for either LBM or BW showed a small, but significant (P<0.05) increase from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. When allowed free choice food access, cats showed significant increases of food intake (FI) and BW. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin increased, while adiponectin levels decreased following neutering. The results of this study indicate that initial post-neutering weight gain in male cats results from increased FI and not decreased EE. Long-term control of FI should be initiated after neutering to prevent hyperphagia and weight gain in male cats. PMID:24586869

  11. TXNIP in Agrp neurons regulates adiposity, energy expenditure, and central leptin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Blouet, Clemence; Liu, Shun-Mei; Jo, Young-Hwan; Chua, Streamson; Schwartz, Gary J

    2012-07-18

    Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) has recently been described as a key regulator of energy metabolism through pleiotropic actions that include nutrient sensing in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). However, the role of TXNIP in neurochemically specific hypothalamic subpopulations and the circuits downstream from MBH TXNIP engaged to regulate energy homeostasis remain unexplored. To evaluate the metabolic role of TXNIP activity specifically within arcuate Agrp neurons, we generated Agrp-specific TXNIP gain-of-function and loss-of-function mouse models using Agrp-Ires-cre mice, TXNIP (flox/flox) mice, and a lentivector expressing the human TXNIP isoform conditionally in the presence of Cre recombinase. Overexpression of TXNIP in Agrp neurons predisposed to diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue storage by decreasing energy expenditure and spontaneous locomotion, without affecting food intake. Conversely, Agrp neuronal TXNIP deletion protected against diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue storage by increasing energy expenditure and spontaneous locomotion, also without affecting food intake. TXNIP overexpression in Agrp neurons did not primarily affect glycemic control, whereas deletion of TXNIP in Agrp neurons improved fasting glucose levels and glucose tolerance independently of its effects on body weight and adiposity. Bidirectional manipulation of TXNIP expression induced reciprocal changes in central leptin sensitivity and the neural regulation of lipolysis. Together, these results identify a critical role for TXNIP in Agrp neurons in mediating diet-induced obesity through the regulation of energy expenditure and adipose tissue metabolism, independently of food intake. They also reveal a previously unidentified role for Agrp neurons in the brain-adipose axis.

  12. Utility of the actiheart accelerometer for estimating exercise energy expenditure in female adolescent runners.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jeanne F; Aralis, Hilary; Merino, Sonia Garcia; Barrack, Michelle T; Stalker-Fader, Lindsay; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing need to accurately assess exercise energy expenditure (EEE) in athletic populations that may be at risk for health disorders because of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The Actiheart combines heart rate and uniaxial accelerometry to estimate energy expenditure above rest. The authors' purpose was to determine the utility of the Actiheart for predicting EEE in female adolescent runners (N = 39, age 15.7 ± 1.1 yr). EEE was measured by indirect calorimetry and predicted by the Actiheart during three 8-min stages of treadmill running at individualized velocities corresponding to each runner's training, including recovery, tempo, and 5-km-race pace. Repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons across the 3 running stages indicated that the Actiheart was sensitive to changes in intensity (p < .01), but accelerometer output tended to plateau at race pace. Pairwise comparisons of the mean difference between Actiheart- and criterion-measured EEE yielded values of 0.0436, 0.0539, and 0.0753 kcal × kg-1 × min-1 during recovery, tempo, and race pace, respectively (p < .0001). Bland-Altman plots indicated that the Actiheart consistently underestimated EEE except in 1 runner's recovery bout. A linear mixed-model regression analysis with height as a covariate provided an improved EEE prediction model, with the overall standard error of the estimate for the 3 speeds reduced to 0.0101 kcal × kg-1 × min-1. Using the manufacturer's equation that combines heart rate and uniaxial motion, the Actiheart may have limited use in accurately assessing EEE, and therefore energy availability, in young, female competitive runners.

