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Sample records for energy expenditure

  1. Energy expenditure in caving.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Rinaldi, Andrea C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  2. Energy expenditure in caving

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225–287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000–1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue. PMID:28158208

  3. Neural Control of Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Morrison, Christopher D.; Yu, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    The continuous rise in obesity is a major concern for future healthcare management. Many strategies to control body weight focus on a permanent modification of food intake with limited success in the long term. Metabolism or energy expenditure is the other side of the coin for the regulation of body weight, and strategies to enhance energy expenditure are a current focus for obesity treatment, especially since the (re)-discovery of the energy depleting brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Conversely, several human illnesses like neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, or autoimmune deficiency syndrome suffer from increased energy expenditure and severe weight loss. Thus, strategies to modulate energy expenditure to target weight gain or loss would improve life expectancies and quality of life in many human patients. The aim of this book chapter is to give an overview of our current understanding and recent progress in energy expenditure control with specific emphasis on central control mechanisms. PMID:26578523

  4. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  5. Resting energy expenditure among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Mitsuhashi, F; Sugiyama, M

    2002-10-01

    1. Resting energy expenditure (REE) provides appropriate basic data for the calculation of energy requirements. 2. The REE of 6498 subjects according to sex and age (1 year stratification), with a minimum of 10 subjects per group, was measured systematically using the easy portable calorimeter (Metavine; Vine, Tokyo, Japan). 3. The REE or the REE/kg according to age and sex was observed to obtain the amount of standard deviation (20-25%). 4. The REE/kg for male and female subjects was maintained at a steady level after the age of 15 years and was estimated to be around 29 kcal/kg.

  6. Control of energy expenditure in humans.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, K R

    2017-03-01

    Energy expenditure is determined by body size and body composition and by food intake and physical activity. Body size and body composition are the determinants of resting energy expenditure. Higher weight results in higher energy requirement through a higher resting requirement because of a higher maintenance cost of a larger body. Activity-induced energy expenditure is the most variable component of total energy expenditure. Smaller and leaner subjects generally move more as activity energy expenditure in larger subjects is not higher in proportion to the cost of moving with a higher body weight. Food intake induces changes in energy expenditure as a function of changes in body size and body composition. In addition, energy restriction induces an adaptive reduction of energy expenditure through a lowering of tissue metabolism and a reduction of body movement. An exercise-induced increase in activity expenditure is a function of the training status. In untrained subjects, exercise induces a larger increase in total energy expenditure than can be attributed to the energy cost of a training program. Trained subjects have a higher performance at the same expenditure through a higher exercise economy.

  7. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  8. Energy expenditure, nutrition and growth.

    PubMed

    Wiskin, A E; Davies, J H; Wootton, S A; Beattie, R M

    2011-06-01

    Fundamental to appropriate nutritional prescription is an understanding of the conditions necessary for growth that include the requirements for energy in health and illness. Energy requirements need to be met by the dietary intake to prevent weight loss. A positive energy balance will result in weight gain. Energy requirement includes several components; the largest is the basal metabolic rate, although physical activity level and the energy needs of growth are important components. All aspects of energy metabolism are likely to be influenced by illness and impact on energy balance. Changes in dietary intake and physical activity are observed clinically but poorly described in most childhood illnesses. Changes in metabolic rate are poorly described in part owing to methodological problems. This review explores changes in energy expenditure associated with health and disease, highlights the lack of evidence underpinning this aspect of practical nutritional support and provides the clinician with a guide to the factors involved in estimating energy requirements, emphasising the importance of measuring the child's response to nutritional support.

  9. Aggregrate consumer expenditures on energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, D.W.

    1984-08-01

    This report presents a new economic model for the allocation of aggregate consumer expenditures on energy in the United States. Our model is based on a theory of consumer behavior involving two stages. In the first stage total expenditures are allocated between and nonenergy commodities. Allocation depends on the price of energy, prices of all nonenergy commodities, and the level of total expenditure. Total energy expenditure in the second stage is allocated among individual types of energy. The second stage allocation depends on the prices of individual types of energy and the level of total energy expenditure. Our econometric model can be applied to the generation of projection of aggregrate energy demand in the United States. Projected future energy prices, the future level and distribution of total energy expenditure, and the future demographic development of the population for projections. The model can also be used to make projections for individual consumer groups within the United States, classified by total energy expenditure and by demographic characteristics. Finally, it can be integrated into a model of energy and nonenergy expenditures to provide a complete model of aggregate consumer behavior. Our econometric model of aggregate consumer behavior can be applied to the generation of projection of demand individual types of energy and for all nonenergy commodities in the United States.

  10. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. State energy price and expenditure report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The five economic sectors used in SEPER correspond to those used in SEDR and are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Documentation in appendices describe how the price estimates are developed, provide conversion factors for measures used in the energy analysis, and include a glossary. 65 tabs.

  12. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    PubMed

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity.

  13. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  14. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  15. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  16. State energy price and expenditure report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-28

    The average price paid for energy in the United States in 1986 was $7.19 per million Btu, down significantly from the 1985 average of $8.42 per million Btu. While total energy consumption increased slightly to 74.3 quadrillion Btu from 1985 to 1986, expenditures fell from $445 billion to $381 billion. Energy expenditures per capita in 1986 were $1578, down significantly from the 1985 rate. In 1986, consumers used only 94 percent as much energy per person as they had in 1970, but they spent 3.9 times as much money per person on energy as they had in 1970. By state, energy expenditures per capita in 1986 ranged from the lowest rate of $1277 in New York to the highest of $3108 in Alaska. Of the major energy sources, electricity registered the highest price per million Btu ($19.00), followed by petroleum ($5.63), natural gas ($3.97), coal ($1.62), and nuclear fuel ($0.70). The price of electricity is relatively high because of significant costs for converting energy from various forms (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, hydroelectric energy, and geothermal energy) into electricity, and additional, somewhat smaller costs for transmitting and distributing electricity to end users. In addition, electricity is a premium form of energy because of its flexibility and clean nature at energy consumers' sites.

  17. High Throughput Danio Rerio Energy Expenditure Assay.

    PubMed

    Williams, Savannah Y; Renquist, Benjamin J

    2016-01-27

    Zebrafish are an important model organism with inherent advantages that have the potential to make zebrafish a widely applied model for the study of energy homeostasis and obesity. The small size of zebrafish allows for assays on embryos to be conducted in a 96- or 384-well plate format, Morpholino and CRISPR based technologies promote ease of genetic manipulation, and drug treatment by bath application is viable. Moreover, zebrafish are ideal for forward genetic screens allowing for novel gene discovery. Given the relative novelty of zebrafish as a model for obesity, it is necessary to develop tools that fully exploit these benefits. Herein, we describe a method to measure energy expenditure in thousands of embryonic zebrafish simultaneously. We have developed a whole animal microplate platform in which we use 96-well plates to isolate individual fish and we assess cumulative NADH2 production using the commercially available cell culture viability reagent alamarBlue. In poikilotherms the relationship between NADH2 production and energy expenditure is tightly linked. This energy expenditure assay creates the potential to rapidly screen pharmacological or genetic manipulations that directly alter energy expenditure or alter the response to an applied drug (e.g. insulin sensitizers).

  18. Resting energy expenditure is not influenced by classical music

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Ebba; Helgegren, Hannah; Slinde, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Obesity shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and a decrease in energy expenditure has been suggested to be one of the risk factors for developing obesity. An increase in resting energy expenditure would have a great impact on total energy expenditure. This study shows that classical music do not influence resting energy expenditure compared to complete silence. Further studies should be performed including other genres of music and other types of stress-inductors than music. PMID:16135245

  19. Chair-based fidgeting and energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Koepp, Gabriel A; Moore, Graham K; Levine, James A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sedentariness is associated with chronic health conditions, impaired cognitive function and obesity. Work contributes significantly to sedentariness because many work tasks necessitate sitting. Few sustained solutions exist to reverse workplace sedentariness. Here, we evaluated a chair and an under-table device that were designed to promote fidgeting while seated. Our hypothesis was that an under-table leg-fidget bar and/or a fidget-promoting chair significantly increased energy expenditure. We compared these devices with chair-based exercise and walking. Materials and methods We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 16 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, an under-desk device that encourages leg fidgeting and a fidget-promoting chair. We compared outcomes with chair-based exercise and walking. Results Energy expenditure increased significantly while using either an under-table leg-fidget bar or a fidget-promoting chair, when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 76±31 kcal/hour; leg-fidget bar, 98±42 kcal/hour (p<0.001); fidget chair, 89±40 kcal/hour (p=0.03)). However, heart rate did not increase significantly in either case. Bouts of exercise performed while seated provided energetic and heart rate equivalency to walking at 2 mph. Conclusions Chairs and devices that promote fidgeting can increase energy expenditure by ∼20–30% but not increase heart rate. Dynamic sitting may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while at work. PMID:27900194

  20. Energy expenditure, energy intake, and weight loss in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T; Dvorak, R V

    2000-02-01

    Alzheimer disease is one of the leading causes of death among older individuals. Unexplained weight loss and cachexia are frequent clinical findings in patients with Alzheimer disease. Thus, it has been postulated that Alzheimer disease may be associated with dysfunction in body weight regulation. This brief review examines the interrelations among energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition in Alzheimer disease. We explored whether abnormally high daily energy expenditures, low energy intakes, or both contribute to unexplained weight loss and a decline in nutritional status. Specifically, we considered studies that examined energy intake, body composition, and daily energy expenditure and its components. The application of doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry to understand the etiology of wasting has increased our knowledge regarding the relation among energy expenditure, physical activity levels, and body composition in Alzheimer disease patients. Although the number of studies are limited, results do not support the notion that a hypermetabolic state contributes to unexplained weight loss in Alzheimer disease, even in cachectic patients. Recent findings are presented suggesting an association between abnormally elevated levels of physical activity energy expenditure and elevated appendicular skeletal muscle mass and energy intake in Alzheimer disease patients. Clinical strategies aimed at developing lifestyle and dietary interventions to maintain adequate energy intake, restore energy balance, and maintain skeletal muscle mass should be a future area of investigation in Alzheimer disease research.

  1. Closing the energy gap through passive energy expenditure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of obesity is a gradual process occurring when daily energy intake persistently exceeds energy expenditure (EE). Typical daily weight gain is attributed to an energy gap or excess of stored energy of 15 to 50 kcal/day. Sedentary jobs likely promote weight gain. Standing may be a passive ...

  2. Spatiotemporal drivers of energy expenditure in a coastal marine fish.

    PubMed

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J

    2017-03-01

    Animal behavior and energy expenditure often vary significantly across the landscape, and quantifying energy expenditure over space and time provides mechanistic insight into ecological dynamics. Yet, spatiotemporal variability in energy expenditure has rarely been explored in fully aquatic species such as fish. Our objective was to quantify spatially explicit energy expenditure for a tropical marine teleost fish, bonefish (Albula vulpes), to examine how bonefish energetics vary across landscape features and temporal factors. Using a swim tunnel respirometer, we calibrated acoustic accelerometer transmitters implanted in bonefish to estimate their metabolic rates and energy expenditure, and applied this technology in situ using a fine-scale telemetry system on a heterogeneous reef flat in Puerto Rico. Bonefish energy expenditure varied most among habitats, with significant interactions between habitat and temporal factors (i.e., diel period, tide state, season). The energy expenditure was generally highest in shallow water habitats (i.e., seagrass and reef crest). Variation in activity levels was the main driver of these differences in energy expenditure, which in shallow, nearshore habitats is likely related to foraging. Bonefish moderate energy expenditure across seasonal fluctuations in temperature, by selectively using shallow nearshore habitats at moderate water temperatures that correspond with their scope for activity. Quantifying how animals expend energy in association with environmental and ecological factors can provide important insight into behavioral ecology, with implications for bioenergetics models.

  3. Energy Expenditure in People with Diabetes Mellitus: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Nathan; Peyrot, Nicolas; Caderby, Teddy; Verkindt, Chantal; Dalleau, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure (BEE) than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new BEE estimate equations. Moreover, studies showed a lower activity energy expenditure in patients with DM than in healthy ones. This difference may be partially explained by patient with DMs poor compliance with exercise recommendations and their greater participation in lower intensity activities. These specificities of PA need to be taken into account in the development of adapted tools to assess activity energy expenditure and daily energy expenditure in people with DM. Few estimation tools are tested in subjects with DM and this results in a lack of accuracy especially for their particular patterns of activity. Thus, future studies should examine sensors coupling different technologies or method that is specifically designed to accurately assess energy expenditure in patients with diabetes in daily life. PMID:28066773

  4. Development of a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Kate; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Olds, Tim S

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper presents a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for use in scoring physical activity questionnaires and estimating energy expenditure levels in youth. Method/Results Modeled after the adult Compendium of Physical Activities, the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth contains a list of over 200 activities commonly performed by youth and their associated MET intensity levels. A review of existing data collected on the energy cost of youth performing activities was undertaken and incorporated into the compendium. About 35% of the activity MET levels were derived from energy cost data measured in youth and the remaining MET levels estimated from the adult compendium. Conclusion The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is useful to researchers and practitioners interested in identifying physical activity and energy expenditure values in children and adolescents in a variety of settings. PMID:18782458

  5. Estimating Energy Expenditure using Individualized, Power-Specific Gross Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Homestead, E P; Peterman, J E; Kane, L A; Contini, E J; Byrnes, W C

    2016-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine if using an individual's power-specific gross efficiency improves the accuracy of estimating energy expenditure from cycling power. 30 subjects performed a graded cycling test to develop 4 gross efficiencies: individual power-specific gross efficiencies, a group mean power-specific gross efficiency, individual fixed gross efficiencies, and a group mean fixed gross efficiency. Energy expenditure was estimated from power using these different gross efficiencies and compared to measured energy expenditure during moderate- and hard-intensity constant-power and 2 variable-power cycling bouts. Estimated energy expenditures using individual or group mean power-specific gross efficiencies were not different from measured energy expenditure across all cycling bouts (p>0.05). To examine the intra-individual variability of the estimates, absolute difference scores (absolute value of estimated minus measured energy expenditure) were compared, where values closer to zero represent more accurate individual estimates. The absolute difference score using individual power-specific gross efficiencies was significantly lower compared to the other gross efficiencies across all cycling bouts (p<0.01). Significant and strong correlations (r≥0.97, p<0.001) were found across all cycling bouts between estimated and measured energy expenditures using individual power-specific gross efficiencies. In conclusion, using an individual's power-specific gross efficiency significantly improves their energy expenditure estimate across different power outputs.

  6. Estimating Energy Expenditure with the RT3 Triaxial Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Rodgers, Anthony; Rush, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The RT3 is a relatively new triaxial accelerometer that has replaced the TriTrac. The aim of this study was to validate the RT3 against doubly labeled water (DLW) in a free-living, mixed weight sample of adults. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was estimated by…

  7. From the past to future: from energy expenditure to energy intake to energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Geisler, C

    2017-03-01

    Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates. As far as regulation of energy balance is concerned there is recent evidence that EE rather than body weight is under tight control. Biologically, EE is maintained within a narrow physiological range. An EE-set point has been proposed as the width between the upper and lower boundaries of the individual EE range. Regulation of EE may fail in very obese patients with an EI above their upper boundary and after drastic weight loss when patients may go far below their lower EE boundary and thus are loosing control. In population studies, fat-free mass (FFM) and its composition (that is, the proportion of high to low metabolic rate organs) are major determinants of EE. It is tempting to speculate that tight biologic control of EE is related to brain energy need, which is preserved at the cost of peripheral metabolism. There is a moderate heritability of EE, which is independent of the heritability of FFM. In future, metabolic phenotyping should focus on the EE-FFM relationship rather than on EE-values alone.

  8. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  9. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  10. Energy Expenditure in Obese Children with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Ashley H.; Lomenick, Jefferson P.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Wang, Wenli; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cone, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Context Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-1a) develop early-onset obesity. The abnormality in energy expenditure and/or energy intake responsible for this weight gain is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure in children with PHP-1a compared with obese controls. Patients We studied 6 obese females with PHP-1a and 17 obese female controls. Patients were recruited from a single academic center. Measurements Resting energy expenditure and thermogenic effect of a high fat meal were measured using whole room indirect calorimetry. Body composition was assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin and hemoglobin A1C were measured. Results Children with PHP-1a had decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls (P <0.01). After adjustment for fat free mass, the PHP-1a group’s resting energy expenditure was 346.4 kcals/day less than obese controls (95% CI [−585.5 to −106.9], P <0.01). The thermogenic effect of food, expressed as percent increase in postprandial energy expenditure over resting energy expenditure, was lower in PHP-1a patients than obese controls but did not reach statistical significance (absolute reduction of 5.9%, 95% CI [−12.2% to 0.3%], P = 0.06). Conclusions Our data indicate that children with PHP-1a have decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls and that may contribute to the development of obesity in these children. These patients may also have abnormal diet-induced thermogenesis in response to a high fat meal. Understanding the causes of obesity in PHP-1a may allow for targeted nutritional or pharmacologic treatments in the future. PMID:23229731

  11. Bicycle messengers: energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bernmark, Eva; Wiktorin, Christina; Svartengren, Magnus; Lewné, Marie; Aberg, Samuel

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution for bicycle messengers. Relationships between heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake, and between HR and pulmonary ventilation (VE) for each participant were established in laboratory tests. Air pollution and HR were measured during one working day. The total oxygen uptake was then described as the total energy expenditure in Joule (J) and in multiples of the energy expenditure at rest (MET). The mean energy expenditure during a working day (8 h) was 12 MJ, (4.8 MET). The level of air pollution exposure when cycling seemed to be comparable with the levels of exposure when sitting inside a vehicle. The VE during cycling was four times higher than resting value. Increased VE led to increased exposure to air pollution.

  12. Energy expenditure characteristics of weight lifting: 2 sets to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christopher B; Leary, Michael P; Tenbraak, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the work performed and energy expenditure characteristics within and among 2 sets of the bench press at 70%, 80%, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). For both sets fatigue was the end point. We asked: do multiple sets affect subsequent work output along with aerobic, anaerobic, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) contributions? Ten males participated. Work was significantly less for the 2nd set within the 70% and 80% protocols, but not the 90% protocol. Anaerobic (glycolytic) energy expenditure was less for the 2nd set within all protocols. However, within all protocols, the work / energy expenditure ratio was not different between sets. Overall work was significantly different among protocols, becoming less as the weight lifted was increased: 70%, 637.1 ± 122.4 J; 80%, 512.4 ± 93.4 J; 90%, 324.7 ± 92.6 J (p < 0.001). EPOC was not different among protocols after the 1st set, 2nd set, or combined overall. Moreover, the overall EPOC did not correlate with overall work performed (r = 0.31, p = 0.11). EPOC overall did correlate with aerobic (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and anaerobic (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) energy expenditures. In terms of a work / energy expenditure ratio, the least amount of completed work at 90% 1RM required greater energy expenditure as compared with 70% and 80% because of an EPOC that is similar for all. As more work is completed (i.e., lower weight, more repetitions), aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditures appear to increase accordingly, yet absolute EPOC remains essentially unchanged, contributing less to the overall energy expenditure.

  13. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H.; Carter, Stephen J.; Plaisance, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity related energy expenditure (AEE, kcal/d) and physical activity index (ARTE) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by a decrease in AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free living energy expenditure. Methods 140 pre-menopausal women underwent an average of 25 pound weight loss during an 800 kcal/day diet of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times/wk (40 min/d), another resistance trained 3 times/wk (10 exercises/2 sets x10 repetitions) and the third group did not exercise. DXA was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry to measure resting (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. Results TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no exercise group, but not for the aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. The resistance trainers increased ARTE. Heart rate and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Conclusion Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free living energy expenditure separate from the exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increased physical activity, while ease and economy in walking associates with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. PMID:25606816

  14. Determination of Resting Energy Expenditure After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    equation. In a recent survey of 65 burn centers, Graves et al10 discovered that the most commonly used for- mulas include the Harris -Benedict formula11...accuracy by Table 1. Equations for estimating daily energy expenditure for subjects with burns Predictive Equations for Energy Expenditure Harris -Benedict...predicted by using nine pre- dictive equations including 30 kcal/kg, 35 kcal/kg, 40 kcal/kg, the Harris -Benedict equation multiplied by an injury factor

  15. Recent trends in energy research and development expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Kee, J.R.; Lackey, K.C.; Cronin, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    Objective of this report is to analyze recent trends in industrial research and development (R and D) spending. Emphasis is on energy and energy conservation R and D expenditures. This objective was achieved by performing two tasks. The first task was to collect and assemble data on industrial R and D expenditures in the US from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Office of Industrial Studies. The second task was to graphically and numerically analyze recent trends in total, energy-related, and energy conservation R and D expenditures. Total R and D and energy R and D expenditures for the period 1975 to 1982 were analyzed for each of nine industries: chemicals, petroleum, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, aircraft and missiles, professional and scientific instruments, other manufacturing, nonmanufacturing. Energy conservation R and D expenditures for this period were analyzed for each of six industries: chemicals, primary metals, machinery, electrical equipment, other manufacturing, and nonmanufacturing. In addition, for all three types of R and D, trends in expenditures for all industries combined were analyzed.

  16. Validation of a wireless accelerometer network for energy expenditure measurement.

    PubMed

    Montoye, Alexander H K; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a wireless network of accelerometers and compare it to a hip-mounted accelerometer for predicting energy expenditure in a semi-structured environment. Adults (n = 25) aged 18-30 engaged in 14 sedentary, ambulatory, exercise, and lifestyle activities over a 60-min protocol while wearing a portable metabolic analyser, hip-mounted accelerometer, and wireless network of three accelerometers worn on the right wrist, thigh, and ankle. Participants chose the order and duration of activities. Artificial neural networks were created separately for the wireless network and hip accelerometer for energy expenditure prediction. The wireless network had higher correlations (r = 0.79 vs. r = 0.72, P < 0.01) but similar root mean square error (2.16 vs. 2.09 METs, P > 0.05) to the hip accelerometer. Measured (from metabolic analyser) and predicted energy expenditure from the hip accelerometer were significantly different for the 3 of the 14 activities (lying down, sweeping, and cycle fast); conversely, measured and predicted energy expenditure from the wireless network were not significantly different for any activity. In conclusion, the wireless network yielded a small improvement over the hip accelerometer, providing evidence that the wireless network can produce accurate estimates of energy expenditure in adults participating in a range of activities.

  17. A re-evaluation of energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Quebbeman, E J; Ausman, R K; Schneider, T C

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional support regimens are currently based on estimates of energy expenditure, and these estimates are then increased substantially in patients with severe trauma or sepsis because of a presumed hypermetabolic state. Forty-four patients on parenteral nutrition were evaluated using indirect calorimetry to measure actual energy expenditure, and an attempt was made to correlate metabolic rate with clinical diagnosis. We found no statistical difference in metabolic rates between groups of patients classified as malnourished, stressed, or catabolic, If high levels of nonprotein energy substrates are to be administered to a catabolic or "hypermetabolic" patient group, the justification must be on a basis other than a significant increase in actual rate of energy expenditure. PMID:6800313

  18. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  19. A Comparison of Predictive Equations of Energy Expenditure and Measured Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kross, Erin K.; Sena, Matthew; Schmidt, Karyn; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Multiple equations exist for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE). The accuracy of these for estimating caloric requirements of critically ill patients is not clear, especially for obese patients. We sought to compare REE, calculated with published formulas, with measured REE in a cohort of mechanically-ventilated subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively identified all mechanically-ventilated patients with measured body mass index (BMI) who underwent indirect calorimetry (IC) in the ICU. Limits of agreement and Pitman’s test of difference in variance were performed to compare REE by equations with REE measured by IC. RESULTS 927 patients were identified, including 401 obese patients. There was bias and poor agreement between measured REE and REE predicted by the Harris-Benedict, Owen, ACCP, and Mifflin equations (p > 0.05). There was poor agreement between measured and predicted REE by the Ireton-Jones equation, stratifying by gender. Ireton-Jones was the only equation which was unbiased, for men and those in weight categories I and II. In all cases except Ireton-Jones, predictive equations underestimated measured REE. CONCLUSION None of these equations accurately estimated measured REE in this group of mechanically-ventilated patients, most underestimating caloric needs. Development of improved predictive equations for adequate assessment of energy needs is needed. PMID:22425340

  20. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  1. Daily energy balance in children and adolescents. Does energy expenditure predict subsequent energy intake?

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Aucouturier, Julien; Doucet, Éric; Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals.

  2. Effects of Energy Needs and Expenditures on U.S. Public Schools. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy; Porch, Rebecca; Farris, Elizabeth; Fowler, William

    This report provides national estimates on energy needs and expenditures of U.S. public school districts. The survey provides estimates of Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 energy expenditures, FY 2001 energy budgets and expenditures, and FY 2002 energy budgets; methods used to cover energy budget shortfalls in FY 2001; and possible reasons for those…

  3. Modeling energy expenditure in children and adolescents using quantile regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in energy expenditure (EE). Study objective is to apply quantile regression (QR) to predict EE and determine quantile-dependent variation in covariate effects in nonobese and obes...

  4. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  5. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  6. Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nawi, N M; Yahya, A; Chen, G; Bockari-Gevao, S M; Maraseni, T N

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production.

  7. Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles. Besides, energy expenditure is often abnormally high in ALS, and this is associated with a negative prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory neck muscles and reduce resting energy expenditure (REE). Methods Using indirect calorimetry, we measured REE during spontaneous breathing (REESB) and NIV (REENIV) in 16 ALS patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction, during the first 3 months of NIV. Measured values were compared with predicted REE (REEpred)(Harris-Benedict equation). Results NIV abolished inspiratory neck muscle activity. Even though our patients were not hypermetabolic, on the contrary, with a REESB that was lower than REEpred (average 11%), NIV did reduce energy expenditure. Indeed, median REENIV, in this population with a mean body mass index of 21.4 kg.m-2, was 1149 kcal/24 h [interquartile 970-1309], lower than REESB (1197 kcal/24 h, 1054-1402; mean difference 7%; p = 0.03, Wilcoxon). REESB and REENIV were correlated with forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure. Conclusions NIV can reduce energy expenditure in ALS patients probably by alleviating the ventilatory burden imposed on inspiratory neck muscles to compensate diaphragm weakness. It remains to be elucidated whether or not, in which population, and to what extent, NIV can be beneficial in ALS through the corresponding reduction in energy expenditure. PMID:24507664

  8. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  9. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

  10. A minireview of effects of green tea on energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Türközü, Duygu; Tek, Nilüfer Acar

    2017-01-22

    In recent years, individuals have begun to tend more frequently to some natural and herbal products to be used alone or as a combination with diet and exercise for ensuring the weight loss. Green tea is the leading one of these products. In some studies, it is reported that the green tea causes an increase in thermogenesis and substrate with fat oxidation by affecting on the sympathetic nervous system. It is reported that green tea has two main components that are associated with energy expenditure. One of them is caffeine and the other is catechin content. Each of these two components has an impact on energy mechanism separately. In this minireview article, mechanisms of action and effects of caffeine and catechin, which are found in green tea composition, on energy expenditure are assessed.

  11. Height-adjustable desks: Energy expenditure, liking, and preference of sitting and standing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sedentary occupations likely promote weight gain. Standing may be a passive means of increasing energy expenditure throughout the workday. The purpose was to determine the energy expenditure and liking of word processing while sitting and standing. Methods: Energy expenditure was measu...

  12. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    PubMed

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  13. Physiological responses and energy expenditure during competitive fencing.

    PubMed

    Milia, Raffaele; Roberto, Silvana; Pinna, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Sanna, Irene; Omeri, Massimo; Piredda, Simone; Migliaccio, Gianmario; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Fencing is an Olympic sport in which athletes fight one against one using bladed weapons. Contests consist of three 3-min bouts, with rest intervals of 1 min between them. No studies investigating oxygen uptake and energetic demand during fencing competitions exist, thus energetic expenditure and demand in this sport remain speculative. The aim of this study was to understand the physiological capacities underlying fencing performance. Aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of lactic anaerobic metabolism were determined in 15 athletes (2 females and 13 males) during a simulation of fencing by using a portable gas analyzer (MedGraphics VO2000), which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and heart rate. Blood lactate was assessed by means of a portable lactate analyzer. Average group energetic expenditure during the simulation was (mean ± SD) 10.24 ± 0.65 kcal·min(-1), corresponding to 8.6 ± 0.54 METs. Oxygen uptakeand heart rate were always below the level of anaerobic threshold previously assessed during the preliminary incremental test, while blood lactate reached its maximum value of 6.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L(-1) during the final recovery minute between rounds. Present data suggest that physical demand in fencing is moderate for skilled fencers and that both aerobic energy metabolism and anaerobic lactic energy sources are moderately recruited. This should be considered by coaches when preparing training programs for athletes.

  14. Measured energy expenditure in critically ill infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Chwals, W J; Lally, K P; Woolley, M M; Mahour, G H

    1988-05-01

    Technological limitations have impeded accurate energy expenditure assessment in critically ill infants and young children. Instead, a predicted energy expenditure (PEE) is derived based on weight, heat loss, activity, growth requirements, and degree of stress. This study compared actual measured energy expenditure (MEE) with conventional predicted values in 20 critically ill infants and children using a validated metabolic cart designed for use in this age group. All patients were studied either within 4 days of major surgery or during an acute disease process necessitating intensive care. All were severely stressed clinically and were studied while mechanically ventilated in a temperature-controlled environment. The study interval ranged from 1 to 12 hr and averaged 4 hr after a stabilization period of 30 min. The mean MEE was significantly lower than the mean PEE (52.2 +/- 16 kcal/kg/day vs 101.8 +/- 17 kcal/kg/day, P less than 0.001) with a mean MEE/PEE of 52.6 +/- 17% (range 26 to 92%). In a subgroup of 7 paralyzed patients, the mean MEE was significantly lower than in the 13 nonparalyzed patients when compared with PEE and predicted basal metabolic rate (PBMR). The coefficient of variance, conventionally recognized to be approximately 15% for PEE, averaged 6.35% for MEE in this study. These data indicate that if PEE is used as the sole guide for caloric repletion in the stressed infant or child, these patients will be substantially overfed.

  15. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  16. Energy expenditure of swimmers during high volume training.

    PubMed

    Trappe, T A; Gastaldelli, A; Jozsi, A C; Troup, J P; Wolfe, R R

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the total energy expenditure (TEE) of swimmers during high volume training (17.5 +/- 1.0 km.d-1) using the doubly labeled water method. Five female swimmers (age, 19 +/- 1 yr; height, 178.3 +/- 2.2 cm; weight 65.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were administered a dose of 2H2(18)O and monitored for 5 days. Training consisted of two sessions per day, lasting a total of 5-6 h. Energy intake (EI) was calculated from dietary records. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured on a non-training day and averaged 7.7 +/- 0.5 MJ.d-1 (1840 +/- 130 kcal.d-1). There were no changes in body weight (day 1, 65.4 +/- 1.6; day 5, 65.2 +/ 1.5 kg) over the measurement period. TEE of the swimmers during the training period averaged 23.4 +/- 2.1 MJ.d-1 (5593 +/- 495 kcal.d-1). EI averaged 13.1 +/- 1.0 MJ.d-1 (3136 +/- 227 kcal.d-1), implying a negative energy balance of 43 +/- 2%. TEE expressed as a multiple of REE was 3.0 +/- 0.2. The results of this investigation describe the total energy demands of high volume swimming training, which may be used to address the dietary concerns of the competitive swimming athlete.

  17. Resting Energy Expenditure Is Decreased in Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1A

    PubMed Central

    Danzig, Jennifer; Groleau, Veronique; McCormack, Shana; Casella, Alex; Harrington, Jennifer; Sochett, Etienne; Tershakovec, Andrew; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Levine, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is caused by loss-of-function mutations on the maternally inherited GNAS allele and is associated with early-onset obesity, neurocognitive defects, and resistance to multiple hormones. The role of energy intake vs central regulation of energy expenditure in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) in participants with PHP1A. Design: We assessed REE, biochemical, endocrine, and auxological status of 12 participants with PHP1A who had normal or elevated body mass index; controls were a cohort of 156 obese participants. Setting: This study took place at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia and Sick Children's Hospital in Toronto. Main Outcome Measures: REE as a percent of predicted REE was the outcome measure. Results: PHP1A participants had normal endocrine status while receiving appropriate hormone replacement therapy, but had significantly decreased REE as a percent of predicted REE (using the modified Schofield equation). Conclusion: Our results are consistent with REE being the principal cause of obesity in PHP1A rather than it being caused by excessive energy intake or endocrine dysfunction. PMID:26709970

  18. Laboratory and field methods for measuring human energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R

    2012-01-01

    Energetics research is central to the field of human biology. Energy is an important currency for measuring adaptation, because both its acquisition and allocation for biological processes have important implications for survival and reproduction. Recent technological and methodological advances are now allowing human biologists to study variation in energy dynamics with much greater accuracy in a wide variety of ecological contexts. This article provides an overview of the methods used for measuring human energy expenditure (EE) and considers some of the important ecological and evolutionary questions that can be explored from an energetics perspective. Basic principles of calorimetry are first presented, followed by an overview of the equipment used for measuring human EE and work capacity. Methods for measuring three important dimensions of human EE-resting metabolic rate, working/exercising EE, and total EE-are then presented, highlighting key areas of ongoing research.

  19. Effects of robotic knee exoskeleton on human energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Gams, Andrej; Petric, Tadej; Debevec, Tadej; Babic, Jan

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies discuss the design and control of various exoskeleton mechanisms, yet relatively few address the effect on the energy expenditure of the user. In this paper, we discuss the effect of a performance augmenting exoskeleton on the metabolic cost of an able-bodied user/pilot during periodic squatting. We investigated whether an exoskeleton device will significantly reduce the metabolic cost and what is the influence of the chosen device control strategy. By measuring oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, heart rate, blood oxygenation, and muscle EMG during 5-min squatting series, at one squat every 2 s, we show the effects of using a prototype robotic knee exoskeleton under three different noninvasive control approaches: gravity compensation approach, position-based approach, and a novel oscillator-based approach. The latter proposes a novel control that ensures synchronization of the device and the user. Statistically significant decrease in physiological responses can be observed when using the robotic knee exoskeleton under gravity compensation and oscillator-based control. On the other hand, the effects of position-based control were not significant in all parameters although all approaches significantly reduced the energy expenditure during squatting.

  20. Comparative accuracy of fitness tracking modalities in quantifying energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Dondzila, Christopher; Garner, Dena

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the accuracy of wrist-worn, consumer-grade pedometers and earbud sensor technology in quantifying energy expenditure. Nineteen participants (24.6 ± 3.1 years) performed 5 min exercise stages on a treadmill (80.5 m/min, 107.3 m/min, 134.1 m/min and 160.9 m/min) while measuring energy expenditure via the Fitbit Charge pedometer and Jabra Sport Pulse Wireless Earbuds, comparing with indirect calorimetry. Paired samples t-tests were used to calculate differences and Pearson correlations to examine associations between kcals measured from the Fitbit and Jabra earbuds from indirect calorimetry. Results indicate significant underestimations of kcals for both devices at all speeds except one (Jabra earbuds at 107.3 m/min). Moderate correlations were observed for the Fitbit at 107.3 m/min and 107.3 m/min, and 134.1 m/min for the Jabra earbuds. Both devices considerably underestimated kcals, suggesting that caution be used when incorporating such data into fitness/health goals.

  1. Energy expenditure on recreational visits to different natural environments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Lewis R; White, Mathew P; Taylor, Adrian H; Herbert, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity poses a significant challenge to physical and mental health. Environmental approaches to tackle physical inactivity have identified natural environments as potentially important public health resources. Despite this, little is known about characteristics of the activity involved when individuals visit different types of natural environment. Using Natural England's Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment Survey, we examined 71,603 English respondents' recreational visits to natural environments in the past week. Specifically, we examined the intensity of the activities they undertook on the visits (METs), the duration of their visit, and the associated total energy expenditure (MET minutes). Visits to countryside and urban greenspace environments were associated with more intense activities than visits to coastal environments. However, visits to coastal environments were associated with the most energy expenditure overall due to their relatively long duration. Results differed by the urbanity or rurality of the respondent's residence and also how far respondents travelled to their destination. Knowledge of what types of natural environment afford the highest volumes and intensities of physical activity could inform landscape architecture and exercise prescriptions. Isolating activity-supporting characteristics of natural environments that can be translated into urban design is important in providing physical activity opportunities for those less able to access expansive environments.

  2. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  3. Information Integration and Energy Expenditure in Gene Regulation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Javier; Wong, Felix; DePace, Angela; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-06-30

    The quantitative concepts used to reason about gene regulation largely derive from bacterial studies. We show that this bacterial paradigm cannot explain the sharp expression of a canonical developmental gene in response to a regulating transcription factor (TF). In the absence of energy expenditure, with regulatory DNA at thermodynamic equilibrium, information integration across multiple TF binding sites can generate the required sharpness, but with strong constraints on the resultant "higher-order cooperativities." Even with such integration, there is a "Hopfield barrier" to sharpness; for n TF binding sites, this barrier is represented by the Hill function with the Hill coefficient n. If, however, energy is expended to maintain regulatory DNA away from thermodynamic equilibrium, as in kinetic proofreading, this barrier can be breached and greater sharpness achieved. Our approach is grounded in fundamental physics, leads to testable experimental predictions, and suggests how a quantitative paradigm for eukaryotic gene regulation can be formulated.

  4. Scaling of free-ranging primate energetics with body mass predicts low energy expenditure in humans.

    PubMed

    Simmen, Bruno; Darlu, Pierre; Hladik, Claude Marcel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Studies of how a mammal's daily energy expenditure scales with its body mass suggest that humans, whether Westerners, agro-pastoralists, or hunter-gatherers, all have much lower energy expenditures for their body mass than other mammals. However, non-human primates also differ from other mammals in several life history traits suggestive of low energy use. Judging by field metabolic rates of free-ranging strepsirhine and haplorhine primates with different lifestyle and body mass, estimated using doubly labeled water, primates have lower energy expenditure than other similar-sized eutherian mammals. Daily energy expenditure in humans fell along the regression line of non-human primates. The results suggest that thrifty energy use could be an ancient strategy of primates. Although physical activity is a major component of energy balance, our results suggest a need to revise the basis for establishing norms of energy expenditure in modern humans.

  5. National patterns of energy demand and expenditures by Hispanics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research, at Argonne National Laboratory, being done for the Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) of the US Department of Energy. Under its legislative mandate MI is required to assess the impact of government policy, programs, and actions on US minorities. In line with this mission Argonne is currently involved in characterizing and analyzing the patterns of energy demand and expenditures of minorities. A major barrier associated with this task is the availability of sufficient data. With the possible exception of blacks, analysis of the patterns of energy demand for most minority population categories is all but impossible because of small sample sizes. The major source of residential energy consumption data, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, only collects data on 5000 to 7000 households. For many minority population categories, this number of observations make any meaningful statistical analysis at least at the regional Census level practically impossible, with any further refinement of the analysis becoming even more difficult. In this paper our primary purpose is to describe the patterns of energy demand for Hispanics and nonhispanics but ancillary to that briefly present one possible solution to the data availability problem.

  6. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  7. [Energy expenditure of anesthesiologists estimated from number of steps].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Kato, Shinya; Morita, Shigeho

    2009-12-01

    The physical activity can be mainly evaluated by the number of steps. We estimated the energy expenditure from the number of steps in the different job specifications of anesthesiologists using digital pedometer Walk Life CH-200 (Crecer Co, Tokyo, Japan). The average number of steps in the anesthesiologists (n = 41, 31 +/- 5 yr. old, M/F = 34/7, body mass index (BMI) 23 +/- 4 kg x m(-2)] during daily working hours was 7,778 and almost as same as the average number of steps in Japanese people for one day or manufacturer during daily working hours. The average numbers of steps in the residents (n = 26, 29 +/- 4 yr. old, M/F = 20/6, BMI 21 +/- 2 kg x m(-2)), instructors (n = 10, 35 +/- 5 yr. old, M/F = 9/1, BMI 24 +/- 4 kg x m(-2)), and supervisors (n = 5, 38 +/- 6 yr. old, M/F = 5/0, BMI 27 +/- 3 kg x m(-2)) were 7,249, 8,399, and 11,599, respectively. The number of steps in supervisor was significantly more than resident. Our present findings about the numbers of steps in the anesthesiologists were contrary to the general reports that the number of step in manager is less than laborer and the number of step decreases with aging and increasing BMI. No sex difference with the numbers of steps in anesthesiologists was contrary to the general report that the number of step in male is more than female. From our present results, the energy expenditure estimated from the number of steps in anesthesiologists, residents, instructors, and supervisors might correspond to 285, 246, 331, and 516 kcal, respectively.

  8. A practical method of estimating energy expenditure during tennis play.

    PubMed

    Novas, A M P; Rowbottom, D G; Jenkins, D G

    2003-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical method of estimating energy expenditure (EE) during tennis. Twenty-four elite female tennis players first completed a tennis-specific graded test in which five different Intensity levels were applied randomly. Each intensity level was intended to simulate a "game" of singles tennis and comprised six 14 s periods of activity alternated with 20 s of active rest. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously and each player's rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded at the end of each intensity level. Rate of energy expenditure (EE(VO2)) during the test was calculated using the sum of VO2 during play and the 'O2 debt' during recovery, divided by the duration of the activity. There were significant individual linear relationships between EE(VO2) and RPE, EE(VO2) and HR (r > or = 0.89 & r > or = 0.93; p < 0.05). On a second occasion, six players completed a 60-min singles tennis match during which VO2, HR and RPE were recorded; EE(VO2) was compared with EE predicted from the previously derived RPE and HR regression equations. Analysis found that EE(VO2) was overestimated by EE(RPE) (92 +/- 76 kJ x h(-1)) and EE(HR) (435 +/- 678 kJ x h(-1)), but the error of estimation for EE(RPE) (t = -3.01; p = 0.03) was less than 5% whereas for EE(HR) such error was 20.7%. The results of the study show that RPE can be used to estimate the energetic cost of playing tennis.

  9. Total energy expenditure estimated using foot-ground contact pedometry.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Reed W; Buller, Mark J; Santee, William R; Yokota, Miyo; Weyand, Peter G; Delany, James P

    2004-02-01

    Routine walking and running, by increasing daily total energy expenditure (TEE), can play a significant role in reducing the likelihood of obesity. The objective of this field study was to compare TEE estimated using foot-ground contact time (Tc)-pedometry (TEE(PEDO)) with that measured by the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eight male U.S. Marine test volunteers [27 +/- 4 years of age (mean +/- SD); weight = 83.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height = 182.2 +/- 4.5 cm; body fat = 17.0 +/- 2.9%] engaged in a field training exercise were studied over 2 days. TEE(PEDO) was defined as (calculated resting energy expenditure + estimated thermic effect of food + metabolic cost of physical activity), where physical activity was estimated by Tc-pedometry. Tc-pedometry was used to differentiate inactivity, activity other than exercise (i.e., non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or NEAT), and the metabolic cost of locomotion (M(LOCO)), where M(LOCO) was derived from total weight (body weight + load weight) and accelerometric measurements of Tc. TEE(PEDO) data were compared with TEEs measured by the DLW (2H2(18)O) method (TEE(DLW)): TEE(DLW) = 15.27 +/- 1.65 MJ/day and TEE(PEDO) = 15.29 +/- 0.83 MJ/day. Mean bias (i.e., TEE(PEDO) - TEE(DLW)) was 0.02 MJ, and mean error (SD of individual differences between TEE(PEDO) and TEE(DLW)) was 1.83 MJ. The Tc-pedometry method provided a valid estimate of the average TEE of a small group of physically active subjects where walking was the dominant activity.