  13. Central amylin acts as an adiposity signal to control body weight and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Wielinga, Peter Y; Löwenstein, Christian; Muff, Sabine; Munz, Manuela; Woods, Stephen C; Lutz, Thomas A

    2010-08-04

    The pancreatic B-cell hormone amylin has been proposed to be both a satiation signal and an adiposity signal. The effects of peripheral amylin on energy balance are well investigated, but the effects of central amylin are less clear. We determined the effects of low doses of amylin administered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) on food intake, body weight and other indices of energy balance. Amylin (2 pmol/h) significantly lowered body weight compared to saline after 2 weeks of infusion, independent of whether prior body weight was decreased by fasting, increased by voluntary overfeeding or unmanipulated. A bolus injection of amylin (10 pmol, i3vt) increased energy expenditure and body temperature, whereas chronic i3vt amylin infusion had no effect on energy expenditure above that of control rats even though body temperature was increased. Chronic amylin also reduced RQ, implying a preferential oxidation of fat. Overall, the data provide new evidence that amylin is an adiposity signal that acts within the brain, and informing the brain about the status of peripheral energy stores. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CENTRAL AMYLIN ACTS AS AN ADIPOSITY SIGNAL TO CONTROL BODY WEIGHT AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    PubMed Central

    WIELINGA, Peter Y.; LÖWENSTEIN, Christian; MUFF, Sabine; MUNZ, Manuela; WOODS, Stephen C.; LUTZ, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The pancreatic B-cell hormone amylin has been proposed to be both a satiation signal and an adiposity signal. The effects of peripheral amylin on energy balance are well investigated, but the effects of central amylin are less clear. We determined the effects of low doses of amylin administered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) on food intake, body weight and other indices of energy balance. Amylin (2 pmol/h) significantly lowered body weight compared to saline after 2 weeks of infusion, independent of whether prior body weight was decreased by fasting, increased by voluntary overfeeding or unmanipulated. A bolus injection of amylin (10 pmol, i3vt) increased energy expenditure and body temperature, whereas chronic i3vt amylin infusion had no effect on energy expenditure above that of control rats even though body temperature was increased. Chronic amylin also reduced RQ, implying a preferential oxidation of fat. Overall, the data provide new evidence that amylin is an adiposity signal that acts within the brain, and informing the brain about the status of peripheral energy stores. PMID:20416330

  15. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p < 0.05). Basal metabolic rate did not change throughout the study. Sleeping metabolic rate decreased significantly during weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  16. Longitudinal change in energy expenditure and effects on energy requirements of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the longitudinal changes in energy requirements in late life. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the energy requirements in late life and how they changed during a 7 year time-span, (2) determine whether changes in fat free mass (FFM) were related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), and (3) determine the accuracy of predicted total energy expenditure (TEE) to measured TEE. Methods TEE was assessed via doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in older adults in both 1999 (n = 302; age: 74 ± 2.9 yrs) and again in 2006 (n = 87 age: 82 ± 3.1 yrs). RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry, and body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results The energy requirements in the 9th decade of life were 2208 ± 376 kcal/d for men and 1814 ± 337 kcal/d for women. This was a significant decrease from the energy requirements in the 8th decade of life in men (2482 ± 476 kcal/d vs. 2208 ± 376 kcal/d) but not in women (1892 ± 271 kcal/d vs. 1814 ± 337 kcal/d). In addition to TEE, RMR, and activity EE (AEE) also decreased in men, but not women, while FFM decreased in both men and women. The changes in FFM were correlated with changes in RMR for men (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) but not for women (r = −0.08, ns). Measured TEE was similar to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) predicted TEE for men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2305 ± 35 kcal/d) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 1781 ± 20 kcal/d). However, measured TEE was different than the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted TEE in men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2915 ± 31 kcal/d (p < 0.05)) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 2315 ± 21 kcal/d (p < 0.05)). Conclusions TEE, RMR and AEE decreased in men, but not women, from the 8th to 9th decade of life. The DRI equation to predict TEE was comparable to measured TEE, while the WHO equation over-predicted TEE in our elderly population

  17. Energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity and with weight gain in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Montaurier, Christophe; Cano, Noël; Caillot, Nicolas; Blot, A; Meunier, Nathalie; Pereira, Bruno; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Jouve, Christelle; Boirie, Yves; Deteix, Patrice; Morio, Beatrice