  10. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  11. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population. PMID:26193314

  12. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  13. Effects of dietary composition of energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced energy expenditure following weight loss is thought to contribute to weight gain. However, the effect of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance has not been studied. To examine the effects of 3 diets differing widely in macronutrient composition and glycemic...

  14. Energy Expenditure during Physically Interactive Video Game Playing in Male College Students with Different Playing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Katie; Lillie, Tia; Taylor, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Researchers have yet to explore the effect of physically interactive video game playing on energy expenditure, despite its potential for meeting current minimal daily activity and energy expenditure recommendations. Participants and Methods: Nineteen male college students-12 experienced "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) players and 7…

  15. Prediction of Energy Expenditure from Wrist Accelerometry in People with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Motl, Robert W.; Foley, John T.; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS…

  16. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  17. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  18. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training. PMID:28212449

  19. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training.

  20. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing.

    PubMed

    Blanksby, B A; Reidy, P W

    1988-06-01

    Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interaction and main effects on the sex and dance factors. Overall mean heart rate values for the Modern dance sequence were 170 beats.min-1 and 173 beats.min-1 for males and females respectively. During the Latin American sequence mean overall heart rate for males was 168 beats.min-1 and 177 beats.min-1 for females. Predicted mean gross values of oxygen consumption for the males were 42.8 +/- 5.7 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 42.8 +/- 6.9 ml.kg-1 min-1 for the Modern and Latin American sequences respectively. Corresponding gross estimates of oxygen consumption for the females were 34.7 +/- 3.8 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 ml.kg-1 min-1. Males were estimated to expand 54.1 +/- 8.1 kJ.min-1 of energy during the Modern sequence and 54.0 +/- 9.6 kJ.min-1 during the Latin American sequence, while predicted energy expenditure for females was 34.7 +/- 3.8 kJ.min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 kJ.min-1 for Modern and Latin American dance respectively. The results suggested that both males and females were dancing at greater than 80% of their maximum oxygen consumption. A significant difference between males and females was observed for predicted gross and net values of oxygen consumption (in L.min-1 and ml.kg-1 min-1).

  1. Measuring energy expenditure in clinical populations: rewards and challenges.

    PubMed

    Psota, T; Chen, K Y

    2013-05-01

    The measurement of energy expenditure (EE) is recommended as an important component of comprehensive clinical nutrition assessments in patients with altered metabolic states, who failed to respond to nutrition support and with critical illness that require individualized nutrition support. There is evidence that EE is variable in patients with metabolic diseases, such as chronic renal disease, cirrhosis, HIV, cancer cachexia, cystic fibrosis and patients under intensive care. By using appropriate techniques and interpretations of basal or resting EE, clinicians can facilitate the adequate nutrition support with minimum negative impacts from under- or overfeeding in these patients. This review is based on our current understanding of the different components of EE and the techniques to measure them, and to re-examine advances and challenges to determine energy needs in clinical populations with more focuses on the obese, pediatric and elderly patients. In addition, technological advances have expanded the choices of market-available equipments for assessing EE, which also bring specific challenges and rewards in selecting the right equipment with specific performance criteria. Lastly, analytical considerations of interpreting the results of EE in the context of changing body composition are presented and discussed.

  2. Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

  3. Regulation of energy expenditure by estradiol in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Shea, Karen L; Wolfe, Pamela; Wierman, Margaret E; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2015-11-01

    Suppressing sex hormones in women for 1 wk reduces resting energy expenditure (REE). The effects of more chronic suppression on REE and other components of total energy expenditure (TEE), and whether the reduction in REE is specifically due to loss of estradiol (E2), are not known. We compared the effects of 5 mo of sex hormone suppression (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy, GnRHAG) with placebo (PL) or E2 add-back therapy on REE and the components of TEE. Premenopausal women received GnRHAG (leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg/mo) and were randomized to receive transdermal therapy that was either E2 (0.075 mg/d; n = 24; means ± SD, aged = 37 ± 8 yr, BMI = 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 21; aged = 34 ± 9 yr, BMI = 26.8 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)). REE was measured by using a metabolic cart, and TEE, sleep EE (SEE), exercise EE (ExEE, 2 × 30 min bench stepping), non-Ex EE (NExEE), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured by using whole room indirect calorimetry. REE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [mean (95% CI), -54 (-98, -15) kcal/d], but not GnRHAG+E2 [+6 (-33, +45) kcal/d] (difference in between-group changes, P < 0.05). TEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-128 (-214, -41) kcal/d] and GnRHAG+E2 [-96 (-159, -32) kcal/d], with no significant difference in between-group changes (P = 0.55). SEE decreased similarly in both GnRHAG+PL [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.03) kcal/min] and GnRHAG+E2 [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.02) kcal/min]. ExEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-0.46 (-0.79, -0.13) kcal/min], but not GnRHAG+E2 [-0.30 (-0.65, +0.06) kcal/min]. There were no changes in TEF or NExEE in either group. In summary, chronic pharmacologic suppression of sex hormones reduced REE and this was prevented by E2 therapy.

  4. Regulation of energy expenditure by estradiol in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Kathleen M.; Shea, Karen L.; Wolfe, Pamela; Wierman, Margaret E.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Suppressing sex hormones in women for 1 wk reduces resting energy expenditure (REE). The effects of more chronic suppression on REE and other components of total energy expenditure (TEE), and whether the reduction in REE is specifically due to loss of estradiol (E2), are not known. We compared the effects of 5 mo of sex hormone suppression (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy, GnRHAG) with placebo (PL) or E2 add-back therapy on REE and the components of TEE. Premenopausal women received GnRHAG (leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg/mo) and were randomized to receive transdermal therapy that was either E2 (0.075 mg/d; n = 24; means ± SD, aged = 37 ± 8 yr, BMI = 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m2) or placebo (n = 21; aged = 34 ± 9 yr, BMI = 26.8 ± 6.2 kg/m2). REE was measured by using a metabolic cart, and TEE, sleep EE (SEE), exercise EE (ExEE, 2 × 30 min bench stepping), non-Ex EE (NExEE), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured by using whole room indirect calorimetry. REE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [mean (95% CI), −54 (−98, −15) kcal/d], but not GnRHAG+E2 [+6 (−33, +45) kcal/d] (difference in between-group changes, P < 0.05). TEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [−128 (−214, −41) kcal/d] and GnRHAG+E2 [−96 (−159, −32) kcal/d], with no significant difference in between-group changes (P = 0.55). SEE decreased similarly in both GnRHAG+PL [−0.07 (−0.12, −0.03) kcal/min] and GnRHAG+E2 [−0.07 (−0.12, −0.02) kcal/min]. ExEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [−0.46 (−0.79, −0.13) kcal/min], but not GnRHAG+E2 [−0.30 (−0.65, +0.06) kcal/min]. There were no changes in TEF or NExEE in either group. In summary, chronic pharmacologic suppression of sex hormones reduced REE and this was prevented by E2 therapy. PMID:26338457

  5. Energy expenditure estimates during school physical education: Potential vs. reality?

    PubMed

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-02-01

    Schools are salient locations for addressing the high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Most US states require some physical education (PE) and the energy expended during PE has potential to positively affect energy balance. We previously used 2012 data to examine state policies for PE to calculate estimated student energy expenditure (EEE) under potential (i.e., recommendations followed) and existing conditions. Since then, data have been updated on both state policies and the conduct of PE. Based on updated data, we used PE frequency, duration, and intensity, student mass, and class size to calculate EEE for the delivery of PE under (a) national professional recommendations, (b) 2016 state policies, and (c) school-reported conditions. Although increased from four years ago, only 22 states currently have policies mandating specific PE minutes. EEE over 10years shows the enormous impact PE could have on energy balance. For the average recommended-size PE class, resultant annual EEE based on professional recommendations for min/week far exceeded those based on average state (n=22) policy for min/week by 44.5% for elementary, 62.7% for middle, and 59.5% for high schools. Since 2012 more states adopted policies for PE minutes than dropped them, however, EEE over 10years showed a net loss of 1200kcal/student. With no overall recent improvements in state PE policy and professional recommendations currently not being met, PE remains an underutilized public health resource for EEE. Strong policies, coupled with enhanced accountability of PE teachers and administrators, are needed to ensure PE exists in schools.

  6. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  7. Energy expenditure and balance during spaceflight on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Hoyt, R. W.; Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. E.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to measure human energy expenditure (EE) during spaceflight on a shuttle mission by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; 2) to determine whether the astronauts were in negative energy balance during spaceflight; 3) to use the comparison of change in body fat as measured by the intake DLW EE, 18O dilution, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to validate the DLW method for spaceflight; and 4) to compare EE during spaceflight against that found with bed rest. Two experiments were conducted: a flight experiment (n = 4) on the 16-day 1996 life and microgravity sciences shuttle mission and a 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest study with controlled dietary intake (n = 8). The bed rest study was designed to simulate the flight experiment and included exercise. Two EE determinations were done before flight (bed rest), during flight (bed rest), and after flight (recovery). Energy intake and N balance were monitored for the entire period. Results were that body weight, water, fat, and energy balance were unchanged with bed rest. For the flight experiment, decreases in weight (2.6 +/- 0.4 kg, P < 0.05) and N retention (-2. 37 +/- 0.45 g N/day, P < 0.05) were found. Dietary intake for the four astronauts was reduced in flight (3,025 +/- 180 vs. 1,943 +/- 179 kcal/day, P < 0.05). EE in flight was 3,320 +/- 155 kcal/day, resulting in a negative energy balance of 1,355 +/- 80 kcal/day (-15. 7 +/- 1.0 kcal. kg-1. day-1, P < 0.05). This corresponded to a loss of 2.1 +/- 0.4 kg body fat, which was within experimental error of the fat loss determined by 18O dilution (-1.4 +/- 0.5 kg) and DEXA (-2.4 +/- 0.4 kg). All three methods showed no change in body fat with bed rest. In conclusion, 1) the DLW method for measuring EE during spaceflight is valid, 2) the astronauts were in severe negative energy balance and oxidized body fat, and 3) in-flight energy (E) requirements can be predicted from the equation: E = 1.40 x resting

  8. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts.

    PubMed

    Kresge, Daniel L; Melanson, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Chewing has been associated with improved satiation and satiety, but little is known about the metabolic impact of gum chewing. We tested the hypothesis that gum chewing would increase energy expenditure (EE) and reduce respiratory exchange ratio (RER) before and after a controlled test meal. Seventeen males and 13 females (age 21.5 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum for a total of 1 h (3 sessions of 20 min) on the test day (GC) and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). EE and RER were measured by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast. Subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured energy needs, and then postprandial EE and RER were measured for 3 h. Blood glucose (GLC) was measured in the fasting and postprandial states at regular intervals. Fasting EE was higher during GC (1.23 ± 0.04 kcal/min; 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) than during NG (1.17 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p = 0.016). Postprandial EE was also higher during GC (1.46 ± 0.05 kcal/min) than during NG (1.42 ± 0.05 kcal/min; p = 0.037). Fasting and postprandial RER and GLC did not differ between GC and NG. The findings demonstrate that GC is associated with higher fasting and postprandial EE without altering blood glucose or substrate oxidation as measured by RER. These data suggest that gum chewing potentially could influence short-term energy balance in this population; however, longer-term research is needed.

  9. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  10. Using Smartphone Sensors for Improving Energy Expenditure Estimation.

    PubMed

    Pande, Amit; Zhu, Jindan; Das, Aveek K; Zeng, Yunze; Mohapatra, Prasant; Han, Jay J

    2015-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) estimation is an important factor in tracking personal activity and preventing chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Accurate and real-time EE estimation utilizing small wearable sensors is a difficult task, primarily because the most existing schemes work offline or use heuristics. In this paper, we focus on accurate EE estimation for tracking ambulatory activities (walking, standing, climbing upstairs, or downstairs) of a typical smartphone user. We used built-in smartphone sensors (accelerometer and barometer sensor), sampled at low frequency, to accurately estimate EE. Using a barometer sensor, in addition to an accelerometer sensor, greatly increases the accuracy of EE estimation. Using bagged regression trees, a machine learning technique, we developed a generic regression model for EE estimation that yields upto 96% correlation with actual EE. We compare our results against the state-of-the-art calorimetry equations and consumer electronics devices (Fitbit and Nike+ FuelBand). The newly developed EE estimation algorithm demonstrated superior accuracy compared with currently available methods. The results were calibrated against COSMED K4b2 calorimeter readings.

  11. Using Smartphone Sensors for Improving Energy Expenditure Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jindan; Das, Aveek K.; Zeng, Yunze; Mohapatra, Prasant; Han, Jay J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) estimation is an important factor in tracking personal activity and preventing chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. Accurate and real-time EE estimation utilizing small wearable sensors is a difficult task, primarily because the most existing schemes work offline or use heuristics. In this paper, we focus on accurate EE estimation for tracking ambulatory activities (walking, standing, climbing upstairs, or downstairs) of a typical smartphone user. We used built-in smartphone sensors (accelerometer and barometer sensor), sampled at low frequency, to accurately estimate EE. Using a barometer sensor, in addition to an accelerometer sensor, greatly increases the accuracy of EE estimation. Using bagged regression trees, a machine learning technique, we developed a generic regression model for EE estimation that yields upto 96% correlation with actual EE. We compare our results against the state-of-the-art calorimetry equations and consumer electronics devices (Fitbit and Nike+ FuelBand). The newly developed EE estimation algorithm demonstrated superior accuracy compared with currently available methods. The results were calibrated against COSMED K4b2 calorimeter readings. PMID:27170901

  12. Global positioning system watches for estimating energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Hongu, Nobuko; Orr, Barron J; Roe, Denise J; Reed, Rebecca G; Going, Scott B

    2013-11-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) watches have been introduced commercially, converting frequent measurements of time, location, speed (pace), and elevation into energy expenditure (EE) estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare EE estimates of 4 different GPS watches (Forerunner, Suunto, Polar, Adeo), at various walking speeds, with EE estimate from a triaxial accelerometer (RT3), which was used as a reference measure in this study. Sixteen healthy young adults completed the study. Participants wore 4 different GPS watches and an RT3 accelerometer and walked at 6-minute intervals on an outdoor track at 3 speeds (3, 5, and 7 km/hr). The statistical significance of differences in EE between the 3 watches was assessed using linear contrasts of the coefficients from the overall model. Reliability across trials for a given device was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients as estimated in the mixed model. The GPS watches demonstrated lower reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) across trials when compared with the RT3, particularly at the higher speed, 7 km/hr. Three GPS watches (Forerunner, Polar, and Suunto) significantly and consistently underestimated EE compared with the reference EE given by the RT3 accelerometer (average mean difference: Garmin, -50.5%; Polar, -41.7%; and Suunto, -41.7%; all p < 0.001). Results suggested that caution should be exercised when using commercial GPS watches to estimate EE in athletes during field-based testing and training.

  13. Energy expenditure, aerodynamics and medical problems in cycling. An update.

    PubMed

    Faria, I E

    1992-07-01

    The cyclist's ability to maintain an extremely high rate of energy expenditure for long durations at a high economy of effort is dependent upon such factors as the individual's anaerobic threshold, muscle fibre type, muscle myoglobin concentration, muscle capillary density and certain anthropometric dimensions. Although laboratory tests have had some success predicting cycling potential, their validity has yet to be established for trained cyclists. Even in analysing the forces producing propulsive torque, cycling effectiveness cannot be based solely on the orientation of applied forces. Innovations of shoe and pedal design continue to have a positive influence on the biomechanics of pedalling. Although muscle involvement during a complete pedal revolution may be similar, economical pedalling rate appears to differ significantly between the novice and racing cyclist. This difference emanates, perhaps, from long term adaptation. Air resistance is by far the greatest retarding force affecting cycling. The aerodynamics of the rider and the bicycle and its components are major contributors to cycling economy. Correct body posture and spacing between riders can significantly enhance speed and efficiency. Acute and chronic responses to cycling and training are complex. To protect the safety and health of the cyclist there must be close monitoring and cooperation between the cyclist, coach, exercise scientist and physician.

  14. Energy expenditure, sex, and endogenous fuel availability in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Søren; Guo, ZengKui; Albu, Jeanine B.; Klein, Samuel; O’Brien, Peter C.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis supplies circulating FFAs, which largely meet lipid fuel needs; however, excess FFAs, can contribute to the adverse health consequences of obesity. Because “normal” FFA release has not been well defined, average (mean of 4 days) basal FFA release and its potential regulation factors were measured in 50 lean and obese adults (25 women). Resting energy expenditure (REE), but not body composition, predicted most of the interindividual variation in FFA release. There was a significant, positive linear relationship between palmitate release and REE; however, women released approximately 40% more FFA than men relative to REE. Neither plasma palmitate concentrations nor respiratory quotient by indirect calorimetry differed between men and women. Glucose release rates were not different in men and women whether related to REE or fat free mass. These findings indicate that nonoxidative FFA clearance is greater in women than in men. This could be an advantage at times of increased fuel needs. We conclude that “normal” adipose tissue lipolysis is different in men and women and that the fuel export role of adipose tissue in obesity will need to be reassessed. PMID:12671047

  15. Effect of endurance training on gross energy expenditure during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A W; Poehlman, E T; Corrigan, D L

    1989-08-01

    We compared the effect of endurance exercise training on gross energy expenditure (GEE) during steady-state exercise in 20 younger men (31.2 +/- 0.6 years) and 20 middle-aged men (49.2 +/- 1.1 years). The subjects trained for eight months. The training program consisted of three 45-min walking and jogging exercise sessions per week at an intensity of approximately 60-85% of the heart rate at peak VO2. We administered bicycle ergometer tests at 0, 4, and 8 months into training. Participants exercised at a power output of 100 W for 10 min using a pedaling frequency of 50 rpm. We determined GEE (kcal/min) by measuring the oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio. We found a significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in GEE (0.7-1.3 kcal/min) following 4 months of endurance training in both age groups, with a further reduction (p less than 0.05) noted in only the middle-aged group at month 8. We found no difference (p greater than 0.05) in GEE between the younger and middle-aged men. We conclude that chronic exercise may modify GEE during a submaximal exercise bout and that this adaptation is similar in magnitude in younger and middle-aged men.

  16. Measuring slope to improve energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2013-03-01

    This technical note describes methods to improve activity energy expenditure estimates by using a multi-sensor board (MSB) to measure slope. Ten adults walked over a 4-km (2.5-mile) course wearing an MSB and mobile calorimeter. Energy expenditure was estimated using accelerometry alone (base) and 4 methods to measure slope. The barometer and global positioning system methods improved accuracy by 11% from the base (p < 0.05) to 86% overall. Measuring slope using the MSB improves energy expenditure estimates during field-based activities.

  17. Modeling energy expenditure in children and adolescents using quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunwen; Adolph, Anne L; Puyau, Maurice R; Vohra, Firoz A; Butte, Nancy F; Zakeri, Issa F

    2013-07-15

    Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in energy expenditure (EE). Study objective is to apply quantile regression (QR) to predict EE and determine quantile-dependent variation in covariate effects in nonobese and obese children. First, QR models will be developed to predict minute-by-minute awake EE at different quantile levels based on heart rate (HR) and physical activity (PA) accelerometry counts, and child characteristics of age, sex, weight, and height. Second, the QR models will be used to evaluate the covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR across the conditional EE distribution. QR and ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are estimated in 109 children, aged 5-18 yr. QR modeling of EE outperformed OLS regression for both nonobese and obese populations. Average prediction errors for QR compared with OLS were not only smaller at the median τ = 0.5 (18.6 vs. 21.4%), but also substantially smaller at the tails of the distribution (10.2 vs. 39.2% at τ = 0.1 and 8.7 vs. 19.8% at τ = 0.9). Covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR on EE for the nonobese and obese children differed across quantiles (P < 0.05). The associations (linear and quadratic) between PA and HR with EE were stronger for the obese than nonobese population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, QR provided more accurate predictions of EE compared with conventional OLS regression, especially at the tails of the distribution, and revealed substantially different covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR on EE in nonobese and obese children.

  18. Multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in heat production, or energy expenditure (EE). Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), is a nonparametric method that estimates complex nonlinear relationships by a seri...

  19. Assessing the Energy Expenditure of Elite Female Soccer Players: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total and exercise energy expenditure of elite female soccer players during a training week. Eight elite female soccer players wore SenseWear Mini Armbands (SWAs) for 7 consecutive days during the preseason phase of a national league competition. In addition, players wore 15-Hz GPSports tracking devices during 4 training sessions and a friendly game. Total energy expenditure, exercise energy expenditure, and training and game demands were collected from the SWA and GPSports devices. Mean daily energy expenditure for the game day, training days, and rest days were 12,242 kJ (SD = 603 kJ), 11,692 (SD = 274 kJ), and 9,516 (SD = 369 kJ), respectively, with significant differences shown between activities (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.357), as well as between individual days (p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.517). Mean values for energy expenditure during the friendly game (mean = 2,695 kJ, SD = 301 kJ) and training sessions (mean = 2,538 kJ, SD = 316 kJ) were similar (p = 0.278, Cohen's d = 0.5). However, there were significant differences found between individual training sessions (p = 0.001-0.035). Total and exercise energy expenditure differs throughout the week in female soccer players. Nutritional intake should be adjusted accordingly to avoid energy imbalances for optimal performance and recovery.

  20. Nutritional state, energy intakes and energy expenditure of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients.

    PubMed

    Genton, L; Viatte, V; Janssens, J-P; Héritier, A-C; Pichard, C

    2011-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) alters nutritional state, energy intake and energy expenditure. This article aims at reviewing present knowledge on these topics in order to determine energy requirements for maintaining a neutral energy balance in ALS patients. Maintaining a neutral energy balance prevents malnutrition and its complications and may improve physical functioning, quality of life and survival. Prevalence of malnutrition varies between 16 and 55% in ALS patients. Energy intakes are below recommended dietary allowances in 70% of ALS patients at least. These elements suggest a chronic negative energy balance with an imbalance between requirements and intakes. While insufficient intakes can be compensated with nutritional support, the energy requirements are unclear. Studies generally report hypermetabolism in ALS patients. Estimation of total energy expenditure and as a corollary energy needs, necessitates taking into account this hypermetabolism, physical activity and possibly mechanical ventilation. The review suggests a flow chart for optimal nutritional follow-up in clinics. Further studies are required to assess whether optimal nutritional follow-up improves outcome.

  1. Cardiovascular Fitness and Energy Expenditure Response during a Combined Aerobic and Circuit Weight Training Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Pedro J.; Alvarez-Sánchez, María; Díaz, Víctor; Morencos, Esther; Peinado, Ana B.; Cupeiro, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study describes the oxygen uptake and total energy expenditure (including both aerobic and anaerobic contribution) response during three different circuit weight training (CWT) protocols of equivalent duration composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, and a combination of free weight exercises intercalating aerobic exercise. Design Controlled, randomized crossover designs. Methods Subjects completed in a randomized order three circuit weight training protocols of the same duration (3 sets of 8 exercises, 45min 15s) and intensity (70% of 15 repetitions maximum). The circuit protocols were composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, or a combination of free weight exercises with aerobic exercise. Oxygen consumption and lactate concentration were measured throughout the circuit to estimate aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure respectively. Results Energy expenditure is higher in the combined exercise protocol (29.9±3.6 ml/kg/min), compared with Freeweight (24.2±2.8ml/kg/min) and Machine (20.4±2.9ml/kg/min). The combined exercise protocol produced the highest total energy expenditure but the lowest lactate concentration and perceived exertion. The anaerobic contribution to total energy expenditure was higher in the machine and free weight protocols compared with the combined exercise protocol (6.2%, 4.6% and 2.3% respectively). Conclusions In the proposed protocols, the combined exercise protocol results in the highest oxygen consumption. Total energy expenditure is related to the type of exercise included in the circuit. Anaerobic contributions to total energy expenditure during circuit weight training may be modest, but lack of their estimation may underestimate total energy expenditure. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01116856 PMID:27832062

  2. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub-thorn woodland-thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. The authors compared body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with double labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =50 lizards/ha.). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 site J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/ influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. We suggest causal factors for the difference in daily activity period, and discuss implications of length of daily forging period for adult body size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards.

  3. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub - thorn woodland - thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. Body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with doubly labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient were compared. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =100 lizards/ha) than at the thorn scrub site near the ocean (approx. =50 lizards/ha). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/,> and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/O influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. Causal factors for the difference in daily activity period are suggested, and implications of length of daily foraging period for adult body, size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards are discussed.

  4. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  5. Putting desire on a budget: dopamine and energy expenditure, reconciling reward and resources.

    PubMed

    Beeler, Jeff A; Frazier, Cristianne R M; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the "reward deficiency hypothesis" as a perceived energy deficit. We

  6. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake.

  7. Energy expenditure during tennis play: a preliminary video analysis and metabolic model approach.

    PubMed

    Botton, Florent; Hautier, Christophe; Eclache, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate, using video analysis, what proportion of the total energy expenditure during a tennis match is accounted for by aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively. The method proposed involved estimating the metabolic power (MP) of 5 activities, which are inherent to tennis: walking, running, hitting the ball, serving, and sitting down to rest. The energy expenditure concerned was calculated by sequencing the activity by video analysis. A bioenergetic model calculated the aerobic energy expenditure (EEO2mod) in terms of MP, and the anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated by subtracting this (MP - EEO2mod). Eight tennis players took part in the experiment as subjects (mean ± SD: age 25.2 ± 1.9 years, weight 79.3 ± 10.8 kg, VO2max 54.4 ± 5.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The players started off by participating in 2 games while wearing the K4b2, with their activity profile measured by the video analysis system, and then by playing a set without equipment but with video analysis. There was no significant difference between calculated and measured oxygen consumptions over the 16 games (p = 0.763), and these data were strongly related (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). The EEO2mod was quite weak over all the games (49.4 ± 4.8% VO2max), whereas the MP during points was up to 2 or 3 times the VO2max. Anaerobic metabolism reached 32% of the total energy expenditure across all the games 67% for points and 95% for hitting the ball. This method provided a good estimation of aerobic energy expenditure and made it possible to calculate the anaerobic energy expenditure. This could make it possible to estimate the metabolic intensity of training sessions and matches using video analysis.

  8. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  9. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  10. 'Energy expenditure genes' or 'energy absorption genes': a new target for the treatment of obesity and Type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Braud, Sandrine; Ciufolini, Marco; Harosh, Itzik

    2010-12-01

    Several hundred genes associated or linked to obesity have been described in the scientific literature. Whereas many of these genes are potential targets for the treatment of obesity and associated conditions, none of them have permitted the developement of an efficient drug therapy. As proposed by the 'thrifty genotype' theory, obesity genes may have conferred an evolutionary advantage in times of food shortage through efficient energy exploitation, while 'lean' or 'energy expenditure' genes may have become very rare during the same periods. It is therefore a challenge to identify 'energy expenditure genes' or 'energy absorption genes,' whose mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms do result in reduced energy intake. We submit that such 'energy absorption' or 'energy expenditure' genes (crucial genes) are potential new targets for the treatment of obesity. These genes can be identified in rare genetic diseases that produce a lean, failure-to-thrive, energy malabsorption or starvation phenotype.

  11. Increased resting energy expenditure in subjects with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, N; Katzenellenbogen, S; Nevo, Y

    2004-02-01

    We have studied changes in energy expenditure and body composition in adult males with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, age-matched males with hyperCKemia and age-matched healthy controls. All participants were studied twice, 2-3 years apart. Resting energy expenditure was studied by indirect calorimetry, lean body mass and body fat by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle mass was estimated based on 24-h urinary creatinine excretion. At baseline and 2-3 years later, body fat was significantly higher (P < 0.011 and P < 0.003, respectively) and lean body mass significantly lower (P < 0.024 and P < 0.012, respectively) in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy as compared to subjects with hyperCKemia and healthy controls. Resting energy expenditure, over the study period, increased significantly in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (P < 0.031), but not in patients with hyperCKemia nor in healthy controls. Our study suggests that patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy may have increased energy expenditure relative to healthy subjects. If not met by increased caloric intake, this greater energy expenditure may partially contribute to a further deterioration in their muscle performance.

  12. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-09-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  13. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, John E.; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-01-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that “the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy”. However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity. PMID:22915022

  14. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Increases Energy Expenditure: Relation to Brown Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Leenen, Loes; Rijkers, Kim; Cornips, Erwin; Majoie, Marian; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. Methods and Findings Fifteen patients with stable VNS therapy (age: 45±10yrs; body mass index; 25.2±3.5 kg/m2) were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%). Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUVMean; 0.55±0.25 versus 0.67±0.46, P = 0.619). However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off) was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001). Conclusions VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. Trial Registration The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282. PMID:24194874

  15. Using Passive Sensing to Estimate Relative Energy Expenditure for Eldercare Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Skubic, Marjorie; Zhu, Yingnan; Galambos, Colleen

    2011-03-21

    This paper describes ongoing work in analyzing sensor data logged in the homes of seniors. An estimation of relative energy expenditure is computed using motion density from passive infrared motion sensors mounted in the environment. We introduce a new algorithm for detecting visitors in the home using motion sensor data and a set of fuzzy rules. The visitor algorithm, as well as a previous algorithm for identifying time-away-from-home (TAFH), are used to filter the logged motion sensor data. Thus, the energy expenditure estimate uses data collected only when the resident is home alone. Case studies are included from TigerPlace, an Aging in Place community, to illustrate how the relative energy expenditure estimate can be used to track health conditions over time.

  16. Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming123

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. Objective: Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake − expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. Design: Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured. Results: Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P < 0.001) was higher, and the energy surplus (P = 0.038) was lower, in MC than in television or VG groups. All conditions produced a mean (±SD) energy surplus as follows: 638 ± 408 kcal in television, 655 ± 533 kcal in VG, and 376 ± 487 kcal in MC groups. The OR for consuming ≥500 kcal in the television compared with the MC group was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.4). Secondary analyses, in which the 2 sedentary conditions were collapsed, showed an intake that was 178 kcal (95% CI: 8, 349 kcal) lower in the MC condition than in the sedentary groups (television and VG). Conclusion: MCs may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen time because of a lower energy surplus, but the playing of these games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795. PMID:22760571

  17. Effects of Levothyroxine Replacement or Suppressive Therapy on Energy Expenditure and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kolobova, Irina; Smeraglio, Anne; Peters, Dawn; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Schuff, Kathryn G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4) have adverse effects on bone and cardiac function, but it is unclear whether metabolic function is also affected. The objective of this study was to determine whether women receiving TSH-suppressive LT4 doses have alterations in energy expenditure or body composition. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional comparison between three groups of women: 26 women receiving chronic TSH-suppressive LT4 doses, 80 women receiving chronic replacement LT4 doses, and 16 untreated euthyroid control women. Subjects underwent measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate oxidation, and thermic effect of food by indirect calorimetry; physical activity energy expenditure by accelerometer; caloric intake by 24-hour diet recall; and body composition by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: REE per kilogram lean body mass in the LT4 euthyroid women was 6% lower than that of the LT4-suppressed group, and 4% lower than that of the healthy control group (p = 0.04). Free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were directly correlated with REE, and were 10% lower in the LT4 euthyroid women compared with the other two groups (p = 0.007). The groups of subjects did not differ in other measures of energy expenditure, caloric intake, or body composition. Conclusions: LT4 suppression therapy does not adversely affect energy expenditure or body composition in women. However, LT4 replacement therapy is associated with a lower REE, despite TSH levels within the reference range. This may be due to lower fT3 levels, suggesting relative tissue hypothyroidism may contribute to impaired energy expenditure in LT4 therapy. PMID:26700485

  18. Prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry in children and adolescents using multivariate adaptive regression splines modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-living measurements of 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) are required to better understand the metabolic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance and contributing to the global epidemic of childhood obesity. The spec...

  19. Energy expenditure and intake in infants born to lean and overweight mothers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Savage, J; Coward, W A; Chew, B; Lucas, A

    1988-02-25

    We investigated the contributions of low energy expenditure and high energy intake to excessive weight gain in infants born to overweight mothers. The subjects were infants of 6 lean and 12 overweight mothers, recruited soon after birth. Total energy expenditure and metabolizable energy intake were measured with a new doubly labeled water method over a period of seven days when the infants were 3 months of age, and the postprandial metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry when the infants were 0.1 and 3 months of age. The results were related to weight gain in the first year of life. No significant difference was observed between infants who became overweight by the age of one year (50 percent of infants born to overweight mothers) and those who did not, with respect to weight, length, skinfold thicknesses, metabolic rate at 0.1 and 3 months of age, and metabolizable energy intake at 3 months. However, total energy expenditure at three months of age was 20.7 percent lower in the infants who became overweight than in the other infants (means +/- SE, 256 +/- 27 and 323 +/- 12 kJ per kilogram of body weight per day; P less than 0.05). This difference could account for the mean difference in weight gain. These data suggest that reduced energy expenditure, particularly on physical activity, was an important factor in the rapid weight gain during the first year of life in infants born to overweight mothers.

  20. Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChickensNara; Lee, Sang-rak; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chickens were exposed to 6 cycles of 2 h light/2 h dark period per day. In experiment 2, the broiler chickens that had been used in experiment 1 were used to evaluate the effect of 4 different wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. The LEDs used in this study had the following wavelength bands; white (control), red (618 to 635 nm), green (515 to 530 nm) and blue (450 to 470 nm). The chickens were randomly exposed to a 2-h LED light in a random and sequential order per day for 3 days. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of the chickens were recorded using an open-circuit calorimeter system, and energy expenditure was calculated based on the collected data. The behavior of the chickens was analyzed based on following categories i.e., resting, standing, and pecking, and closed-circuit television was used to record these behavioral postures. The analysis of data from experiment 1 showed that the energy expenditure was higher (p<0.001) in chickens under light condition compared with those under dark condition. The chickens spent more time with pecking during a light period, but they frequently exhibited resting during a dark period. Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in terms of energy expenditure and behavior based on the color of light (white, red, green, and blue) to which the chickens were exposed. In conclusion, the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens were found to be

  1. Comparing Metabolic Energy Expenditure Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor Network and Single Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Montoye, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation details, system architecture and performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity recognition and energy expenditure estimation. We also included ActiGraph GT3X+ as a popular single sensor solution for detailed comparison with the proposed wearable sensor network. Linear regression and Artificial Neural Network are implemented and tested. Through a rigorous system study and experiment, it is shown that the wearable multi-sensor network outperforms the single sensor solution in terms of energy expenditure estimation. PMID:24110325

  2. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  3. Age-related variation in energy expenditure in a long-lived bird within the envelope of an energy ceiling.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Kato, Akiko; Gaston, Anthony J; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Hare, James F; Speakman, John R; Croll, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Energy expenditure in wild animals can be limited (i) intrinsically by physiological processes that constrain an animal's capacity to use energy, (ii) extrinsically by energy availability in the environment and/or (iii) strategically based on trade-offs between elevated metabolism and survival. Although these factors apply to all individuals within a population, some individuals expend more or less energy than other individuals. To examine the role of an energy ceiling in a species with a high and individually repeatable metabolic rate, we compared energy expenditure of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) with and without handicaps during a period of peak energy demand (chick-rearing, N = 16). We also compared energy expenditure of unencumbered birds (N = 260) across 8 years exhibiting contrasting environmental conditions and correlated energy expenditure with fitness (reproductive success and survival). Murres experienced an energy ceiling mediated through behavioural adjustments. Handicapped birds decreased time spent flying/diving and chick-provisioning rates such that overall daily energy expenditure remained unchanged across the two treatments. The energy ceiling did not reflect energy availability or trade-offs with fitness, as energy expenditure was similar across contrasting foraging conditions and was not associated with reduced survival or increased reproductive success. We found partial support for the trade-off hypothesis as older murres, where prospects for future reproduction would be relatively limited, did overcome an energy ceiling to invest more in offspring following handicapping by reducing their own energy reserves. The ceiling therefore appeared to operate at the level of intake (i.e. digestion) rather than expenditure (i.e. thermal constraint, oxidative stress). A meta-analysis comparing responses of breeding animals to handicapping suggests that our results are typical: animals either reduced investment in themselves or in their offspring to

  4. Technical note: Comparison of two methods to quantify exercise energy expenditure in trotters.

    PubMed

    Fortier, J; Deley, G; Julliand, V

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at quantifying energy expenditure during 4 specific training exercises, that is, promenade, jogging, parcours, and interval exercises, using field measurements of oxygen consumption and heart rate in trotters. Six animals performed 2 preliminary tests to determine their individual maximum velocity and to establish their individual oxygen consumption/heart rate relationship from an incremental test. Then, they undertook each of the 4 specific exercises separated by 1 wk to avoid fatigue. The intensity of the 4 exercises was expressed in percent of individual maximum velocity as well as duration and distance set according to current training practices of French trotter trainers. Throughout the incremental test and the 4 exercises, oxygen consumption and heart rate were continuously recorded using a portable respiratory gas analyzer. Energy expenditure of the 3 different phases (warm-up, exercise, and recovery) of the 4 exercises and the total energy expended during exercises (sum of energy expended during the 3 phases) were calculated from direct oxygen uptake measurements and from estimated oxygen uptake using heart rate and O caloric equivalent. The quantification of total energy expenditure from the 2 methods was not significantly different. However, estimated energy expenditure was significantly lower from estimated oxygen consumption than direct oxygen uptake method concerning the warm-up and exercise phase of parcours. Our results indicate that the estimated oxygen uptake from heart rate measurements could be used to evaluate total energy expenditure of exercises in trotters. Whereas this method requires previous establishment of an individual oxygen consumption/heart rate curve, it is easy to record using commercially available instruments under practical conditions and opens new perspectives to assess energy balance in trotters' nutrition.

  5. Accuracy of energy expenditure estimation by activity monitors differs with ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, A-S; Suppere, C; Strychar, I; Belisle, V; Demers, S-P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this project is to explore the accuracy of 2 activity monitors (SenseWear Armband & Actical) to estimate energy expenditure during rest and light to moderate intensity exercises in 2 ethnic groups. 18 Caucasian and 20 Black adults (age: 26.8±5.2 years; body mass index: 23.9±3.0 kg/m(2)) wore the 2 devices simultaneously during 3 standardised activities: 30-min rest, 45-min of treadmill at 40% of their V˙O2peak and 45-min of stationary cycling at 50% of their V˙O2peak. Energy estimated with the 2 devices was compared to indirect calorimetry measurements. Both devices overestimated energy expenditure during rest (SenseWear: 36% in Black vs. 16% in Caucasian; Actical: 26% vs. 11%, p<0.01 between groups) and treadmill (SenseWear: 50% vs. 25%; Actical: 67% vs. 32%, p<0.01 between groups). Both devices significantly underestimated energy expenditure during stationary cycling (SenseWear: 24% vs. 26%; Actical: 58% vs. 70%, p=NS between groups). Equations used to estimate energy expenditure from accelerometer data is less precise among Black adults than Caucasian adults. Ethnic-specific formulas are probably required.

  6. Central chronic apelin infusion decreases energy expenditure and thermogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Drougard, Anne; Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Meunier, Etienne; Abot, Anne; Bautzova, Tereza; Duparc, Thibaut; Louche, Katie; Batut, Aurelie; Lucas, Alexandre; Le-Gonidec, Sophie; Lesage, Jean; Fioramonti, Xavier; Moro, Cedric; Valet, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2016-08-23

    Apelin is a bioactive peptide involved in the control of energy metabolism. In the hypothalamus, chronic exposure to high levels of apelin is associated with an increase in hepatic glucose production, and then contributes to the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms behind deleterious effects of chronic apelin in the brain and consequences on energy expenditure and thermogenesis are currently unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of apelin in normal mice on hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression, energy expenditure, thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue functions. We have shown that chronic icv infusion of apelin increases the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the hypothalamus associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-1 beta. In parallel, mice infused with icv apelin exhibit a significant lower energy expenditure coupled to a decrease in PGC1alpha, PRDM16 and UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue which could explain the alteration of thermogenesis in these mice. These data provide compelling evidence that central apelin contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes by altering energy expenditure, thermogenesis and fat browning.

  7. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Delikanaki-Skaribas, Evangelia; Trail, Marilyn; Wong, William Wai-Lun; Lai, Eugene C

    2009-04-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (PA) energy expenditure (PAEE), are elevated in WL compared with weight stable (WS) PD patients. We measured DEE in 10 PD WL patients and 10 PD WS patients using doubly labeled water (DLW). PAEE was estimated with DLW, activity monitors, and activity questionnaires. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry. We evaluated energy intake (EI) with a patient's 3-day food diary. Data was assessed employing SPSS, Spearman correlation coefficients, and Bland and Altman plots. There was no difference in DEE between the WL and WS groups measured with DLW. There were no differences in REE and EI between groups. DEE (r = 0.548, P < 0.05) and PAEE (r = 0.563, P < 0.01) are related with caloric intake. The WL group had higher PA than the WS group (P < 0.042) only when measured with wrist activity monitors. Results suggest that WL in PD patients cannot be fully explained by an increase in DEE. Large longitudinal studies to examine multiple relationships between variables might provide us with a better understanding of WL among PD patients.

  8. Central chronic apelin infusion decreases energy expenditure and thermogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Drougard, Anne; Fournel, Audren; Marlin, Alysson; Meunier, Etienne; Abot, Anne; Bautzova, Tereza; Duparc, Thibaut; Louche, Katie; Batut, Aurelie; Lucas, Alexandre; Le-Gonidec, Sophie; Lesage, Jean; Fioramonti, Xavier; Moro, Cedric; Valet, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D.; Knauf, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Apelin is a bioactive peptide involved in the control of energy metabolism. In the hypothalamus, chronic exposure to high levels of apelin is associated with an increase in hepatic glucose production, and then contributes to the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms behind deleterious effects of chronic apelin in the brain and consequences on energy expenditure and thermogenesis are currently unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of apelin in normal mice on hypothalamic inflammatory gene expression, energy expenditure, thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue functions. We have shown that chronic icv infusion of apelin increases the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in the hypothalamus associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-1 beta. In parallel, mice infused with icv apelin exhibit a significant lower energy expenditure coupled to a decrease in PGC1alpha, PRDM16 and UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue which could explain the alteration of thermogenesis in these mice. These data provide compelling evidence that central apelin contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes by altering energy expenditure, thermogenesis and fat browning. PMID:27549402

  9. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. Methods The effect of environmental temperature (4–33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3-/y, lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Results Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4–16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3-/y mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. Conclusions At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis. PMID:26042200

  10. The effect of huffing and directed coughing on energy expenditure in young asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Pontifex, Edward; Williams, Marie T; Lunn, Rebecca; Parsons, David

    2002-01-01

    Coughing and huffing have been shown to be effective airway clearance techniques and some authors have anecdotally reported that a huff requires less energy than a series of coughs commencing and finishing at the same lung volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the energy expenditure between periods of huffing and directed voluntary coughing commencing from the same initial lung volume in young asymptomatic subjects. Energy expenditure was measured using open-circuit indirect calorimetry equipment. Twenty-four non-smoking asymptomatic subjects (12 male, 12 female, aged 18-24 years), without any form of disease and within 10% of their predicted pulmonary function, completed the study. Energy expenditure was measured over three 10min, randomly ordered sessions of huffing, directed coughing and rest. The forced expiratory sessions comprised a single huff or double-barrel cough (both starting at total lung capacity) at the end of every two minutes. Each session was separated by a 5min washout period. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found between the huffing and directed coughing periods (mean difference 0.003 mL/kg/min (95% CI -0.160 to 0.114) and both produced significantly greater energy expenditure than rest (rest and huff mean difference 0.309 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.080 to 0.549) and rest and cough mean difference 0.306 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.074 to 0.508)). The suggested benefits of huffing versus coughing in terms of energy conservation are yet to be shown.

  11. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  12. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure of flapping and gliding in black-browed albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Takahashi, Akinori; Iwata, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Maki; Trathan, Philip N

    2013-08-15

    Albatrosses are known to expend only a small amount of energy during flight. The low energy cost of albatross flight has been attributed to energy-efficient gliding (soaring) with sporadic flapping, although little is known about how much time and energy albatrosses expend in flapping versus gliding during cruising flight. Here, we examined the heart rates (used as an instantaneous index of energy expenditure) and flapping activities of free-ranging black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophrys) to estimate the energy cost of flapping as well as time spent in flapping activities. The heart rate of albatrosses during flight (144 beats min(-1)) was similar to that while sitting on the water (150 beats min(-1)). In contrast, heart rate was much higher during takeoff and landing (ca. 200 beats min(-1)). Heart rate during cruising flight was linearly correlated with the number of wing flaps per minute, suggesting an extra energy burden of flapping. Albatrosses spend only 4.6±1.4% of their time flapping during cruising flight, which was significantly lower than during and shortly after takeoff (9.8±3.5%). Flapping activity, which amounted to just 4.6% of the time in flight, accounted for 13.3% of the total energy expenditure during cruising flight. These results support the idea that albatrosses achieve energy-efficient flight by reducing the time spent in flapping activity, which is associated with high energy expenditure.

  13. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  14. Prediction Equations of Energy Expenditure in Chinese Youth Based on Step Frequency during Walking and Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Yu; Li, Jing Xian; Li, Haipeng; Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to examine the relationship between step frequency and velocity to develop a step frequency-based equation to predict Chinese youth's energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Method: A total of 173 boys and girls aged 11 to 18 years old participated in this study. The participants walked and ran on a…

  15. Effects of Neonatal Overfeeding on Juvenile and Adult Feeding and Energy Expenditure in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Stefanidis, Aneta; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanim(s) underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL) compared with those from control litters (CL). There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active) phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males) had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages. PMID:23251693

  16. Oxygen uptake and energy expenditure for children during rock climbing activity.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip Baxter; Ostrowski, Megan L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in children during rock climbing activity. 29 children (age = 10.9 ± 1.7 yr) participated in the study. A commercially available rock climbing structure with ample features for submaximal effort climbing provided continuous terrain. Participants were instructed to climb at a comfortable pace. Following an initial 5-min rest, each child climbed one sustained 5-min bout followed by 5-min sitting recovery for a total of 10 min (SUS). This was immediately followed by five 1-min climbing + 1-min recovery intervals for a second total of 10 min (INT). Expired air was analyzed continuously. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined via the Weir method for 10-s intervals throughout the full protocol. The total energy expenditure in kilocalories during the 10-min SUS period was 34.3 ± 11.3 kcal. Energy expenditure during the 10-min INT period averaged 39.3 ± 13.1 kcal and was significantly higher than during SUS (p < .05). The mean total EE for SUS + INT was 73.7 ± 24.2 kcal. EE was correlated with body mass; r = .86. The rock climbing tasks employed in this study produced EE levels similar to what have been reported in children for stair climbing, sports/games activities, and easy jogging.

  17. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  18. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-10

    Santee WR, Yokota M, Weyand PG, and Delany JP (2004). Total energy expenditure estimated using foot -ground contact pedometry. Diabetes Technology...reached high levels of thermal-work strain by the end of a slow foot patrol [4] even though they followed TB MED 507 work-rest and water intake

  19. The Effect of Restricted Arm Swing on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizhar, Ziva; Boulos, Spiro; Inbar, Omri; Carmeli, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Arm swing in human walking is an active natural motion involving the upper extremities. Earlier studies have described the interrelationship between arms and legs during walking, but the effect of arm swing on energy expenditure and dynamic parameters during normal gait, is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  20. Differences in energy expenditure between high- and low-volume training.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pivarnik, James M; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have examined energy expenditure in various sports but there is a lack of research on the contribution of exercise and habitual activity during different training periods. This study examined changes in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components during high- and low-volume training periods. Further, changes in time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activity in response to different training volumes were explored. Energy expenditure was measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 non-consecutive weeks - 1 week of high volume (>13 hours) training and another week of low volume (<7 hours) training. The SenseWear Pro 3 Armband, individual heart-rate-oxygen consumption regression and indirect calorimetry was used to measure non-exercise activity thermogensis (NEAT), exercise energy expenditure (EEE) and resting metabolic rate, respectively. Time spent at different intensities was assessed using previously established MET cutpoints. TDEE as well as EEE increased significantly with higher training volume, while no difference in NEAT occurred. Further, significantly less time was spent in sedentary activities during the high-volume week. These results suggest that highly trained athletes do not compensate for increased training volume and reduce sedentary activities to allow for more training time.

  1. Counting calories in cormorants: dynamic body acceleration predicts daily energy expenditure measured in pelagic cormorants.

    PubMed

    Stothart, Mason R; Elliott, Kyle H; Wood, Thomas; Hatch, Scott A; Speakman, John R

    2016-07-15

    The integral of the dynamic component of acceleration over time has been proposed as a measure of energy expenditure in wild animals. We tested that idea by attaching accelerometers to the tails of free-ranging pelagic cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) and simultaneously estimating energy expenditure using doubly labelled water. Two different formulations of dynamic body acceleration, [vectorial and overall DBA (VeDBA and ODBA)], correlated with mass-specific energy expenditure (both R(2)=0.91). VeDBA models combining and separately parameterizing flying, diving, activity on land and surface swimming were consistently considered more parsimonious than time budget models and showed less variability in model fit. Additionally, we observed evidence for the presence of hypometabolic processes (i.e. reduced heart rate and body temperature; shunting of blood away from non-essential organs) that suppressed metabolism in cormorants while diving, which was the most metabolically important activity. We concluded that a combination of VeDBA and physiological processes accurately measured energy expenditure for cormorants.

  2. Long–term effects of caloric restriction on total and resting energy expenditure in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans is uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of a 30% CR regimen on TEE and RMR. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of 30% CR in 29 healthy overweight adults (me...

  3. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  4. What are the clinical determinants of early energy expenditure in critically injured adults?

    PubMed

    Boulanger, B R; Nayman, R; McLean, R F; Phillips, E; Rizoli, S B

    1994-12-01

    The clinical determinants of energy expenditure in critically injured adults require definition. Among adult blunt trauma victims who required mechanical ventilation, the resting energy expenditure was calculated with the Harris-Benedict equation (HBEE) and the early (< or = 5 days postinjury) energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry (MEE) (n = 115). The MEE was 2052 +/- 531 kcal/day and MEE/HBEE ("stress factor") was 1.24 +/- 0.2. The MEE was correlated with HBEE, age, height, weight, sex, temperature, and paralytic agents (p < 0.01). However, MEE did not correlate with ISS, admission GCS score, admission base deficit, initial systolic blood pressure, or the number of units of packed red blood cells transfused in the first 24 hours after injury (p = NS). Temperature and paralysis correlated with MEE/HBEE (p < 0.01). A regression model of MEE was developed with the clinical variables HBEE, temperature, and the presence or absence of paralytic agents (r2 = 0.62; p < 0.001): MEE (kcal/d) = 1.4(HBEE) + 71.4(temperature) + 274(paralytics; + = 1, - = 2) - 3485. In mechanically ventilated trauma victims, both the early energy expenditure and the stress factor are determined by host factors but are independent of the severity of the anatomic and physiologic insult. The degree of hypermetabolism observed in this population was less than previously reported.

  5. Male weasels decrease activity and energy expenditure in response to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zub, Karol; Fletcher, Quinn E; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The heat dissipation limit (HDL) hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response to high ambient temperatures (T(a)). We used an extensive data set on the daily energy expenditure (DEE, n = 27) and the daily activity time (AT, n = 48) of male weasels (Mustela nivalis) during the spring and summer breeding season to test these predictions. We found that T(a) was related in a "hump-shaped" (i.e. convex) manner to AT, DEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic scope (the ratio of DEE to RMR). These results support the HDL hypothesis because in response to warm Tas male weasels reduced their AT, DEE, and RMR. Although the activity and energy expenditure of large endotherms are most likely to be constrained in response to warm Tas because they are less able to dissipate heat, our results suggest that small endotherms may also experience constraints consistent with the HDL hypothesis.

  6. A NEW MODEL TO ESTIMATE DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR WINTERING WATERFOWL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity budgets of wintering waterfowl have been widely used to assess habitat quality. However, when factors such as prey abundance or protection from exposure to cold or wind determine quality, measures of daily energy expenditure (DEE) may be more appropriate for this purpos...

  7. Energy Expenditure and Enjoyment during Video Game Play: Differences by Game Type

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Methods Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents [METs]) and enjoyment were measured across ten games in 100 young adults aged 18 to 35 (50 females). Results All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < .001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322 (mean [SD] 3.10 [0.89] METs) and 298 (2.91 [0.87] METs) percent, which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 [0.28] METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 [0.16] METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < .001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < .001). Conclusions Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:21364477

  8. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  9. The association between different types of exercise and energy expenditure in young nonoverweight and overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Jakicic, John M.; Hebert, James R.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energy expenditure data, assessed via the SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc.). Frequency and duration of participation in various exercise types was self-reported. Weight status was based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) with body weight and height being measured according to standard procedures. Eighty-four percent of the participants reported regular exercise engagement with no difference in participation rate by sex or BMI category. Exercise time along with sex and ethnicity explained roughly 60% of the variability in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) while the association between exercise and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA or being sedentary was low or nonsignificant. Engagement in endurance exercise and sports contributed predominantly to the variability in energy expenditure and PA in nonoverweight participants. In overweight/obese participants engagement in resistance exercise and swimming contributed significantly to variability in TDEE. Current exercise recommendations focus primarily on aerobic exercise, but results of the present study suggest that nonweight-bearing exercises, such as resistance exercise and swimming, contribute significantly to the variability in TDEE in overweight/obese adults, which would make these types of activities viable options for exercise interventions. PMID:25647557

  10. Improving assessment of daily energy expenditure by identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2009-09-01

    Accelerometers are often used to quantify the acceleration of the body in arbitrary units (counts) to measure physical activity (PA) and to estimate energy expenditure. The present study investigated whether the identification of types of PA with one accelerometer could improve the estimation of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Total energy expenditure (TEE) of 15 subjects was measured with the use of double-labeled water. The physical activity level (PAL) was derived by dividing TEE by sleeping metabolic rate. Simultaneously, PA was measured with one accelerometer. Accelerometer output was processed to calculate activity counts per day (AC(D)) and to determine the daily duration of six types of common activities identified with a classification tree model. A daily metabolic value (MET(D)) was calculated as mean of the MET compendium value of each activity type weighed by the daily duration. TEE was predicted by AC(D) and body weight and by AC(D) and fat-free mass, with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 1.47 MJ/day, and 1.2 MJ/day, respectively. The replacement in these models of AC(D) with MET(D) increased the explained variation in TEE by 9%, decreasing SEE by 0.14 MJ/day and 0.18 MJ/day, respectively. The correlation between PAL and MET(D) (R(2) = 51%) was higher than that between PAL and AC(D) (R(2) = 46%). We conclude that identification of activity types combined with MET intensity values improves the assessment of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Future studies could develop models to objectively assess activity type and intensity to further increase accuracy of the energy expenditure estimation.

  11. Effect of Diet Composition on Energy Expenditure during Weight Loss: The POUNDS LOST Study

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; DeJonge, Lilian; de Souza, Russell; Rood, Jennifer; Champagne, Catherine M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Obarzanek, Eva; Loria, Catherine M.; Anton, Stephen D.; Ryan, Donna H.; Greenway, Frank L.; Williamson, Donald; Sacks, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but the contribution of different macronutrients to this change is unclear. Hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that macronutrient composition of the diet might affect the partitioning of energy expenditure during weight loss. Design A sub-study of 99 participants from the POUNDS LOST trial had total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water and resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry at baseline and repeated at 6 months in 89 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 diets with either 15% or 25% protein and 20% or 40% fat. Results TEE and REE were positively correlated with each other and with fat free mass and body fat, at baseline and 6 months. The average weight loss of 8.1±0.65 kg (LSmean±SE) reduced TEE by 120±56 kcal/d and REE by 136±18 kcal/d. A greater weight loss at 6 months was associated with a greater decrease in TEE and REE. Participants eating the high fat diet lost significantly more fat free mass (1.52±0.55 kg) than the low fat diet group (p<0.05). Participants eating the low fat diet had significantly higher measures of physical activity than the high fat group. Conclusion A greater weight loss was associated with a larger decrease in both TEE and REE. The low fat diet was associated with significant changes in fat free body mass and energy expenditure from physical activity compared to the high fat diet. PMID:21946707

  12. Accuracy of a novel multi-sensor board for measuring physical activity and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Goh, Jorming; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    The ability to relate physical activity to health depends on accurate measurement. Yet, none of the available methods are fully satisfactory due to several factors. This study examined the accuracy of a multi-sensor board (MSB) that infers activity types (sitting, standing, walking, stair climbing, and running) and estimates energy expenditure in 57 adults (32 females) 39.2 ± 13.5 years. In the laboratory, subjects walked and ran on a treadmill over a select range of speeds and grades for 3 min each (six stages in random order) while connected to a stationary calorimeter, preceded and followed by brief sitting and standing. On a different day, subjects completed scripted activities in the field connected to a portable calorimeter. The MSB was attached to a strap at the right hip. Subjects repeated one condition (randomly selected) on the third day. Accuracy of inferred activities compared with recorded activities (correctly identified activities/total activities × 100) was 97 and 84% in the laboratory and field, respectively. Absolute accuracy of energy expenditure [100 - absolute value (kilocalories MSB - kilocalories calorimeter/kilocalories calorimeter) × 100] was 89 and 76% in the laboratory and field, the later being different (P < 0.05) from the calorimeter. Test-retest reliability for energy expenditure was significant in both settings (P < 0.0001; r = 0.97). In general, the MSB provides accurate measures of activity type in laboratory and field settings and energy expenditure during treadmill walking and running although the device underestimates energy expenditure in the field.

  13. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Paul; Wittert, Gary A

    2009-02-01

    Endocannabinoids, a lipid-derived signaling system, regulate appetite and motivation to eat via effects in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens. Not all the effects of endocannabinoids on fat mass can be explained by the regulation of food intake alone. Endocannabinoids and their receptors are located in areas of the central nervous system and multiple peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of intermediary metabolism and energy expenditure. In addition to regulating food intake by both central and peripherally mediated effects, endocannabinoids modify glucose and lipid metabolism so as to promote energy storage via lipogenesis and reduce energy expenditure. The endocannabinoid system appears to be overactive in obesity and may serve to maintain fat mass and underlies some of the metabolic consequences of obesity. Inhibition of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor ameliorates the effects of endocannabinoids on food intake and energy metabolism; lipogenesis is inhibited, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake increase.

  14. Total Energy Expenditure and Body Composition in Two Free-Living Sympatric Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Simmen, Bruno; Bayart, Françoise; Rasamimanana, Hanta; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane; Pasquet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp.) of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. Methodology and Results Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. Discussion We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship between energy

  15. Diet, energy expenditure, and body composition of lactating Ribeirinha women in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Dufour, Darna L

    2007-01-01

    Lactation is the most energetically demanding part of human reproduction; yet, compared with pregnancy, we know little about the strategies women in different settings employ to cope with these increased energy demands. This paper takes a biocultural approach and reports longitudinal data on the anthropometry, dietary intakes and energy expenditure of a sample of 23 rural, lactating Ribeirinha women living in subsistence-based communities in the eastern Amazon. The dietary intakes of these lactating women were insufficient to meet their lactating energy needs and were least sufficient during resguardo, a 40-day period in the immediate postpartum when the women observed a series of food taboos and work restrictions. Instead, the women in this study met the increased energy demands of lactation by drawing on their energy reserves and reducing their energy expenditure in physical activity. The women showed a significant reduction in weight (P<0.001), BMI (P<0.001) and in circumferences (hip, P=0.01; waist, P=0.03) and skinfolds (thigh, P=0.03) in the gluteal femoral region. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was lowest during resguardo and increased as lactation progressed (P=0.01). While the practice of resguardo reduced maternal energy expenditure and allowed women more time to spend with their newborn infants, it came at a cost (low dietary intake), which appears to be related to the loss of the adult woman from subsistence activities. By taking a biocultural approach this study illustrates the role the social environment plays in shaping the experience of lactating women.

  16. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated.

  17. Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

  18. Adipose Tissue and Energy Expenditure: Central and Peripheral Neural Activation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Blaszkiewicz, Magdalena; Townsend, Kristy L

    2016-06-01

    Increasing energy expenditure is an appealing therapeutic target for the prevention and reversal of metabolic conditions such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. However, not enough research has investigated how to exploit pre-existing neural pathways, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), in order to meet these needs. Here, we review several research areas in this field, including centrally acting pathways known to drive the activation of sympathetic nerves that can increase lipolysis and browning in white adipose tissue (WAT) or increase thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as other central and peripheral pathways able to increase energy expenditure of these tissues. In addition, we describe new work investigating the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on metabolically important sensory nerves, as well as the role of the vagus nerve in regulating energy balance.

  19. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP.

  20. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance.

  1. Validation of doubly labeled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Kushner, R.F.; Jones, P.J.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with intake-balance for measuring energy expenditure in five patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Because parenteral solutions were isotopically different from local water, patients had to be placed on TPN at least 10 days before the metabolic period. Approximately 0.1 g 2H2O and 0.25 g H2(18)O per kg total body water were given orally. We collected saliva before, 3 h, and 4 h after the dose for measurement of total body water and urine before, 1 day, and 14 days after the dose for measurement of isotope eliminations. On day 14, total body weight was remeasured and change in body energy stores was calculated, assuming constant hydration. Intake was assessed from weights of TPN fluids plus dietary record for any oral intake. Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water (+/- SD) averaged 3 +/- 6% greater than intake-balance. Doubly labeled water method is a noninvasive, nonrestrictive method for measuring energy expenditure in patients receiving TPN.

  2. Energy expenditure in Crocidurinae shrews (Insectivora): is metabolism a key component of the insular syndrome?

    PubMed

    Magnanou, Elodie; Fons, Roger; Blondel, Jacques; Morand, Serge

    2005-11-01

    A cascade of morphological, ecological, demographical and behavioural changes operates within island communities compared to mainland. We tested whether metabolic rates change on islands. Using a closed circuit respirometer, we investigated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of three species of Crocidurinae shrews: Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, and C. suaveolens. For the latter, we compared energy expenditure of mainland and island populations. Our measurements agree with those previously reported for others Crocidurinae: the interspecific comparison (ANCOVA) demonstrated an allometric relation between energy requirements and body mass. Energy expenditure also scaled with temperature. Island populations (Corsica and Porquerolles) of C. suaveolens differed in size from mainland (gigantism). A GLM showed a significant relationship between energy expenditure, temperature, body mass and locality. Mass specific RMR allometrically scales body mass, but total RMR does not significantly differ between mainland and island, although island shrews are giant. Our results are consistent with other studies: that demonstrated that the evolution of mammalian metabolism on islands is partially independent of body mass. In relation to the insular syndrome, we discuss how island selective forces (changes in resource availability, decrease in competition and predation pressures) can operate in size and physiological adjustments.

  3. Conjugated fatty acids increase energy expenditure in part by increasing voluntary movement in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2012-07-15

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated nonadecadienoic acid (CNA) have been previously shown to effectively reduce body fat. However, it is not clear if these effects persist with extended feeding, including potential mechanisms of increased energy expenditure. Thus the current investigation was conducted to determine the influence of dietary conjugated fatty acids on non-exercise form of voluntary movement and lipid and glucose metabolisms for 4-12 week feeding of male mice. CLA and CNA significantly reduced body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, in part by increasing voluntary movement. CLA and CNA significantly reduced serum leptin and tumour necrosis factor-α, while modulating the mRNA levels of genes associated with lipid and glucose metabolisms. The current results of increased physical activity along with modulation of lipid and glucose metabolisms by conjugated fatty acids will help contribute to future applications of these toward controlling obesity.

  4. Engaging inner city middle school students in development of an energy expenditure food label.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Carol J; Mcneal, Catherine J; Coppin, John David; Shimek, Christine; Field, Lindsey; Murano, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Using food labels can be an important component of maintaining healthy weight, but young adolescents are unlikely to have the requisite skills to make use of food labeling information. Our objectives were to determine knowledge about calories and comprehension and use of the Nutrition Facts Panel among a group of inner city African-American and Hispanic middle school students, and to engage the students in refining a Calorie Converter energy expenditure food label. We used quantitative and qualitative methods including questionnaires, focus groups, and hands-on graphic design activities. Correctly defining the word "calorie" was associated with correct answers to three of four questions requiring interpretation of the Nutrition Facts Panel [χ(2)(1, 138, p < .05) = 4.56, 4.14, and 5.61.] We incorporated students' design and content modifications for the Calorie Converter label, and the majority indicated that the energy expenditure label would influence their food selection practices.

  5. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  6. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  7. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Rood, Jennifer; Martin, Corby K.; Most, Marlene; Brock, Courtney; Mancuso, Susan; Redman, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Context The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of overconsumption of low, normal, and high protein diets on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition. Design, Setting, and Participants A single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 25 US healthy, weight-stable male and female volunteers, aged 18 to 35 years with a body mass index between 19 and 30. The first participant was admitted to the inpatient metabolic unit in June 2005 and the last in October 2007. Intervention After consuming a weight-stabilizing diet for 13 to 25 days, participants were randomized to diets containing 5% of energy from protein (low protein), 15% (normal protein), or 25% (high protein), which they were overfed during the last 8 weeks of their 10- to 12-week stay in the inpatient metabolic unit. Compared with energy intake during the weight stabilization period, the protein diets provided approximately 40% more energy intake, which corresponds to 954 kcal/d (95% CI, 884–1022 kcal/d). Main Outcome Measures Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry biweekly, resting energy expenditure was measured weekly by ventilated hood, and total energy expenditure by doubly labeled water prior to the overeating and weight stabilization periods and at weeks 7 to 8. Results Overeating produced significantly less weight gain in the low protein diet group (3.16 kg; 95% CI, 1.88–4.44 kg) compared with the normal protein diet group (6.05 kg; 95% CI, 4.84–7.26 kg) or the high protein diet group (6.51 kg; 95% CI, 5.23–7.79 kg) (P=.002). Body fat increased similarly in all 3 protein diet groups and represented 50% to more than 90% of the excess stored calories. Resting energy expenditure, total energy expenditure, and body protein did not increase during overfeeding with the low protein diet. In contrast, resting energy expenditure (normal protein diet: 160 kcal/d [95% CI, 102

  8. Feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Denlinger, LeAnn; Duveneck, Ellen; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Kong, Lan; Freivalds, Andris; Ray, Chester A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities. A secondary aim was to evaluate if two accelerometers attached to the elliptical device could provide reliable and valid assessments of participants’ frequency and duration of elliptical device use. Design Physically inactive adults (n = 32, age range = 25–65) were recruited through local advertisements and selected using stratified random sampling based on sex, body mass index (BMI), and age. Methods Indirect calorimetry was used to assess participants’ energy expenditure while seated and while using the elliptical device at a self-selected intensity level. Participants also self-reported their interest in using the elliptical device during sedentary activities. Two Actigraph GT3X accelerometers were attached to the elliptical device to record time-use patterns. Results Participants expended a median of 179.1 kilocalories per hour while using the elliptical device (range = 108.2–269.0), or a median of 87.9 more kilocalories (range = 19.7–178.6) than they would expend per hour of sedentary sitting. Participants reported high interest in using the elliptical device during TV watching and computer work, but relatively low interest in using the device during office meetings. Women reported greater interest in using the elliptical device than men. The two accelerometers recorded identical time-use patterns on the elliptical device and demonstrated concurrent validity with time-stamped computer records. Conclusions Compact elliptical devices could increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities, and may provide proximal environmental cues for increasing energy expenditure across multiple life domains. PMID:24035273

  9. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William; McCarthy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. Methods Seventy-two women, 60 – 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. Results All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Non-exercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1×1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (−150 kcal/day). Conclusion Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training. Key words: physical activity, older adults, total energy expenditure, maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:23774582

  10. Daily Energy Expenditure and Its Relation to Health Care Costs in Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    George, Jason; Abdulla, Rami Khoury; Yeow, Raymond; Aggarwal, Anshul; Boura, Judith; Wegner, James; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-02-15

    Our increasingly sedentary lifestyle is associated with a heightened risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Using the recently developed heart rate index formula in 843 patients (mean ± SD age 62.3 ± 15.7 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, we estimated average and peak daily energy expenditure, expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), and related these data to subsequent hospital encounters and health care costs. In this cohort, estimated daily average and peak METs were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Patients who achieved daily bouts of peak energy expenditure ≥5 METs had fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.006) and median health care costs that were nearly 50% lower (p <0.001) than their counterparts who attained <5 METs. In patients whose body mass index was ≥30 kg/m(2), there were significant differences in health care costs depending on whether they achieved <5 or ≥5 METs estimated by ambulatory ECG monitoring (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients who achieved ≥5 METs had lower and no significant difference in their health care costs, regardless of their body mass index (p = 0.46). Patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who achieved ≥5 METs had lower health care costs (p = 0.044) and fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.004) than those who achieved <5 METs. In conclusion, average and peak daily energy expenditures estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring may provide useful information regarding health care utilization in patients with and without previous percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of body habitus. Our findings are the first to link lower intensities of peak daily energy expenditure, estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring, with increased health care utilization.

  11. Evaluation of energy expenditure in forward and backward movements performed by soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Paes, M.R.; Fernandez, R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the energy expenditure for locomotor activities usually performed by soccer referees during a match (walking, jogging, and running) under laboratory conditions, and to compare forward with backward movements. The sample was composed by 10 male soccer referees, age 29±7.8 years, body mass 77.5±6.2 kg, stature 1.78±0.07 m and professional experience of 7.33±4.92 years. Referees were evaluated on two separate occasions. On the first day, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was determined by a maximal treadmill test, and on the second day, the oxygen consumption was determined in different speeds of forward and backward movements. The mean VO2max was 41.20±3.60 mL·kg-1·min-1 and the mean heart rate achieved in the last stage of the test was 190.5±7.9 bpm. When results of forward and backward movements were compared at 1.62 m/s (walking speed), we found significant differences in VO2, in metabolic equivalents, and in kcal. However, the same parameters in forward and backward movements at jogging velocities (2.46 m/s) were not significantly different, showing that these motor activities have similar intensity. Backward movements at velocities equivalent to walking and jogging are moderate-intensity activities, with energy expenditure less than 9 kcal. Energy expenditure was overestimated by at least 35% when calculated by mathematical equations. In summary, we observed that backward movements are not high-intensity activities as has been commonly reported, and when calculated using equations available in the literature, energy expenditure was overestimated compared to the values obtained by indirect calorimetry. PMID:27074169

  12. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  13. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G.; Butte, Nancy F.; Crouter, Scott E.; Trost, Stewart G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Bassett, David R.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Berrigan, David; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. Methods A secondary analysis of oxygen uptake (VO2) data obtained from five sites was completed, that included 947 children ages 5 to 18 years, who engaged in 14 different activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was computed based on Schofield Equations [Hum Nutr Clin Nut. 39(Suppl 1), 1985]. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min-1), oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass (VO2 in ml.kg-1.min-1), net oxygen uptake (VO2 – resting metabolic rate), allometric scaled oxygen uptake (VO2 in ml.kg-0.75.min-1) and YOUTH-MET (VO2.[resting VO2] -1) were calculated. These metrics were regressed with age, sex, height, and body mass. Results Net and allometric-scaled VO2, and YOUTH-MET were least associated with age, sex and physical characteristics. For moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, allometric scaling was least related to age and sex. For sedentary and low-intensity activities, YOUTH-MET was least related to age and sex. Conclusions No energy expenditure metric completely eliminated the influence of age, physical characteristics, and sex. The Adult MET consistently overestimated EE. YOUTH-MET was better for expressing energy expenditure for sedentary and light activities, whereas allometric scaling was better for moderate and vigorous intensity activities. From a practical perspective, The YOUTH-MET may be the more feasible metric for improving of the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. PMID:26102204

  14. Moderate exercise, postprandial energy expenditure, and substrate use in varying meals in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Petra; Sparks, S Andrew; Cunliffe, Adam

    2008-02-01

    Maximizing postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation could be of clinical relevance for the treatment of obesity. This study investigated the effect of prior exercise on energy expenditure and substrate utilization after meals containing varying amounts of macronutrients. Eight lean (11.6%+/-4.0% body fat, M+/-SD) and 12 obese (35.9%+/-5.3% body fat) men were randomly assigned to a protein (43% protein, 30% carbohydrate) or a carbohydrate (10% protein, 63% carbohydrate) meal. The metabolic responses to the meals were investigated during 2 trials, when meals were ingested after a resting period (D) or cycling exercise (Ex+D; 65% of oxygen consumption reserve, 200 kcal). Energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and glucose and insulin responses were measured for 4 hr during the postprandial phase. Although postprandial energy expenditure was not affected by prior exercise, the total amount of fat oxidized was higher during Ex+D than during D (170.8+/-60.1 g vs. 137.8+/-50.8 g, p< .05), and, accordingly, the use of carbohydrate as substrate was decreased (136.4+/-45.2 g vs. 164.0+/-42.9 g, p< .05).After the protein meal fat-oxidation rates were higher than after carbohydrate intake (p< .05), an effect independent of prior exercise. Plasma insulin tended to be lower during Ex+D (p= .072) and after the protein meal (p= .066). No statistically significant change in postprandial blood glucose was induced by prior exercise. Exercising before meal consumption can result in a marked increase in fat oxidation, which is independent of the type of meal consumed.

  15. Influence of Weight Classification on Walking and Jogging Energy Expenditure Prediction in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heden, Timothy D.; LeCheminant, James D.; Smith, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of weight classification on predicting energy expenditure (EE) in women. Twelve overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) and 12 normal-weight (BMI = 18.5-24.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) women walked and jogged 1,609 m at 1.34 m.s[superscript -1] and 2.23 m.s[superscript…

  16. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis.

    PubMed

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A J; Verhulst, Simon; Dittami, John

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds trained to follow an ultra-light aircraft. Because these birds were tame, with foster parents, we were able to bleed them immediately prior to and after each flight. Flight duration was experimentally designed ranging between one and almost four hours continuous flights. Energy expenditure during flight was estimated using doubly-labelled-water while physiological properties were assessed through blood chemistry including plasma metabolites, enzymes, electrolytes, blood gases, and reactive oxygen compounds. Instantaneous energy expenditure decreased with flight duration, and the birds appeared to balance aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, using fat, carbohydrate and protein as fuel. This made flight both economic and tolerable. The observed effects resemble classical exercise adaptations that can limit duration of exercise while reducing energetic output. There were also in-flight benefits that enable power output variation from cruising to manoeuvring. These adaptations share characteristics with physiological processes that have facilitated other athletic feats in nature and might enable the extraordinary long flights of migratory birds as well.

  17. SenseWear Armband and Stroke: Validity of Energy Expenditure and Step Count Measurement during Walking.

    PubMed

    Manns, Patricia J; Haennel, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA) for the measurement of energy expenditure (EE) and step count against a criterion in persons with stroke. Twelve participants with chronic stroke (mean age 64.2 ± 10.4 years; mean gait speed 0.67 ± 0.25 m/sec) completed two trials of a six-minute walk test, while wearing a SenseWear Armband (SWA) on each arm and being continuously monitored using a portable metabolic cart. Agreement between estimates of energy expenditure from the SWA and the metabolic cart was fair for the armband on the hemiplegic arm (intraclass correlation cefficient (ICC) = 0.586) and good for the armband on the unaffected arm (ICC = 0.702). Agreement between the SWA estimate of step count, and step count as measured by the Step Activity Monitor was poor (ICC < 0.352), with significant underestimation by the SWA. Our results show that, for these moderately impaired persons with stroke, the SWA should be used with caution for the measurement of energy expenditure and should not be used to measure step count.

  18. Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity.

  19. FGF21, energy expenditure and weight loss – How much brown fat do you need?

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Leon; Wolfrum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) belongs to the large family of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Even though FGF signaling has been mainly implicated in developmental processes, recent studies have demonstrated that FGF21 is an important regulator of whole body energy expenditure and metabolism, in obesity. Scope of review Given the fact that obesity has developed epidemic proportions, not just in industrialized countries, FGF21 has emerged as a novel therapeutic avenue to treat obesity as well as associated metabolic disorders. While the metabolic effects of FGF21 are undisputed, the mechanisms by which FGF21 regulate weight loss have not yet been fully resolved. Until recently it was believed that FGF21 induces brown fat activity, thereby enhancing energy expenditure, which concomitantly leads to weight loss. Novel studies have challenged this concept as they could demonstrate that a part of the FGF21 mediated effects are retained in a mouse model of impaired brown adipose tissue function. Major conclusions The review illustrates the recent advances in FGF21 research and discusses the role of FGF21 in the regulation of energy expenditure linked to brown fat activity. PMID:26413466

  20. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis

    PubMed Central

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds trained to follow an ultra-light aircraft. Because these birds were tame, with foster parents, we were able to bleed them immediately prior to and after each flight. Flight duration was experimentally designed ranging between one and almost four hours continuous flights. Energy expenditure during flight was estimated using doubly-labelled-water while physiological properties were assessed through blood chemistry including plasma metabolites, enzymes, electrolytes, blood gases, and reactive oxygen compounds. Instantaneous energy expenditure decreased with flight duration, and the birds appeared to balance aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, using fat, carbohydrate and protein as fuel. This made flight both economic and tolerable. The observed effects resemble classical exercise adaptations that can limit duration of exercise while reducing energetic output. There were also in-flight benefits that enable power output variation from cruising to manoeuvring. These adaptations share characteristics with physiological processes that have facilitated other athletic feats in nature and might enable the extraordinary long flights of migratory birds as well. PMID:26376193

  1. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Parsons, Susan K.; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J.; Wong, William W.; Saltzman, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure (TEE) in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age 11.5 years). Mean TEE was 2,073 kcal/day, which was nearly 500 kcal/day lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies. PMID:25197775

  2. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization.

  3. The federal energy policy: An example of its potential impact on energy consumption and expenditures in minority and poor households

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impacts of the National Energy Strategy on majority and minority households and on nonpoor and poor households. (Minority households are defined as those headed by black or Hispanic persons; poor households are defined as those having combined household income less than or equal to 125% of the Office of Management and Budget`s poverty-income threshold.) Energy consumption and expenditures, and projected energy expenditures as a share of income, for the period 1987 to 2009 are reported. Projected consumptions of electricity and nonelectric energy over this period are also reported for each group. An analysis of how these projected values are affected under different housing growth scenarios is performed. The analysis in this report presents a preliminary set of projections generated under a set of simplifying assumptions. Future analysis will rigorously assess the sensitivity of the projected values to various changes in a number of these assumptions.

  4. A low-cost method for estimating energy expenditure during soccer refereeing.

    PubMed

    Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Padulo, Johnny; Zuliani, Andrea; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to apply a validated bioenergetics model of sprint running to recordings obtained from commercial basic high-sensitivity global positioning system receivers to estimate energy expenditure and physical activity variables during soccer refereeing. We studied five Italian fifth division referees during 20 official matches while carrying the receivers. By applying the model to the recorded speed and acceleration data, we calculated energy consumption during activity, mass-normalised total energy consumption, total distance, metabolically equivalent distance and their ratio over the entire match and the two halves. Main results were as follows: (match) energy consumption = 4729 ± 608 kJ, mass normalised total energy consumption = 74 ± 8 kJ · kg(-1), total distance = 13,112 ± 1225 m, metabolically equivalent distance = 13,788 ± 1151 m and metabolically equivalent/total distance = 1.05 ± 0.05. By using a very low-cost device, it is possible to estimate the energy expenditure of soccer refereeing. The provided predicting mass-normalised total energy consumption versus total distance equation can supply information about soccer refereeing energy demand.

  5. Effects of the R and D tax credit on energy R and D expenditures: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Kee, J.R.; Lackey, K.C.; Cronin, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    Objective of the study was to estimate the effects on industrial energy research and development (R and D) expenditures of the R and D Tax Credit component of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Two tasks were performed. The first task was to collect data on industrial R and D expenditures, sales, oil prices, and price deflators. The R and D expenditure data were obtained from the National Science Foundation; other data were collected from Commerce Department and Department of Energy publications. The second task was to perform an econometric analysis of the effects of the tax credit on industrial R and D expenditures. Equations relating: (1) total; and (2) energy-related R and D expenditures to sales, oil prices, and a variable representing the availability of the tax credit were estimated, using data for each of seven manufacturing industries and eleven years. The analysis showed that the tax credit caused real total industrial R and D expenditures to be 9.1% greater than they would have been without the credit, but caused real energy industrial R and D expenditures to be 13.8% less than they would have been without the tax credit.

  6. Energy equivalents of CO sub 2 and their importance in assessing energy expenditure when using tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Carbon dioxide production in free living animals and humans can be measured using tracer techniques, but the prediction of energy expenditure also requires an estimate of the energy equivalents of CO2 (energy expended/CO2 produced; EeqCO2). This work is concerned with assessing the variation in EeqCO2 with the use of dietary information, indirect calorimetry, and theoretical concepts. The EeqCO2 for diets (EeqCO2 diet) ingested by 63 individuals living in a Cambridgeshire village, UK, was found to vary by less than 10%. The EeqCO2 diet for different populations varied by greater than 10% and for artificial enteral feeds by approximately 20%. Alcohol increases this variability because it has a particularly high EeqCO2. Variation in the nitrogenous end products of metabolism may also have a substantial effect on the EeqCO2 for a subject (EeqCO2 body), especially when a large proportion of energy expenditure is derived from protein oxidation, as in strict carnivores. Nutrient/energy imbalances such as those associated with growth, hypercaloric feeding, or starvation may also have major effects on EeqCO2 body. It is concluded that the calculation of energy expenditure from CO2 production should not employ a universal value for EeqCO2 body. The value should take into account the physiological and clinical state under investigation. Practical recommendations are suggested.

  7. Lower resting and total energy expenditure in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Leanne; Harnden, Karin; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Real, Belen; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The menopause is accompanied by increased risk of obesity, altered body fat distribution and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The resulting decrease in RMR should be accompanied by a compensatory change in energy balance to avoid weight gain. We aimed to investigate habitual energy intake and expenditure in pre- and postmenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. We recruited fifty-one healthy Caucasian women, BMI > 18·5 and <35 kg/m(2), aged 35-45 years (premenopausal, n 26) and 55-65 years (postmenopausal, n 25). Energy intake was measured using 3 d diet diaries and dietary fat quality assessed using adipose tissue fatty acid biomarkers. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor. Postmenopausal women had lower RMR and TEE and spent significantly less time undertaking moderate exercise than premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women had a tendency for a lower energy intake, and a similar macronutrient intake but a significantly lower adipose tissue n-6:n-3 ratio (24·6 (se 1·6) v. 37·7 (se 3·1); P < 0·001). The main lifestyle determinant of bone mineral density (which was significantly lower in postmenopausal women) was TEE for premenopausal women, and dietary n-6:n-3 ratio for postmenopausal women. The present results suggest that weight maintenance is achieved in the post- compared with premenopausal status through a combination of reduced energy intake and reduced TEE in a regimen that compromises micronutrient intake and has a negative impact on lean tissue mass. However, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acid intake in postmenopausal women is associated with greater bone mineral density.

  8. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Marini, Juan C; Sosa, Horacio A; Castillo, Liliana I; Grounds, Miranda D; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old) and adult (12- to 14-wk-old) male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing) adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles.

  9. Geomorphically Effective Energy Expenditure for Quantifying Channel Responses to Extreme Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, William; Righini, Margherita; Wohl, Ellen E.; Borga, Marco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rathburn, Sara L.; Surian, Nicola; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatio-temporal rainfall variability and therefore show variations in energy expenditure and associated geomorphic impacts that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on variations in flood intensity. Geomorphic modification is expected to occur in river channels when driving forces (i.e., hydraulic and abrasive forces of water and sediment acting on the channel) exceed threshold of resisting forces (i.e., the ability of channel boundaries to remain unchanged by the passage of water and sediments). However, these forces that determine the capacity of floods to modify existing channel configuration are extremely difficult to quantify. Geomorphic impacts or hazards usually take the form of erosional and depositional modification of the pre-flood channel and valley geometry. A central question in hydrogeomorphology relates to why flash floods of similar magnitudes and intensities sometimes produce dissimilar geomorphic results? In fact, some less magnitude floods in terms of discharge per unit of drainage area have been found to produce major geomorphic damage than some high magnitude events. Furthermore, the use of peak instantaneous flow parameters such as discharge, velocity, shear stress and stream power to quantify geomorphic changes have often been non-deterministic and/or inconclusive. Investigations are therefore needed on how factors such as channel geometry, substrate, riparian vegetation, sediment supply, and flood magnitude and duration can interact and influence geomorphic effectiveness of high magnitude floods. The main objective of this study is to assess the coupled influence of flood-flow duration and total energy expenditure on geomorphic response to extreme flash floods, which is aimed at developing an index that combines flow duration, stream power per unit area and threshold for major channel erosion to be evaluated as a predictor of geomorphic adjustment

  10. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. Exceptionally low daily energy expenditure in the bamboo-eating giant panda.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yonggang; Speakman, John R; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Hu, Yibo; Xia, Maohua; Yan, Li; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, Lu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinguo; Wei, Fuwen

    2015-07-10

    The carnivoran giant panda has a specialized bamboo diet, to which its alimentary tract is poorly adapted. Measurements of daily energy expenditure across five captive and three wild pandas averaged 5.2 megajoules (MJ)/day, only 37.7% of the predicted value (13.8 MJ/day). For the wild pandas, the mean was 6.2 MJ/day, or 45% of the mammalian expectation. Pandas achieve this exceptionally low expenditure in part by reduced sizes of several vital organs and low physical activity. In addition, circulating levels of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) averaged 46.9 and 64%, respectively, of the levels expected for a eutherian mammal of comparable size. A giant panda-unique mutation in the DUOX2 gene, critical for thyroid hormone synthesis, might explain these low thyroid hormone levels. A combination of morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic adaptations, leading to low energy expenditure, likely enables giant pandas to survive on a bamboo diet.