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in energy metabolism could trigger weight gain after renal transplantation. Nineteen transplanted non-diabetic men, 53 ± 1.6 years old, receiving calcineurin inhibitors but no corticosteroids were studied. They were compared with nine healthy men matched for height, age and lean body mass. Daily energy expenditure and its components (sleeping, basal and absorptive metabolic rates) were analyzed for 24 h in calorimetric chambers and for 4 days in free living conditions using calibrated accelerometry. Other variables known to influence energy expenditure were assessed: body composition, physical activity, 4-day food intake, drug consumption, serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, and epinephrine. Transplant recipients who gained more than 5% body weight after transplantation (n = 11, +11.0 ± 1.5 kg) were compared with those who did not (n = 8) and with the controls. Weight gain compared with non-weight gain patients and controls exhibited higher fat mass without change in lean body mass. Daily, sleeping and resting energy expenditure adjusted for lean body mass was significantly higher in non-weight gain (167.1 ± 4.2 kJ/kg/lean body mass/24 h, P < 0.05) compared with weight gain patients (147.4 ± 3.6) and controls (146.1 ± 4.6). Weight gain compared with controls and non-weight gain subjects had lower free living physical activity and a higher consumption of antihypertensive drugs and β-blockers. After kidney transplantation, weight gain patients were characterized by lower adjusted energy expenditure, reduced spontaneous physical activity but a more sedentary life style and a trend toward a higher energy intake explaining the reason they gained weight. The nWG KTR had increased resting and sleeping EE which protected them from weight gain. Such hypermetabolism was also observed in 24-h EE measurements. By comparison with the nWG patients, the WG transplant recipients were characterized by higher

  18. Energy Expenditure During Cane-Assisted Gait in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anamaria; Alves, Ana Claudia Monteiro; de Oliveira, Leda Magalhães; Saad, Marcelo; Natour, Jamil

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS A quasi-experimental study (single-group) was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 – length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 – length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 – length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years). Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001), as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively). CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:18438573

  19. C-type natriuretic peptide as a new regulator of food intake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, Megumi; Tamura, Naohisa; Yamada, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Oyamada, Naofumi; Taura, Daisuke; Sonoyama, Takuhiro; Fukunaga, Yasutomo; Ohinata, Kousaku; Sone, Masakatsu; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2010-08-01

    The physiological implication of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) including energy metabolism has not been elucidated, because of markedly short stature in CNP-null mice. In the present study we analyzed food intake and energy expenditure of CNP-null mice with chondrocyte-targeted CNP expression (CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice), in which marked skeletal dysplasia was rescued, to investigate the significance of CNP under minimal influences of skeletal phenotypes. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, body weight and body fat ratio were reduced by 24% and 32%, respectively, at 20 wk of age, and decreases of blood glucose levels during insulin tolerance tests were 2-fold exaggerated at 17 wk of age, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Urinary noradrenalin excretion of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice was greater than that of CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice by 28%. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, rectal temperature at 1600 h was higher by 1.1 C, and uncoupling protein-1 mRNA expression in the brown adipose tissue was 2-fold increased, which was canceled by propranolol administration, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Oxygen consumption was significantly increased in CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice compared with that in CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Food intake of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice upon ad libitum feeding and refeeding after 48 h starvation were reduced by 21% and 61%, respectively, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. This study unveiled a new aspect of CNP as a molecule regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Further analyses on precise mechanisms of CNP actions would lead to the better understanding of the significance of the CNP/guanylyl cyclase-B system in food intake and energy expenditure.

  20. Ingestion of a moderately high caffeine dose before exercise increases postexercise energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Ortega, Juan F; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesus; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine is an ergogenic aid widely used before and during prolonged exercise. Due to its prolonged biological half-life caffeine effects could remain after exercise. We aimed to investigate the metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular postexercise responses to preexercise graded caffeine ingestion. Twelve aerobically trained subjects (mean VO₂max = 54 ± 7 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹) cycled for 60-min at 75% VO₂max after ingesting placebo (0 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight) or 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ on five occasions. During the 3 hr postexercise, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, lactate, and fatty acids were analyzed. None of these variables were statistically affected by preexercise caffeine ingestion between 0.5 and 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ of caffeine raised postexercise energy expenditure 15% above placebo (233 ± 58 vs. 202 ± 49 kcal/3 hr; p < .05). Ventilation and tidal volume were elevated after the 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ caffeine dose above placebo (9.2 ± 2.5 L · min⁻¹ and 0.67 ± 0.29 L · breath⁻¹ vs. 7.8 ± 1.5 L · min⁻¹ and 0.56 ± 0.20 L · breath⁻¹, respectively; p < .05). Ventilation correlated with tidal volume (r = .45; p < .05) and energy expenditure (r = .72; p < .05). In summary, preexercise ingestion of ergogenic caffeine doses do not alter postexercise cardiovascular responses. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ of caffeine raises 3-hr postexercise energy expenditure (i.e., 31 kcal) likely through increased energy cost of ventilation.