  11. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  12. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p < 0.001) or indirect calorimetry (2.64 vs. 2.92 kcal/kg/h, p = 0.017). Conclusion Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry gave similar estimates of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was 10% lower in the prone position than in the supine position.

  13. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Western, Max J.; Nightingale, Thomas E.; Peacock, Oliver J.; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  14. Nutrition Concepts for Elite Distance Runners Based on Macronutrient and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sandra; Fischer, Alexandra; Vock, Christina; Böhme, Mike; Schmelzer, Constance; Döpner, Myriam; Hülsmann, Olaf; Döring, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Context: Elite distance runners (EDR) must optimize their nutrition to maintain their demanding training schedules. Objective: To develop a nutrition concept for EDR based on energy and macronutrient expenditures. Design: This theoretical study provides calculations for macronutrient and energy expenditures of EDR. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of EDR were assumed based on average real EDR. Setting: University of Kiel. Patients Or Other Participants: Three prototypic types of male EDR described in the literature as type I (TI; body mass  =  72 kg, respiratory quotient  =  0.9 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers  =  60% to 70%), type II (TII; body mass  =  67 kg, respiratory quotient  =  0.82 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers  =  50%), and type III (TIII; body mass  =  60 kg, respiratory quotient  =  0.75 at rest, fast-twitch muscle fibers  =  30% to 40%). Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the macronutrient and energy expenditures of the 3 types of EDR according to body mass, respiratory quotient, and percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Results: We found that the average energy expenditure was 3750 kcal · d−1 for TI runners, 3463 kcal · d−1 for TII runners, and 3079 kcal · d−1 for TIII runners. The carbohydrate (CHO) expenditure reached an average value of 10.0 g · kg−1 · d−1 for TI runners, 8.0 g · kg−1 · d−1 for TII runners, and 4.7 g · kg−1 · d−1 for TIII runners. When the EDR accomplished running sessions at a pace ≥100% of maximum oxygen consumption, all types of runners had a CHO demand of about 10 g · kg−1 · d−1. The TI and TII runners need a CHO intake of 8 to 10 g · kg−1 · d−1. For the TIII runners, a CHO intake >6 g · kg−1 · d−1 is necessary during anaerobic training sessions. Conclusions: Nutrition concepts must be differentiated for EDR according to metabolic and anthropometric

  15. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  16. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  17. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  18. Utility of the actiheart accelerometer for estimating exercise energy expenditure in female adolescent runners.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Jeanne F; Aralis, Hilary; Merino, Sonia Garcia; Barrack, Michelle T; Stalker-Fader, Lindsay; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing need to accurately assess exercise energy expenditure (EEE) in athletic populations that may be at risk for health disorders because of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The Actiheart combines heart rate and uniaxial accelerometry to estimate energy expenditure above rest. The authors' purpose was to determine the utility of the Actiheart for predicting EEE in female adolescent runners (N = 39, age 15.7 ± 1.1 yr). EEE was measured by indirect calorimetry and predicted by the Actiheart during three 8-min stages of treadmill running at individualized velocities corresponding to each runner's training, including recovery, tempo, and 5-km-race pace. Repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons across the 3 running stages indicated that the Actiheart was sensitive to changes in intensity (p < .01), but accelerometer output tended to plateau at race pace. Pairwise comparisons of the mean difference between Actiheart- and criterion-measured EEE yielded values of 0.0436, 0.0539, and 0.0753 kcal × kg-1 × min-1 during recovery, tempo, and race pace, respectively (p < .0001). Bland-Altman plots indicated that the Actiheart consistently underestimated EEE except in 1 runner's recovery bout. A linear mixed-model regression analysis with height as a covariate provided an improved EEE prediction model, with the overall standard error of the estimate for the 3 speeds reduced to 0.0101 kcal × kg-1 × min-1. Using the manufacturer's equation that combines heart rate and uniaxial motion, the Actiheart may have limited use in accurately assessing EEE, and therefore energy availability, in young, female competitive runners.

  19. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance123

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure is the primary etiology for excess weight gain. Increased energy expenditure via exercise and energy restriction via diet are commonly used approaches to induce weight loss. Such behavioral interventions, however, have generally resulted in a smaller than expected weight loss, which in part has been attributed to compensatory adaptations in other components contributing to energy balance. Current research points to a loose coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, and evidence for long-term adaptations has been inconsistent. The lack of conclusive evidence on compensatory adaptations in response to alterations in energy balance can be attributed to differences in intervention type and study population. Physical activity (PA) levels may be reduced in response to aerobic exercise but not in response to resistance exercise. Furthermore, athletic and lean adults have been shown to increase their energy intake in response to exercise, whereas no such response was observed in obese adults. There is also evidence that caloric restriction is associated with a decline in PA. Generally, humans seem to be better equipped to defend against weight loss than avoid weight gain, but results also show a large individual variability. Therefore, individual differences rather than group means should be explored to identify specific characteristics of “compensators” and “noncompensators.” This review emphasizes the need for more research with simultaneous measurements of all major components contributing to energy balance to enhance the understanding of the regulation of energy balance, which is crucial to address the current obesity epidemic. PMID:26374181

  20. Ingestion of a moderately high caffeine dose before exercise increases postexercise energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Ortega, Juan F; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesus; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine is an ergogenic aid widely used before and during prolonged exercise. Due to its prolonged biological half-life caffeine effects could remain after exercise. We aimed to investigate the metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular postexercise responses to preexercise graded caffeine ingestion. Twelve aerobically trained subjects (mean VO₂max = 54 ± 7 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹) cycled for 60-min at 75% VO₂max after ingesting placebo (0 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight) or 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ on five occasions. During the 3 hr postexercise, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, lactate, and fatty acids were analyzed. None of these variables were statistically affected by preexercise caffeine ingestion between 0.5 and 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ of caffeine raised postexercise energy expenditure 15% above placebo (233 ± 58 vs. 202 ± 49 kcal/3 hr; p < .05). Ventilation and tidal volume were elevated after the 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ caffeine dose above placebo (9.2 ± 2.5 L · min⁻¹ and 0.67 ± 0.29 L · breath⁻¹ vs. 7.8 ± 1.5 L · min⁻¹ and 0.56 ± 0.20 L · breath⁻¹, respectively; p < .05). Ventilation correlated with tidal volume (r = .45; p < .05) and energy expenditure (r = .72; p < .05). In summary, preexercise ingestion of ergogenic caffeine doses do not alter postexercise cardiovascular responses. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg⁻¹ of caffeine raises 3-hr postexercise energy expenditure (i.e., 31 kcal) likely through increased energy cost of ventilation.

  1. Energy Expenditure During Cane-Assisted Gait in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anamaria; Alves, Ana Claudia Monteiro; de Oliveira, Leda Magalhães; Saad, Marcelo; Natour, Jamil

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS A quasi-experimental study (single-group) was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 – length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 – length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 – length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years). Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001), as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively). CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:18438573

  2. C-type natriuretic peptide as a new regulator of food intake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, Megumi; Tamura, Naohisa; Yamada, Nobuko; Katsuura, Goro; Oyamada, Naofumi; Taura, Daisuke; Sonoyama, Takuhiro; Fukunaga, Yasutomo; Ohinata, Kousaku; Sone, Masakatsu; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2010-08-01

    The physiological implication of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) including energy metabolism has not been elucidated, because of markedly short stature in CNP-null mice. In the present study we analyzed food intake and energy expenditure of CNP-null mice with chondrocyte-targeted CNP expression (CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice), in which marked skeletal dysplasia was rescued, to investigate the significance of CNP under minimal influences of skeletal phenotypes. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, body weight and body fat ratio were reduced by 24% and 32%, respectively, at 20 wk of age, and decreases of blood glucose levels during insulin tolerance tests were 2-fold exaggerated at 17 wk of age, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Urinary noradrenalin excretion of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice was greater than that of CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice by 28%. In CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice, rectal temperature at 1600 h was higher by 1.1 C, and uncoupling protein-1 mRNA expression in the brown adipose tissue was 2-fold increased, which was canceled by propranolol administration, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Oxygen consumption was significantly increased in CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice compared with that in CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. Food intake of CNP-Tg/Nppc(-/-) mice upon ad libitum feeding and refeeding after 48 h starvation were reduced by 21% and 61%, respectively, as compared with CNP-Tg/Nppc(+/+) mice. This study unveiled a new aspect of CNP as a molecule regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Further analyses on precise mechanisms of CNP actions would lead to the better understanding of the significance of the CNP/guanylyl cyclase-B system in food intake and energy expenditure.

  3. Comparison of energy expenditures by elderly and non-elderly households: 1975 and 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, A.

    1980-05-01

    The relative position of the elderly in the population is examined and their characteristic use of energy in relation to the total population and their non-elderly counterparts is observed. The 1985 projections are based on demographic, economic, and socio-economic, and energy data assumptions contained in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. The model used for estimating household energy expenditure is MATH/CHRDS - Micro-Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System. Characteristics used include households disposable income, poverty status, location by DOE region and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), and race and sex of the household head as well as age. Energy use by fuel type will be identified for total home fuels, including electricity, natural gas, bottled gas and fuel oil, and for all fuels, where gasoline use is also included. Throughout the analysis, both income and expenditure-dollar amounts for 1975 and 1985 are expressed in constant 1978 dollars. Two appendices contain statistical information.

  4. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  5. Quality of life and energy expenditure in transplant recipient football players.

    PubMed

    Totti, V; Zancanaro, M; Trerotola, M; Nanni Costa, A; Antonetti, T; Anedda, A; Roi, G S

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is a highly motivating leisure activity with important potential as a health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess the "on the field" energy expenditure during football games and the quality of life of transplant recipients practicing football. Twenty-two recipients of kidney (n = 11), bone marrow (n = 7), liver (n = 3) or corneal (n = 1) transplantations had an overall mean age of 37 ± 9 years, body mass index of 23.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2), and time after transplantation of 9.3 ± 6.4 years. They were compared with 25 healthy football players of mean age 41 ± 10 years and body mass index of 26.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2). There were no significant differences between transplant recipients and controls regarding mean energy expenditure (393 ± 113 vs 392 ± 132 kcal/h) number of steps (3.978 ± 1.317 vs 3.933 ± 1.563) during, and capillary blood lactate concentrations (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 5.2 ± 1.3 mmol/L) after the matches. The SF-36 questionnaire administered before the matches showed transplant recipient players to score significantly worse in the scales of general (P < .05) and mental health (P < .01). This study indicated that transplant recipients involved in football matches attained a level of energy expenditure and a quality of life consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Football has the potential to be implemented as a permanent health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients.

  6. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  7. Factors predicting the capacity of Los Angeles city-region recreation programs to promote energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kim D; Dahmann, Nicholas; Wolch, Jennifer; Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale; Dunton, Genevieve; Rudulph, Diana; Newell, Joshua; Thayer, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-07-01

    An audit of recreation programs with moderate or higher levels of physical activity (PA) in Los Angeles area cities (N=82) was conducted using internet, telephone, and survey methods. Metabolic Equivalents (METs) were used to code programs׳ physical activity intensity. MET-hours per recreation program was associated with required age for enrollment, percent of residents >64 years of age, and fiscal capacity of cities. Capacity to promote energy expenditure may depend on targeted age groups, age of population, and municipal fiscal capacity. Cities with lower fiscal capacity might offer those higher MET-hour activities which require less specialized equipment and seek outside funding to offer higher MET programs.

  8. Obesity therapy: altering the energy intake-and-expenditure balance sheet.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Vivion E F; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous health complications, which range from non-fatal debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis, to life-threatening chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. The psychological consequences of obesity can range from lowered self-esteem to clinical depression. Despite the high prevalence of obesity and the many advances in our understanding of how it develops, current therapies have persistently failed to achieve long-term success. This review focuses on how fat mass can be reduced by altering the balance between energy intake and expenditure.

  9. [Technical aspects and relevance of energy expenditure and physical activity assessment in clinical research for cystic fibrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Michaud, L; Turck, D; Gottrand, F

    2005-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by deteriorating lung function and mal-digestion, which result in growth failure and/or under-nutrition. Several factors, alone or combined, contribute to malnutrition in CF: poor energy intake, elevation of energy loss as a result of malabsorption, increasing resting energy expenditure due to genetic mutation and/or pulmonary exacerbation. Several techniques have been used to assess energy expenditure and physical activity in order to better understand mechanisms of malnutrition in CF and follow therapeutic interventions. Indirect calorimetry (IC) studies have shown that resting energy expenditure (REE) was 10-22% higher than predictive values. This increase could be attributed to chronic inflammation as a result of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection. Indeed, intravenous antibiotic therapy decreases REE. Doubly labelled water technique and heart rate monitoring calibrated against IC techniques shows that total energy expenditure (TEE) was not different than in healthy children. Physical activity level assessed by the ratio TEE-REE is also not different between CF of healthy children. Recently, new accelerometry technics, easier to use and less invasive have been successfully used in order to assess physical activity level in CF. Precise and ambulatory assessment of energy expenditure and physical activity permit to check and adapt dietary allowances in CF. These techniques could be simultaneously used and be helpful to assess efficacy of intervention studies.

  10. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  11. The Work and Home Activities Questionnaire: Energy Expenditure Estimates and Association With Percent Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D.; Block, Torin J.; Norris, Jean; Dalvi, Tapashi B.; Fung, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and increasing physical activity requires assessment of occupational, home, leisure and sedentary activities. Methods A physical activity questionnaire was developed using data from a large representative U.S. sample; includes occupational, leisure and home-based domains; and produces estimates of energy expenditure, percent body fat, minutes in various domains, and meeting recommendations. It was tested in 396 persons, mean age 44 years. Estimates were evaluated in relation to percent body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median energy expenditure was 2,365 kcal (women) and 2.960 kcal (men). Women spent 35.1 minutes/day in moderate household activities, 13.0 minutes in moderate leisure and 4.0 minutes in vigorous activities. Men spent 18.0, 22.5 and 15.6 minutes/day in those activities, respectively. Men and women spent 276.4 and 257.0 minutes/day in sedentary activities. Respondents who met recommendations through vigorous activities had significantly lower percent body fat than those who did not, while meeting recommendations only through moderate activities was not associated with percent body fat. Predicted and observed percent body fat correlated at r = .73 and r = .82 for men and women respectively, P < .0001. Conclusions This questionnaire may be useful for understanding health effects of different components of activity, and for interventions to increase activity levels. PMID:19998851

  12. Energy expenditure while performing gymnastic-like motion in spacelab during spaceflight: case study.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiro; Miyatsuji, Kazuki; Tanabe, Satoru

    2006-10-01

    To estimate energy cost of a gymnastic-like exercise performed by an astronaut during spaceflight (cosmic exercise), energy expenditure was determined by measuring mechanical work done around the center of mass (COM) of the body. The cosmic exercise, which consisted of whole-body flexion and extension, was performed during a spaceflight and recorded with a video camera. By analyzing the videotape, the internal mechanical work (W(int)) against inertia load of the body segments was calculated. To compare how human muscles work on Earth, a motion similar to the cosmic exercise was performed by a control subject who had a physique similar to that of the astronaut. The total mechanical power of the astronaut was determined to be about 119 W; although the control subject showed a similar total power value, half of the power was external work (W(ext)) against gravitational load. By assuming a mechanical efficiency of 0.25, the energy expenditure was estimated to be 476 W or 7.7 W/kg, which is equivalent to that expended during fast walking and half of that used during moderate-speed running. Our results suggest that this form of cosmic exercise is appropriate for astronauts in space and can be performed safely, as there are no COM shifts while floating in a spacecraft and no vibratory disturbance.

  13. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  14. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Ana Cláudia Soncini; Góes, Cassiana Regina de; Bufarah, Marina Nogueira Berbel; Balbi, André Luiz; Ponce, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE) of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC), various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight). Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  15. Energy expenditure in space flight (doubly labelled water method) (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Expenditure in Space Flight (ESS) experiment is to demonstrate and evaluate the doubly labeled water method of measuring the energy expended by crew members during approximately 7 days in microgravity. The doubly labeled water technique determines carbon dioxide production which is then used to calculate energy expenditure. The method relies on the equilibrium between oxygen in respiratory carbon dioxide and oxygen in body water. Because of this equilibrium, the kinetic of water turnover and respiration are interdependent. Under normal conditions, man contains small but significant amounts of deuterium and oxygen 18. Deuterium is eliminated from the body as water while oxygen 18 is eliminated as water and carbon dioxide. The difference in the turnover rates in the two isotopes is proportional to the carbon dioxide production. Deliberately enriching the total body water with both of these isotopes allows the isotope turnovers to be accurately measured in urine, plasma, or saliva samples. The samples are taken to the laboratory for analysis using an ion-ratio spectrometer.

  16. Deletion of murine Arv1 results in a lean phenotype with increased energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Lagor, W R; Tong, F; Jarrett, K E; Lin, W; Conlon, D M; Smith, M; Wang, M Y; Yenilmez, B O; McCoy, M G; Fields, D W; O'Neill, S M; Gupta, R; Kumaravel, A; Redon, V; Ahima, R S; Sturley, S L; Billheimer, J T; Rader, D J

    2015-01-01

    Background: ACAT-related enzyme 2 required for viability 1 (ARV1) is a putative lipid transporter of the endoplasmic reticulum that is conserved across eukaryotic species. The ARV1 protein contains a conserved N-terminal cytosolic zinc ribbon motif known as the ARV1 homology domain, followed by multiple transmembrane regions anchoring it in the ER. Deletion of ARV1 in yeast results in defective sterol trafficking, aberrant lipid synthesis, ER stress, membrane disorganization and hypersensitivity to fatty acids (FAs). We sought to investigate the role of Arv1 in mammalian lipid metabolism. Methods: Homologous recombination was used to disrupt the Arv1 gene in mice. Animals were examined for alterations in lipid and lipoprotein levels, body weight, body composition, glucose tolerance and energy expenditure. Results: Global loss of Arv1 significantly decreased total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the plasma. Arv1 knockout mice exhibited a dramatic lean phenotype, with major reductions in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and body weight on a chow diet. This loss of WAT is accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, higher adiponectin levels, increased energy expenditure and greater rates of whole-body FA oxidation. Conclusions: This work identifies Arv1 as an important player in mammalian lipid metabolism and whole-body energy homeostasis. PMID:26479315

  17. A Prader-Willi locus lncRNA cloud modulates diurnal genes and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Powell, Weston T; Coulson, Rochelle L; Crary, Florence K; Wong, Spencer S; Ach, Robert A; Tsang, Peter; Alice Yamada, N; Yasui, Dag H; Lasalle, Janine M

    2013-11-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic disorder of obesity, intellectual disability and sleep abnormalities, is caused by loss of non-coding RNAs on paternal chromosome 15q11-q13. The imprinted minimal PWS locus encompasses a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcript processed into multiple SNORD116 small nucleolar RNAs and the spliced exons of the host gene, 116HG. However, both the molecular function and the disease relevance of the spliced lncRNA 116HG are unknown. Here, we show that 116HG forms a subnuclear RNA cloud that co-purifies with the transcriptional activator RBBP5 and active metabolic genes, remains tethered to the site of its transcription and increases in size in post-natal neurons and during sleep. Snord116del mice lacking 116HG exhibited increased energy expenditure corresponding to the dysregulation of diurnally expressed Mtor and circadian genes Clock, Cry1 and Per2. These combined genomic and metabolic analyses demonstrate that 116HG regulates the diurnal energy expenditure of the brain. These novel molecular insights into the energy imbalance in PWS should lead to improved therapies and understanding of lncRNA roles in complex neurodevelopmental and metabolic disorders.

  18. Optimising speed and energy expenditure in accurate visually directed upper limb movements.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2009-04-01

    Traditional models of speed-accuracy relations and limb control are steady-state models that fail to consider the learning history and strategic approach of the performer. Work from this laboratory indicates that a performer adjusts his/her behaviour from trial-to-trial to optimise not only the speed and accuracy of performance, but also energy expenditure. Because some errors have greater temporal and energy costs than others, most performers execute movements that are prepared such that potential errors are of minimal expense. The trajectories and subsequent endpoint distributions of rapid aiming movements depend on advance knowledge about the availability of afferent information for online control, as well as the costs associated with undershooting or overshooting the target position with the initial impulse. With practice, a performer is able to reduce the trial-to-trial variability associated with goal-directed movement through more consistent movement planning processes and more rapid online control. Part of the optimisation process is related to the development of an internal model of performance against which early afferent feedback can be evaluated. This framework for examining speed, accuracy and energy expenditure in goal-directed reaching can be used to help understand the breakdown of efficient limb control due to fatigue, ageing and pathology.

  19. [Estimation of energy expenditure and the validity of pitch counting during walking and jogging by piezoelectric materials].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Udo, M; Mizuno, C; Yamanaka, H; Tasaka, I

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity of Piezo-electric accelerometer for estimating energy expenditure in walking and jogging. Energy consumption by oxygen uptake was determined during steady state level of treadmill walking at the speed of 60, 80 and 100 m/min and jogging at the speed of 100, 120, 140, and 160 m/min for 10 subjects. There was a highly significant correlation between the energy consumption and the estimated energy expenditure by an accelerometer despite the attached position (r = 0.912 at the waist, r = 0.915 at the chest, P < 0.001), which suggests accurate estimating energy expenditure in the field.

  20. Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Division I Field Hockey Players During Competitive Play.

    PubMed

    Sell, Katie M; Ledesma, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Sell, KM and Ledesma, AB. Heart rate and energy expenditure in Division I field hockey players during competitive play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2122-2128, 2016-The purpose of this study was to quantify energy expenditure and heart rate data for Division I female field hockey players during competitive play. Ten female Division I collegiate field hockey athletes (19.8 ± 1.6 years; 166.4 ± 6.1 cm; 58.2 ± 5.3 kg) completed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test to determine maximal heart rate. One week later, all subjects wore a heart rate monitor during a series of 3 matches in an off-season competition. Average heart rate (AvHR), average percentage of maximal heart rate (AvHR%), peak exercise heart rate (PExHR), and percentage of maximal heart rate (PExHR%), time spent in each of the predetermined heart rate zones, and caloric expenditure per minute of exercise (kcalM) were determined for all players. Differences between positions (backs, midfielders, and forwards) were assessed. No significant differences in AvHR, AvHR%, PExHR, PExHR%, and %TM were observed between playing positions. The AvHR% and PExHR% for each position fell into zones 4 (77-93% HRmax) and 5 (>93% HRmax), respectively, and significantly more time was spent in zone 4 compared with zones 1, 2, 3, and 5 across all players (p ≤ 0.05). The kcalM reflected very heavy intensity exercise. The results of this study will contribute toward understanding the sport-specific physiological demands of women's field hockey and has specific implications for the duration and schedule of training regimens.

  1. Load carriage energy expenditure with and without hiking poles during inclined walking.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, B H; Wright, T; Dugan, B

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare load carriage energy expenditure with and without using hiking poles. Twenty male volunteers aged 20-48yr (Mean=29.8yr) completed two randomly ordered submaximal treadmill trials with poles (E) and without poles (C). Poles and load (15 kg backpack) were fitted for each subject according to the manufacturers' suggestions. Heart rates (HR), minute ventilation (V(E)), oxygen consumption (O2), caloric expenditure (Kcal), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the end of each minute. Two trials separated by one week consisted of a constant treadmill speed of 1.5 mph and 1 min at 10% grade, 2 min at 15% grade, 2 min at 20% grade, and 10 min. at 25% grade. Mean HR (E = 144.8 +/- 24.4 b x min(-1); C = 144.0 +/- 25.7 b x min(-1)) and mean V(E) (E=51.4 +/- 15.8L x min(-1); C=50.8 +/- 17.0L x min(-1)), VO2 (E = 26.9 +/- 6.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); C = 27.4 +/- 6.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and Kcal (E = 10.6 +/- 2.9 Kcal x min(-1); C = 10.8 +/- 3.1 Kcal x min(-1)) were not significantly different between the two conditions. RPE (E = 13.28 +/- 1.2; C = 14.56 +/- 1.2) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) with hiking poles. Analysis of paired time points yielded no significant differences in HR, VO2, V(E), and Kcal, however, RPE means were significantly lower for 5 of the last 7 trial minutes with the use of poles. These results suggest that during load carriage on moderate grade, the weight and use of hiking poles does not increase energy expenditure but may provide reduced perceptions of physical exertion.

  2. Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an Exergaming Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q.; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  3. Resting energy expenditure of morbidly obese patients using indirect calorimetry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kee, A-L; Isenring, E; Hickman, I; Vivanti, A

    2012-09-01

    The increasing proportion of acutely ill hospital patient admissions presenting with a morbidly obese body mass index (BMI ≥ 40 kg m(-2) ) as a comorbidity is an emerging clinical concern. Suboptimal food intake and malnutrition is prevalent in the acute care hospital setting. The energy requirements necessary to prevent malnutrition in acutely ill patients with morbid obesity remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies in the literature that have used indirect calorimetry to measure the resting energy expenditure of patients with morbid obesity to establish their minimum energy requirements and the implications for optimal feeding practices in acutely ill hospitalized patients. A total of 20 studies from PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All articles were graded using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence and given a quality rating using the American Dietetic Association recommendations. Studies were categorized according to the mean BMI of its subjects. The most commonly measured resting energy expenditures for morbidly obese patients are between 2,000 and 3,000 kcal d(-1) (8,400-12,600 kJ d(-1) ). Activity and injury factors of acutely ill morbidly obese patients could result in significantly greater energy requirements for this patient group and are unlikely to be met by standard hospital menus. Establishing the minimum energy requirements for this population group will help inform adequate and accurate energy provision in the acute setting. Outcomes of underfeeding and overfeeding in morbidly obese patients warrant further research.

  4. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    PubMed

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  5. Impact of body reserves on energy expenditure, water flux, and mating success in breeding male northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S; Webb, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    In capital breeders, individual differences in body size and condition can impact mating effort and success. In addition to the collateral advantages of large body size in competition, large nutrient reserves may offer advantages in endurance rivalry and enable the high rates of energy expenditure associated with mating success. We examined the impacts of body reserves and dominance rank on energy expenditure, water flux, mating success, and breeding tenure in the adult male northern elephant seal, a polygynous, capital breeder. Adult males expended energy at a rate of 159 ± 49 MJ d (-1), which is equivalent to 3.1 times the standard metabolic rate predicted by Kleiber's equation. Despite high rates of energy expenditure and a long fasting duration, males spared lean tissue effectively, deriving a mean of 7% of their metabolism from protein catabolism. Body composition had a strong impact on the ability to spare lean tissue during breeding. When controlling for body size, energy expenditure, depletion of blubber reserves, and water efflux were significantly greater in alpha males than in subordinate males. Large body size was associated with increased reproductive effort, tenure on shore, dominance rank, and reproductive success. Terrestrial locomotion and topography appeared to strongly influence energy expenditure. Comparisons with conspecific females suggest greater total seasonal reproductive effort in male northern elephant seals when controlling for the effects of body mass. In polygynous capital breeding systems, male effort may be strongly influenced by physiological state and exceed that of females.

  6. Energy expenditure during golfing and lawn mowing in older adult men.

    PubMed

    Dear, James B; Porter, Michelle M; Ready, A Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    This study compared the intensity and energy cost of playing 9 holes of golf with 40 min of lawn mowing in older men and determined whether both met the current recommendations for health benefits. Eighteen men (age 71.2 +/- 4.4 yr, BMI 27.3 +/- 2.3; M +/- SD) completed a graded treadmill test. During golfing and lawn-mowing field tests, oxygen consumption and walking velocity and distance were measured using a portable metabolic system and global positioning system receiver. The net energy costs of golfing and lawn mowing were 310 and 246 kcal, respectively. The average intensities in metabolic equivalents of golfing and lawn mowing were 2.8 +/- 0.5 and 5.5 +/- 0.9, respectively. Both lawn mowing and golfing met the original intensity and energy expenditure requirements for health benefits specified by the American College of Sports Medicine in 1998, but only lawn mowing met the 2007 intensity recommendations.

  7. Measurement of human energy expenditure, with particular reference to field studies: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi

    2012-08-01

    Over the years, techniques for the study of human movement have ranged in complexity and precision from direct observation of the subject through activity diaries, questionnaires, and recordings of body movement, to the measurement of physiological responses, studies of metabolism and indirect and direct calorimetry. This article reviews developments in each of these domains. Particular reference is made to their impact upon the continuing search for valid field estimates of activity patterns and energy expenditures, as required by the applied physiologist, ergonomist, sports scientist, nutritionist and epidemiologist. Early observers sought to improve productivity in demanding employment. Direct observation and filming of workers were supplemented by monitoring of heart rates, ventilation and oxygen consumption. Such methods still find application in ergonomics and sport, but many investigators are now interested in relationships between habitual physical activity and chronic disease. Even sophisticated questionnaires still do not provide valid information on the absolute energy expenditures associated with good health. Emphasis has thus shifted to use of sophisticated pedometer/accelerometers, sometimes combining their output with GPS and other data. Some modern pedometer/accelerometers perform well in the laboratory, but show substantial systematic errors relative to laboratory reference criteria such as the metabolism of doubly labeled water when assessing the varied activities of daily life. The challenge remains to develop activity monitors that are sufficiently inexpensive for field use, yet meet required accuracy standards. Possibly, measurements of oxygen consumption by portable respirometers may soon satisfy part of this need, although a need for valid longer term monitoring will remain.

  8. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Welcker, Jorg; Gaston, Anthony J; Hatch, Scott A; Palace, Vince; Hare, James F; Speakman, John R; Anderson, W Gary

    2013-06-15

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field-and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements-we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia). Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE) are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR). RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  9. Electronic Noses for Well-Being: Breath Analysis and Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Julian W; Vincent, Timothy A

    2016-06-23

    The wealth of information concealed in a single human breath has been of interest for many years, promising not only disease detection, but also the monitoring of our general well-being. Recent developments in the fields of nano-sensor arrays and MEMS have enabled once bulky artificial olfactory sensor systems, or so-called "electronic noses", to become smaller, lower power and portable devices. At the same time, wearable health monitoring devices are now available, although reliable breath sensing equipment is somewhat missing from the market of physical, rather than chemical sensor gadgets. In this article, we report on the unprecedented rise in healthcare problems caused by an increasingly overweight population. We first review recently-developed electronic noses for the detection of diseases by the analysis of basic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Then, we discuss the primary cause of obesity from over eating and the high calorific content of food. We present the need to measure our individual energy expenditure from our exhaled breath. Finally, we consider the future for handheld or wearable devices to measure energy expenditure; and the potential of these devices to revolutionize healthcare, both at home and in hospitals.

  10. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001) for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  11. Genotype by Energy Expenditure Interaction with Metabolic Syndrome Traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Souza, Michele C.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Blangero, John; Maia, José A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001) for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active. PMID:24260389

  12. Electronic Noses for Well-Being: Breath Analysis and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Julian W.; Vincent, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of information concealed in a single human breath has been of interest for many years, promising not only disease detection, but also the monitoring of our general well-being. Recent developments in the fields of nano-sensor arrays and MEMS have enabled once bulky artificial olfactory sensor systems, or so-called “electronic noses”, to become smaller, lower power and portable devices. At the same time, wearable health monitoring devices are now available, although reliable breath sensing equipment is somewhat missing from the market of physical, rather than chemical sensor gadgets. In this article, we report on the unprecedented rise in healthcare problems caused by an increasingly overweight population. We first review recently-developed electronic noses for the detection of diseases by the analysis of basic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Then, we discuss the primary cause of obesity from over eating and the high calorific content of food. We present the need to measure our individual energy expenditure from our exhaled breath. Finally, we consider the future for handheld or wearable devices to measure energy expenditure; and the potential of these devices to revolutionize healthcare, both at home and in hospitals. PMID:27347946

  13. Energy Expenditure Derived From Micro-Technology is Not Suitable for Assessing Internal Load in Collision-Based Activities.

    PubMed

    Highton, Jamie; Mullen, Thomas; Norris, Jonathan; Oxendale, Chelsea; Twist, Craig

    2016-08-24

    This aim of this study was to examine the validity of energy expenditure derived from micro-technology when measured during a repeated effort rugby protocol. Sixteen male rugby players completed a repeated effort protocol comprising 3 sets of 6 collisions during which movement activity and energy expenditure (EEGPS) were measured using micro-technology. In addition, energy expenditure was also estimated from open circuit spirometry (EEVO2). Whilst related (r = 0.63, 90%CI 0.08-0.89), there was a systematic underestimation of energy expenditure during the protocol (-5.94 ± 0.67 kcal·min(-1)) for EEGPS (7.2 ± 1.0 kcal·min(-1)) compared to EEVO2 (13.2 ± 2.3 kcal·min(-1)). High-speed running distance (r = 0.50, 95%CI -0.66-0.84) was related to EEVO2, while Player Load was not (r = 0.37, 95%CI -0.81-0.68). Whilst metabolic power might provide a different measure of external load than other typically used micro-technology metrics (e.g. high-speed running, Player Load), it underestimates energy expenditure during intermittent team sports that involve collisions.

  14. An Wearable Energy Expenditure Analysis System based on the 15-channel Whole-body Segment Acceleration Measurement.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongwon; Jung, M; Kang, Jaemin; Chan Kim, Hee

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of the amount of energy utilized during physical activity has generated considerable interests from various groups ranging from exercise physiologists to nutritionists and fitness center workers. To date, however, the existing energy expenditure estimation methods are not so reliable and compact. In this paper, we propose a new method for accurately and easily estimating energy expenditure during physical activity with a novel algorithm. This method involves acquiring acceleration signals through a 15-channel whole-body segment acceleration measurement system and then estimating the calories expended using a newly developed algorithm. The results of 3 subjects' experiments were compared with a commercially available mask type indirect calorimeter and a 9-axis accelerometry-based calorimeter. The results demonstrate that the proposed method provides a new and reliable way to estimate human energy expenditure during physical activity.

  15. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  16. [Control of recruitment of muscle motor units by optimization of energy expenditure].

    PubMed

    Kaufman, F; Cheliout, F; de la Bruslerie, J; Brocas, J; Cherruault, Y

    1982-11-01

    In order to vary the force it is exerting a muscle calls upon a variable number of motor elements (spatial mobilisation) and modulates the contraction frequency of each of the fibers (temporal mobilisation). We have studied the frequency distribution as a function of the strength developed and of the elongation of the muscle, as well as the number of fibers recruited. Based on a double approach, experimental and mathematical, we propose a function controlling this two-fold muscular mobilisation: the optimisation of the energy expenditure. In other words, to develop a particular force, the number of fibers called upon and the contraction frequencies of each of them are such that the quantity of energy required by the muscle is a minimum. The study is limited to voluntary isometric muscular contraction. Using optimization techniques, numerical results corresponding to the model's simulation has been obtained by using a digital computer.

  17. Consequences of scale of flow field observation on apparent energy expenditure and habitat selection by juvenile coho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.; Walter, C.; Dunham, J.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a 1:1 scale model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental channel with the objectives of 1) evaluating how the magnitude and variability of velocity changes with increasing discretization of the flow field; 2) demonstrating how velocities at different resolutions impact perceived selection of fish habitat; 3) documenting how energy expenditure estimated from velocity measured at different scales (indirect method) corresponds to estimates based on tailbeat frequencies (direct method); and 4) investigating the temporal and spatial variability of the flow field that might explain differences between direct and indirect estimates of energy expenditure. Velocities were measured in a 10cm grid spacing using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry and fish locations were observed using underwater videogrammetry. Results indicate that scale of observation matters. As predicted, the mean and variance of velocity decreases with coarsening resolution of the flow field observations, illustrating how observed velocities are compressed into a narrower and lower range at coarser scales relative to finer scales. This trend of compressed variability also occurs for the locations where fish were observed, indicating that coarser-resolution observations underestimate the magnitude and range of velocities that fish select. Regarding energy expenditure, in comparing estimates direct and indirect estimates, we find that energy expenditure from the indirect estimates is always lower than the direct estimates, though the degree depend on the scale of velocity measurements. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that coarser resolution observations underestimate the amount of energy that fish expend in resting and foraging, but also indicate that velocity-based measurements generally underestimate energy expenditure by fish. Spatial and temporal variability of velocities do not fully explain the discrepancies between direct and indirect estimates in energy

  18. The energy expenditure of using a “walk‐and‐work” desk for office workers with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Levine, James A; Miller, Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Objective For many people, most of the working day is spent sitting in front of a computer screen. Approaches for obesity treatment and prevention are being sought to increase workplace physical activity because low levels of physical activity are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis was that a vertical workstation that allows an obese individual to work while walking would be associated with significant and substantial increases in energy expenditure over seated work. Methods The vertical workstation is a workstation that allows an office worker to use a standard personal computer while walking on a treadmill at a self‐selected velocity. 15 sedentary individuals with obesity (14 women, one man; 43 (7.5) years, 86 (9.6) kg; body mass index 32 (2.6) kg/m2) underwent measurements of energy expenditure at rest, seated working in an office chair, standing and while walking at a self‐selected speed using the vertical workstation. Body composition was measured using dual x ray absorptiometry. Results The mean (SD) energy expenditure while seated at work in an office chair was 72 (10) kcal/h, whereas the energy expenditure while walking and working at a self‐selected velocity of 1.1 (0.4) mph was 191 (29) kcal/h. The mean (SD) increase in energy expenditure for walking‐and‐working over sitting was 119 (25) kcal/h. Conclusions If sitting computer‐time were replaced by walking‐and‐working, energy expenditure could increase by 100 kcal/h. Thus, if obese individuals were to replace time spent sitting at the computer with walking computer time by 2–3 h/day, and if other components of energy balance were constant, a weight loss of 20–30 kg/year could occur. PMID:17504789

  19. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Tran, Quynh T; Harvey, Innocence; Smallwood, Heather S; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Banerjee, Souvik; Johnson, Daniel L; Dalton, James T; Sullivan, Ryan D; Miller, Duane D; Bridges, Dave; Narayanan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Most satiety-inducing obesity therapeutics, despite modest efficacy, have safety concerns that underscore the need for effective peripherally acting drugs. An attractive therapeutic approach for obesity is to optimize/maximize energy expenditure by increasing energy-utilizing thermogenic brown adipose tissue. We used in vivo and in vitro models to determine the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its ligands on adipose biology. RNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to determine the mechanism of action of ER-β and its ligands. Estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its selective ligand reprogrammed preadipocytes and precursor stem cells into brown adipose tissue and increased mitochondrial respiration. An ER-β-selective ligand increased markers of tricarboxylic acid-dependent and -independent energy biogenesis and oxygen consumption in mice without a concomitant increase in physical activity or food consumption, all culminating in significantly reduced weight gain and adiposity. The antiobesity effects of ER-β ligand were not observed in ER-β-knockout mice. Serum metabolite profiles of adult lean and juvenile mice were comparable, while that of adult obese mice was distinct, indicating a possible impact of obesity on age-dependent metabolism. This phenotype was partially reversed by ER-β-selective ligand. These data highlight a new role for ER-β in adipose biology and its potential to be a safer alternative peripheral therapeutic target for obesity.-Ponnusamy, S., Tran, Q. T., Harvey, I., Smallwood, H. S., Thiyagarajan, T., Banerjee, S., Johnson, D. L., Dalton, J. T., Sullivan, R. D., Miller, D. D., Bridges, D., Narayanan, R. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue.

  20. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  1. Comparison of steps and energy expenditure assessment in adults of Fitbit Tracker and Ultra to the Actical and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Adam Noah, J; Spierer, David K; Gu, Jialu; Bronner, Shaw

    2013-10-01

    Epidemic levels of inactivity are associated with chronic diseases and rising healthcare costs. To address this, accelerometers have been used to track levels of activity. The Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are some of the newest commercially available accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra. Twenty-three subjects were fitted with two Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra accelerometers, two industry-standard accelerometers and an indirect calorimetry device. Subjects participated in 6-min bouts of treadmill walking, jogging and stair stepping. Results indicate the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are reliable and valid for activity monitoring (step counts) and determining energy expenditure while walking and jogging without an incline. The Fitbit and standard accelerometers under-estimated energy expenditure compared to indirect calorimetry for inclined activities. These data suggest the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are reliable and valid for monitoring over-ground energy expenditure.

  2. Disruption of BCATm in mice leads to increased energy expenditure associated with the activation of a futile protein turnover cycle

    PubMed Central

    She, Pengxiang; Reid, Tanya M.; Bronson, Sarah K.; Vary, Thomas C.; Hajnal, Andras; Lynch, Christopher J; Hutson, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Leucine is recognized as a nutrient signal, however the long-term in vivo consequences of leucine signaling and the role of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism in this signaling remains unclear. To investigate these questions, the BCATm gene encoding the enzyme catalyzing the first step in peripheral BCAA metabolism was disrupted. BCATm−/− mice exhibited elevated plasma BCAAs, decreased adiposity and body weight, despite eating more food, along with increased energy expenditure, remarkable improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance, and protection from diet induced obesity. The increased energy expenditure did not seem to be due to altered locomotor activity, uncoupling proteins, sympathetic activity, and thyroid hormones but was strongly associated with food consumption and an active futile cycle of increased protein degradation and synthesis. These observations suggest that either elevated BCAAs and/or loss of BCAA catabolism in peripheral tissues play an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. PMID:17767905

  3. The influence of oral water load on energy expenditure and sympatho-vagal balance in obese and normal weight women

    PubMed Central

    Żak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Rzemieniuk, Anna; Smętek, Joanna; Sordyl, Ryszard; Tyrka, Agata; Sosnowski, Maciej; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Oral water load may increase the energy expenditure (EE) by stimulation of sympathetic dependent thermogenesis. Thus, drinking of water may be helpful in weight reduction. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of water load on energy expenditure and sympathetic activity in obese and normal weight women. Material and methods Forty-five women were included. Energy expenditure was measured twice, in the morning and after oral water load, by the indirect calorimetric method. The heart rate variability parameters low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), LF/HF index, standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square difference among successive RR normal intervals (rMSSD) were used for the indirect assessment of the sympatho-vagal balance. Results Resting energy expenditure (REE) was significantly higher in obese than in normal weight women (1529 ±396 kcal/day vs. 1198 ±373 kcal/day; p = 0.02). In both study groups after water load EE increased significantly (by 20% and by 12%, corresponding to 8.6 kcal/h and 5.2 kcal/h respectively), while, LF/HF index increased simultaneously. The increase of energy expenditure (EE) did not exceed the energetic cost of water heating, from room to body temperature – 15 kcal/1000 ml. There was no correlation between changes of energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. Conclusions The increase of EE induced by water load is mostly related to the heating of the consumed water to body temperature. The assessment of autonomic balance by means of standard HRV indices had been found insufficient for detection of actually operating mechanisms. PMID:23319974

  4. Radiant heat affects thermoregulation and energy expenditure during rewarming from torpor.

    PubMed

    Geiser, F; Drury, R L

    2003-02-01

    The high expenditure of energy required for endogenous rewarming is one of the widely perceived disadvantages of torpor. However, recent evidence demonstrates that passive rewarming either by the increase of ambient temperature or by basking in the sun appears to be common in heterothermic birds and mammals. As it is presently unknown how radiant heat affects energy expenditure during rewarming from torpor and little is known about how it affects normothermic thermoregulation, we quantified the effects of radiant heat on body temperature and metabolic rate of the small (body mass 25 g) marsupial Sminthopsis macroura in the laboratory. Normothermic resting individuals exposed to radiant heat were able to maintain metabolic rates near basal levels (at 0.91 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) and a constant body temperature down to an ambient temperature of 12 degrees C. In contrast, metabolic rates of individuals without access to radiant heat were 4.5-times higher at an ambient temperature of 12 degrees C and body temperature fell with ambient temperature. During radiant heat-assisted passive rewarming from torpor, animals did not employ shivering but appeared to maximise uptake of radiant heat. Their metabolic rate increased only 3.2-times with a 15- degrees C rise of body temperature (Q(10)=2.2), as predicted by Q(10) effects. In contrast, during active rewarming shivering was intensive and metabolic rates showed an 11.6-times increase. Although body temperature showed a similar absolute change between the beginning and the end of the rewarming process, the overall energetic cost during active rewarming was 6.3-times greater than that during passive, radiant heat-assisted rewarming. Our study demonstrates that energetic models assuming active rewarming from torpor at low ambient temperatures can substantially over-estimate energetic costs. The low energy expenditure during passive arousal provides an alternative explanation as to why daily torpor is common in sunny regions and

  5. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tranah, Gregory J; Lam, Ernest T; Katzman, Shana M; Nalls, Michael A; Zhao, Yiqiang; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mooney, Sean; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Manini, Todd M; Cummings, Steven R

    2012-09-01

    The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

  6. The energy expenditure of non-weight bearing crutch walking on the level and ascending stairs.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jonathan; Murphy, Alexandra; Murphy, David; Austin, Andy; Moran, Danielle; Cronin, Caitriona; Guinan, Emer; Hussey, Juliette

    2015-06-01

    Crutches are commonly prescribed to patients with lower limb dysfunction during rehabilitation to assist with mobility. The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure for non-weight bearing crutch walking on level ground and ascending stairs at a self selected speed in a healthy adult population. Thirty-one healthy male and female adults (mean±SD: age 21.6±1.2 years; height 170.8±10.8 cm; weight 70.8±11.4 kg) mobilised non-weight bearing with elbow crutches along a 30 m corridor and (with one crutch) up a flight of 13 stairs. Energy expenditure for each activity was measured by indirect calorimetry using the COSMED K4b(2) portable ergospirometry system. The established VO2 values were 16.4ml/kg/min for crutch walking on level ground and 17.85 ml/kg/min for stair climbing. Non-weight bearing crutch walking at a self selected speed on the level ground and up a flight of stairs resulted in a MET value of 4.57 and 5.06 respectively. The mean heart rate (HR) for crutch walking along the flat was 117.06±20.54 beats per minute (bpm), while the mean HR for ambulating upstairs with crutches was 113.91±19.32 bpm. The increased energy demands of non-weight bearing crutch walking should be considered by physical therapists when instructing patients on crutch use. Further investigation to determine the implications of these results in populations with chronic disease is warranted.

  7. Metabolic power and energy expenditure in an international men's hockey tournament.

    PubMed

    Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; Buttfield, Alec; Peeling, Peter

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the typical metabolic power characteristics of elite men's hockey, and whether changes occur within matches and throughout an international tournament. National team players (n = 16), divided into 3 positional groups (strikers, midfielders, defenders), wore Global Positioning System devices in 6 matches. Energetic (metabolic power, energy expenditure) and displacement (distance, speed, acceleration) variables were determined, and intensity was classified utilising speed, acceleration and metabolic power thresholds. Midfielder's average metabolic power (11.8 ± 1.0 W · kg(-)(1)) was similar to strikers (11.1 ± 1.3 W · kg(-)(1)) and higher than defenders (10.8 ± 1.2 W · kg(-)(1), P = 0.001). Strikers (29.71 ± 3.39 kJ · kg(-)(1)) expended less energy than midfielders (32.18 ± 2.67 kJ · kg(-)(1), P = 0.014) and defenders (33.23 ± 3.96 kJ · kg(-)(1), P < 0.001). Energetic variables did not change between halves or across matches. Across all positions, over 45% of energy expenditure was at high intensity (>20 W · kg(-)(1)). International hockey matches are intense and highly intermittent; however, intensity is maintained throughout matches and over a tournament. In isolation, displacement measures underestimate the amount of high-intensity activity, whereas the integration of instantaneous speed and acceleration provides a more comprehensive assessment of the demands for variable-speed activity typically occurring in hockey matches.

  8. Seasonal variation in energy expenditure and body composition in captive White Storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    PubMed

    Mata, Astolfo; Massemin-Challet, Sylvie; Caloin, Michel; Michard-Picamelot, Delphine; Le Maho, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    North Western European populations of White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) appear to have been saved from extinction by settling, i.e. stopping migration. Settled storks exposed to winter conditions must cope with periods of potentially high energy demands that would otherwise be avoided by the migration process. Doubly labeled water (DLW) was therefore used to examine the seasonal variation (summer vs winter) in daily energy expenditure (DEE) and the body composition of adult and immature storks of both sexes. Male White Storks showed a higher DEE over the winter period than in summer compared with females; in particular, immature males exhibited greater energy expenditure in winter than adult males. Thus, the DEE did not significantly differ between summer and winter (except for immature males), reflecting an absence of thermoregulation cost in winter. For both age classes, total body mass increased in winter, which was mainly due to an increase in fat mass. Adult storks were 5% heavier than immature storks. The sexes differed in body mass, with males weighing significantly more than females by 11%. Mean LBM (lean body mass) was 8.5% higher in adults than in immatures, and was 11.5% higher in males compared with females. Between their first and second summers, immatures accumulated a lean body mass to finally reach the same values as adults, indicating a phase of muscle development. The mean fat mass of the storks did not differ between age classes or between sexes. Based on physiological parameters, this study shows that settled White Storks are able to cope with mild winter periods when they are artificially provided with food. In a view to preserve favourable habitats for this species, it is therefore necessary to decide on a plan of action for breeding areas.

  9. The impact of the Persian Gulf crisis on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L.; Poyer, D.; Teotia, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of the Kingdom of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered first immediate and then fluctuating world petroleum prices. Increases in petroleum prices and in U.S. petroleum imports resulted in increases in the petroleum prices paid by U.S. residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. The result was an immediate price shock that reverberated throughout the U.S. economy. The differential impact of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raised immediate, significant, and potentially long-term research, policy, and management issues for a variety of federal, state, and local government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Among these issues are (1) the measurement of variations in the impact of petroleum price changes on poor, nonpoor, minority, and majority households; (2) how to use the existing policy resources and policy innovation to mitigate regressive impacts of petroleum price increases on lower-income households; and (3) how to pursue such policy mitigation through government agencies severely circumscribed by tax and expenditure limitations. Few models attempt to assess household energy consumption and energy expenditure under various alternative price scenarios and with respect to the inclusion of differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of the nature and extent of potential impacts of petroleum price changes attributable to the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath on majority, black, and Hispanic households and on overlapping poor and nonpoor households. At the time this was written, the Persian Gulf War had concluded with Iraq`s total surrender to all of the resolutions and demands of the United Nations and United States.

  10. Longitudinal assessment of energy expenditure in pregnancy by the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, G R; Prentice, A M; Coward, W A; Davies, H L; Murgatroyd, P R; Wensing, C; Black, A E; Harding, M; Sawyer, M

    1993-04-01

    Twelve women were studied before pregnancy and at 6-wk intervals from 6 to 36 wk gestation. Total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method, basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy intake, and body composition were assessed on each occasion. There was substantial interindividual variation in the response to pregnancy. Mean total energy costs were as follows: delta BMR 112 +/- 104 MJ (range -53 to 273), delta TEE 243 +/- 279 MJ (range -61 to 869 MJ), and fat deposition 132 +/- 127 MJ (range -99 to 280 MJ). The mean total cost of pregnancy (cumulative TEE above baseline+energy deposited as fat and as products of conception) was 418 +/- 348 MJ (range 34-1192 MJ). This was much higher than current recommendations for incremental energy intakes. Self-recorded incremental intakes (208 +/- 272 MJ) seriously underestimated the additional costs. The variability in response emphasizes the problems in making prescriptive recommendations for individual women, because there is no way of predicting metabolic or behavioral responses to pregnancy.

  11. Total energy expenditure of healthy Swedish women during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Forsum, E; Kabir, N; Sadurskis, A; Westerterp, K

    1992-08-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated in healthy Swedish women by the doubly labeled water method in a longitudinal study during pregnancy and lactation. Measurements were made before pregnancy (A); in gestational weeks 16-18 (B), 30 (C), and 36 (D); as well as 2 (F) and 6 (G) mo after delivery. When the results were interpreted, earlier published data regarding resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, and energy in breast milk were also considered. TEE (MJ/d) and TEE/RMR were 10.5 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SD) and 1.87 +/- 0.42 (n = 28), 9.6 +/- 2.8 and 1.65 +/- 0.67 (n = 22), 12.5 +/- 3.4 and 1.82 +/- 0.45 (n = 22), 12.2 +/- 4.1 and 1.66 +/- 0.52 (n = 19), 10.6 +/- 2.0 and 1.82 +/- 0.41 (n = 23), and 10.8 +/- 2.7 and 1.79 +/- 0.42 (n = 23) at A, B, C, D, F, and G, respectively. The results indicated that physical activity tended to be decreased during early pregnancy. Taking changes in body energy stores into consideration, it was estimated that subjects recorded 86% and 77% of their energy intakes at A and F respectively.

  12. Combustion, Respiration and Intermittent Exercise: A Theoretical Perspective on Oxygen Uptake and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    While no doubt thought about for thousands of years, it was Antoine Lavoisier in the late 18th century who is largely credited with the first “modern” investigations of biological energy exchanges. From Lavoisier’s work with combustion and respiration a scientific trend emerges that extends to the present day: the world gains a credible working hypothesis but validity goes missing, often for some time, until later confirmed using proper measures. This theme is applied to glucose/glycogen metabolism where energy exchanges are depicted as conversion from one form to another and, transfer from one place to another made by both the anaerobic and aerobic biochemical pathways within working skeletal muscle, and the hypothetical quantification of these components as part of an oxygen (O2) uptake measurement. The anaerobic and aerobic energy exchange components of metabolism are represented by two different interpretations of O2 uptake: one that contains a glycolytic component (1 L O2 = 21.1 kJ) and one that does not (1 L O2 = 19.6 kJ). When energy exchange transfer and oxygen-related expenditures are applied separately to exercise and recovery periods, an increased energy cost for intermittent as compared to continuous exercise is hypothesized to be a direct result. PMID:24833508

  13. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  14. Adipose Tissue CLK2 Promotes Energy Expenditure during High-Fat Diet Intermittent Fasting.

    PubMed

    Hatting, Maximilian; Rines, Amy K; Luo, Chi; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Sharabi, Kfir; Hall, Jessica A; Verdeguer, Francisco; Trautwein, Christian; Puigserver, Pere

    2017-02-07

    A promising approach to treating obesity is to increase diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but the regulation of this process remains unclear. Here we find that CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in BAT and upregulated upon refeeding. Mice lacking CLK2 in adipose tissue exhibit exacerbated obesity and decreased energy expenditure during high-fat diet intermittent fasting. Additionally, tissue oxygen consumption and protein levels of UCP1 are reduced in CLK2-deficient BAT. Phosphorylation of CREB, a transcriptional activator of UCP1, is markedly decreased in BAT cells lacking CLK2 due to enhanced CREB dephosphorylation. Mechanistically, CREB dephosphorylation is rescued by the inhibition of PP2A, a phosphatase that targets CREB. Our results suggest that CLK2 is a regulatory component of diet-induced thermogenesis in BAT through increased CREB-dependent expression of UCP1.

  15. Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress Programs Expression of Genes Involved in Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, E. L.; Al-Shayeb, B.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in the womb shapes neurobiological and physiological outcomes of offspring in later life, including body weight regulation and metabolic profiles. Our previous work utilizing a centrifugation-induced hyper-gravity demonstrated significantly increased (8-15%) body mass in male, but not female, rats exposed throughout gestation to chronic 2-g from conception to birth. We reported a similar outcome in adult offspring exposed throughout gestation to Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS). Here we examine gene expression changes and the plasma of animals treated with our UVPS model to identify a potential role for prenatal stress in this hypergravity programming effect. Specifically we focused on appetite control and energy expenditure pathways in prenatally stressed adult (90-day-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  16. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Zafra, Angel; Orantes-González, Eva; Noguera, Manuel; Benghazi, Kawtar; Heredia-Jimenez, Jose

    2015-07-27

    The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE) of a physical activity (PA) and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person's state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of "counts". These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs) and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it's associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Zafra, Angel; Orantes-González, Eva; Noguera, Manuel; Benghazi, Kawtar; Heredia-Jimenez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE) of a physical activity (PA) and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person’s state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of “counts”. These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs) and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it’s associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs. PMID:26225973

  18. Development and evaluation of an adult use-of-time instrument with an energy expenditure focus.

    PubMed

    Gomersall, Sjaan R; Olds, Tim S; Ridley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    Measurement in behavioural epidemiology depends on high resolution and precise and accurate measures of the behaviour of interest. Few questionnaires in the adult population are able to simultaneously collect the multidimensional information that is emerging as being important in the relationship between behaviour and health. This project had two objectives: (1) to develop an adult version of the computer-delivered Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adolescents (MARCA), a 24-h activity recall instrument that can measure use-of-time and estimate energy expenditure and (2) to determine the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the developed adult MARCA. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (mean±SD, 31.7±12.1 yr) completed two recalls of the adult MARCA within 24-h and accelerometer counts were measured on 30 of the subjects. Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to quantify the test-retest reliability of the adult MARCA. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rho) were used to quantify convergent validity of the adult MARCA compared to accelerometer counts. The test-retest reliability coefficients of the adult MARCA were high with intra-class coefficients ranging from 0.99 to 1.00. Moderate to strong validity was observed for physical activity level (PAL) (MET.min score of accelerometer wear time) and accelerometer counts per minute (rho=0.72). The adult MARCA is a valid and reliable self-report measure of use-of-time and energy expenditure, capable of a wide variety of flexible use-of-time analyses related to a wide range of behaviours.

  19. Resistance training increases total daily energy expenditure in disabled older women with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ades, Philip A; Savage, Patrick D; Brochu, Martin; Tischler, Marc D; Lee, N Melinda; Poehlman, Eric T

    2005-04-01

    Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) is a determinant of prognosis and fitness in older patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). PAEE and total energy expenditure (TEE) are closely related to fatness, physical function, and metabolic risk in older individuals. The goal of this study was to assess effects of resistance training on PAEE, TEE, and fitness in older women with chronic CHD and physical activity limitations (N = 51, mean age: 72 + 5 yr). The study intervention consisted of a progressive, 6-mo program of resistance training vs. a control group condition of low-intensity yoga and deep breathing. The study interventions were completed by 42 of the 51 participants. The intervention group manifested a 177 +/- 213 kcal/day (+9%) increase in TEE, pre- to posttraining, measured by the doubly labeled water technique during a nonexercise 10-day period (P < 0.03 vs. controls). This was due to a 50 +/- 74 kcal/day (4%) increase in resting metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry (P < 0.01, P < 0.05 vs. controls) and a 123 +/- 214 kcal/day (9%) increase in PAEE (P < 0.03, P = 0.12 vs. controls). Resistance training was associated with significant increases in upper and lower body strength, but no change in fat-free mass, measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry, or left ventricular function, measured by echocardiography and Doppler. Women in the control group showed no alterations in TEE or its determinants. There were no changes between groups in body composition, aerobic capacity, or measures of mental depression. These results demonstrate that resistance training of 6-mo duration leads to an increase in TEE and PAEE in older women with chronic CHD.

  20. Validation of doubly labeled water method for energy expenditure in postsurgical infants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.J.H.; Winthrop, A.L.; Schoeller, D.A.; Swyer, P.R.; Filler, R.M.; Smith, J.M.; Heim, T.

    1986-03-05

    To validate the doubly labeled water method (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O) in infants without concurrent water balance, carbon dioxide production rate (rCO/sub 2/) and energy expenditure (EE) were measured for 5 or 6 days by /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sup 18/O and periodic open circuit respiratory gas exchange in 5 infants (mean age: 5.3 wk, range 1-14 wk). Following abdominal surgery (mean = 10.3 d, range 7-18 d), infants were maintained on constant oral or parenteral nutrition 4 d prior to and during the study. This avoided changes in baseline isotopic enrichment of body water diet induced changes in relative isotopic abundance of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O could introduce significant errors in rCO/sub 2/. For /sup 2/H/sub 2/ /sub 1//sup 8/O, they assumed insensible water loss would be proportional to respiration volume and body surface area and hence rCO/sub 2/. This calculated insensible loss averaged 18% of water turnover. EE was calculated using measured respiratory quotients (m) and dietary intake (i) data. In 6 blinded studies with 5 infants, rCO/sub 2/ = 34.2 L/d (range 27.3-48.0), EE = 191 kcal/d (133-266) and EE/sub i/ = 197 kcal/d (138-281). Percent differences (+/- SD) from respiratory gas exchange were -1.1 +/- 5.8, -1.1 +/- 5.8, and 1.4 +/- 5.2, respectively. These findings demonstrate the validity of the doubly labeled water method for determining energy expenditure without concurrent water balance studies.

  1. Effects of cigarette smoking and its cessation on lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in heavy smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstein, M K; Benowitz, N L; Neese, R A; Schwartz, J M; Hoh, R; Jacob, P; Hsieh, J; Faix, D

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between thermogenic and potentially atherogenic effects of cigarette smoking (CS) and its cessation was investigated. Heavy smokers (n = 7, serum cotinine > 200 ng/ml, > 20 cigarettes/d) were maintained on isoenergetic, constant diets for 2 wk, 1 wk with and 1 wk without CS. Stable isotope infusions with indirect calorimetry were performed on day 7 of each phase, after an overnight fast. CS after overnight abstention increased resting energy expenditure by 5% (not significant vs. non-CS phase; P = 0.18). CS increased the flux of FFA by 77%, flux of glycerol by 82%, and serum FFA concentrations by 73% (P < 0.02 for each), but did not significantly affect fat oxidation. Hepatic reesterification of FFA increased more than threefold (P < 0.03) and adipocyte recycling increased nonsignificantly (P = 0.10). CS-induced lipid substrate cycles represented only 15% (estimated 11 kcal/d) of observed changes in energy expenditure. De novo hepatic lipogenesis was low (< 1-2 g/d) and unaffected by either acute CS or its chronic cessation. Hepatic glucose production was not affected by CS, despite increased serum glycerol and FFA fluxes. Cessation of CS caused no rebound effects on basal metabolic fluxes. In conclusion, a metabolic mechanism for the atherogenic effects of CS on serum lipids (increased hepatic reesterification of FFA) has been documented. Increased entry of FFA accounts for CS-induced increases in serum FFA concentrations. The thermogenic effect of CS is small or absent in heavy smokers while the potentially atherogenic effect is maintained, and cessation of CS does not induce a rebound lipogenic milieu that specifically favors accrual of body fat in the absence of increased food intake. Images PMID:8282797

  2. Special Considerations for Measuring Energy Expenditure with Doubly Labeled Water under Atypical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Surabhi; Racine, Natalie; Shriver, Tim; Schoeller, Dale A

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased interest in understanding the factors that influence human total energy expenditure (TEE). This in turn has increased interest in the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, a technique for measurement of total energy expenditure in free-living humans. The increasing use of this method is attributed to its portability, objectivity, minimal invasiveness, high accuracy and good precision. Although a relatively standard protocol for the method has emerged, the new generation of users often is unfamiliar with rationale behind aspects of the protocol as well as the approaches to avoid or correct for in situations that are not covered by the standard protocol procedure. The primary uncommon situations like introduction of isotopically different diet and fluids with or without geographical relocation, seasonal and temperature variations, activity level of participants etc. during or prior to the DLW measurements can lead to shift in baseline abundance of 2H and 18O or tracer elimination, resulting in moderate to large errors in the measured TEE. These unique situations call for special modifications to the conventional protocol to minimize errors. The objective of the present review was to assemble a list of frequently asked questions and the issues they represent, and then examine the available literature to describe and explain the modifications to the standard DLW protocol to maintain the method’s accuracy. This discussion of DLW protocol modification can be an excellent resource for investigators who intend to use this measurement technique for interesting and uncommon study designs. PMID:26962472

  3. Energy expenditure of the spotted snow skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus, at two climatic extremes of its distribution range.

    PubMed

    Yuni, Luh P E K; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-08-01

    The study of energy expenditure between populations of a wide ranging ectothermic species may provide an insight into how organisms respond to variation in environmental conditions. In this study, the energy expenditure of male spotted snow skinks, Niveoscincus ocellatus, living at the two extremes of the species' distribution range (warm lowland versus cold alpine site) was measured using the doubly labelled water method. Males at the cold alpine site expended more energy per gram per hour compared to their counterparts living at the warm lowland site. Lizards living at high altitude were active at lower temperatures compared with those at the low altitude site, which resulted in a longer activity time for the highland population. However, the differences in energy expenditure cannot be explained only by these differences in activity time. We further suggest that at the cold alpine site, lizards compensated for the low temperatures by elevating their metabolism which subsequently increased their energy expenditure. An elevated metabolic rate combined with modified thermoregulatory behaviour is likely an important mechanism allowing N. ocellatus to cope with the cold environments at high altitude sites.

  4. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist influenced daily profile of energy expenditure in genetically obese diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuki; Ichikawa, Mineko; Ohta, Minoru; Kanai, Setsuko; Kobayash, Mikako; Ichimaru, Yuhei; Shimazoe, Takao; Watanabe, Shigenori; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasak, Kyoko

    2002-03-01

    Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were developed as a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with mild obesity. We reported that the daily profiles of energy expenditure associated with two peaks (one between 05:00 and 08:00 and the other between 20:00 and 22:00) were observed at 8 weeks of age (without NIDDM), while these two peaks disappeared at 24 weeks of age with NIDDM. As a new anti-diabetic drug, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y agonist pioglitazone hydrochloride has been developed, we examined whether pioglitazone normalized daily profiles of energy expenditure at 24 weeks of age. A control diet and pioglitazone (0.1%)-containing diet were fed from 6 weeks of age. The two peaks of daily profiles of energy expenditure, which disappeared in OLETF rats with the control diet at 24 weeks of age, were reproduced by administration of pioglitazone. The respiratory quotient was lower and fat derived energy used for combustion was increased by pioglitazone at both ages. The body weight, daily food intake, plasma levels of fat, insulin, leptin and the wet weight of visceral fat were not influenced, but the levels of blood hemoglobin Alc and plasma tumor necrosis factor a were decreased by pioglitazone. Administration of pioglitazone improved daily profiles of energy expenditure via affecting glucose and fat metabolisms.

  5. No differences in rates of energy expenditure between post-obese women and their matched, lean controls.

    PubMed

    de Peuter, R; Withers, R T; Brinkman, M; Tomas, F M; Clark, D G

    1992-10-01

    Rates of energy expenditure at rest, during different daily activities and following a standardized liquid meal were compared in eight post-obese women, with a mean weight loss of 21.5 kg (range 14.1 to 33.3 kg) and eight controls who had never been overweight. Age, height, body mass index, fat-free mass and average daily energy intake were similar for both experimental groups. Resting metabolic rate averaged 23.04 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 1.14) in the post-obese and 22.70 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 0.64) in the controls on their first visit to the laboratory. Metabolic rates in the two groups rose in parallel as energy expenditure was increased by sitting, standing and walking at three different speeds (2.4, 3.9 and 5.4 km/h). At the highest walking speed energy expenditure averaged 95.30 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 4.18) in the post-obese and 93.42 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 2.97) in the control women. Comparisons of postprandial thermogenesis revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The results of the present study do not support the thesis that rates of energy expenditure, whether at rest, during different activities, or after eating, are reduced in post-obese women.

  6. Brown Adipose YY1 Deficiency Activates Expression of Secreted Proteins Linked to Energy Expenditure and Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Verdeguer, Francisco; Soustek, Meghan S.; Hatting, Maximilian; Blättler, Sharon M.; McDonald, Devin; Barrow, Joeva J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative and thermogenic functions in brown and beige adipose tissues modulate rates of energy expenditure. It is unclear, however, how beige or white adipose tissue contributes to brown fat thermogenic function or compensates for partial deficiencies in this tissue and protects against obesity. Here, we show that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in brown adipose tissue activates the canonical thermogenic and uncoupling gene expression program. In contrast, YY1 represses a series of secreted proteins, including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), bone morphogenetic protein 8b (BMP8b), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), angiopoietin-like 6 (Angptl6), neuromedin B, and nesfatin, linked to energy expenditure. Despite substantial decreases in mitochondrial thermogenic proteins in brown fat, mice lacking YY1 in this tissue are strongly protected against diet-induced obesity and exhibit increased energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in beige and white fat depots. The increased expression of secreted proteins correlates with elevation of energy expenditure and promotion of beige and white fat activation. These results indicate that YY1 in brown adipose tissue controls antagonistic gene expression programs associated with energy balance and maintenance of body weight. PMID:26503783

  7. Seasonality of energy expenditure during pregnancy and lactation for rural Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, C

    1993-05-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated for 19 nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) and 24 pregnant (P) or lactating (L) women from 3601 h of minute-by-minute observation and 168 measurements of the energy cost of activities. NPNL women significantly increased subsistence activity and TEE from 9.9 MJ [1.89 x basal metabolic rate (BMR)] in the winter to 10.5 MJ (2.01 x BMR) in the monsoon season. There were differences between NPNL,P, and L women in the winter, but not in the spring or monsoon season when all individuals sustained very heavy physical activity. High TEE values resulted from spending very long hours in tasks that, although appearing physically demanding to the casual observer, were characterized by light or moderate energy cost. The study highlights the importance of seasonal constraints on women's work, which prevent P and L women from significantly curtailing physical activity during the monsoon season, and which effectively limit the scope of behavioral mechanisms for saving energy and reducing TEE.

  8. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  9. Energy Expenditure Responses to Fasting and Overfeeding Identify Phenotypes Associated With Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Schlögl, Mathias; Pannacciuli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Because it is unknown whether 24-h energy expenditure (EE) responses to dietary extremes will identify phenotypes associated with weight regulation, the aim of this study was to determine whether such responses to fasting or overfeeding are associated with future weight change. The 24-h EE during energy balance, fasting, and four different overfeeding diets with 200% energy requirements was measured in a metabolic chamber in 37 subjects with normal glucose regulation while they resided on our clinical research unit. Diets were given for 24 h each and included the following: 1) low protein (3%), 2) standard (50% carbohydrate, 20% protein), 3) high fat (60%), and 4) high carbohydrate (75%). Participants returned for follow-up 6 months after the initial measures. The decrease in 24-h EE during fasting and the increase with overfeeding were correlated. A larger reduction in EE during fasting, a smaller EE response to low-protein overfeeding, and a larger response to high-carbohydrate overfeeding all correlated with weight gain. The association of the fasting EE response with weight change was not independent from that of low protein in a multivariate model. We identified the following two independent propensities associated with weight gain: a predilection for conserving energy during caloric and protein deprivation and a profligate response to large amounts of carbohydrates. PMID:26185280

  10. Energy Expenditure Responses to Fasting and Overfeeding Identify Phenotypes Associated With Weight Change.

    PubMed

    Schlögl, Mathias; Piaggi, Paolo; Pannacciuli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan M; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S

    2015-11-01

    Because it is unknown whether 24-h energy expenditure (EE) responses to dietary extremes will identify phenotypes associated with weight regulation, the aim of this study was to determine whether such responses to fasting or overfeeding are associated with future weight change. The 24-h EE during energy balance, fasting, and four different overfeeding diets with 200% energy requirements was measured in a metabolic chamber in 37 subjects with normal glucose regulation while they resided on our clinical research unit. Diets were given for 24 h each and included the following: (1) low protein (3%), (2) standard (50% carbohydrate, 20% protein), (3) high fat (60%), and (4) high carbohydrate (75%). Participants returned for follow-up 6 months after the initial measures. The decrease in 24-h EE during fasting and the increase with overfeeding were correlated. A larger reduction in EE during fasting, a smaller EE response to low-protein overfeeding, and a larger response to high-carbohydrate overfeeding all correlated with weight gain. The association of the fasting EE response with weight change was not independent from that of low protein in a multivariate model. We identified the following two independent propensities associated with weight gain: a predilection for conserving energy during caloric and protein deprivation and a profligate response to large amounts of carbohydrates.

  11. Activity-related energy expenditure during lower limb cast immobilization in children.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Albane B; Martin, Xavier E; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity, which may result from immobilization, is recognized as a risk factor for the development of obesity. We aimed to quantify the decrease in activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) because of lower limb cast immobilization. We carried out a longitudinal matched case-control study: 34 adolescents with a first episode of lower limb fracture and 34 healthy cases. Physical activity was assessed during cast immobilization by an accelerometer from which we calculated the decrease in AEE. AEE in adolescents with lower limb fractures was estimated to be 16.0% lower than healthy controls. When converted into kcal per mean participants' weight, the difference in AEE amounted to 125 kcal/day, which corresponds to 5.2 h of slow walking. A significant reduction of AEE in adolescents with lower limb fractures may lead to a significantly positive energy balance as there is usually no compensatory reduction of energy intake. An increase of walking seems unrealistic in this situation and patients should be advised at the emergency unit to reduce their energy intake during the immobilization period.

  12. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r{sup 2} = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r{sup 2} = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r{sup 2} = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization.

  13. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  14. [Optimization of human walk speed at minimum energy expenditure--the function of leg own oscillation frequency on the transfer phase].

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel', V S; Panfilov, V E

    2011-01-01

    Equations were developed to determine the work of transferring the body gravity center for a unit mass in a path unit, and to estimate walk speed at a minimum energy expenditure. It was demonstrated that minimum energy expenditure can be achieved by walking at the pace that corresponds to leg own oscillation frequency.

  15. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  16. Technical Note: The Relationship Between Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Growing Crossbred Boer and Spanish Wethers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Boer (75%) x Spanish (BS) and 8 Spanish (S) wethers (155 +/- 8 d of age and 19.2 +/- 2.3 kg BW, initial) were used in a replicated crossover design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine effects of genotype, diet quality, and time of the day on energy expenditure (EE), r...

  17. Comparison of energy expenditure during the Y-balance test in older adults with different visual acuities

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the energy expenditure during the Y-balance test (YBT) between elderly women with good binocular visual acuity (BVA) and those with poor BVA. [Subjects] Twenty-one elderly women who could walk independently were recruited from a community dwelling. Eleven participants had a BVA equal to or less than 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), and the other 10 participants had a BVA equal to or better than 0.3 logMAR. [Methods] The participants had an accelerometer attached over the L3 spinous process for measurement of energy expenditure and performed the YBT in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. [Results] The normalized reach distance in the good BVA group during the YBT in three directions and composite reach distance were significantly longer compared with the values in the poor BVA group. The energy expenditure in the good BVA group during the YBT in the three directions was significantly reduced compared with the values in the poor BVA group. [Conclusion] We suggest that visual acuity in the elderly influences dynamic balance and energy expenditure. Elderly subjects with poor BVA showed poor dynamic balance control and an inefficient biomechanical cost strategy compared to subjects with good BVA. PMID:25931711

  18. The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different outcomes of the effect of catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementation on energy expenditure and fat oxidation have been reported in short-term studies. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate whether catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementatio...

  19. A Comparison of Accelerometers for Predicting Energy Expenditure and Vertical Ground Reaction Force in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Anne W.; Langenthal, Carla R.; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.; Gross, M. Melissa

    2004-01-01

    In this pilot study of 16 children, we evaluated the reliability and validity of three accelerometers (Mini-Motionlogger [MML], Computer Science Applications, Inc. Actigraph [CSA], and BioTrainer) as indicators of energy expenditure and vertical ground reaction force. The children wore 2 of each type of monitor while they walked, ran, and…

  20. Is there a conflict between minimizing effort and energy expenditure with increasing velocities of muscle contraction in humans?

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Jones, N L; Killian, K J

    1999-08-01

    1. The present study examined the possibility that minimizing effort conflicts with minimizing energy expenditure at different velocities of muscle contraction during cycling. 2. Six normal subjects underwent incremental exercise on an electrically stabilized cycle ergometer. Power output increased by 45 W every 3 min to exhaustion at pedalling frequencies of 40, 60, 80 and 100 r.p.m. on separate days. Energy expenditure (oxygen uptake), leg effort and dyspnoea (Borg 0-10 scale) were measured in parallel at the end of each minute. 3. All six subjects completed 10 min of exercise achieving 180 W for all four pedalling frequencies. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that oxygen uptake (P < 0.0001), leg effort (P < 0.0001) and dyspnoea (P < 0.0001) increased with duration of exercise and power output; oxygen uptake (P < 0.0001) and leg effort (P < 0.05) were significantly different between pedalling frequencies; the interactions were not significant. Oxygen uptake was minimal at 60 r.p.m., and increased at both higher and lower pedalling frequencies. Both leg effort and dyspnoea were minimal at 80 r.p.m.; leg effort intensified at higher and lower pedalling frequencies; and dyspnoea was most intense at 100 r.p.m. 4. There was a conflict between minimization of energy expenditure and leg effort at power outputs less than 180 W. Minimizing effort occurred at the expense of an increase in energy expenditure.

  1. Active Video/Arcade Games (Exergaming) and Energy Expenditure in College Students

    PubMed Central

    SIEGEL, SHANNON R.; L.HADDOCK, BRYAN; DUBOIS, ANDREA M.; WILKIN, LINDA D.

    2009-01-01

    Video games have become increasingly popular among young adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if interactive video/arcade games, requiring physical activity to play, increase the energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) of young adults enough to elicit a training response. Thirteen male and female participants 26.6 ± 5.7 years of age were in the study. Participants were familiarized with equipment and allowed to practice with three games: (1) moving and striking lighted pads, (2) riding a bike to increase the pace of a race car, and (3) boxing against a video simulated opponent. A portable metabolic cart and HR monitor were attached to participants to measure baseline and exercise values. Participants could play any of the three games for 30 minutes while metabolic and HR data were collected. Exercise data were compared to baseline measures, and the 3 games were compared for EE. Paired sample t-tests showed baseline and exercise values differed for HR (t(12) = −18.91, p < 0.01), and EE (t(12) = −15.62, p < 0.01). The boxing game provided the highest VO2 (17.47 ± 4.79 ml·kg·−1min−1). Participants achieved 60% or better of their HR reserve (162.82 ± 10.78 beats·min−1), well within the ACSM guidelines for a training HR. Caloric expenditure during the 30-minute exercise session (226. 07 ± 48.68) is also within the ACSM recommendations for daily physical activity. Thus, interactive video/arcade games that require physical activity to play can be utilized as part of an overall aerobic exercise program. PMID:20407622

  2. Physical activity and total energy expenditure of child-bearing Gambian village women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M; Whitehead, R G

    1988-02-01

    In a longitudinal study of pregnancy and lactation levels of physical activity and total energy expenditure (TEE) were measured in 32 rural Gambian women using an activity diary technique. TEE, which was higher than previously measured food intake in this community, ranged from a minimum of 9.6 MJ (2300 kcal)/d (1.7 X BMR) in the months January-March to a maximum of 11.3 MJ (2700 kcal)/d (2 X BMR) during the agricultural season (July-October). During pregnancy and early lactation women went less often to the fields and also reduced the amount of time spent walking and performing household tasks. Standardizing for season and for changes in BMR and the energy cost of activity, reductions in physical activity reduced TEE by 0.59 +/- 0.08 MJ (140 +/- 18 kcal)/d between the 28th week of gestation and 4 weeks post-partum (P less than 0.001). While reduced physical activity may have had an adverse effect on agricultural productivity, energy was spared for other processes including fetal growth and milk output immediately post-partum. Dietary supplementation was without effect on activity pattern.

  3. Associations among calcium intake, resting energy expenditure, and body fat in a multiethnic sample of children

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Casazza, Krista; Willig, Amanda L.; Cardel, Michelle I.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine if calcium intake was associated with resting energy expenditure (REE) and body fat in children, after accounting for ancestral genetic background. Study design Participants included 315 children. REE, body composition, and dietary calcium were assessed by indirect calorimetry, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and 24-hour recalls, respectively. Structural equations modeling assessed the relationships among REE, calcium intake and body fat. Results There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01) and between REE and total body fat (p<0.0001). There was indirect effect of calcium intake on total body fat (p<0.01). There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01), and a trend towards an association of calcium intake and total body fat (p=0.065) among males only; whereas, the only significant relationship among females was an association of REE on total body fat (p<0.0001). Conclusions REE was associated with calcium intake and mediated a relationship between calcium intake and total body fat. These findings suggest calcium intake may play a role in fat accumulation and energy balance through its effects on REE, especially in males. PMID:20400090

  4. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole(-1). This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  5. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  6. The Addition of a Video Game to Stationary Cycling: The Impact on Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Bryan L; Siegel, Shannon R; Wikin, Linda D

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions with over 37% of children aged 6-11 years in the U.S. being classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight." Utilization of active video games has been proposed as one possible mechanism to help shift the tide of the obesity epidemic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if riding a stationary bike that controlled a video game would lead to significantly greater energy expenditure than riding the same bike without the video game connected. METHODS: Twenty children, 7-14 years old, with a BMI classification of "at risk for overweight" or "overweight" participated in this study. Following familiarization, energy expenditure was evaluated while riding a stationary bike for 20 minutes. One test was performed without the addition of a video game and one test with the bike controlling the speed of a car on the video game. RESULTS: Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were significantly elevated above baseline in both conditions. Energy expenditure was significantly higher while riding the bike as it controlled the video game (4.4 ± 1.2 Kcal·min(-1)) than when riding the bike by itself (3.7 ± 1.1 Kcal·min(-1)) (p<0.05). Perceived exertion was not significantly different between the two sessions (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Using a stationary bike to control a video game led to greater energy expenditure than riding a stationary bike without the video game and without a related increase in perceived exertion.

  7. Relationship between the metabolic syndrome and physical activity energy expenditure: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Lavoie, Marie-Eve; Messier, Virginie; Mignault, Diane; Garrel, Dominique; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 137 overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (age, 57.7 +/- 4.8 years; BMI, 32.4 +/- 4.6 kg.m(-2)). Subjects had the MetS if 3 out of the following 5 criteria were met: visceral fat > 130 cm2, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol < 1.29 mmol.L(-1), fasting triglycerides > or = 1.7 mmol.L(-1), blood pressure > or = 130/85 mmHg, and fasting glucose > or =5.6 mmol.L(-1). We measured (i) body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); (ii) visceral fat (by computed tomography); (iii) insulin sensitivity (using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp); (iv) plasma lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin, as well as 2 h glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test; (v) resting blood pressure; (vi) peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak); (vii) PAEE (using doubly labeled water); and (viii) lower-body muscle strength (using weight-training equipment). Forty-two women (30.7%) had the MetS in our cohort. Individuals without the MetS had significantly higher levels of PAEE (962 +/- 296 vs. 837 +/- 271 kcal.d(-1); p < 0.05), VO2 peak (18.2 +/- 3.0 vs. 16.7 +/- 3.2 mL.min(-1).kg(-1); p < 0.05), and insulin sensitivity, as well as significantly lower levels of 2 h glucose and central lean body mass. No differences in total energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate, and muscle strength between groups were observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that 2 h glucose (odds ratio (OR): 1.50 (95% CI 1.17-1.92)), central lean body mass (OR: 1.17 (95% CI 1.05-1.31)), and PAEE (OR: 0.998 (95% CI 0.997-1.000)), but not VO2 peak and (or) muscle strength, were independent predictors of the MetS. Lower levels of PAEE and higher levels of 2 h glucose, as well as central lean body mass, are independent determinants of the MetS in

  8. Hatha yoga practices: energy expenditure, respiratory changes and intensity of exercise.

    PubMed

    Ray, Uday Sankar; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, Omveer Singh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically observe the energy expenditure, exercise intensity and respiratory changes during a full yoga practice session. Oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), carbon dioxide output ([Formula: see text]), pulmonary ventilation ([Formula: see text]E), respiratory rate (Fr) and tidal volume (VT), were measured in 16 physical posture (asanas), five yoga breathing maneuvers (BM) and two types of meditation. Twenty male (age 27.3 ± 3.5 years, height 166.6 ± 5.4 cm and body weight 58.8 ± 9.6 kg) yoga instructors were studied. Their maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) was recorded. The exercise intensity in asanas was expressed in percentage [Formula: see text] . In asanas, exercise intensity varied from 9.9 to 26.5% of [Formula: see text] . Highest energy cost was 3.02 kcal min(-1). In BM highest [Formula: see text]E was 53.7 ± 15.5 l min(-1). VT was 0.97 ± 0.59, 1.41 ± 1.27 and 1.28 ± l/breath with corresponding Fr of 14.0 ± 5.3, 10.0 ± 6.35, 10.0 ± 5.8 breaths/min. Average energy expenditure in asanas, BM and meditation were 2.29, 1.91 and 1.37 kcal min(-1), respectively. Metabolic rate was generally in the range of 1-2 metabolic equivalents (MET) except in three asanas where it was >2 MET. [Formula: see text] was 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.04 l min(-1) in meditation and Shavasana, respectively. Although yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold, physical performance improvement is possible owing to both better economy of breathing by BM and also by improvement in cardiovascular reserve. Other factors such as psycho-physiological and better relaxation may contribute to it.

  9. Exploration of Energy Metabolism in the Mouse Using Indirect Calorimetry: Measurement of Daily Energy Expenditure (DEE) and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carola W; Reitmeir, Peter; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2015-09-01

    Current comprehensive mouse metabolic phenotyping involves studying energy balance in cohorts of mice via indirect calorimetry, which determines heat release from changes in respiratory air composition. Here, we describe the measurement of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in mice. These well-defined metabolic descriptors serve as meaningful first-line read-outs for metabolic phenotyping and should be reported when exploring energy expenditure in mice. For further guidance, the issue of appropriate sample sizes and the frequency of sampling of metabolic measurements is also discussed.