  1. Comparison of energy expenditures by elderly and non-elderly households: 1975 and 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, A.

    1980-05-01

    The relative position of the elderly in the population is examined and their characteristic use of energy in relation to the total population and their non-elderly counterparts is observed. The 1985 projections are based on demographic, economic, and socio-economic, and energy data assumptions contained in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. The model used for estimating household energy expenditure is MATH/CHRDS - Micro-Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System. Characteristics used include households disposable income, poverty status, location by DOE region and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), and race and sex of the household head as well as age. Energy use by fuel type will be identified for total home fuels, including electricity, natural gas, bottled gas and fuel oil, and for all fuels, where gasoline use is also included. Throughout the analysis, both income and expenditure-dollar amounts for 1975 and 1985 are expressed in constant 1978 dollars. Two appendices contain statistical information.

  2. Resistance to thyroid hormone is associated with raised energy expenditure, muscle mitochondrial uncoupling, and hyperphagia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Catherine S.; Savage, David B.; Dufour, Sylvie; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Murgatroyd, Peter; Befroy, Douglas; Halsall, David; Northcott, Samantha; Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Curran, Suzanne; Henning, Elana; Keogh, Julia; Owen, Penny; Lazarus, John; Rothman, Douglas L.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Shulman, Gerald I.; Chatterjee, Krishna; Petersen, Kitt Falk

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a dominantly inherited disorder usually associated with mutations in thyroid hormone receptor β (THRB), is characterized by elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormones (including thyroxine), failure of feedback suppression of thyrotropin, and variable tissue refractoriness to thyroid hormone action. Raised energy expenditure and hyperphagia are recognized features of hyperthyroidism, but the effects of comparable hyperthyroxinemia in RTH patients are unknown. Here, we show that resting energy expenditure (REE) was substantially increased in adults and children with THRB mutations. Energy intake in RTH subjects was increased by 40%, with marked hyperphagia particularly evident in children. Rates of muscle TCA cycle flux were increased by 75% in adults with RTH, whereas rates of ATP synthesis were unchanged, as determined by 13C/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mitochondrial coupling index between ATP synthesis and mitochondrial rates of oxidation (as estimated by the ratio of ATP synthesis to TCA cycle flux) was significantly decreased in RTH patients. These data demonstrate that basal mitochondrial substrate oxidation is increased and energy production in the form of ATP synthesis is decreased in the muscle of RTH patients and that resting oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled in this disorder. Furthermore, these observations suggest that mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to increased REE in patients with RTH, due to tissue selective retention of thyroid hormone receptor α sensitivity to elevated thyroid hormone levels. PMID:20237409

  3. Dietary (Poly)phenols, Brown Adipose Tissue Activation, and Energy Expenditure: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Mele, Laura; Bidault, Guillaume; Mena, Pedro; Crozier, Alan; Brighenti, Furio; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making the control of body weight and its complications a primary health problem. Diet has long played a first-line role in preventing and managing obesity. However, beyond the obvious strategy of restricting caloric intake, growing evidence supports the specific antiobesity effects of some food-derived components, particularly (poly)phenolic compounds. The relatively new rediscovery of active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has generated interest in this tissue as a novel and viable target for stimulating energy expenditure and controlling body weight by promoting energy dissipation. This review critically discusses the evidence supporting the concept that the antiobesity effects ascribed to (poly)phenols might be dependent on their capacity to promote energy dissipation by activating brown adipose tissue. Although discrepancies exist in the literature, most in vivo studies with rodents strongly support the role of some (poly)phenol classes, particularly flavan-3-ols and resveratrol, in promoting energy expenditure. Some human data currently are available and most are consistent with studies in rodents. Further investigation of effects in humans is warranted. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Posture Allocation Revisited: Breaking the Sedentary Threshold of Energy Expenditure for Obesity Management

    PubMed Central

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.; Dulloo, Abdul G.