  10. Estimating daily energy expenditure in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis123

    PubMed Central

    Kasarskis, Edward J; Mendiondo, Marta S; Matthews, Dwight E; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Tandan, Rup; Simmons, Zachary; Bromberg, Mark B; Kryscio, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience progressive limb weakness, muscle atrophy, and dysphagia, making them vulnerable to insufficient energy intake. Methods to estimate energy requirements have not been devised for this patient group. Objective: The goal was to develop equations to estimate energy requirements of ALS patients. Design: We enrolled 80 ALS participants at varying stages of their illness and studied them every 16 wk over 48 wk. At each time, we determined total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in the home setting over a 10-d period by using the doubly labeled water method. We then developed statistical models to estimate TDEE by using factors easily obtained during a routine clinical visit. Results: The most practical TDEE models used the Harris-Benedict, Mifflin-St Jeor, or Owen equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) and 6 questions from the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) that relate to physical activity. We developed a Web-based calculator to facilitate its use. In the research setting, measuring body composition with bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy enabled the estimation of RMR with the Rosenbaum equation and the same 6 questions from the ALSFRS-R to estimate TDEE. By using these models, the estimate of TDEE for nutritional maintenance was ±500 kcal/d across the spectrum of ALS progression. Conclusions: Our results emphasize the importance of physical function and body composition in estimating TDEE. Our predictive equations can serve as a basis for recommending placement of a feeding gastrostomy in ALS patients who fail to meet their energy requirements by oral intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00116558. PMID:24522445

  11. Prenatal high protein exposure decreases energy expenditure and increases adiposity in young rats.

    PubMed

    Daenzer, Maren; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Metges, Cornelia C

    2002-02-01

    Epidemiologic results suggest that protein intake in infancy and later adiposity might be related. We examined whether high dietary protein exposure in utero and/or during postnatal life affects body fatness. Two groups of female rats were mated and pair-fed isocaloric high (40% protein; HP) or adequate protein (20% protein; AP) diets throughout pregnancy. The male offspring were suckled (3 wk) by foster mothers pair-fed HP or AP diets, resulting in 4 pre-/postnatal groups (AP-AP, AP-HP, HP-AP, HP-HP). Subsequently, they were pair-fed the same diets their nurses received during lactation until wk 9. Offspring of HP dams had a lower body weight on d 2 of life than their AP counterparts (7.6 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.8 g; P < 0.001). HP-AP rats had a higher body weight than AP-AP controls at wk 3, 5, and 6 (P < 0.05), in contrast to HP-HP which did not differ from controls. Prenatal HP exposure resulted in a greater total and relative fat mass and decreased total energy expenditure at wk 9 (P < 0.05). Postnatal HP alone had no significant effect on body composition or metabolic rate. These results indicate that in utero exposure to a high protein level reprograms body weight and energy homeostasis.

  12. Resting energy expenditure and body composition following cerebro-vascular accident.

    PubMed

    Weekes, E; Elia, M

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) in patients routinely admitted to hospital following a cerebro-vascular accident (CVA). The REE of 15 patients (8 female; 7 male) was measured using indirect calorimetry 24-72 hours after the CVA; 11 patients (7 female; 4 male) were measured again 10-14 days later. Body composition was assessed using skin-fold thickness, near infra-red interactance and bioelectrical impedance techniques. Initial REE in females was 1133 kcal/day (+/-67) and in males 1526 kcal/day (+/-111). There was little or no difference in REE or body composition between the first and second measurements. REE was between 95%-107% of the values predicted by 10 reference tables and equations and up to 118% of that predicted by another. We conclude that the total energy requirements of patients following a stroke are not high, probably because of decreased physical activity and changes in muscular tone subsequent to CVA.

  13. Use of a Wireless Network of Accelerometers for Improved Measurement of Human Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Montoye, Alexander H; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2014-01-01

    Single, hip-mounted accelerometers can provide accurate measurements of energy expenditure (EE) in some settings, but are unable to accurately estimate the energy cost of many non-ambulatory activities. A multi-sensor network may be able to overcome the limitations of a single accelerometer. Thus, the purpose of our study was to compare the abilities of a wireless network of accelerometers and a hip-mounted accelerometer for the prediction of EE. Thirty adult participants engaged in 14 different sedentary, ambulatory, lifestyle and exercise activities for five minutes each while wearing a portable metabolic analyzer, a hip-mounted accelerometer (AG) and a wireless network of three accelerometers (WN) worn on the right wrist, thigh and ankle. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were created separately for the AG and WN for the EE prediction. Pearson correlations (r) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated to compare criterion-measured EE to predicted EE from the ANNs. Overall, correlations were higher (r = 0.95 vs. r = 0.88, p < 0.0001) and RMSE was lower (1.34 vs. 1.97 metabolic equivalents (METs), p < 0.0001) for the WN than the AG. In conclusion, the WN outperformed the AG for measuring EE, providing evidence that the WN can provide highly accurate estimates of EE in adults participating in a wide range of activities.

  14. Energy expenditure during activity in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Correlations with body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G N; Halsey, L G; Pope, E C; Eddington, J D; Houghton, J D R

    2013-10-01

    How animals manage time and expend energy has implications for survivorship. Being able to measure key metabolic costs of animals under natural conditions is therefore an important tool in behavioral ecology. One method for estimating activity-specific metabolic rate is via derived measures of acceleration, often 'overall dynamic body acceleration' (ODBA), recorded by an instrumented acceleration logger. ODBA has been shown to correlate well with rate of oxygen consumption (V˙o2) in a range of species during activity in the laboratory. This study devised a method for attaching acceleration loggers to decapod crustaceans and then correlated ODBA against concurrent respirometry readings to assess accelerometry as a proxy for activity-specific energy expenditure in a model species, the American lobster Homarus americanus. Where the instrumented animals exhibited a sufficient range of activity levels, positive linear relationships were found between V˙o2 and ODBA over 20min periods at a range of ambient temperatures (6, 13 and 20°C). Mixed effect linear models based on these data and morphometrics provided reasonably strong predictive power for estimating activity-specific V˙o2 from ODBA. These V˙o2-ODBA calibrations demonstrate the potential of accelerometry as an effective predictor of behavior-specific metabolic rate of crustaceans in the wild during periods of activity.

  15. Evolving concepts on adjusting human resting energy expenditure measurements for body size.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Thomas, D; Bosy-Westphal, A; Shen, W; Peterson, C M; Müller, M J

    2012-11-01

    Establishing if an adult's resting energy expenditure (REE) is high or low for their body size is a pervasive question in nutrition research. Early workers applied body mass and height as size measures and formulated the Surface Law and Kleiber's Law, although each has limitations when adjusting REE. Body composition methods introduced during the mid-20th century provided a new opportunity to identify metabolically homogeneous 'active' compartments. These compartments all show improved correlations with REE estimates over body mass-height approaches, but collectively share a common limitation: REE-body composition ratios are not 'constant' but vary across men and women and with race, age and body size. The now-accepted alternative to ratio-based norms is to adjust for predictors by applying regression models to calculate 'residuals' that establish if an REE is relatively high or low. The distinguishing feature of statistical REE-body composition models is a 'non-zero' intercept of unknown origin. The recent introduction of imaging methods has allowed development of physiological tissue-organ-based REE prediction models. Herein, we apply these imaging methods to provide a mechanistic explanation, supported by experimental data, for the non-zero intercept phenomenon and, in that context, propose future research directions for establishing between-subject differences in relative energy metabolism.

  16. Immune activity elevates energy expenditure of house sparrows: a link between direct and indirect costs?

    PubMed

    Martin, Lynn B; Scheuerlein, Alex; Wikelski, Martin

    2003-01-22

    The activation of an immune response is beneficial for organisms but may also have costs that affect fitness. Documented immune costs include those associated with acquisition of special nutrients, as well as immunopathology or autoimmunity. Here, we test whether an experimental induction of the immune system with a non-pathological stimulant can elevate energy turnover in passerine birds. We injected phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a commonly used mitogen that activates the cell-mediated immune response, into the wing web of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We then examined energetic costs resulting from this immune activity and related those costs to other physiological activities. We found that PHA injection significantly elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of challenged sparrows relative to saline controls. We calculated the total cost of this immune activity to be ca. 4.20 kJ per day (29% RMR), which is equivalent to the cost of production of half of an egg (8.23 kJ egg(-1)) in this species. We suggest that immune activity in wild passerines increases energy expenditure, which in turn may influence important life-history characteristics such as clutch size, timing of breeding or the scheduling of moult.

  17. Use of a Wireless Network of Accelerometers for Improved Measurement of Human Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Montoye, Alexander H.; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Pfeiffer, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Single, hip-mounted accelerometers can provide accurate measurements of energy expenditure (EE) in some settings, but are unable to accurately estimate the energy cost of many non-ambulatory activities. A multi-sensor network may be able to overcome the limitations of a single accelerometer. Thus, the purpose of our study was to compare the abilities of a wireless network of accelerometers and a hip-mounted accelerometer for the prediction of EE. Thirty adult participants engaged in 14 different sedentary, ambulatory, lifestyle and exercise activities for five minutes each while wearing a portable metabolic analyzer, a hip-mounted accelerometer (AG) and a wireless network of three accelerometers (WN) worn on the right wrist, thigh and ankle. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were created separately for the AG and WN for the EE prediction. Pearson correlations (r) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated to compare criterion-measured EE to predicted EE from the ANNs. Overall, correlations were higher (r = 0.95 vs. r = 0.88, p < 0.0001) and RMSE was lower (1.34 vs. 1.97 metabolic equivalents (METs), p < 0.0001) for the WN than the AG. In conclusion, the WN outperformed the AG for measuring EE, providing evidence that the WN can provide highly accurate estimates of EE in adults participating in a wide range of activities. PMID:25530874

  18. Only lower limb controlled interactive computer gaming enables an effective increase in energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

    2011-07-01

    Limited research documents if new and existing interactive computer gaming "exergaming" increase energy expenditure and cardio-respiratory costs comparable to common exercise modalities. To address this, healthy male volunteers (n = 15) completed six by 12-min test elements: PlayStation2 (PS2(hand)), Nintendo Wii boxing, walk at 5.6 km h(-1), cycle at 120 W, playing an adapted lower limb controlled PS2 (PS2(limb)) and run at 9.6 km h(-1). In addition, they played PS2(limb) for 30 min and performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Tukey tests, P < 0.05 inferred significance. PS2(limb) increased energy expenditure (EE) and post-exercise blood lactate (BLa) significantly higher (P < 0.001) than PS2(hand), Wii gaming or walking at 5.6 km h(-1) (EE: 30.3 ± 4.9 vs. 4.7 ± 1.1, 22.0 ± 6.1 and 17.9 ± 1.9 kJ h(-1) kg(-1); BLa: 2.4 ± 1.5 vs. 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.8 ± 0.8 and 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol L(-1)), playing the PS2(limb) raised mean EE over six times greater than PS2(hand). Mean fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates during the 9- to 12-min period playing the PS2(limb) were five and ten times greater than PS2(hand) (0.25 ± 0.10 vs. 0.05 ± 0.10, 1.69 ± 0.52 vs. 0.15 ± 0.14 g min(-1), respectively). PS2(limb) met ACSM guidelines for cardiovascular fitness; however, current Wii technology failed. In conclusion, gaming interactive technology must be adapted or designed to include the lower limbs in order to provide a significant exercise stimulus.

  19. Special considerations in design of trials with elderly subjects: unexplained weight loss, body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T

    1999-01-01

    Wasting and cachexia are significant problems in the elderly that increase mortality and morbidity. It is presently unclear as to the physiological mechanism underlying unexplained weight loss. We examine heart failure as a physiological model to demonstrate the importance of measuring several physiological outcome variables that have increased our understanding of wasting and cachexia in the elderly. These include the assessment of: energy expenditure, body composition, physical activity and exercise tolerance. We review recent data that has assessed energy expenditure in free-living heart failure patients using stable isotope methodology (doubly labeled water). Preliminary results show low levels of daily energy expenditure in heart failure patients due to extremely low levels of physical activity. Thus, a "hypermetabolic state" in free-living heart failure patients is not supported by these findings. The low level of physical activity is likely a consequence of their reduced exercise capacity and contributes to their skeletal muscle atrophy. This concept is support by the relationship between peak VO2 and muscle mass (r = 0.92; P < 0.01), as measured from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. An understanding of the physiological factors influencing energy dysregulation and low exercise capacity may help guide future therapeutic interventions to restore energy balance and increase functional independence in patients with chronic heart failure.

  20. Both liver-X receptor (LXR) isoforms control energy expenditure by regulating Brown Adipose Tissue activity

    PubMed Central

    Korach-André, Marion; Archer, Amena; Barros, Rodrigo P.; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2011-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are multilocular lipid storage cells that play a crucial role in nonshivering thermogenesis. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a unique feature of brown fat cells that allows heat generation on sympathetic nervous system stimulation. As conventional transcriptional factors that are activated in various signaling pathways, liver-X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in many physiological processes. The role of LXRs in the regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear, however. Female WT, LXRαβ−/−, LXRα−/−, and LXRβ−/− mice were fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) supplemented with or without GW3965-LXR agonist. LXRαβ−/− mice exhibited higher energy expenditure (EE) as well as higher UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with WT mice on the HCD. In addition, long-term treatment of WT mice with GW3965 showed lower EE at thermoneutrality (30 °C) and lower Ucp1 expression level in BAT. Furthermore, H&E staining of the BAT of LXRαβ−/− mice exhibited decreased lipid droplet size compared with WT mice on the HCD associated with a more intense UCP1-positive reaction. Quantification of triglyceride (TG) content in BAT showed lower TG accumulation in LXRβ−/− mice compared with WT mice. Surprisingly, GW3965 treatment increased TG content (twofold) in the BAT of WT and LXRα−/− mice but not in LXRβ−/− mice. Furthermore, glucose transporter (GLUT4) in the BAT of LXRα−/− and LXRβ−/− mice was sixfold and fourfold increased, respectively, compared with WT mice on the ND. These findings suggest that LXRα as well as LXRβ could play a crucial role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in female mice and may be a potential target for the treatment of obesity and energy regulation. PMID:21173252

  1. Addition of capsaicin and exchange of carbohydrate with protein counteract energy intake restriction effects on fullness and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Astrid J; Janssens, Pilou L H R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-04-01

    Energy intake restriction causes a yo-yo effect by decreasing energy expenditure (EE) and decreasing fullness. We investigated the 24-h effect of protein and capsaicin, singly or combined, on fullness and EE during 20% energy intake restriction. The 24 participants (12 male, 12 female; BMI, 25.2 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); age, 27 ± 4 y; body fat, 25.6 ± 5.7%; 3-factor eating questionnaire, F1: 6 ± 2, F2: 4 ± 2, F3: 3 ± 2) underwent eight 36-h sessions in a respiration chamber. The study had a randomized crossover design with 8 randomly sequenced conditions. The participants were fed 100 or 80% of their daily energy requirements. There were 2 control (C) conditions: 100%C and 80%C; 2 conditions with capsaicin (Caps): 100%Caps and 80%Caps; 2 conditions with elevated protein (P): 100%P and 80%P; and 2 conditions with a mixture of protein and capsaicin (PCaps): 100%PCaps and 80%PCaps. Appetite profile, EE, and substrate oxidation were monitored. Compared with 100%C, the 80%C group had expected negative energy-balance effects with respect to total EE, diet-induced thermogenesis, and fullness, whereas the 80%Caps diet counteracted these effects, and the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets exceeded these effects (P < 0.01). In energy balance and negative energy balance, fat balance was more negative in the 80%Caps, P, and PCaps groups than in the 80%C group (P < 0.05) and respiratory quotient values were lower. A negative protein balance was prevented with the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets compared with the 80%C diet. Our results suggest that protein and capsaicin, consumed singly or mixed, counteracted the energy intake restriction effects on fullness and EE. During energy restriction, protein and capsaicin promoted a negative fat balance and protein treatments also prevented a negative protein balance.

  2. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  3. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4–7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer

  4. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials.

    PubMed

    Tappy, Luc; Egli, Leonie; Lecoultre, Virgile; Schneider, Pascal

    2013-08-13

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4-7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer

  5. GLP-1(32-36)amide Pentapeptide Increases Basal Energy Expenditure and Inhibits Weight Gain in Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Eva; Stanojevic, Violeta; McManus, Karen; Khatri, Ashok; Everill, Paul; Bachovchin, William W; Habener, Joel F

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related diabetes is increasing worldwide. Here we report the identification of a pentapeptide, GLP-1(32-36)amide (LVKGRamide), derived from the glucoincretin hormone GLP-1, that increases basal energy expenditure and curtails the development of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. The pentapeptide inhibited weight gain, reduced fat mass without change in energy intake, and increased basal energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Analyses of tissues from peptide-treated mice reveal increased expression of UCP-1 and UCP-3 in brown adipose tissue and increased UCP-3 and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle, findings consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis. In palmitate-treated C2C12 skeletal myotubes, GLP-1(32-36)amide activated AMPK and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation of fat metabolism in response to energy depletion. By mass spectroscopy, the pentapeptide is rapidly formed from GLP-1(9-36)amide, the major form of GLP-1 in the circulation of mice. These findings suggest that the reported insulin-like actions of GLP-1 receptor agonists that occur independently of the GLP-1 receptor might be mediated by the pentapeptide, and the previously reported nonapeptide (FIAWLVKGRamide). We propose that by increasing basal energy expenditure, GLP-1(32-36)amide might be a useful treatment for human obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  6. Leptin receptor neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus are key regulators of energy expenditure and body weight, but not food intake

    PubMed Central

    Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Yu, Sanghou; Jiang, Yanyan; Laque, Amanda; Schwartzenburg, Candice; Morrison, Christopher D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea; Münzberg, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Objective Leptin responsive neurons play an important role in energy homeostasis, controlling specific autonomic, behavioral, and neuroendocrine functions. We have previously identified a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing neurons within the dorsomedial hypothalamus/dorsal hypothalamic area (DMH/DHA) which are related to neuronal circuits that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Intra-DMH leptin injections also activate sympathetic outflow to BAT, but whether such effects are mediated directly via DMH/DHA LepRb neurons and whether this is physiologically relevant for whole body energy expenditure and body weight regulation has yet to be determined. Methods We used pharmacosynthetic receptors (DREADDs) to selectively activate DMH/DHA LepRb neurons. We further deleted LepRb with virally driven cre-recombinase from DMH/DHA neurons and determined the physiological importance of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons in whole body energy homeostasis. Results Neuronal activation of DMH/DHA LepRb neurons with DREADDs promoted BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity, which robustly induced energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and decreases body weight (p < 0.001). Similarly, intra-DMH/DHA leptin injections normalized hypothermia and attenuated body weight gain in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Conversely, ablation of LepRb from DMH/DHA neurons remarkably drives weight gain (p < 0.001) by reducing energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and locomotor activity (p < 0.001). The observed changes in body weight were largely independent of food intake. Conclusion Taken together, our data highlight that DMH/DHA LepRb neurons are sufficient and necessary to regulate energy expenditure and body weight. PMID:25352997

  7. Daily energy expenditure in the face of predation: hedgehog energetics in rural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pettett, Carly E; Johnson, Paul J; Moorhouse, Tom P; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Macdonald, David W

    2017-02-01

    Failure to balance daily energy expenditure (DEE) with energy intake can have an impact on survival and reproduction, and therefore on the persistence of populations. Here we study the DEE of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), which is declining in the UK. We hypothesise that there is a gradient of suitable habitat for hedgehogs in rural areas, which is a result of fewer food resources, a higher risk from predation by badgers (Meles meles) and colder ambient temperatures, as distance to the nearest building increases. We used the doubly labelled water method to obtain 44 measurements of DEE from hedgehogs on four predominately arable sites, to determine the energetic costs associated with proximity to buildings, on sites with and without badgers. The mean±s.e.m. DEE was 508.9±34.8 kJ day(-1) DEE increased the further a hedgehog was from buildings during the study, possibly as they ranged larger distances on arable land, supporting the hypothesis that hedgehogs select villages owing to the lower energy demands in comparison to arable farmland. Hedgehogs had an approximately 30% lower DEE on sites with badgers. We speculate that on badger-occupied sites, hedgehogs may restrict movement and foraging in response to a threat from predation and thus have reduced DEE. Therefore, hedgehogs may also seek refuge in villages where the perceived threat of predation is lower and foraging is unrestricted. In a broader context, we demonstrate that individual differences in DEE can aid in understanding habitat selection in a patchily distributed species.

  8. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  9. Modeling energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in human exposure models: accounting for fatigue and EPOC.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kristin; Glen, Graham; Mccurdy, Thomas; Smith, Luther

    2008-05-01

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized values of metabolic equivalents of work (METS) for the activity being performed and converted into activity-specific oxygen consumption estimates. However, oxygen consumption remains elevated after a moderate- or high-intensity activity is completed. This effect, which is termed excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), requires upward adjustment of the METS estimates that follow high-energy expenditure events, to model subsequent increased ventilation and intake dose rates. In addition, since an individual's capacity for work decreases during extended activity, methods are also required to adjust downward those METS estimates that exceed physiologically realistic limits over time. A unified method for simultaneously performing these adjustments is developed. The method simulates a cumulative oxygen deficit for each individual and uses it to impose appropriate time-dependent reductions in the METS time series and additions for EPOC. The relationships between the oxygen deficit and METS limits are nonlinear and are derived from published data on work capacity and oxygen consumption. These modifications result in improved modeling of ventilation patterns, and should improve intake dose estimates associated with exposure to airborne environmental contaminants.

  10. A stepwise validation of a wearable system for estimating energy expenditure in field-based research.

    PubMed

    Rumo, Martin; Amft, Oliver; Tröster, Gerhard; Mäder, Urs

    2011-12-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle. Currently, standard sensor-based methods to assess PA in field-based research rely on a single accelerometer mounted near the body's center of mass. This paper introduces a wearable system that estimates energy expenditure (EE) based on seven recognized activity types. The system was developed with data from 32 healthy subjects and consists of a chest mounted heart rate belt and two accelerometers attached to a thigh and dominant upper arm. The system was validated with 12 other subjects under restricted lab conditions and simulated free-living conditions against indirect calorimetry, as well as in subjects' habitual environments for 2 weeks against the doubly labeled water method. Our stepwise validation methodology gradually trades reference information from the lab against realistic data from the field. The average accuracy for EE estimation was 88% for restricted lab conditions, 55% for simulated free-living conditions and 87% and 91% for the estimation of average daily EE over the period of 1 and 2 weeks.

  11. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications.

  12. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  13. The effect of carrying a portable respiratory gas analysis system on energy expenditure during incremental running.

    PubMed

    Sparks, S Andy; Orme, Duncan; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of portable gas analysis system carriage on energy expenditure (EE) during incremental treadmill running. Eight males (Mean ± SD) age 25.0 ± 9.47 y, body mass 78.5 ± 8.39 kg, completed an experimental trial (PT) during which they wore the system in a chest harness and a control trial (CT) when the system was externally supported. Each protocol consisted of 4 min stages at speeds of 0, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14 km h(-1). Increments continued until volitional exhaustion. The EE was greater (3.95 and 7.02% at 7 and 14 km h(-1) respectively) during PT (p < 0.05) but no significant differences were observed during standing, walking or VO(2max.) (4.10 ± 0.53, and 4.28 ± 0.75 l min(-1) for CT and PT respectively), HR or RPE. Portable gas analysis systems therefore only increase EE when running sub-maximally, but VO(2max) is unaffected, suggesting that using portable gas analysis systems in field-based situations is appropriate for maximal aerobic capacity measurement, but the effects of prolonged use on EE remains unclear.

  14. Phosphoproteomics Identifies CK2 as a Negative Regulator of Beige Adipocyte Thermogenesis and Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Ohyama, Kana; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Ogura, Mayu; Sato, Ayaka; Hong, Haemin; Hosono, Takashi; Sharp, Louis Z; Scheel, David W; Graham, Mark; Ishihama, Yasushi; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-12-01

    Catecholamines promote lipolysis both in brown and white adipocytes, whereas the same stimuli preferentially activate thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Molecular mechanisms for the adipose-selective activation of thermogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we employed quantitative phosphoproteomics to map global and temporal phosphorylation profiles in brown, beige, and white adipocytes under β3-adrenenoceptor activation and identified kinases responsible for the adipose-selective phosphorylation profiles. We found that casein kinase2 (CK2) activity is preferentially higher in white adipocytes than brown/beige adipocytes. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of CK2 in white adipocytes activates the thermogenic program in response to cAMP stimuli. Such activation is largely through reduced CK2-mediated phosphorylation of class I HDACs. Notably, inhibition of CK2 promotes beige adipocyte biogenesis and leads to an increase in whole-body energy expenditure and ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. These results indicate that CK2 is a plausible target to rewire the β3-adrenenoceptor signaling cascade that promotes thermogenesis in adipocytes.

  15. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Luiz A; Ferreira, João A; Damião, Jorginete J

    2007-11-01

    Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR) was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE) was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 +/- 11.7 bpm (+/- SD), representing 56.9 +/- 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 +/- 738.5 kcal for an average of 293.1 +/- 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries.

  16. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001) but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:26133125

  17. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  18. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-06-30

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001) but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  19. Nutritional status and energy expenditure in children pre-bone-marrow-transplant.

    PubMed

    White, M; Murphy, A J; Hastings, Y; Shergold, J; Young, J; Montgomery, C; Davies, P S W; Lockwood, L

    2005-04-01

    The aims of this study were to establish the nutritional status of children pre-BMT and to determine whether predictive methods of assessing nutritional status and resting energy expenditure (REE) are accurate in this population. We analysed the body cell mass (BCM) (n=26) and REE (n=24) in children undergoing BMT. BCM was adjusted for height (BCM/HT(p)) and expressed as a Z score to represent nutritional status. To determine whether body mass index (BMI) was indicative of nutritional status in children undergoing BMT, BMI Z scores were compared to the reference method of BCM/HT(p) Z scores. Schofield predictive equations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) were compared to measured REE to evaluate the accuracy of the predictive equations. The mean BCM/HT(p) Z score for the subject population was -1.09+/-1.28. There was no significant relationship between BCM/HT(p) Z score and BMI Z score (r=0.34; P>0.05); however there was minimal difference between measured REE and predicted BMR (bias=-11+/-149 kcal/day). The results of this study demonstrate that children undergoing BMT may have suboptimal nutritional status and that BMI is not an accurate indication of nutritional status in this population. However, Schofield equations were found to be suitable for representing REE in children pre-BMT.

  20. Validating accelerometry estimates of energy expenditure across behaviours using heart rate data in a free-living seabird.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Olivia; Burthe, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Butler, Adam; Bishop, Charles; Green, Jonathan A

    2017-03-03

    Two main techniques have dominated the field of ecological energetics, the heart-rate and doubly labelled water methods. Although well established, they are not without their weaknesses, namely expense, intrusiveness and lack of temporal resolution. A new technique has been developed using accelerometers; it uses the Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) of an animal as a calibrated proxy for energy expenditure. This method provides high resolution data without the need for surgery. Significant relationships exist between rate of oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and ODBA in controlled conditions across a number of taxa; however, it is not known whether ODBA represents a robust proxy for energy expenditure consistently in all natural behaviours and there have been specific questions over its validity during diving, in diving endotherms. Here we simultaneously deployed accelerometers and heart rate loggers in a wild population of European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). Existing calibration relationships were then used to make behaviour-specific estimates of energy expenditure for each of these two techniques. Compared against heart rate derived estimates the ODBA method predicts energy expenditure well during flight and diving behaviour, but overestimates the cost of resting behaviour. We then combine these two datasets to generate a new calibration relationship between ODBA and V̇o2 that accounts for this by being informed by heart rate derived estimates. Across behaviours we find a good relationship between ODBA and V̇o2 Within individual behaviours we find useable relationships between ODBA and V̇o2 for flight and resting, and a poor relationship during diving. The error associated with these new calibration relationships mostly originates from the previous heart rate calibration rather than the error associated with the ODBA method. The equations provide tools for understanding how energy constrains ecology across the complex behaviour of free-living diving

  1. Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method and heart-rate monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Livingstone, M.B.; Prentice, A.M.; Coward, W.A.; Ceesay, S.M.; Strain, J.J.; McKenna, P.G.; Nevin, G.B.; Barker, M.E.; Hickey, R.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured simultaneously in 14 free-living adults over 15 d by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and for 2-4 separate days by heart-rate (HR) monitoring. Individual curves for HR vs oxygen consumption (VO2) were obtained and an HR (FLEX HR: 97 +/- 8 beats/min, range 84-113 beats/min) that discriminated between rest and activity was identified. Calibration curves were used to assign an energy value to daytime HR above FLEX HR. Below FLEX HR energy expenditure was taken as resting metabolism. Sleeping energy expenditure was assumed to be equal to basal metabolic rate. Average HR TEE (12.99 +/- 3.83 MJ/d) and average DLW TEE (12.89 +/- 3.80 MJ/d) were similar. HR TEE discrepancies ranged from -22.2% to +52.1%, with nine values lying within +/- 10% of DLW TEE estimates. The FLEX HR method provides a close estimation of the TEE of population groups. However, an increased number of sampling days may improve the precision of individual estimates of TEE.

  2. Commercial porters of eastern Nepal: health status, physical work capacity, and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Malville, N J; Byrnes, W C; Lim, H A; Basnyat, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare full-time hill porters in eastern Nepal with part-time casual porters engaged primarily in subsistence farming. The 50 porters selected for this study in Kenja (elevation 1,664 m) were young adult males of Tibeto-Nepali origin. Following standardized interviews, anthropometry, and routine physical examinations, the porters were tested in a field laboratory for physiological parameters associated with aerobic performance. Exercise testing, using a step test and indirect calorimetry, included a submaximal assessment of economy and a maximal-effort graded exercise test. Energy expenditure was measured in the field during actual tumpline load carriage. No statistically significant differences were found between full-time and part-time porters with respect to age, anthropometric characteristics, health, nutritional status, or aerobic power. Mean VO2 peak was 2.38 +/- 0.27 L/min (47.1 +/- 5.3 ml/kg/min). Load-carrying economy did not differ significantly between porter groups. The relationship between VO2 and load was linear over the range of 10-30 kg with a slope of 9 +/- 4 ml O2/min per kg of load. During the field test of actual work performance, porters expended, on average, 348 +/- 68 kcal/hr in carrying loads on the level and 408 +/- 60 kcal/hr in carrying loads uphill. Most porters stopped every 2 min, on average, to rest their loads briefly on T-headed resting sticks (tokmas). The technique of self-paced, intermittent exercise together with the modest increase in energy demands for carrying increasingly heavier loads allows these individuals to regulate work intensity and carry extremely heavy loads without creating persistent medical problems.

  3. Comparison of methods for evaluating energy expenditure of incubating wandering albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, S A; Costa, D P; Weimerskirch, H

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of incubation energetics can vary depending on the method used to measure metabolism of an incubating bird. Therefore, we evaluated the energy expenditure of six male and four female wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans Linnaeus) using doubly labeled water (DLW), the rate of mass loss, and estimates of metabolic water production derived from water influx rate (WIR). Incubation metabolic rates (IMR) determined with DLW (169+/-21 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) were significantly lower than estimates derived from mass loss (277+/-46 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) and WIR (males=289+/-60 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) vs. females=400+/-69 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD). Estimates of IMR from mass loss and WIR were similar to IMR (305+/-39 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) determined by respirometry in a previous study, and IMR from DLW was similar to estimates based on heart rate (HR; 147+/-26 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1) SD) determined in another study. Applying the different measurements of IMR to construct an energy budget, we estimate that a breeding pair of wandering albatrosses spends 124-234 MJ to incubate the egg for 78 d. Finally, IMRs determined with DLW and HR were similar to estimated basal metabolic rates derived from six different allometric equations, suggesting that heat production from adult maintenance metabolism is sufficient to incubate the egg.

  4. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    PubMed Central

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; de ARAÚJO, Alexandre; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Results: Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Conclusions: Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients. PMID:27759783

  5. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  6. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  7. Do Fleas Affect Energy Expenditure of Their Free-Living Hosts?

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Michael; Degen, A. Allan; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Krasnov, Boris R.; Geffen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Background Parasites can cause energetically costly behavioural and immunological responses which potentially can reduce host fitness. However, although most laboratory studies indicate that the metabolic rate of the host increases with parasite infestation, this has never been shown in free-living host populations. In fact, studies thus far have shown no effect of parasitism on field metabolic rate (FMR). Methodology and Results We tested the effect of parasites on the energy expenditure of a host by measuring FMR using doubly-labelled water in free-living Baluchistan gerbils (Gerbillus nanus) infested by naturally occurring fleas during winter, spring and summer. We showed for the first time that FMR of free-living G. nanus was significantly and positively correlated with parasite load in spring when parasite load was highest; this relationship approached significance in summer when parasite load was lowest but was insignificant in winter. Among seasons, winter FMRs were highest and summer FMRs were lowest in G. nanus. Discussion The lack of parasite effect on FMR in winter could be related to the fact that FMR rates were highest among seasons. In this season, thermoregulatory costs are high which may indicate that less energy could be allocated to defend against parasites or to compensate for other costly activities. The question about the cost of parasitism in nature is now one of the major themes in ecological physiology. Our study supports the hypothesis that parasites can elevate FMR of their hosts, at least under certain conditions. However, the effect is complex and factors such as season and parasite load are involved. PMID:21060688

  8. Implementation of field cardio-respiratory measurements to assess energy expenditure in Arabian endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Goachet, A G; Julliand, V

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible.

  9. Estimation of Energy Expenditure Using a Patch-Type Sensor Module with an Incremental Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meina; Kwak, Keun-Chang; Kim, Youn Tae

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, indirect calorimetry has been used to estimate oxygen consumption in an effort to accurately measure human body energy expenditure. However, calorimetry requires the subject to wear a mask that is neither convenient nor comfortable. The purpose of our study is to develop a patch-type sensor module with an embedded incremental radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for estimating the energy expenditure. The sensor module contains one ECG electrode and a three-axis accelerometer, and can perform real-time heart rate (HR) and movement index (MI) monitoring. The embedded incremental network includes linear regression (LR) and RBFNN based on context-based fuzzy c-means (CFCM) clustering. This incremental network is constructed by building a collection of information granules through CFCM clustering that is guided by the distribution of error of the linear part of the LR model. PMID:27669249

  10. PI3K in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus mediates estrogenic actions on energy expenditure in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kenji; He, Yanlin; Yang, Yongjie; Zhu, Liangru; Wang, Chunmei; Xu, Pingwen; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Yan, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jean; Fukuda, Makoto; Tong, Qingchun; Clegg, Deborah J.; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens act in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) to regulate body weight homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these estrogenic effects are unknown. We show that activation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) stimulates neural firing of VMH neurons expressing ERα, and these effects are blocked with intracellular application of a pharmacological inhibitor of the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Further, we demonstrated that mice with genetic inhibition of PI3K activity in VMH neurons showed a sexual dimorphic obese phenotype, with only female mutants being affected. In addition, inhibition of VMH PI3K activity blocked effects of 17β-estradiol to stimulate energy expenditure, but did not affect estrogen-induced anorexia. Collectively, our results indicate that PI3K activity in VMH neurons plays a physiologically relevant role in mediating estrogenic actions on energy expenditure in females. PMID:26988598

  11. Estimation of Energy Expenditure Using a Patch-Type Sensor Module with an Incremental Radial Basis Function Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Kwak, Keun-Chang; Kim, Youn Tae

    2016-09-22

    Conventionally, indirect calorimetry has been used to estimate oxygen consumption in an effort to accurately measure human body energy expenditure. However, calorimetry requires the subject to wear a mask that is neither convenient nor comfortable. The purpose of our study is to develop a patch-type sensor module with an embedded incremental radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for estimating the energy expenditure. The sensor module contains one ECG electrode and a three-axis accelerometer, and can perform real-time heart rate (HR) and movement index (MI) monitoring. The embedded incremental network includes linear regression (LR) and RBFNN based on context-based fuzzy c-means (CFCM) clustering. This incremental network is constructed by building a collection of information granules through CFCM clustering that is guided by the distribution of error of the linear part of the LR model.

  12. Cardiovascular stress, energy expenditure and subjective perceived ratings of fire fighters during typical fire suppression and rescue tasks.

    PubMed

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zuzewicz, Krystyna; Szmauz-Dybko, Magdalena; Konarska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The study determined physiological and psychophysical responses to fire fighters' typical activities. Self-reported assessment of the most demanding fire fighting/rescue tasks were collected with a questionnaire. Then 19 voluntary fire fighters performed 3 simulated fire fighting/rescue tasks in protective clothing. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and energy expenditure were measured; the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed with the Borg scale. The questionnaires showed that carrying out victims, fire suppression and resuscitation were classified as heavy load; climbing stairs with a hose as moderate load. According to RPE the subjects considered their effort during ladder climbing fairly light and only somewhat harder during stair climbing and carrying out injured people. The study demonstrated that typical fire fighting/rescue tasks were associated with high energy expenditure and imposed considerable cardiovascular stress. The Borg scale appeared not suitable for assessing perceived exertion in fire fighters during simulated tasks.

  13. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  14. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  15. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment.

  16. Capsaicin and evodiamine ingestion does not augment energy expenditure and fat oxidation at rest or after moderately-intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Neil A; Spillane, Mike; La Bounty, Paul; Grandjean, Peter W; Leutholtz, Brian; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2013-12-01

    Capsaicin and evodiamine are 2 thermogenic agents recognized for their ability to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesized that both capsaicin and evodiamine would be effective at increasing thermogenesis and lipid oxidation during rest and exercise. In a randomized, cross-over design, 11 men ingested 500 mg of cayenne pepper (1.25 mg capsaicin), 500 mg evodiamine, or placebo at rest following 30 minutes of energy expenditure assessment using open-circuit spirometry. Energy expenditure was assessed again prior to commencing approximately 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 65% peak oxygen consumption. Energy expenditure was assessed for another 30 minutes of the post-exercise period. Heart rate, blood pressure, core temperature, and venous blood samples were obtained 30 minutes before supplement ingestion, 1 hour after supplement ingestion, immediately post-exercise, and 45 minutes post-exercise. Serum markers of lipid oxidation (glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) were determined spectrophotometrically with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were performed for each dependent variable (P ≤ .05) with Supplement and Test as main effects. Statistical analyses revealed significant main effects for Test for hemodynamics, energy expenditure, serum catecholamines, and markers of fat oxidation immediately post-exercise (P < .05). No significant interactions between Supplement and Test were noted for any criterion variable (P > .05). These results suggest that acute ingestion of 500 mg of cayenne (1.25 mg capsaicin) or evodiamine is not effective at inducing thermogenesis and increasing fat oxidation at rest or during exercise in men.

  17. Predicting Chinese Children and Youth's Energy Expenditure Using ActiGraph Accelerometers: A Calibration and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation based on ActiGraph accelerometer GT3X output to predict children and youth's energy expenditure (EE) of physical activity (PA). Method: Participants were 367 Chinese children and youth (179 boys and 188 girls, aged 9 to 17 years old) who wore 1 ActiGraph GT3X…

  18. Combined intervention of medium-chain triacylglycerol diet and exercise reduces body fat mass and enhances energy expenditure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Katsuhiko; Wu, Jian; Nosaka, Naohisa; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Kasai, Michio

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) diet could inhibit body fat accumulation. It is also well established that exercise can reduce fat mass. However, the effects of a combination of MCT diet and exercise on reduction of fat mass have not been studied. Here we examined whether MCT diet and exercise intervention exert cooperative effects on body composition. Rats were assigned to 4 groups: 1. LCT diet, control (LCT-C); 2. MCT diet, control (MCT-C); 3. LCT diet, exercise (LCT-E); 4. MCT diet, exercise (MCT-E). After the 6-wk intervention, visceral fat mass was measured by CT scan and dissection, and energy expenditure was estimated for 24 h. The value of the visceral fat mass showed a significant correlation between CT scan and dissection (r=0.995, p<0.001). Visceral fat mass in the MCT-C group was lower than that in the LCT-C group. Furthermore, the fat-lowering effects were greater in the MCT-E group than that in either intervention alone. Thus significant effects of the MCT diet and exercise on the reduction of visceral fat mass were observed. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in the MCT-E group than in the other groups. Our present findings suggest that combined intervention of MCT diet and exercise has an additive effect on reduction of visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and that this effect may be partially related to increased energy expenditure. However, future studies are necessary to define the relationship between energy expenditure and fat mass accumulation.

  19. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  20. Determination of energy expenditure during heavy exercise, normal daily activity, and sleep using the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.P.; Hoyt, R.W.; Settle, R.G.; O'Toole, M.; Hiller, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    Energy expenditure of four subjects was measured by the doubly-labelled-water (/sup 2/H/sub 2/ 18O) method to determine if energy expenditure could be determined over short periods. Three subjects were studied while they performed 8 h of heavy exercise in a laboratory environment. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. Estimated energy expended during 8 h of high-intensity exercise for three subjects was 757 +/- 118 kcal/h by the doubly-labelled-water method using urine and a two-point calculation, which compared favorably with 735 +/- 82 kcal/h obtained by respiratory gas exchange. For the fourth subject, daytime, nighttime, and daily energy expenditure was calculated by both the two-pair method and decay-curve analysis of urine and saliva samples collected in the morning and at night. Daytime and nighttime energy expenditures differed significantly (p less than 0.05).

  1. A Glyoxalase-1 Knockdown Does Not Have Major Short Term Effects on Energy Expenditure and Atherosclerosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Markus; Hakimi, Maani; Fleming, Thomas; Peters, Andreas S; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P; Herzig, Stephan; Nawroth, Peter P; Böckler, Dittmar; Dihlmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Glyoxalase-1 is an enzyme detoxifying methylglyoxal (MG). MG is a potent precursor of advanced glycation endproducts which are regarded to be a key player in micro- and macrovascular damage. Yet, the role of Glo1 in atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, the effect of Glo1 on mouse metabolism and atherosclerosis is evaluated. Methods. Glo1 knockdown mice were fed a high fat or a standard diet for 10 weeks. Body weight and composition were investigated by Echo MRI. The PhenoMaster system was used to measure the energy expenditure. To evaluate the impact of Glo1 on atherosclerosis, Glo1(KD) mice were crossed with ApoE-knockout mice and fed a high fat diet for 14 weeks. Results. Glo1 activity was significantly reduced in heart, liver, and kidney lysates derived from Glo1(KD) mice. Yet, there was no increase in methylglyoxal-derived AGEs in all organs analyzed. The Glo1 knockdown did not affect body weight or body composition. Metabolic studies via indirect calorimetry did not show significant effects on energy expenditure. Glo1(KD) mice crossed to ApoE(-/-) mice did not show enhanced formation of atherosclerosis. Conclusion. A Glo1 knockdown does not have major short term effects on the energy expenditure or the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

  2. A wearable sensor module with a neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for daily energy expenditure estimation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Wang, Jeen-Shing; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a wearable module and neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for energy expenditure estimation. The purpose of our design is first to categorize physical activities with similar intensity levels, and then to construct energy expenditure regression (EER) models using neural networks in order to optimize the estimation performance. The classification of physical activities for EER model construction is based on the acceleration and ECG signal data collected by wearable sensor modules developed by our research lab. The proposed algorithm consists of procedures for data collection, data preprocessing, activity classification, feature selection, and construction of EER models using neural networks. In order to reduce the computational load and achieve satisfactory estimation performance, we employed sequential forward and backward search strategies for feature selection. Two representative neural networks, a radial basis function network (RBFN) and a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), were employed as EER models for performance comparisons. Our experimental results have successfully validated the effectiveness of our wearable sensor module and its neural-network-based activity classification algorithm for energy expenditure estimation. In addition, our results demonstrate the superior performance of GRNN as compared to RBFN.

  3. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tullos, Desiree D.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  4. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, Desirée.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  5. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971

  6. Daily energy expenditure of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus): a small primate that uses torpor.