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that low-intensity physical activities of daily life play an important role in achieving energy balance and that their societal erosion through substitution with sedentary (mostly sitting) behaviors, whether occupational or for leisure, impact importantly on the obesity epidemic. This has generated considerable interest for better monitoring, characterizing, and promoting countermeasures to sedentariness through a plethora of low-level physical activities (e.g., active workstations, standing desks, sitting breaks), amid the contention that altering posture allocation (lying, sitting, standing) can modify energy expenditure to impact upon body weight regulation and health. In addressing this contention, this paper first revisits the past and more recent literature on postural energetics, with particular emphasis on potential determinants of the large inter-individual variability in the energy cost of standing and the impact of posture on fat oxidation. It subsequently analyses the available data pertaining to various strategies by which posture allocations, coupled with light physical activity, may increase energy expenditure beyond the sedentary threshold, and their relevance as potential targets for obesity management. PMID:28690547

  5. Association between estimated total daily energy expenditure and stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihye; Baek, Heejoon; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and nutritional status is one of the major prognostic factors of ALS. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and progression of disease in ALS patients, as well as sex differences in TDEE. Patients with ALS (N = 370) were diagnosed according to El Escorial criteria and categorized into stage 2, 3, or 4 using a clinical staging system. TDEEs were calculated by summing resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity. REE was calculated using equations of Harris-Benedict or Mifflin St. Jeor, and physical activity was calculated using the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, a physical activity coefficient, or adding 30% of REE. TDEE significantly decreased with progression of ALS stage and did not vary by sex. Actual energy intake was lower than TDEE in patients in all stages and lowest in patients with stage 3 ALS. Comparing TDEEs 1 to 5, TDEE 2 decreased with progression of ALS stage and was similar to the average TDEE. The present study suggests that TDEE decreases with progression of ALS, and patients consume insufficient energy compared with required intake at all stages, particularly at stage 3, suggesting that nutrition support should be started at least before stage 3. Additionally, among the five equations for TDEE, TDEE 2 could be the best for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of energy expenditure in adolescents when playing new generation and sedentary computer games: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Design Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Setting Research laboratories. Participants Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Procedure Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Main outcome measure Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kJ/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kJ/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kJ/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kJ/kg/min) (P<0.001). Predicted energy expenditure was at least 65.1 (95% confidence interval 47.3 to 82.9) kJ/kg/min greater when playing active rather than sedentary games. Conclusions Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children. PMID:18156227

  7. Relationship between the ability to recognize energy intake and expenditure, and blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yumi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Homma, Takeshi; Tanaka, Heizo; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the association between an individual's ability to recognize his/her energy intake and energy expenditure with the status of diabetes mellitus (DM) control, we conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 62 outpatients with type 2 DM (46 men and 16 women), aged 33-77 years, from two hospitals in Tokyo in 1999. A dietitian-interviewer asked the patients to estimate their probable energy intake and expenditure in recent days (self-estimated energy intake and expenditure, respectively). Subsequently, a dietary survey was conducted to estimate the patient's energy intake by a self-recorded method with a dietitian's interview for three continuous business days; the physical exercise levels were measured using a pedometer with multiple-memory accelerometers for one week. The percentage of subjects whose self-estimated energy intake was within +/-10% of the dietary survey-based energy intake became significantly lower as the control status worsened (35.6, 12.9, and 11.1% in the first, second, and third tertile groups of HbA(1c), respectively; P = 0.015). Similar but non-significant results were observed for the energy expenditure (P = 0.35). Since the control status of DM was worse among patients who could not recognize their amount of caloric intake and expenditure, a training program to improve such recognition ability may be needed.

  8. Effect of protein overfeeding on energy expenditure measured in a metabolic chamber.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Covington, Jeffrey; Rood, Jennifer; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Martin, Corby K; Smith, Steven R

    2015-03-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) increases with overfeeding, but it is unclear how rapidly this is related to changes in body composition, increased body weight, or diet. The objective was to quantify the effects of excess energy from fat or protein on energy expenditure of men and women living in a metabolic chamber. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 25 participants who ate ∼40% excess energy for 56 d from 5%, 15%, or 25% protein diets. Twenty-four-hour EE (24EE) and sleeping EE (SleepEE) were measured on days 1, 14, and 56 of overfeeding and on day 57 while consuming the baseline diet (usually day 57). Metabolic and molecular markers of muscle metabolism were measured in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens. In the low-protein diet group whose excess energy was fat, the 24EE and SleepEE did not increase during the first day of overfeeding. When extra energy contained protein, both 24EE and SleepEE increased in relation to protein intake (r = 0.50, P = 0.02). The 24EE over 8 wk in all 3 groups was correlated with protein intake (r = 0.60, P = 0.004) but not energy intake (r = 0.16; P = 0.70). SleepEE was unchanged by overfeeding in the low-protein diet group, and baseline surface area predicted increased 24EE in this group. Protein and fat oxidation were reciprocally related during overfeeding. Observed 24EE was higher than predicted on days 1 (P ≤ 0.05), 14 (P = 0.0001), and 56 (P = 0.0007). There was no relation between change in fat mass and change in EE. Excess energy, as fat, does not acutely increase 24EE, which rises slowly as body weight increases. Excess energy as protein acutely stimulates 24EE and SleepEE. The strongest relation with change in 24EE was the change in energy expenditure in tissue other than muscle or fat-free mass. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Differences in energy expenditure during high-speed versus standard-speed yoga: A randomized sequence crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Potiaumpai, Melanie; Martins, Maria Carolina Massoni; Rodriguez, Roberto; Mooney, Kiersten; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-12-01

    To compare energy expenditure and volume of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during a high-speed yoga and a standard-speed yoga program. Randomized repeated measures controlled trial. A laboratory of neuromuscular research and active aging. Sun-Salutation B was performed, for eight minutes, at a high speed versus and a standard-speed separately while oxygen consumption was recorded. Caloric expenditure was calculated using volume of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Difference in energy expenditure (kcal) of HSY and SSY. Significant differences were observed in energy expenditure between yoga speeds with high-speed yoga producing significantly higher energy expenditure than standard-speed yoga (MD=18.55, SE=1.86, p<0.01). Significant differences were also seen between high-speed and standard-speed yoga for volume of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced. High-speed yoga results in a significantly greater caloric expenditure than standard-speed yoga. High-speed yoga may be an effective alternative program for those targeting cardiometabolic markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight control and breast cancer prevention: are the effects of reduced energy intake equivalent to those of increased energy expenditure?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin

    2004-12-01

    Failure to prevent adult weight gain is associated with an elevated risk for breast cancer. In general, an increase in body weight is accounted for by excess energy intake relative to energy expenditure. Efforts to control weight gain usually involve either a reduction in energy intake via dietary energy restriction (DER), an increase in energy expenditure via physical activity (PA), or both. However, it is not clear whether preventing weight gain by DER, PA, or their combination has comparable effects on the risk for cancer. Results from preclinical models indicate that DER results in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent inhibition of experimentally induced breast cancer. PA also inhibits mammary carcinogenesis, but whether these effects depend on energy balance is not clear. Emerging evidence indicates that reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 (IGF-1) and elevated levels of corticosterone may be involved in DER-mediated protection against cancer; however, conditions of PA reported to protect against cancer can actually increase circulating levels of IGF-1. Mechanistic studies have shown that DER inhibits cell proliferation, creates a proapoptotic environment, and reduces blood vessel density adjacent to premalignant and malignant mammary pathologies; comparable information is not available from preclinical studies of PA and carcinogenesis. Additional research is needed to investigate the equivalence of DER, PA, and their combination in breast cancer prevention under comparable conditions of energy balance.

  11. Quality of life and energy expenditure in transplant recipient football players.

    PubMed

    Totti, V; Zancanaro, M; Trerotola, M; Nanni Costa, A; Antonetti, T; Anedda, A; Roi, G S

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is a highly motivating leisure activity with important potential as a health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess the "on the field" energy expenditure during football games and the quality of life of transplant recipients practicing football. Twenty-two recipients of kidney (n = 11), bone marrow (n = 7), liver (n = 3) or corneal (n = 1) transplantations had an overall mean age of 37 ± 9 years, body mass index of 23.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2), and time after transplantation of 9.3 ± 6.4 years. They were compared with 25 healthy football players of mean age 41 ± 10 years and body mass index of 26.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2). There were no significant differences between transplant recipients and controls regarding mean energy expenditure (393 ± 113 vs 392 ± 132 kcal/h) number of steps (3.978 ± 1.317 vs 3.933 ± 1.563) during, and capillary blood lactate concentrations (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 5.2 ± 1.3 mmol/L) after the matches. The SF-36 questionnaire administered before the matches showed transplant recipient players to score significantly worse in the scales of general (P < .05) and mental health (P < .01). This study indicated that transplant recipients involved in football matches attained a level of energy expenditure and a quality of life consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Football has the potential to be implemented as a permanent health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients.