    PubMed

    Schmid, J; Speakman, J R

    2000-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the pattern of utilisation of torpor and its impact on energy budgets in free-living grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), a small nocturnal primate endemic to Madagascar. We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water turnover using doubly labelled water, and we used temperature-sensitive radio collars to measure skin temperature (Tsk) and home range. Our results showed that male and female mouse lemurs in the wild enter torpor spontaneously over a wide range of ambient temperatures (Ta) during the dry season, but not during the rainy season. Mouse lemurs remained torpid between 1.7-8.9 h with a daily mean of 3.4 h, and their Tsk s fell to a minimum of 18.8 degrees C. Mean home ranges of mouse lemurs which remained normothermic were similar in the rainy and dry season. During the dry season, the mean home range of mouse lemurs showing daily torpor was significantly smaller than that of animals remaining normothermic. The DEE of M. murinus remaining normothermic in the rainy season (122 +/- 65.4 kJ x day(-1)) was about the same of that of normothermic mouse lemurs in the dry season (115.5 +/- 27.3 kJ x day(-1)). During the dry season, the mean DEE of M. murinus that utilised daily torpor was 103.4 +/- 32.7 kJ x day(-1) which is not significantly different from the mean DEE of animals remaining normothermic. We found that the DEE of mouse lemurs using daily torpor was significantly correlated with the mean temperature difference between Tsk and Ta (r2 = 0.37) and with torpor bout length (r2 = 0.46), while none of these factors explained significant amounts of variation in the DEE of the mouse lemurs remaining normothermic. The mean water flux rate of mouse lemurs using daily torpor (13.0 +/- 4.1 ml x day(-1)) was significantly lower than that of mouse lemurs remaining normothermic (19.4 +/- 3.8 ml x day(-1)), suggesting the lemurs conserve water by entering torpor. Thus, this first study on the energy budget of free-ranging M. murinus

  7. The energy expenditure of 2 Holstein cow strains in an organic grazing system.

    PubMed

    Thanner, S; Dohme-Meier, F; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Schori, F

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, measurements of energy expenditure (EE; herein defined as heat production) in respiration chambers did not account for the extra energy requirements of grazing dairy cows on pasture. As energy is first limiting in most pasture-based milk production systems, its efficient use is important. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare EE, which can be affected by differences in body weight (BW), body composition, grazing behavior, physical activity, and milk production level, in 2 Holstein cow strains. Twelve Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH; 616 kg of BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ; 570 kg of BW) cows in the third stage of lactation were paired according to their stage of lactation and kept in a rotational, full-time grazing system without concentrate supplementation. After adaption, the daily milk yield, grass intake using the alkane double-indicator technique, nutrient digestibility, physical activity, and grazing behavior recorded by an automatic jaw movement recorder were investigated over 7d. Using the (13)C bicarbonate dilution technique in combination with an automatic blood sampling system, EE based on measured carbon dioxide production was determined in 1 cow pair per day between 0800 to 1400 h. The HCH were heavier and had a lower body condition score compared with HNZ, but the difference in BW was smaller compared with former studies. Milk production, grass intake, and nutrient digestibility did not differ between the 2 cow strains, but HCH grazed for a longer time during the 6-h measurement period and performed more grazing mastication compared with the HNZ. No difference was found between the 2 cow strains with regard to EE (291 ± 15.6 kJ) per kilogram of metabolic BW, mainly due to a high between-animal variation in EE. As efficiency and energy use are important in sustainable, pasture-based, organic milk production systems, the determining factors for EE, such as methodology, genetics, physical activity, grazing

  8. Measuring energy expenditure in sub-adult and hatchling sea turtles via accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Jones, T Todd; Jones, David R; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25-44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean VO2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R(2) = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22-30 °C) had only a small effect on Vo₂. A VO2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R(2) = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets.

  9. Energy expenditure estimate by heart-rate monitor and a portable electromagnetic coils system.

    PubMed

    Gastinger, Steven; Nicolas, Guillaume; Sorel, Anthony; Sefati, Hamid; Prioux, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this article was to compare 2 portable devices (a heart-rate monitor and an electromagnetic-coil system) that evaluate 2 different physiological parameters--heart rate (HR) and ventilation (VE)--with the objective of estimating energy expenditure (EE). The authors set out to prove that VE is a more pertinent setting than HR to estimate EE during light to moderate activities (sitting and standing at rest and walking at 4, 5, and 6 km/hr). Eleven healthy men were recruited to take part in this study (27.6 ± 5.4 yr, 73.7 ± 9.7 kg). The authors determined the relationships between HR and EE and between VE and EE during light to moderate activities. They compared EE measured by indirect calorimetry (EEREF) with EE estimated by HR monitor (EEHR) and EE estimated by electromagnetic coils (EEMAG) in upright sitting and standing positions and during walking exercises. They compared EEREF with EEHR and EEMAG. The results showed no significant difference between the values of EEREF and EEMAG. However, they showed several significant differences between the values of EEREF and EEHR (for standing at rest and walking at 5 and 6 km/hr). These results showed that the electromagnetic-coil system seems to be more accurate than the HR monitor to estimate EE at rest and during exercise. Taking into consideration these results, it would be interesting to associate the parameters VE and HR to estimate EE. Furthermore, a new version of the electromagnetic-coil device was recently developed and provides the possibility to perform measurement under daily life conditions.

  10. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  11. Estimation of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure during Free-Living from Wrist Accelerometry in UK Adults

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Kate; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Brage, Soren

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrist-worn accelerometers are emerging as the most common instrument for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, though little is known about the relationship between wrist acceleration and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Methods 1695 UK adults wore two devices simultaneously for six days; a combined sensor and a wrist accelerometer. The combined sensor measured heart rate and trunk acceleration, which was combined with a treadmill test to yield a signal of individually-calibrated PAEE. Multi-level regression models were used to characterise the relationship between the two time-series, and their estimations were evaluated in an independent holdout sample. Finally, the relationship between PAEE and BMI was described separately for each source of PAEE estimate (wrist acceleration models and combined-sensing). Results Wrist acceleration explained 44–47% between-individual variance in PAEE, with RMSE between 34–39 J•min-1•kg-1. Estimations agreed well with PAEE in cross-validation (mean bias [95% limits of agreement]: 0.07 [-70.6:70.7]) but overestimated in women by 3% and underestimated in men by 4%. Estimation error was inversely related to age (-2.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per 10y) and BMI (-0.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per kg/m2). Associations with BMI were similar for all PAEE estimates (approximately -0.08 kg/m2 per J•min-1•kg-1). Conclusions A strong relationship exists between wrist acceleration and PAEE in free-living adults, such that irrespective of the objective method of PAEE assessment, a strong inverse association between PAEE and BMI was observed. PMID:27936024

  12. An examination of the differences between two methods of estimating energy expenditure in resistance training activities.

    PubMed

    Vezina, Jesse W; Der Ananian, Cheryl A; Campbell, Kathryn D; Meckes, Nathanael; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2014-04-01

    To date, few studies have looked at the energy expenditure (EE) of individual resistance training (RT) exercises. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EE of 4 modes of RT (push-ups, curl-ups, pull-ups, and lunges) using 2 different calculation methods for estimating EE. Twelve healthy men with a minimum of 1 year of RT experience were randomly assigned to an RT circuit. Each circuit contained the 4 RT exercises in a specified order. The participants completed 3 trials of their assigned circuit during one visit to the laboratory. Oxygen consumption was measured continuously throughout the trial using indirect calorimetry. Two different calculation methods were applied to estimate EE. Using the traditional method (TEC), we estimated EE by calculating the average oxygen consumption recorded during each activity. Using the second, nontraditional method (NEC), we estimated EE by calculating the average oxygen consumption recorded during the recovery period. Independent T-tests were used to evaluate mean EE differences between the 2 methods. Estimates of EE obtained from the NEC were significantly higher for all the 4 activities (p < 0.001). Using the NEC, 3 of the 4 activities were classified as vigorous intensity (push-ups: 6.91 metabolic equivalents (METs); lunges: 7.52 METs; and pull-ups: 8.03 METs), whereas none were classified as vigorous using the TEC. Findings suggest that the methods we use to calculate the EE of anaerobic activities significantly affect EE estimates. Using the TEC may underestimate actual EE of anaerobic activities.

  13. Sympathetic support of energy expenditure and sympathetic nervous system activity after gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Timothy B.; Somaraju, Madhuri; Hines, Casey N.; Groenewald, Cornelius B.; Miles, John M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) is partially dependent on the sympathetic nervous system as evidenced by the fact REE decreases during systemic beta-adrenergic blockade. It is not known how gastric bypass affects the sympathetically mediated component of REE or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). We measured REE before and after beta-blockade in female subjects approximately three years post-gastric bypass surgery and in female obese individuals for comparison. We also measured MSNA in a subset of these subjects. The gastric bypass subjects had no change in REE after systemic beta-blockade, reflecting a lack of sympathetic support of REE, in contrast to obese subjects where REE was reduced by beta-blockade by approximately 5% (P<0.05). The gastric bypass subjects, while still overweight (BMI = 29.3 vs 38.0 kg/m2 for obese subjects, P<0.05), also had significantly lower MSNA compared to obese subjects (10.9 ± 2.3 vs. 21.9 ± 4.1 bursts/min, P<0.05). The reasons for low MSNA and a lack of sympathetically mediated support of REE after gastric bypass are likely multifactorial and may be related to changes in insulin sensitivity, body composition, and leptin, among other factors. These findings may have important consequences for the maintenance of weight loss after gastric bypass. Longitudinal studies are needed to further explore the changes in sympathetic support of REE and if changes in MSNA or tissue responsiveness are related to the sympathetic support of REE. PMID:23592656

  14. Serum metabolites related to cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, sedentary time and vigorous activity.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Floegel, Anna; Knüppel, Sven; Vigl, Matthaeus; Drogan, Dagmar; Adamski, Jerzy; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics in a population- based study. A total of 100 subjects provided 2 fasting blood samples and engaged in a CRF and PA measurement at 2 visits 4 months apart. CRF was estimated from a step test, whereas physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), time spent sedentary and time spend in vigorous activity were measured by a combined heart rate and movement sensor for a total of 8 days. Serum metabolite concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS). Linear mixed models were applied with multivariable adjustment and p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Furthermore, we explored the associations between CRF, PA and two metabolite factors that have previously been linked to risk of Type 2 diabetes. CRF was associated with two phosphatidylcholine clusters independently of all other exposures. Lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0 and methionine were significantly negatively associated with PAEE and sedentary time. CRF was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. Vigorous activity was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes risk factor in the mutually adjusted model. Our results suggest that CRF and PA are associated with serum metabolites, especially CRF with phosphatidylcholines and with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. PAEE and sedentary time were associated with methionine. The identified metabolites could be potential mediators of the protective effects of CRF and PA on chronic disease risk.

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of commonly used accelerometer energy expenditure and MET prediction equations.

    PubMed

    Lyden, Kate; Kozey, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, John W; Freedson, Patty S

    2011-02-01

    Numerous accelerometers and prediction methods are used to estimate energy expenditure (EE). Validation studies have been limited to small sample sizes in which participants complete a narrow range of activities and typically validate only one or two prediction models for one particular accelerometer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of nine published and two proprietary EE prediction equations for three different accelerometers. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed an average of six treadmill (TRD) (1.34, 1.56, 2.23 ms(-1) each at 0 and 3% grade) and five self-paced activities of daily living (ADLs). EE estimates were compared with indirect calorimetry. Accelerometers were worn while EE was measured using a portable metabolic unit. To estimate EE, 4 ActiGraph prediction models were used, 5 Actical models, and 2 RT3 proprietary models. Across all activities, each equation underestimated EE (bias -0.1 to -1.4 METs and -0.5 to -1.3 kcal, respectively). For ADLs EE was underestimated by all prediction models (bias -0.2 to -2.0 and -0.2 to -2.8, respectively), while TRD activities were underestimated by seven equations, and overestimated by four equations (bias -0.8 to 0.2 METs and -0.4 to 0.5 kcal, respectively). Misclassification rates ranged from 21.7 (95% CI 20.4, 24.2%) to 34.3% (95% CI 32.3, 36.3%), with vigorous intensity activities being most often misclassified. Prediction equations did not yield accurate point estimates of EE across a broad range of activities nor were they accurate at classifying activities across a range of intensities (light <3 METs, moderate 3-5.99 METs, vigorous ≥ 6 METs). Current prediction techniques have many limitations when translating accelerometer counts to EE.

  16. Neural network versus activity-specific prediction equations for energy expenditure estimation in children.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Nicole; Joss, Franziska; Jimmy, Gerda; Melzer, Katarina; Hänggi, Johanna; Mäder, Urs

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) estimations of activity-specific prediction equations (ASPE) and of an artificial neural network (ANNEE) based on accelerometry with measured EE. Forty-three children (age: 9.8 ± 2.4 yr) performed eight different activities. They were equipped with one tri-axial accelerometer that collected data in 1-s epochs and a portable gas analyzer. The ASPE and the ANNEE were trained to estimate the EE by including accelerometry, age, gender, and weight of the participants. To provide the activity-specific information, a decision tree was trained to recognize the type of activity through accelerometer data. The ASPE were applied to the activity-type-specific data recognized by the tree (Tree-ASPE). The Tree-ASPE precisely estimated the EE of all activities except cycling [bias: -1.13 ± 1.33 metabolic equivalent (MET)] and walking (bias: 0.29 ± 0.64 MET; P < 0.05). The ANNEE overestimated the EE of stationary activities (bias: 0.31 ± 0.47 MET) and walking (bias: 0.61 ± 0.72 MET) and underestimated the EE of cycling (bias: -0.90 ± 1.18 MET; P < 0.05). Biases of EE in stationary activities (ANNEE: 0.31 ± 0.47 MET, Tree-ASPE: 0.08 ± 0.21 MET) and walking (ANNEE 0.61 ± 0.72 MET, Tree-ASPE: 0.29 ± 0.64 MET) were significantly smaller in the Tree-ASPE than in the ANNEE (P < 0.05). The Tree-ASPE was more precise in estimating the EE than the ANNEE. The use of activity-type-specific information for subsequent EE prediction equations might be a promising approach for future studies.

  17. Regression-based prediction of net energy expenditure in children performing activities at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Sarton-Miller, Isabelle; Holman, Darryl J; Spielvogel, Hilde

    2003-01-01

    We developed a simple, non-invasive, and affordable method for estimating net energy expenditure (EE) in children performing activities at high altitude. A regression-based method predicts net oxygen consumption (VO(2)) from net heart rate (HR) along with several covariates. The method is atypical in that, the "net" measures are taken as the difference between exercise and resting VO(2) (DeltaVO(2)) and the difference between exercise and resting HR (DeltaHR); DeltaVO(2) partially corrects for resting metabolic rate and for posture, and DeltaHR controls for inter-individual variation in physiology and for posture. Twenty children between 8 and 13 years of age, born and raised in La Paz, Bolivia (altitude 3,600m), made up the reference sample. Anthropometric measures were taken, and VO(2) was assessed while the children performed graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. A repeated-measures prediction equation was developed, and maximum likelihood estimates of parameters were found from 75 observations on 20 children. The final model included the variables DeltaHR, DeltaHR(2), weight, and sex. The effectiveness of the method was established using leave-one-out cross-validation, yielding a prediction error rate of 0.126 for a mean DeltaVO(2) of 0.693 (SD 0.315). The correlation between the predicted and measured DeltaVO(2) was r = 0.917, suggesting that a useful prediction equation can be produced using paired VO(2) and HR measurements on a relatively small reference sample. The resulting prediction equation can be used for estimating EE from HR in free-living children performing habitual activities in the Bolivian Andes.

  18. Estimating Energy Expenditure Using Heat Flux Measured at Single Body Site

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Kate; Swibas, Tracy; Catenacci, Victoria; Guo, Ruixin; Szuminsky, Neil; Melanson, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Personal Calorie Monitor (PCM) is a portable direct calorimeter that estimates energy expenditure (EE) from measured heat flux (i.e. the sum of conductive, convective, radiative, and evaporative). Purpose The primary aim of this study was to compare EE estimated from measures of heat flux to indirect calorimetry in a thermoneutral environment (26°C). A secondary aim was to determine if exposure to ambient temperature below thermoneutral (19°C) influences the accuracy of the PCM. Methods 34 Adults (mean±SD, age = 28±5 y, body mass index = 22.9±2.6 kg.m2) were studied for 5 h in a whole-room indirect calorimeter (IC) in thermoneutral and cool conditions. Participants wore the PCM on their upper arm and completed two, 20-minute treadmill-walking bouts (0% grade, 3 mph). The remaining time was spent sedentary (e.g., watching television, using a computer). Results In thermoneutral, EE (mean (95% CI)) measured by IC and PCM was 560.0 (526.5, 593.5) and 623.3 (535.5, 711.1) kcals, respectively. In cool, EE measured by IC and PCM was 572.5 (540.9, 604.0) and 745.5 (668.1, 822.8) kcals, respectively. Under thermoneutral conditions, mean PCM minute-by-minute EE tracked closely with IC, resulting in a small, non-significant bias (63 kcals (−5.8, 132.4)). During cool conditions, mean PCM minute-by-minute EE did not track IC, resulting in a large bias (173.0 (93.9, 252.1)) (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated the validity of using measured heat flux to estimate EE. However, accuracy may be impaired in cool conditions, possibly due to excess heat loss from the exposed limbs. PMID:24811326

  19. Reading and listening to music increase resting energy expenditure during an indirect calorimetry test.

    PubMed

    Snell, Blaire; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is often done early in the morning in a fasting state, with the subject unshowered and abstained from caffeine or other stimulants. Subjects often fall asleep, resulting in measurement of a sleeping metabolic rate rather than a resting metabolic rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected relaxing music or reading an electronic device or magazine affects resting energy expenditure (REE) during measurement in healthy adults. A randomized trial comparing three different conditions (ie, resting, reading, and listening to music) was performed. Sixty-five subjects (36 female and 29 male) were used in final data analysis. Inclusion criteria included healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years with a stable weight. Exclusion criteria included pregnant or lactating women or use of medications known to affect metabolism. Results showed that reading either a magazine or an electronic device significantly increased REE by 102.7 kcal/day when compared with resting (P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in REE between the electronic device and magazine. Listening to self-selected relaxing music increased REE by 27.6 kcal/day compared with rest (P=0.0072). Based on our results, we recommend subjects refrain from reading a magazine or electronic device during an indirect calorimetry test. Whether or not the smaller difference found while listening to music is practically significant would be a decision for the indirect calorimetry test administrator.

  20. A rapid analytical technique for the determination of energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Barrie, A; Coward, W A

    1985-09-01

    The doubly labelled water method involves the administration of water enriched in 2H and 18O followed by determination of the turnover rates of these isotopes. Since 18O is eliminated from the body as both CO2 and water, while 2H leaves only as water, the difference between the two turnover rates provides a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Isotopic analysis by conventional stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) is labour intensive and time consuming, as it requires off-line conversion of water samples to gases (H2 and CO2) followed by sequential analysis for each of the two isotopes using the mass spectrometer. Lack of suitable automated instrumentation with the ability to process large numbers of samples has prevented routine application of the method. We describe here an automated technique in which body water samples (urine, saliva, breath water or milk) are analysed simultaneously for 2H and 18O. The single bench system comprises two mass spectrometer analysers, one for measuring 2H from H2 gas, the other for measuring 18O from the water vapour (masses 18, 20). Both analysers share a common heated inlet system into which microlitre quantities of the body fluids are injected from an autosampler (102 samples). The water vapour flows both directly to one analyser for 18O measurement and into a uranium reduction furnace for conversion to H2, prior to 2H measurement by the second analyser. Both analysers also share vacuum and electronic components, enabling savings in both space and cost. In this paper we present results illustrating performance characteristics and procedures for routine application to human subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Effects of exercise training on resting energy expenditure and lean mass during pediatric burn rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-01-01

    Severe burns cause profound hormonal and metabolic disturbances resulting in hypermetabolism, reflected in extreme elevation of resting energy expenditure (REE) and extensive skeletal muscle catabolism. Aerobic and resistive exercise programs during rehabilitation have shown substantial benefits, although whether such training potentially exacerbates basal metabolism is unknown. Therefore, the effects of exercise training on REE during the rehabilitation of severely burned pediatric patients were examined. Children with 40% total body surface area burns and greater were enrolled at admission to the burn intensive care unit to participate in a 12-week, hospital-based exercise program (EX) or a home-based standard of care program (SOC), commencing 6 months after injury. Twenty-one patients (aged 7-17 years) were enrolled and randomized to SOC (n = 10) or EX (n = 11). Age, sex, and total body surface area burned were similar. Mean change (+/-standard deviation) in REE, normalized to individual lean body mass, was almost negligible between SOC and EX group patients (SOC, 0.03 +/- 17.40% vs EX, 0.01 +/- 26.38%). A significant increase in lean body mass was found for EX patients (SOC, 2.06 +/- 3.17% vs EX, 8.75 +/- 5.65%; P = .004), which persisted when normalized to height (SOC, 0.70 +/- 2.39% vs EX, 6.14 +/- 6.46%; P = .02). Peak torque also improved significantly more in EX patients (SOC, 12.29 +/- 16.49% vs EX, 54.31 +/- 44.25%; P = .02), reflecting improved strength. Exercise training significantly enhanced lean mass and strength, without observed exacerbation of postburn hypermetabolism. Therefore, the use of exercise conditioning as a safe and effective component of pediatric burn rehabilitation is advocated.

  2. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  3. Igfbp2 Deletion in Ovariectomized Mice Enhances Energy Expenditure but Accelerates Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    DeMambro, Victoria E.; Le, Phuong T.; Guntur, Anyonya R.; Maridas, David E.; Canalis, Ernesto; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Clemmons, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported sexually dimorphic bone mass and body composition phenotypes in Igfbp2−/− mice (−/−), where male mice exhibited decreased bone and increased fat mass, whereas female mice displayed increased bone but no changes in fat mass. To investigate the interaction between IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and estrogen, we subjected Igfbp2 −/− and +/+ female mice to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery at 8 weeks of age. At 20 weeks of age, mice underwent metabolic cage analysis and insulin tolerance tests before killing. At harvest, femurs were collected for microcomputed tomography, serum for protein levels, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) adipose depots for histology, gene expression, and mitochondrial respiration analysis of whole tissue. In +/+ mice, serum IGFBP-2 dropped 30% with OVX. In the absence of IGFBP-2, OVX had no effect on preformed BAT; however, there was significant “browning” of the IWAT depot coinciding with less weight gain, increased insulin sensitivity, lower intraabdominal fat, and increased bone loss due to higher resorption and lower formation. Likewise, after OVX, energy expenditure, physical activity and BAT mitochondrial respiration were decreased less in the OVX−/− compared with OVX+/+. Mitochondrial respiration of IWAT was reduced in OVX+/+ yet remained unchanged in OVX−/− mice. These changes were associated with significant increases in Fgf21 and Foxc2 expression, 2 proteins known for their insulin sensitizing and browning of WAT effects. We conclude that estrogen deficiency has a profound effect on body and bone composition in the absence of IGFBP-2 and may be related to changes in fibroblast growth factor 21. PMID:26230658

  4. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m(-2) BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) VO2max). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The inter-subject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min(-1) per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p=0.026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p=0.574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p=0.032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p=0.026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  5. Muscle activation and energy expenditure of sedentary behavior alternatives in young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Nicholas L; Keenan, Kevin G; Strath, Scott J; Forseth, Bethany M; Cho, Chi C; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-09-21

    The physiological mechanisms that underlie the metabolic benefits of breaking up sedentary behavior (SB) have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study is to compare energy expenditure (EE) and muscle activation (MA) responses to sitting and four SB alternatives in younger and older adults. Twenty-two adults, grouped by age (21-35 and 62-76 years), completed five randomly ordered 20 min tasks: (1) continuous sitting (Sit), (2) sitting on a stability ball (Ball), (3) continuous standing (Stand), (4) sitting interrupted by walking (S/W), and (5) sitting interrupted by standing (S/S). Muscle activation of two upper (trapezius and erector spinae) and two lower (rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius) body muscles and total body EE were measured continuously. A linear mixed model using gender and age as a covariate with Bonferroni adjustment were used to determine significant differences between tasks. Collectively, S/W produced significantly higher MA and EE compared with Sit (p  <  0.001). Stand and Ball provided significantly greater EE, but not MA, compared to Sit (p  <  0.05), while S/S did not significantly change EE or MA compared to Sit. There were no net EE differences when comparing age groups across the tasks. Upper body MA was not consistent in both age groups across tasks. Specifically, during S/W the upper body MA of older adults (9.7  ±  1.5% MVC) was double that of young adults (4.8  ±  0.7% MVC, p  =  0.006). Lower body MA responded similarly to all tasks in both age groups. Disrupting sitting with walking produced the largest increase in EE and MA compared to other SB alternatives in both age groups. These results are important considering the wide use of SB alternatives by researchers and public health practitioners.

  6. [Measurement of energy expenditure in a group of construction workers during work].

    PubMed

    Manfredini, F; Borleri, D; Mosconi, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the results obtained from measuring energy expenditure (EE) during work in a group of male construction workers through a new portable device of practical use and low cost. The instrument consists of an electronic bracelet multisensor system for measuring EE, which is called Armband Sensewear Pro2 and is produced by Body Media. The disposal has 5 steel hypoallergenic sensors which detect the skin and the near body temperature, the environment temperature, the electrical skin conductance, and an internal two axes accelerometer which detects the transverse and longitudinal acceleration. The analysis of these parameters through software allows you to derive the individual EE. The study describes the results obtained by applying Armband to a group of 10 construction workers performing the following jobs: bricklayer, tiler, crane driver and "rock climber". The results allow to assess and confirm the high EE related to the work of the subjects enrolled in the study. In conclusion the authors argue that Armband, already validated experimentally in several areas of Medicine, can be a useful tool available to the Occupational Physician, in order to determine the EE for workers who perform heavy tasks, such as those that exist in the construction industry, which are characterised by high levels of EE and poor reproducibility of tasks. Moreover, Armband appears to be an useful tool in connection with the dual possibility on the one hand to assess fatigue related to certain skills and jobs, and on the other side to contribute to the metabolic evaluation of cardiac patients during rehabilitation at work.

  7. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  8. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  9. Comparison of Energy Expenditure During Single-Set vs. Multiple-Set Resistance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Swapan; Welikonich, Michael J; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure (EE) of single-set and multiple-set resistance exercise protocols using indirect calorimetry. Twelve men and twelve women (age = 21.4 ± 1.3 years) performed a single-set (SS) and multiple-set (MS) resistance exercise protocol in random order. The subjects performed two protocols at 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. The protocols consisted of 5 upper-body exercises of either 1 or 3 sets per exercise performed in random order. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory data were recorded over the entire exercise session and during 5 minutes of recovery by a portable metabolic measurement system. Gross (167.9 ± 58.7 kcal) and net (88.3 ± 41.6 kcal) EE for the MS protocol were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than gross (71.3 ± 26.5 kcal) and net (36.3 ± 18.7 kcal) EE of the SS protocol. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the rate of EE between both protocols. Significant gender differences (p < 0.001) in absolute and relative EE were observed for both protocols where values in men were higher than women. Heart rate, respiratory rate, relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2, respiratory exchange ratio, and minute ventilation values were significantly higher during the MS than the SS protocol. The results of this study indicated that MS protocols yield greater metabolic and cardiovascular demands than SS protocols when the number of exercises performed is the same.

  10. Re-interpreting anaerobic metabolism: an argument for the application of both anaerobic glycolysis and excess post-exercise oxygen comsumption (EPOC) as independent sources of energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Scott, C B

    1998-02-01

    Due to current technical difficulties and changing cellular conditions, the measurement of anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure remains elusive. During rest and low-intensity steady-state exercise, indirect calorimetric measurements successfully represent energy expenditure. The same steady-state O2 uptake methods are often used to describe the O2 deficit and excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC): 1 l O2 = 5 kcal = 20.9 kJ. However, an O2 deficit plus exercise O2 uptake measurement ignores energy expenditure during recovery, and an exercise O2 uptake plus EPOC measurement misrepresents anaerobic energy expenditure. An alternative solution has not yet been proposed. Anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration are construed here as a symbiotic union of metabolic pathways, each contributing independently to energy expenditure and heat production. Care must be taken when using O2 uptake alone to quantify energy expenditure because various high-intensity exercise models reveal that O2 uptake can lag behind estimated energy demands or exceed them. The independent bioenergetics behind anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration can acknowledge these discrepancies. Anaerobic glycolysis is an additive component to an exercise O2 uptake measurement. Moreover, it is the assumptions behind steady-state O2 uptake that do not permit proper interpretation of energy expenditure during EPOC; 1 l O2 not = 20.9 kJ. Using both the O2 deficit and a modified EPOC for interpretation, rather than one or the other, leads to a better method of quantifying energy expenditure for higher intensity exercise and recovery.

  11. Survey of the Relationship Between Activity Energy Expenditure Metabolic Equivalents and Barrier Factors of Physical Activity in the Elderly in Kashan

    PubMed Central

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Khalili, Zahra; Pour Nazari, Robab; Mohammadi, Majid; Ahmadi Khatir, Maryam; Mossadegh, Najima

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity in the elderly is influenced by aspects of aging that cause personal, mental, environmental, and social changes. Increases in factors that are barriers to activity cause physical energy expenditure to decrease. Objectives The aim of the present study was to survey the relationship between energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (MET) and factors that are barriers to physical activity in elderly people in Kashan, Iran Methods This is a descriptive analysis done in 2014. The study population was 400 people above 60 years old in medical facilities in Kashan. Multistage sampling was used in 10 clinics in 5 areas of Kashan. The sample size was varied according to gender and elderly population. Contributors were given questionnaires concerning energy expenditure levels in physical activity and factors that are barriers to being active. Results The average age among the study population was 67.6 ± 6.8 years median, and the interquartile range (IQR) of barriers to physical activity among Kashan’s elderly was (8.75) ± 33. Average energy expenditure was 326.21 ± 364.84 based on metabolic equivalent units (MET). In fact, 340 persons (85%) were practically without any active energy expenditure. The most common barrier was the lack of an appropriate place for doing physical activity; 298 (74%) of the participants cited this barrier. The results show the Spearman rank-order correlation is significant (P = 0.038, r = 0.104) between barriers to physical activity and activity energy expenditure in Kashan’s elderly. Conclusions Decreasing barriers to physical activity among the elderly causes physical activities to increase; therefore, energy expenditure is increased. Decreasing social and environmental problems for the elderly is effective in increasing physical activity and energy expenditure. PMID:28191341

  12. Flipper strokes can predict energy expenditure and locomotion costs in free-ranging northern and Antarctic fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine; Trites, Andrew W.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Speakman, John R.; Guinet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Flipper strokes have been proposed as proxies to estimate the energy expended by marine vertebrates while foraging at sea, but this has never been validated on free-ranging otariids (fur seals and sea lions). Our goal was to investigate how well flipper strokes correlate with energy expenditure in 33 foraging northern and Antarctic fur seals equipped with accelerometers, GPS, and time-depth recorders. We concomitantly measured field metabolic rates with the doubly-labelled water method and derived activity-specific energy expenditures using fine-scale time-activity budgets for each seal. Flipper strokes were detected while diving or surface transiting using dynamic acceleration. Despite some inter-species differences in flipper stroke dynamics or frequencies, both species of fur seals spent 3.79 ± 0.39 J/kg per stroke and had a cost of transport of ~1.6–1.9 J/kg/m while diving. Also, flipper stroke counts were good predictors of energy spent while diving (R2 = 0.76) and to a lesser extent while transiting (R2 = 0.63). However, flipper stroke count was a poor predictor overall of total energy spent during a full foraging trip (R2 = 0.50). Amplitude of flipper strokes (i.e., acceleration amplitude × number of strokes) predicted total energy expenditure (R2 = 0.63) better than flipper stroke counts, but was not as accurate as other acceleration-based proxies, i.e. Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration. PMID:27658718

  13. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy... expenditures. (a) Except as adjusted, the expenditure of financial assistance provided under this part for... adjusted in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The expenditure of financial assistance provided under...

  14. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  15. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  16. Increased resting energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and food intake in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Jussi; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2007-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with metabolic adverse events such as lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of HAART-associated lipodystrophy on resting energy expenditure and caloric intake. In this cross-sectional study we compared resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in 30 HAART-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+) with 13 HAART-treated patients without lipodystrophy (HAART+LD-). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry, and energy intake was recorded as a 3-day diary of food intake. REE (5,180+/-160 vs. 4,260+/-150 J/min, P<0.01) and also REE expressed per fat-free mass (86+/-1 vs. 78+/-2 J.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Rate of lipid oxidation was significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Total energy and fat intakes were significantly increased in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. These results imply that HAART-associated lipodystrophy is associated with increased REE and lipid oxidation and with increased caloric and fat intake.

  17. On the complex relationship between energy expenditure and longevity: Reconciling the contradictory empirical results with a simple theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chen; Amunugama, Kaushalya

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between energy expenditure and longevity has been a central theme in aging studies. Empirical studies have yielded controversial results, which cannot be reconciled by existing theories. In this paper, we present a simple theoretical model based on first principles of energy conservation and allometric scaling laws. The model takes into considerations the energy tradeoffs between life history traits and the efficiency of the energy utilization, and offers quantitative and qualitative explanations for a set of seemingly contradictory empirical results. We show that oxidative metabolism can affect cellular damage and longevity in different ways in animals with different life histories and under different experimental conditions. Qualitative data and the linearity between energy expenditure, cellular damage, and lifespan assumed in previous studies are not sufficient to understand the complexity of the relationships. Our model provides a theoretical framework for quantitative analyses and predictions. The model is supported by a variety of empirical studies, including studies on the cellular damage profile during ontogeny; the intra- and inter-specific correlations between body mass, metabolic rate, and lifespan; and the effects on lifespan of (1) diet restriction and genetic modification of growth hormone, (2) the cold and exercise stresses, and (3) manipulations of antioxidant.

  18. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-26

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  19. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Popp, Collin J; Tisch, Jocelyn J; Sakarcan, Kenan E; Bridges, William C; Jesch, Elliot D

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment.

  20. Distributed lag and spline modeling for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry in youth.

    PubMed

    Choi, Leena; Chen, Kong Y; Acra, Sari A; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2010-02-01

    Movement sensing using accelerometers is commonly used for the measurement of physical activity (PA) and estimating energy expenditure (EE) under free-living conditions. The major limitation of this approach is lack of accuracy and precision in estimating EE, especially in low-intensity activities. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate benefits of a distributed lag spline (DLS) modeling approach for the prediction of total daily EE (TEE) and EE in sedentary (1.0-1.5 metabolic equivalents; MET), light (1.5-3.0 MET), and moderate/vigorous (> or = 3.0 MET) intensity activities in 10- to 17-year-old youth (n = 76). We also explored feasibility of the DLS modeling approach to predict physical activity EE (PAEE) and METs. Movement was measured by Actigraph accelerometers placed on the hip, wrist, and ankle. With whole-room indirect calorimeter as the reference standard, prediction models (Hip, Wrist, Ankle, Hip+Wrist, Hip+Wrist+Ankle) for TEE, PAEE, and MET were developed and validated using the fivefold cross-validation method. The TEE predictions by these DLS models were not significantly different from the room calorimeter measurements (all P > 0.05). The Hip+Wrist+Ankle predicted TEE better than other models and reduced prediction errors in moderate/vigorous PA for TEE, MET, and PAEE (all P < 0.001). The Hip+Wrist reduced prediction errors for the PAEE and MET at sedentary PA (P = 0.020 and 0.021) compared with the Hip. Models that included Wrist correctly classified time spent at light PA better than other models. The means and standard deviations of the prediction errors for the Hip+Wrist+Ankle and Hip were 0.4 +/- 144.0 and 1.5 +/- 164.7 kcal for the TEE, 0.0 +/- 84.2 and 1.3 +/- 104.7 kcal for the PAEE, and -1.1 +/- 97.6 and -0.1 +/- 108.6 MET min for the MET models. We conclude that the DLS approach for accelerometer data improves detailed EE prediction in youth.

  1. Influence of Accelerometer Type and Placement on Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Prediction in Manual Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Tom Edward; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Thompson, Dylan; Bilzon, James Lee John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the validity of two accelerometer devices, at two different anatomical locations, for the prediction of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in manual wheelchair users (MWUs). Methods Seventeen MWUs (36 ± 10 yrs, 72 ± 11 kg) completed ten activities; resting, folding clothes, propulsion on a 1% gradient (3,4,5,6 and 7 km·hr-1) and propulsion at 4km·hr-1 (with an additional 8% body mass, 2% and 3% gradient) on a motorised wheelchair treadmill. GT3X+ and GENEActiv accelerometers were worn on the right wrist (W) and upper arm (UA). Linear regression analysis was conducted between outputs from each accelerometer and criterion PAEE, measured using indirect calorimetry. Subsequent error statistics were calculated for the derived regression equations for all four device/location combinations, using a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis. Results Accelerometer outputs at each anatomical location were significantly (p < .01) associated with PAEE (GT3X+-UA; r = 0.68 and GT3X+-W; r = 0.82. GENEActiv-UA; r = 0.87 and GENEActiv-W; r = 0.88). Mean ± SD PAEE estimation errors for all activities combined were 15 ± 45%, 14 ± 50%, 3 ± 25% and 4 ± 26% for GT3X+-UA, GT3X+-W, GENEActiv-UA and GENEActiv-W, respectively. Absolute PAEE estimation errors for devices varied, 19 to 66% for GT3X+-UA, 17 to 122% for GT3X+-W, 15 to 26% for GENEActiv-UA and from 17.0 to 32% for the GENEActiv-W. Conclusion The results indicate that the GENEActiv device worn on either the upper arm or wrist provides the most valid prediction of PAEE in MWUs. Variation in error statistics between the two devices is a result of inherent differences in internal components, on-board filtering processes and outputs of each device. PMID:25955304

  2. Comparison of linear and non-linear models for predicting energy expenditure from raw accelerometer data.

    PubMed

    Montoye, Alexander H K; Begum, Munni; Henning, Zachary; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2017-02-01

    This study had three purposes, all related to evaluating energy expenditure (EE) prediction accuracy from body-worn accelerometers: (1) compare linear regression to linear mixed models, (2) compare linear models to artificial neural network models, and (3) compare accuracy of accelerometers placed on the hip, thigh, and wrists. Forty individuals performed 13 activities in a 90 min semi-structured, laboratory-based protocol. Participants wore accelerometers on the right hip, right thigh, and both wrists and a portable metabolic analyzer (EE criterion). Four EE prediction models were developed for each accelerometer: linear regression, linear mixed, and two ANN models. EE prediction accuracy was assessed using correlations, root mean square error (RMSE), and bias and was compared across models and accelerometers using repeated-measures analysis of variance. For all accelerometer placements, there were no significant differences for correlations or RMSE between linear regression and linear mixed models (correlations: r  =  0.71-0.88, RMSE: 1.11-1.61 METs; p  >  0.05). For the thigh-worn accelerometer, there were no differences in correlations or RMSE between linear and ANN models (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.89, RMSE: 1.07-1.08 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.10-1.11 METs; p  >  0.05). Conversely, one ANN had higher correlations and lower RMSE than both linear models for the hip (ANN-correlation: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.12 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.86, RMSE: 1.18-1.19 METs; p  <  0.05), and both ANNs had higher correlations and lower RMSE than both linear models for the wrist-worn accelerometers (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.82-0.84, RMSE: 1.26-1.32 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.71-0.73, RMSE: 1.55-1.61 METs; p  <  0.01). For studies using wrist-worn accelerometers, machine learning models offer a significant improvement in EE prediction

  3. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Collin J.; Tisch, Jocelyn J.; Sakarcan, Kenan E.; Bridges, William C.; Jesch, Elliot D.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment. PMID:27857943

  4. Resting Energy Expenditure in Adults with Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Matthew F.; Orme, Paul; Smith, Jonathon; Morse, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was: 1) To compare Resting energy expenditure (REE) in adult males with Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy (BeMD, n = 21, 39 ±12 years) and healthy controls (CTRL, n = 12, 37 ±12 years) 2) Determine whether other physiological parameters correlate with REE in BeMD, and 3) Compare current prediction methods of REE with measured REE. Methods REE was calculated via indirect calorimetry using continuous, expired gas analysis following an overnight fast. Fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass were measured by bioelectrical impedance. B-mode ultrasound measured Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) anatomical cross sectional area (ACSA). The Bone Specific Physical Activity Questionnaire measured physical activity. Results No difference in REE was found between CTRL and BeMD groups (1913 ±203 & 1786 ±324 Kcal respectively). Other physiological comparisons showed increased fat mass (+54%), decreased TA ACSA (-42%), increased GM ACSA (+25%) as well as reduced respiratory function (FVC -28%; FEV1−27%) in BeMD adults compared to controls. REE estimated from prediction equations (Schofield’s) in Muscular Dystrophy were different from measured REE (P<0.05, bias = -728kcal), while the Mifflin equation was no different from measured REE (r2 = 0.58, Bias = -8kcal). Within the present BeMD, REE predicted from FFM (REE = FFM x 34.57–270; r2 = 0.85) and body mass (REE = BM x 15.65 + 421.5; r2 = 0.66), were not different from measured REE (bias equals 0 and 0.2kcals, respectively) Conclusions Despite no differences in REE between CTRL and BeMD adults, increased fat masses highlights the requirement for explicit nutritional guidelines, as well as maintenance of physical activity levels, where possible. Prediction equations are frequently used in clinical settings, however these have been shown to be less accurate in BeMD; therefore, the equations proposed here should be used where possible. PMID:28060911

  5. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance.

  6. Maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure or physical activity in 5-year-old Pima Indian children.

    PubMed

    Salbe, A D; Fontvieille, A M; Pettitt, D J; Ravussin, E

    1998-10-01

    Children of women who have diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to become obese by early adulthood than those of women with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Obesity can result from either excess food intake, low levels of energy expenditure or both. In our study, we tested whether maternal diabetes status influences total energy expenditure (TEE by doubly labelled water), resting metabolic rate (RMR by ventilated hood) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/RMR and assessed by activity questionnaire). Measurements were taken in 88 5-year-old Pima Indian children, 24 children of women with diabetes (2-h plasma glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l) diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 64 children of women with normal glucose tolerance (2-h plasma glucose < 7.8 mmol/l during pregnancy and no prior history of abnormal glucose tolerance). Although birth weight was higher in children of diabetic than of nondiabetic women (mean +/- SD; 3.8 +/- 0.6 vs 3.5 +/- 0.4 kg, p < 0.03), there were no differences in weight (26.4 +/- 6.9 vs 24.2 +/- 5.6 kg) or per cent body fat (18O dilution; 33 +/- 8 vs 31 +/- 8%) between the groups at 5 years of age. There was no difference in TEE (6508 +/- 1109 vs 6175 +/- 942 kJ/d) or in RMR (4674 +/- 786 vs 4483 +/- 603 kJ/d) expressed as absolute values or after adjustment for weight and sex (TEE) or fat-free mass, fat mass, and sex (RMR). Physical activity level was also similar between the groups (1.40 +/- 0.12 vs 1.38 +/- 0.12). These results suggest that maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure in the children by 5 years of age. Thus the greater obesity seen at older ages in the children of women with diabetes could be due to excess energy intake. Alternatively, if energy expenditure does have a role in the aetiology of obesity in these children, perhaps it does so only in older children.