  12. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  13. Energy expenditure and body composition of chronically maintained decerebrate rats in the fed and fasted condition.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S; Kelso, Emily W; Flatt, William P; Bartness, Timothy J; Grill, Harvey J

    2006-03-01

    The contribution of the caudal brainstem to adaptation to starvation was tested using chronically maintained decerebrate (CD) and neurologically intact controls. All rats were gavage fed an amount of diet that maintained weight gain in controls. CD rats were subjected to a two-stage surgery to produce a complete transection of the neuroaxis at the mesodiencephalic juncture. One week later, the rats were housed in an indirect calorimeter, and 24 h energy expenditure was measured for 4 d. One half of each of the CD and control groups was then starved for 48 h. Fed CD rats maintained a lower body temperature (35 C), a similar energy expenditure per unit fat-free mass but an elevated respiratory quotient compared with controls. They gained less weight, had 20% less lean tissue, and had 60% more fat than controls. Circulating leptin, adiponectin, and insulin were elevated, glucose was normal, but testosterone was dramatically reduced. Responses to starvation were similar in CD and controls; they reduced energy expenditure, decreased respiratory quotient, indicating lipid utilization, defended body temperature, mobilized fat, decreased serum leptin and insulin, and regulated plasma glucose. These data clearly demonstrate that the isolated caudal brainstem is sufficient to mediate many aspects of the energetic response to starvation. In intact animals, these responses may be refined by a contribution by more rostral brain areas or by communication between fore- and hind-brain. In the absence of communication from the forebrain, the caudal brainstem is inadequate for maintenance of testosterone levels or lean tissue in fed or fasted animals.

  14. Effect of diet composition and weight loss on resting energy expenditure in the POUNDS LOST study.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Lilian; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R; Ryan, Donna H; de Souza, Russell J; Loria, Catherine M; Champagne, Catherine M; Williamson, Donald A; Sacks, Frank M

    2012-12-01

    Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but it is unclear whether dietary macronutrient composition affects this reduction. We hypothesized that energy expenditure might be modulated by macronutrient composition of the diet. The Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST study, a prospective, randomized controlled trial in 811 overweight/obese people who were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to diets containing 20en% or 40en% fat and 15en% or 25en% protein (diets with 65%, 55%, 45%, and 35% carbohydrate) provided the data to test this hypothesis. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured at baseline, 6, and 24 months using a ventilated hood. REE declined at 6 months by 99.5 ± 8.0 kcal/day in men and 55.2 ± 10.6 kcal/day in women during the first 6 months. This decline was related to the weight loss, and there was no difference between the diets. REE had returned to baseline by 24 months, but body weight was still 60% below baseline. Measured REE at 6 months was significantly lower than the predicted (-18.2 ± 6.7 kcal/day) and was the result of significant reductions from baseline in the low-fat diets (65% or 55% carbohydrate), but not in the high fat diet groups. By 24 months the difference had reversed with measured REE being slightly but significantly higher than predicted (21.8 ± 10.1 kcal/day). In conclusion, we found that REE fell significantly after weight loss but was not related to diet composition. Adaptive thermogenesis was evident at 6 months, but not at 24 months.

  15. Effect of diet composition and weight loss on resting energy expenditure in the POUNDS LOST study

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; de Souza, Russell; Loria, Catherine M.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Williamson, Donald; Sacks, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but it is unclear whether dietary macronutrient composition affects this reduction. We hypothesized that energy expenditure might be modulated by macronutrient composition of the diet. The POUNDS LOST study, a prospective, randomized controlled trial in 811 overweight/obese people who were randomized in a 2×2 design to diets containing 20en% or 40en% fat and 15en% or 25en% (diets with 65%, 55%, 45% and 35% carbohydrate) provided the data to test this hypothesis. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured at baseline, 6 and 24 months using a ventilated hood. REE declined at 6 months by 99.5±8.0 kcal/d in men and 55.2±10.6 kcal/d in women during the first 6 months. This decline was related to the weight loss, and there was no difference between the diets. REE