  7. Moderate-to-high levels of exercise are associated with higher resting energy expenditure in community-dwelling postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Froehle, Andrew W.; Hopkins, Susan R.; Natarajan, Loki; Schoeninger, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women experience an age-related decline in resting energy expenditure (REE), which is a risk factor for energy imbalance and metabolic disease. Exercise, by association with greater lean tissue mass and other factors, has the potential to mediate REE decline, but the relationship between exercise and REE in postmenopausal women is not well characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that exercise energy expenditure (EEE) is positively associated with REE, opposing the effects of age and menopause. The study tests this hypothesis in a cross-sectional sample of healthy postmenopausal women (N = 31, aged 49 - 72 years) with habitual exercise volumes at or above levels consistent with current clinical recommendations. Subjects kept four weeks of exercise diaries quantifying exercise activity, and were measured for body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and REE. Multiple regression analysis was used to test for relationships between EEE, age, body composition, and REE. EEE and lean tissue mass (fat-free mass: FFM; and fat-free mass index: FFMI) exhibited significant, positive relationships with REE. The relationship between REE and EEE remained significant even after controlling for lean tissue mass. These results support the hypothesis that exercise is positively associated with REE, counter to the negative effects of age and menopause, and indicate a continuous relationship between exercise and REE across the moderate-to-high exercise range. Exercise at levels at and above current clinical guidelines may, in part, ameliorate risk for energy imbalance and metabolic disease through a positive relationship with REE. PMID:24053522

  8. Physical Activity Assessment: Biomarkers and Self-Report of Activity-Related Energy Expenditure in the WHI

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Di, Chongzhi; Tinker, Lesley F.; Thomson, Cynthia; Sternfeld, Barbara; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Sims, Stacy; Curb, J. David; Lamonte, Michael; Seguin, Rebecca; Johnson, Karen C.; Prentice, Ross L

    2013-01-01

    We used a biomarker of activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) to assess measurement properties of self-reported physical activity and to determine the usefulness of AREE regression calibration equations in the Women's Health Initiative. Biomarker AREE, calculated as the total energy expenditure from doubly labeled water minus the resting energy expenditure from indirect calorimetry, was assessed in 450 Women's Health Initiative participants (2007–2009). Self-reported AREE was obtained from the Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire (AAFQ), the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR), and the Women's Health Initiative Personal Habits Questionnaire (PHQ). Eighty-eight participants repeated the protocol 6 months later. Reporting error, measured as log(self-report AREE) minus log(biomarker AREE), was regressed on participant characteristics for each instrument. Body mass index was associated with underreporting on the AAFQ and PHQ but overreporting on PAR. Blacks and Hispanics underreported physical activity levels on the AAFQ and PAR, respectively. Underreporting decreased with age for the PAR and PHQ. Regressing logbiomarker AREE on logself-reported AREE revealed that self-report alone explained minimal biomarker variance (R2 = 7.6, 4.8, and 3.4 for AAFQ, PAR, and PHQ, respectively). R2 increased to 25.2, 21.5, and 21.8, respectively, when participant characteristics were included. Six-month repeatability data adjusted for temporal biomarker variation, improving R2 to 79.4, 67.8, and 68.7 for AAFQ, PAR, and PHQ, respectively. Calibration equations “recover” substantial variation in average AREE and valuably enhance AREE self-assessment. PMID:23436896

  9. Uncoupling of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by NF-κB in Transgenic Mice through Elevated Energy Expenditure*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tianyi; Zhang, Jin; Yin, Jun; Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Ong, Helena; Kim, Jason K.; Mynatt, Randy; Martin, Roy J.; Keenan, Michael; Gao, Zhanguo; Ye, Jianping

    2010-01-01

    To study the metabolic activity of NF-κB, we investigated phenotypes of two different mouse models with elevated NF-κB activities. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB is enhanced either by overexpression of NF-κB p65 (RelA) in aP2-p65 mice or inactivation of NF-κB p50 (NF-κB1) through gene knock-out. In these models, energy expenditure was elevated in day and night time without a change in locomotion. The mice were resistant to adulthood obesity and diet-induced obesity without reduction in food intake. The adipose tissue growth and adipogenesis were inhibited by the elevated NF-κB activity. Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor γ expression was reduced by NF-κB at the transcriptional level. The two models exhibited elevated inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) in adipose tissue and serum. However, insulin sensitivity was not reduced by the inflammation in the mice on a chow diet. On a high fat diet, the mice were protected from insulin resistance. The glucose infusion rate was increased more than 30% in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. Our data suggest that the transcription factor NF-κB promotes energy expenditure and inhibits adipose tissue growth. The two effects lead to prevention of adulthood obesity and dietary obesity. The energy expenditure may lead to disassociation of inflammation with insulin resistance. The study indicates that inflammation may prevent insulin resistance by eliminating lipid accumulation. PMID:20018865

  10. Uncoupling of inflammation and insulin resistance by NF-kappaB in transgenic mice through elevated energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tianyi; Zhang, Jin; Yin, Jun; Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Ong, Helena; Kim, Jason K; Mynatt, Randy; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael; Gao, Zhanguo; Ye, Jianping

    2010-02-12

    To study the metabolic activity of NF-kappaB, we investigated phenotypes of two different mouse models with elevated NF-kappaB activities. The transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB is enhanced either by overexpression of NF-kappaB p65 (RelA) in aP2-p65 mice or inactivation of NF-kappaB p50 (NF-kappaB1) through gene knock-out. In these models, energy expenditure was elevated in day and night time without a change in locomotion. The mice were resistant to adulthood obesity and diet-induced obesity without reduction in food intake. The adipose tissue growth and adipogenesis were inhibited by the elevated NF-kappaB activity. Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma expression was reduced by NF-kappaB at the transcriptional level. The two models exhibited elevated inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) in adipose tissue and serum. However, insulin sensitivity was not reduced by the inflammation in the mice on a chow diet. On a high fat diet, the mice were protected from insulin resistance. The glucose infusion rate was increased more than 30% in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. Our data suggest that the transcription factor NF-kappaB promotes energy expenditure and inhibits adipose tissue growth. The two effects lead to prevention of adulthood obesity and dietary obesity. The energy expenditure may lead to disassociation of inflammation with insulin resistance. The study indicates that inflammation may prevent insulin resistance by eliminating lipid accumulation.

  11. Seasonal variation in energy expenditure, water flux and food consumption of Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx.

    PubMed

    Williams, J B; Ostrowski, S; Bedin, E; Ismail, K

    2001-07-01

    We report on the energy expenditure and water flux, measured in the laboratory and in the field, of the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, the largest desert ruminant for which measurements of the field metabolic rate of free-living individuals have been made using doubly labeled water. Prior to extirpation of this species in the wild in 1972, conservationists sequestered a number of individuals for captive breeding; in 1989, oryx were reintroduced in Saudi Arabia into Mahazat as-Sayd (2244 km(2)). Apart from small pools of water available after rains, oryx do not have free-standing water available for drinking and therefore rely on grasses that they eat for preformed water intake as well as their energy needs. We tested whether oryx have a reduced fasting metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in the laboratory, as do some other arid-adapted mammals, and whether oryx have high field metabolic rates (FMRs) and water influx rates (WIRs), as predicted by allometric equations for large arid-zone mammals. We measured FMR and WIR during the hot summer, when plant moisture content was low and ambient temperatures were high, and after winter rains, when the water content of grasses was high. For captive oryx that weighed 84.1 kg, fasting metabolic rate averaged 8980 kJ day(-1), 16.7% lower than predictions for Artiodactyla. Our own re-analysis of minimal metabolic rates among Artiodactyla yielded the equation: logV(O2)=-0.153+0.758logM, where V(O2) is the rate of oxygen uptake in lh(-1) and M is body mass in kg. Fasting metabolic rate of oryx was only 9.1% lower than predicted, suggesting that they do not have an unusually low metabolic rate. TEWL averaged 870.0 ml day(-1), 63.9% lower than predicted, a remarkably low value even compared with the camel, but the mechanisms that contribute to such low rates of water loss remain unresolved. For free-living oryx, FMR was 11076 kJ day(-1) for animals with a mean body mass of 81.5 kg during summer, whereas it was 22081

  12. Exercise energy expenditure is not consciously detected due to oro-gastric, not metabolic, basis of hunger sensation.

    PubMed

    Borer, Katarina T; Wuorinen, Elizabeth; Chao, Cewin; Burant, Charles

    2005-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that exercise energy expenditure (EEE) will elicit reflex metabolic compensations but no increases in hunger. Exercise expended 800 kcal once when fasted and at another time in a post-prandial state. During fasting exercise, pre-meal ratings of hunger were unaffected by EEE, but plasma concentrations of ghrelin, growth hormone and free fatty acids were higher than in the absence of EEE. We propose that the perception of hunger is based on the vagal, lateral hypothalamic and cortical projections of oral and gastro-intestinal (GI) stimuli and that EEE triggers neuroendocrine compensations and influences hunger indirectly by affecting GI functions.

  13. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  14. Sex difference in physical activity, energy expenditure and obesity driven by a subpopulation of hypothalamic POMC neurons

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Luke K.; Doslikova, Barbora; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Greenwald-Yarnell, Megan; Georgescu, Teodora; Chianese, Raffaella; Martinez de Morentin, Pablo B.; Ogunnowo-Bada, Emmanuel; Cansell, Celine; Valencia-Torres, Lourdes; Garfield, Alastair S.; Apergis-Schoute, John; Lam, Daniel D.; Speakman, John R.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.; Rochford, Justin J.; Myers, Martin G.; Evans, Mark L.; Heisler, Lora K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is one of the primary healthcare challenges of the 21st century. Signals relaying information regarding energy needs are integrated within the brain to influence body weight. Central among these integration nodes are the brain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, perturbations of which disrupt energy balance and promote severe obesity. However, POMC neurons are neurochemically diverse and the crucial source of POMC peptides that regulate energy homeostasis and body weight remains to be fully clarified. Methods Given that a 5-hydroxytryptamine 2c receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist is a current obesity medication and 5-HT2CR agonist's effects on appetite are primarily mediated via POMC neurons, we hypothesized that a critical source of POMC regulating food intake and body weight is specifically synthesized in cells containing 5-HT2CRs. To exclusively manipulate Pomc synthesis only within 5-HT2CR containing cells, we generated a novel 5-HT2CRCRE mouse line and intercrossed it with Cre recombinase-dependent and hypothalamic specific reactivatable PomcNEO mice to restrict Pomc synthesis to the subset of hypothalamic cells containing 5-HT2CRs. This provided a means to clarify the specific contribution of a defined subgroup of POMC peptides in energy balance and body weight. Results Here we transform genetically programed obese and hyperinsulinemic male mice lacking hypothalamic Pomc with increased appetite, reduced physical activity and compromised brown adipose tissue (BAT) into lean, healthy mice via targeted restoration of Pomc function only within 5-HT2CR expressing cells. Remarkably, the same metabolic transformation does not occur in females, who despite corrected feeding behavior and normalized insulin levels remain physically inactive, have lower energy expenditure, compromised BAT and develop obesity. Conclusions These data provide support for the functional heterogeneity of hypothalamic POMC neurons, revealing that Pomc expression within 5-HT2CR

  15. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  16. Miglitol prevents diet-induced obesity by stimulating brown adipose tissue and energy expenditure independent of preventing the digestion of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Shimpuku, Mayumi; Kitazumi, Tomoya; Hiraga, Haruna; Nakagawa, Yuko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Osamu; Kim, Hye-jin; Fujita, Yuki; Maruyama, Jun; Susanti, Vina Yanti; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Saito, Masayuki; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    Miglitol is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that improves post-prandial hyperglycemia, and it is the only drug in its class that enters the bloodstream. Anecdotally, miglitol lowers patient body weight more effectively than other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, but the precise mechanism has not been addressed. Therefore, we analyzed the anti-obesity effects of miglitol in mice and in the HB2 brown adipocyte cell line. Miglitol prevented diet-induced obesity by stimulating energy expenditure without affecting food intake in mice. Long-term miglitol treatment dose-dependently prevented diet-induced obesity and induced mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipose tissue. The anti-obesity effect was independent of preventing carbohydrate digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Miglitol effectively stimulated energy expenditure in mice fed a high-fat high-monocarbohydrate diet, and intraperitoneal injection of miglitol was sufficient to stimulate energy expenditure in mice. Acarbose, which is a non-absorbable alpha glucosidase inhibitor, also prevented diet-induced obesity, but through a different mechanism: it did not stimulate energy expenditure, but caused indigestion, leading to less energy absorption. Miglitol promoted adrenergic signaling in brown adipocytes in vitro. These data indicate that circulating miglitol stimulates brown adipose tissue and increases energy expenditure, thereby preventing diet-induced obesity. Further optimizing miglitol's effect on brown adipose tissue could lead to a novel anti-obesity drug.

  17. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8–18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children. PMID:26504298

  18. Adipose tissue-specific inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein protects against diabesity because of increased energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Mataki, Chikage; Coste, Agnès; Messaddeq, Nadia; Giroud, Sylvain; Blanc, Stéphane; Koehl, Christian; Champy, Marie-France; Chambon, Pierre; Fajas, Lluis; Metzger, Daniel; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The role of the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRb) has been firmly established in the control of cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. Recently, it was demonstrated that lack of pRb promotes a switch from white to brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro. We used the Cre-Lox system to specifically inactivate pRb in adult adipose tissue. Under a high-fat diet, pRb-deficient (pRbad−/−) mice failed to gain weight because of increased energy expenditure. This protection against weight gain was caused by the activation of mitochondrial activity in white and brown fat as evidenced by histologic, electron microscopic, and gene expression studies. Moreover, pRb−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts displayed higher proliferation and apoptosis rates than pRb+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which could contribute to the altered white adipose tissue morphology. Taken together, our data support a direct role of pRb in adipocyte cell fate determination in vivo and suggest that pRb could serve as a potential therapeutic target to trigger mitochondrial activation in white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue, favoring an increase in energy expenditure and subsequent weight loss. PMID:17556545

  19. Resting energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation are higher in elderly patients with COPD: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually have a compromised nutritional status which is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. To know the Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and the substrate oxidation measurement is essential to prevent these complications. This study aimed to compare the REE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and body composition between patients with and without COPD. Methods This case–control study assessed 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending a pulmonary rehabilitation program. The group of subjects without COPD (control group) consisted of 20 elderly patients attending a university gym, patients of a private service and a public healthy care. Consumption of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was determined by indirect calorimetry and used for calculating the resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Percentage of body fat (%BF), lean mass (kg) and muscle mass (kg) were determined by bioimpedance. The fat free mass index (FFMI) and muscle mass index (MMI) were then calculated. Results The COPD group had lower BMI than control (p = 0.02). However, WC, % BF, FFMI and MM-I did not differ between the groups. The COPD group had greater RQ (p = 0.01), REE (p = 0.009) and carbohydrate oxidation (p = 0.002). Conclusions Elderly patients with COPD had higher REE, RQ and carbohydrate oxidation than controls. PMID:22672689

  20. Association of irisin with fat mass, resting energy expenditure, and daily activity in conditions of extreme body mass index.

    PubMed

    Pardo, María; Crujeiras, Ana B; Amil, María; Aguera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Estivill, Xavier; Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Fernández-García, José C; Fruhbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    FNDC5/irisin has been recently postulated as beneficial in the treatment of obesity and diabetes because it is induced in muscle by exercise, increasing energy expenditure. However, recent reports have shown that WAT also secretes irisin and that circulating irisin is elevated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate irisin levels in conditions of extreme BMI and its correlation with basal metabolism and daily activity. The study involved 145 female patients, including 96 with extreme BMIs (30 anorexic (AN) and 66 obese (OB)) and 49 healthy normal weight (NW). The plasma irisin levels were significantly elevated in the OB patients compared with the AN and NW patients. Irisin also correlated positively with body weight, BMI, and fat mass. The OB patients exhibited the highest REE and higher daily physical activity compared with the AN patients but lower activity compared with the NW patients. The irisin levels were inversely correlated with daily physical activity and directly correlated with REE. Fat mass contributed to most of the variability of the irisin plasma levels independently of the other studied parameters. Conclusion. Irisin levels are influenced by energy expenditure independently of daily physical activity but fat mass is the main contributing factor.

  1. D-psicose increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat accumulation in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Onishi, Kana; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of D-psicose by increasing energy expenditure in rats pair-fed the high-sucrose diet (HSD). Wistar rats were divided into two dietary groups: HSD containing 5% cellulose (C) and 5% d-psicose (P). The C dietary group was further subdivided into two groups: rats fed the C diet ad libitum (C-AD) and pair-fed the C diet along with those in the P group (C-PF). Resting energy expenditure during darkness and lipoprotein lipase activity in the soleus muscle were significantly higher in the P group than in the C-PF group. Serum levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver and perirenal adipose tissue; and body fat accumulation were all significantly lower in the P group than in the C-PF group. The anti-obesity effects of D-psicose could be induced not only by suppressing lipogenic enzyme activity but also by increasing EE in rats.

  2. Effects of sitting time associated with media consumption on physical activity patterns and daily energy expenditure of Saudi school students.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the effect of daily sitting time during media consumption on physical fitness, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body composition indices of Saudi school children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 180 healthy Saudi school students (8-18 years) were included in this study. Sitting time, total energy expenditure, and levels of physical activity were evaluated with pre-validated internet based questionnaires. Body composition indices were evaluated using anthropometric analysis. [Results] Out of the studied participants, only 22.2% of students were physically inactive. Children with moderate and active physical scores demonstrated less sedentary behavior (TV viewing and computer usage), lower body composition values (BMI, WC, WHtR), and higher TEE than sedentary or mild activity level participants. Boys showed higher fitness scores and less sedentary behavior than girls. Media sitting time among the studied subjects correlated negatively with physical scores and positively with body composition. [Conclusion] The data presented here suggests that poor physical fitness, lower TEE, and longer sitting times differentially influence normal body composition indices among school children which may lead to overweight or obese individuals. Thus, decreasing sitting time during media consumption and enhancing physical activity may play a pivotal role in preventing obesity in young children.

  3. Postoperative effects of anesthesia and surgery on resting energy expenditure in horses as measured by indirect calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Antonio M.; Coté, Nathalie; McDonell, Wayne N.; Geor, Raymond J.; Wilson, Brian A.; Monteith, Gabrielle; Li, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to define the effects of anesthesia and surgery on the resting energy expenditure of horses in experimental conditions. Six horses were used in a longitudinal study with 2 study periods: before and after anesthesia and surgery. Every horse underwent a standard 90-min ventral midline exploratory laparotomy. Oxygen uptake ( ) and carbon dioxide output ( ) were measured, with the use of a closed-circuit spirometry system, on 5 consecutive days immediately before and after the surgery. In 3 consecutive 5-min periods each day, the expired air was collected in a Collins spirometer. Samples of the expired gas were drawn from the spirometer through a drying column into O2 and CO2 analyzers. Resting energy expenditure was calculated as [( *3.94) + ( *1.11)]*1.44. This study showed that anesthesia and ventral midline exploratory laparotomy in experimental conditions increase the postoperative caloric demand in horses by an average of 1.0 Mcal/d, which represents approximately a 10% increase (P = 0.03). Additional studies in critically ill horses after surgery are needed to determine their caloric needs and to optimize their nutritional management. PMID:17042377

  4. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Sarah M.; Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Castro, Ana N.; Walsh, John W.; deLeon, Orlando; Burnett, Colin M.L.; Pearson, Nicole A.; Murry, Daryl J.; Grobe, Justin L.; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day) exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism. PMID:26870798

  5. Relating tissue/organ energy expenditure to metabolic fluxes in mouse and human: experimental data integrated with mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Kummitha, China M; Kalhan, Satish C; Saidel, Gerald M; Lai, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Mouse models of human diseases are used to study the metabolic and physiological processes leading to altered whole-body energy expenditure (EE), which is the sum of EE of all body organs and tissues. Isotopic techniques, arterio-venous difference of substrates, oxygen, and blood flow measurements can provide essential information to quantify tissue/organ EE and substrate oxidation. To complement and integrate experimental data, quantitative mathematical model analyses have been applied in the design of experiments and evaluation of metabolic fluxes. In this study, a method is presented to quantify the energy expenditure of the main mouse organs using metabolic flux measurements. The metabolic fluxes and substrate utilization of the main metabolic pathways of energy metabolism in the mouse tissue/organ systems and the whole body are quantified using a mathematical model based on mass and energy balances. The model is composed of six organ/tissue compartments: brain, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, muscle, and adipose tissue. Each tissue/organ is described with a distinct system of metabolic reactions. This model quantifies metabolic and energetic characteristics of mice under overnight fasting conditions. The steady-state mass balances of metabolites and energy balances of carbohydrate and fat are integrated with available experimental data to calculate metabolic fluxes, substrate utilization, and oxygen consumption in each tissue/organ. The model serves as a paradigm for designing experiments with the minimal reliable measurements necessary to quantify tissue/organs fluxes and to quantify the contributions of tissue/organ EE to whole-body EE that cannot be easily determined currently.

  6. Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure in Relation to Body Weight and Composition Following Gastric Restriction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Browning, Matthew G; Franco, Robert L; Cyrus, John C; Celi, Francesco; Evans, Ronald K

    2016-07-01

    In comparison to gastric bypass surgery, gastric restriction without malabsorption more closely simulates dietary adherence while still producing durable weight loss. The latter is achieved despite considerable reductions in resting energy expenditure (REE), and whether REE is adjusted for body weight/composition using ratio- or regression-based methods could influence understanding of how these procedures affect energy balance. This systematic review identified studies that reported REE before and after gastric restriction in order to compare changes using each method. Ratio assessments revealed increases and decreases when REE was expressed per kilogram of body weight and per kilogram of fat-free mass, respectively. In comparison, measured REE tended to be less than predicted from linear regression after surgery. Explanations for these seemingly disparate findings and future directions are discussed.

  7. Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Prentice, A M; Diaz, E; Coward, W A; Ashford, J; Sawyer, M; Whitehead, R G

    1989-09-01

    The doubly-labelled water (2H218O) method was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) in ten non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL), six pregnant (P) and fourteen lactating (L) women in a rural Gambian community. Measurements were made on free-living subjects at a period of peak energetic stress when high agricultural work loads coincided with a hungary season to induce moderately severe negative energy balance. TEE averaged 10.42 (SD 2.08) MJ/d, equivalent to 1.95 (SD 0.38) times resting metabolic rate (RMR). The energy cost of physical activity plus thermogenesis, derived as TEE-RMR, averaged 4.94 (SD 1.96) MJ/d. Expressed per kg body-weight (103 kJ/kg per d) this component of expenditure was 2.5 times greater than comparative values from inactive, affluent women studied previously (39 kJ/kg per d). Estimated energy intake (EI) in a subset of the women (n 13) was only 4.80 (SD 1.58) MJ/d, yielding an apparent deficit of 6.08 MJ/d between EI and TEE. Weight changes suggested that endogenous fat oxidation accounted for only about 0.85 MJ/d, leaving an unexplained difference of over 5 MJ/d. Critical analysis of possible errors suggests that the new doubly-labelled water method has provided the most reliable estimates and that the estimates of EI were substantially in error. This finding has important consequences for other food intake studies.

  8. The measurement and estimation of total energy expenditure in Japanese patients with ALS: a doubly labelled water method study.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshio; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sakata, Akiko; Nagaoka, Utako; Ichihara, Noriko; Ishida, Chiho; Nakayama, Yuki; Komori, Tetsuo; Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2017-02-01

    Appropriate nutritional therapy has not been established for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our objective was to measure the total energy expenditure (TEE) and determine an equation to estimate the energy requirements for Japanese patients with ALS. Twenty-six Japanese patients with ALS participated in the study. The TEE was measured using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for a 14-day period. Using a range of clinical parameters and multiple regression analyses, we determined an adequate equation to calculate TEE. Results showed that the median value of total energy intake (TEI) was 1581 (interquartile 1278-1782) kcal/d. TEE and TEE/body weight were 1628 kcal/d (1352-1865) and 31.3 kcal/kg (29.2-34.4), respectively. The ratio of TEE/estimated TEE by the Harris-Benedict equation was 1.14 (1.09-1.26). The difference between TEI and TEE was -63 kcal (-221 - 122), and 15 patients (57.7%) showed a negative balance. From regression analyses, we determined an equation to estimate TEE using the resting metabolic rate estimated by the Harris-Benedict equation (RMR-HB) and scores of the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R): TEE = (1.67 × RMR-HB) + (11.8 × ALSFRS-R) - 680 (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, energy expenditure of Japanese patients with ALS was higher than expected, and we proposed a preliminary equation to estimate TEE for future nutritional intervention.

  9. Moderate to high levels of exercise are associated with higher resting energy expenditure in community-dwelling postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W; Hopkins, Susan R; Natarajan, Loki; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2013-11-01

    Postmenopausal women experience an age-related decline in resting energy expenditure (REE), which is a risk factor for energy imbalance and metabolic disease. Exercise, because of its association with greater lean tissue mass and other factors, has the potential to mediate REE decline, but the relation between exercise and REE in postmenopausal women is not well characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that exercise energy expenditure (EEE) is positively associated with REE and can counter the effects of age and menopause. It involves a cross-sectional sample of 31 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 49-72 years) with habitual exercise volumes at or above levels consistent with current clinical recommendations. Subjects kept exercise diaries for 4 weeks that quantified exercise activity and were measured for body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and REE. Multiple regression analysis was used to test for associations between EEE, age, body composition, and REE. There was a significant positive relation between EEE and lean tissue mass (fat-free mass and fat-free mass index). The relation between REE and EEE remained significant even after controlling for lean tissue mass. These results support the hypothesis that exercise is positively associated with REE and can counter the negative effects of age and menopause. They also indicate a continuous relation between exercise and REE across ranges of exercise, from moderate to high. Exercise at levels that are at or above current clinical guidelines might, in part, ameliorate the risk for energy imbalance and metabolic disease because of its positive relation with REE.

  10. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

  11. An Exercise Protocol Designed to control Energy Expenditure and to have a Positive Impact on Maximal Oxygen Consumption for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Seino, Satoshi; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption decreases during spaceflight, and astronauts also experience controversial weight loss. Future space missions require a more efficient exercise program to maintain work efficiency and to control increased energy expenditure (EE). We have been developing two types of original exercise training protocols which are better suited to astronauts’ daily routine exercise during long-term spaceflight: sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT). In this study, we compared the total EE, including excess post-exercise energy expenditure (EPEE), induced by our interval cycling protocols with the total EE of a traditional, continuous aerobic training (CAT). In the results, while the EPEEs after the SIT and HIAT were greater than after the CAT, the total EE for an entire exercise/rest session with the CAT was the greatest of our three exercise protocols. The SIT and HIAT would be potential protocols to control energy expenditure for long space missions.

  12. Predicted vs. Actual Resting Energy Expenditure and Activity Coefficients: Post-Gastric Bypass, Lean and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A.; Edens, Kim L.; Joyner, Michael J.; Curry, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and energy requirements are commonly estimated from equations predicting Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) multiplied by a Physical Activity (PA) coefficient that accounts for both PA energy expenditure and the thermogenic effect of food. PA coefficients based on PA self-reports are a potential source of error that has not been evaluated. Therefore, in this study we compared: 1) the Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin-St. Jeor (MSJ), and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) REE equations with REE measured (REE-m) with indirect calorimetry; 2) PA coefficients determined with PA self-reports vs. objectively assessed PA; and 3) TEE estimates in post-Gastric Bypass (GB = 13), lean (LE = 7), and obese (OB = 12) women. REE was measured in the morning after an overnight fast with participants resting supine for 30 min. Self-reported PA was evaluated with a questionnaire and objectively measured with accelerometers worn for 5-7 days. Nutritional intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry included DEXA, and abdominal CT scans. Eligible GB had surgery ≥ 12 months before the study, and had ≥ 10 kg of body weight loss. All participants were 18-45 years of age, able to engage in ambulatory activities, and not taking part in exercise training programs. One-way ANOVA was used to detect differences in REE and TEE. Accuracy of REE prediction equations were determined by cases within 10% of REE-m, and agreement analyses. REE predictions were not different than REE-m, but agreements were better with HB and MSJ, particularly in the GB and LE groups. Discrepancies in the PA coefficients determined with self-report vs. objectively assessed PA resulted in TEE overestimates (approximately 200-300 Kcal/day) using HB and MSJ equations. FAO/WHO/UNU overestimated TEE in all groups regardless of the PA assessment method (approximately 300-900 kcal/day). These results

  13. Application of Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration as a Proxy for Estimating the Energy Expenditure of Grazing Farm Animals: Relationship with Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (P<0.01), the difference could be explained by different body weights; a common equation could be established by correcting the body weights (M: kg): heart rate (beats/min) = 147.263∙M-0.141 + 889.640∙M-0.179∙ODBA (g). Combining this equation with the previously reported energy expenditure per heartbeat, we estimated the energy expenditure of the tested animals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use. PMID:26030931

  14. Application of overall dynamic body acceleration as a proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals: relationship with heart rate.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (P<0.01), the difference could be explained by different body weights; a common equation could be established by correcting the body weights (M: kg): heart rate (beats/min) = 147.263∙M-0.141 + 889.640∙M-0.179∙ODBA (g). Combining this equation with the previously reported energy expenditure per heartbeat, we estimated the energy expenditure of the tested animals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use.

  15. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  16. Estimation of Activity Related Energy Expenditure and Resting Metabolic Rate in Freely Moving Mice from Indirect Calorimetry Data

    PubMed Central

    Van Klinken, Jan Bert; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Willems Van Dijk, Ko

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a main determinant of total energy expenditure (TEE) and has been suggested to play a key role in body weight regulation. However, thus far it has been challenging to determine what part of the expended energy is due to activity in freely moving subjects. We developed a computational method to estimate activity related energy expenditure (AEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in mice from activity and indirect calorimetry data. The method is based on penalised spline regression and takes the time dependency of the RMR into account. In addition, estimates of AEE and RMR are corrected for the regression dilution bias that results from inaccurate PA measurements. We evaluated the performance of our method based on 500 simulated metabolic chamber datasets and compared it to that of conventional methods. It was found that for a sample time of 10 minutes the penalised spline model estimated the time-dependent RMR with 1.7 times higher accuracy than the Kalman filter and with 2.7 times higher accuracy than linear regression. We assessed the applicability of our method on experimental data in a case study involving high fat diet fed male and female C57Bl/6J mice. We found that TEE in male mice was higher due to a difference in RMR while AEE levels were similar in both groups, even though female mice were more active. Interestingly, the higher activity did not result in a difference in AEE because female mice had a lower caloric cost of activity, which was likely due to their lower body weight. In conclusion, TEE decomposition by means of penalised spline regression provides robust estimates of the time-dependent AEE and RMR and can be applied to data generated with generic metabolic chamber and indirect calorimetry set-ups. PMID:22574139

  17. Change in energy expenditure and brain and adrenal content of catecholamines in rats during muscular loading and hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozanova, V. D.; Savkiv, T. G.; Khodorova, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    In male 1-7 month old rats, the growth and the protein content of skeletal muscles were higher than in female rats while the O2 consumption and the heart rate were lower. This is combined with reduction of the thyroid gland weight and of catecholamine content in adrenals at the age of 7 months. The development of male and female rats (1-7 month) under conditions of systematic muscular loads increases the growth tempo and protein of skeletal muscles and intensifies the degree of reduction of energy expenditure and the heart rate. This is accomplished by the greater reduction of relative weight of the thyroid gland and, at the age of 7 months, by reduction of the noradrenaline content in the brainstem. Hypodynamic conditions have the exact opposite effect.

  18. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  19. RM-493, a Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) Agonist, Increases Resting Energy Expenditure in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kong Y.; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Abel, Brent S.; Mullins, Katherine P.; Staker, Pamela; Brychta, Robert J.; Zhao, Xiongce; Ring, Michael; Psota, Tricia L.; Cone, Roger D.; Panaro, Brandon L.; Gottesdiener, Keith M.; Van der Ploeg, Lex H.T.; Reitman, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) with the synthetic agonist RM-493 decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure (EE) in nonhuman primates. The effects of MC4R agonists on EE in humans have not been examined to date. Objective, Design, and Setting: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we examined the effects of the MC4R agonist RM-493 on resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese subjects in an inpatient setting. Study Participants and Methods: Twelve healthy adults (6 men and 6 women) with body mass index of 35.7 ± 2.9 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) received RM-493 (1 mg/24 h) or placebo by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 72 hours, followed immediately by crossover to the alternate treatment. All subjects received a weight-maintenance diet (50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein) and performed 30 minutes of standardized exercise daily. Continuous EE was measured on the third treatment day in a room calorimeter, and REE in the fasting state was defined as the mean of 2 30-minute resting periods. Results: RM-493 increased REE vs placebo by 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.68–13.02%), on average by 111 kcal/24 h (95% confidence interval, 15–207 kcal, P = .03). Total daily EE trended higher, whereas the thermic effect of a test meal and exercise EE did not differ significantly. The 23-hour nonexercise respiratory quotient was lower during RM-493 treatment (0.833 ± 0.021 vs 0.848 ± 0.022, P = .02). No adverse effect on heart rate or blood pressure was observed. Conclusions: Short-term administration of the MC4R agonist RM-493 increases REE and shifts substrate oxidation to fat in obese individuals. PMID:25675384

  20. Influence of Resting Energy Expenditure on Blood Pressure is Independent of Body Mass and a Marker of Sympathetic Tone

    PubMed Central

    Brock, David W.; Tompkins, Connie L.; Fisher, Gordon; Hunter, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction two recent examinations reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE), independent of body mass and body composition. Both reports postulate that neuro-humoral processes that contribute to variation in REE may partly mediate the body mass effect on BP. Therefore, we examined the relationship of REE and BP in 108 asymptomatic women to (a) confirm previous findings in a novel population, and (b) to examine the impact of a marker of sympathetic tone on this relationship, as this was indicated as a potentially salient intermediary in previous reports. Methods all testing was performed during a 4-day admission to the General Clinical Research Center. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry; body composition was determined by DEXA; and 24-hour fractionated urinary norepinephrine was determined by HPLC. Results multiple linear regression revealed REE as a significant predictor of SBP (β = 0.30, P = 0.04), independent of race (β = 0. 28, P = 0.01), age (β = − 0.02, P = 0.80), height (β = − 0.38, P = 0.08), fat mass (β = 0.22, P = 0.20), fat free mass (β = 0.08, P = 0.65), and 24-hour fractionated urinary norepinephrine (β = 0.06, P = 0.57); and the same model using DBP as the dependent variable approached significance (β = 0.24, P = 0.09). Discussion this study affirms previous findings that REE may be a potential mediator in resting BP, independent of many well-cited factors and, additionally, a marker of sympathetic tone. PMID:21820136

  1. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain.

    PubMed

    Jornayvaz, François R; Jurczak, Michael J; Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Frederick, David W; Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xian-Man; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P < 0.001) than RC-fed mice because of a 17% increase in energy expenditure (P < 0.001), KD-fed mice manifested severe hepatic insulin resistance, as reflected by decreased suppression (0% vs. 100% in RC-fed mice, P < 0.01) of endogenous glucose production during the clamp. Hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to a 350% increase in hepatic diacylglycerol content (P < 0.001), resulting in increased activation of PKCε (P < 0.05) and decreased insulin receptor substrate-2 tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0.01). Food intake was 56% (P < 0.001) lower in KD-fed mice, despite similar caloric intake, and could partly be attributed to a more than threefold increase (P < 0.05) in plasma N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine concentrations. In conclusion, despite preventing weight gain in mice, KD induces hepatic insulin resistance secondary to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content. Given the key role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of type 2 diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications.

  2. Acute high-intensity exercise with low energy expenditure reduced LDL-c and total cholesterol in men.

    PubMed

    Lira, Fabio S; Zanchi, Nelo E; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flávio O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C; Santos, Ronaldo V; Caperuto, Erico C; Kiss, Maria A; Seelaender, Marília

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol levels are clinically relevant parameters for the treatment of dyslipidaemia, and exercise is often recommended as an intervention. This study aimed to examine the effects of acute, high-intensity exercise ( approximately 90% VO(2max)) and varying carbohydrate levels (control, low and high) on the blood lipid profile. Six male subjects were distributed randomly into exercise groups, based on the carbohydrate diets (control, low and high) to which the subjects were restricted before each exercise session. The lipid profile (triglycerides, VLDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol) was determined at rest, and immediately and 1 h after exercise bouts. There were no changes in the time exhaustion (8.00 +/- 1.83; 7.82 +/- 2.66; and 9.09 +/- 3.51 min) and energy expenditure (496.0 +/- 224.8; 411.5 +/- 223.1; and 592.1 +/- 369.9 kJ) parameters with the three varying carbohydrate intake (control, low and high). Glucose and insulin levels did not show time-dependent changes under the different conditions (P > 0.05). Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were reduced after the exhaustion and 1 h recovery periods when compared with rest periods only in the control carbohydrate intake group (P < 0.05), although this relation failed when the diet was manipulated. These results indicate that acute, high-intensity exercise with low energy expenditure induces changes in the cholesterol profile, and that influences of carbohydrate level corresponding to these modifications fail when carbohydrate (low and high) intake is manipulated.

  3. ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR DEFICIENCY PROTECTS MICE FROM DIET-INDUCED ADIPOSITY AND METABOLIC DISORDERS THROUGH INCREASED ENERGY EXPENDITURE

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Jaeger, Cassie D.; Krager, Stacey L.; Bottum, Kathleen M.; Liu, Jianghua; Liao, Duan-Fang; Tischkau, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Epidemics of obesity and diabetes are escalating. High-calorie/high-fat food is a major cause for these global health issues, but molecular mechanisms underlying high-fat, diet-induced obesity are still not well understood. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that acts as a xenobiotic sensor, mediates environmental toxicant-induced obesity, insulin resistance and development of diabetes. AhR also influences lipid metabolism and diet-induced obesity. The effects of AhR deficiency on diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance were examined. METHODS : Male wild type (WT), AhR null (AhR−/−) and AhR heterozygote (AhR+/−) mice were fed a normal chow diet (NCD, 10% kcal from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat) for up to 14 weeks. Adiposity, adipose and liver morphology, insulin signaling, metabolic parameters and gene profiles were assessed. RESULTS AhR deficiency protected against HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and inflammation. Moreover, AhR deficiency preserved insulin signaling in major metabolic tissues. These protective effects result from a higher energy expenditure in AhR-deficient mice compared to WT. Levels of transcript for both the thermogenic gene, uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), in brown adipose tissue and mitochondrial β-oxidation genes in muscle were significantly higher in AhR−/− and AhR+/− mice compared to WT. CONCLUSIONS This work documents a physiologically relevant function for AhR in regulation of body weight, hepatic fat deposition, insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure under HFD exposure, suggesting that AhR signaling may be developed as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:25907315

  4. Does food availability affect energy expenditure rates of nesting seabirds? A supplemental-feeding experiment with Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Roby, Daniel D.; Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, Verena A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Visser, G. Henk

    2002-01-01

    We used a supplemental-feeding experiment, the doubly labeled water technique, and a model-selection approach based upon the Akaike Information Criterion to examine effects of food availability on energy expenditure rates of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) raising young. Energy expenditure rates of supplementally fed females (n = 14) and males (n = 16) were 34 and 20% lower than those of control females (n = 14) and males (n = 18), respectively. Energy expenditure rates of females were more responsive to fluctuations in food availability than those of males. Fed males likely expended more energy while off the nest than fed females, possibly because of nest defense. Energy expenditure rates of fed kittiwakes were similar to values reported for kittiwakes that were either not raising young or not foraging. Parent kittiwakes, therefore, adjusted parental effort in response to variation in breeding conditions due to changes in food availability. Adjustments in reproductive effort in response to variable foraging conditions may have significant effects on the survival and productivity of individuals, and thus provide substantial fitness benefits for long-lived seabirds such as Black-legged Kittiwakes.

  5. Leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in food intake, but not energy expenditure, in response to different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Nelson, Jarrell T; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Survival of free-living animals depends on the ability to maintain core body temperature in the face of rapid and dramatic changes in their thermal environment. If food intake is not adjusted to meet the changing energy demands associated with changes of ambient temperature, a serious challenge to body energy stores can occur. To more fully understand the coupling of thermoregulation to energy homeostasis in normal animals and to investigate the role of the adipose hormone leptin to this process, comprehensive measures of energy homeostasis and core temperature were obtained in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls when housed under cool (14°C), usual (22°C) or ∼ thermoneutral (30°C) conditions. Our findings extend previous evidence that WT mice robustly defend normothermia in response to either a lowering (14°C) or an increase (30°C) of ambient temperature without changes in body weight or body composition. In contrast, leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice fail to defend normothermia at ambient temperatures lower than thermoneutrality and exhibit marked losses of both body fat and lean mass when exposed to cooler environments (14°C). Our findings further demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between ambient temperature and energy expenditure in WT mice, a relationship that is preserved in ob/ob mice. However, thermal conductance analysis indicates defective heat retention in ob/ob mice, irrespective of temperature. While a negative relationship between ambient temperature and energy intake also exists in WT mice, this relationship is disrupted in ob/ob mice. Thus, to meet the thermoregulatory demands of different ambient temperatures, leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in both energy intake and thermal conductance. A better understanding of the mechanisms coupling thermoregulation to energy homeostasis may lead to the development of new approaches for the treatment of obesity.

  6. Effects of ingestion of a commercially available thermogenic dietary supplement on resting energy expenditure, mood state and cardiovascular measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing metabolism is a primary focus of many commercially available dietary supplements marketed to support weight management. Caffeine (e.g. anhydrous and herbal) and green tea are key ingredients in such products, augmenting resting energy expenditure (REE) and improving reported mood states (alertness, fatigue, focus, etc.). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic dietary supplement (DBX) on REE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), reported measures of alertness, focus, energy, concentration, fatigue, and hunger, as well as the general safety of the product based on electrocardiogram (ECG) and hemodynamic responses in habitual caffeine consumers. Methods Six male and six female subjects (mean ± SD; 22.50 ± 3.22 years; 76.94 ± 14.78 kg; 22.7 ± 9.5% body fat), physically active (≥12 months), and moderate habitual caffeine consumers (<200 mg/day) received either two capsules of DBX containing 340 mg of total caffeine plus green tea extract, yerba mate extract, carnitine tartrate and other active ingredients or a placebo (PLC) in a double-blinded, crossover design. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), REE, RER and perceived mood states were measured at baseline and then hourly for four hours after ingesting either treatment. Results Resting energy expenditure was significantly increased at all four time points and significant increases were determined for perceived alertness (p = 0.026) and focus (p = 0.05) at hour 1 and for energy at 1 and 2 hours after treatment for the DBX group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.017, respectively). Additionally, perceived fatigue was decreased at the hour 1 assessment (p = 0.010). No significant differences were seen between DBX and placebo for hunger, anxiety, HR, BP, ECG patterns or RER. Conclusions The results of this investigation support that the proprietary blend of this thermogenic aid is capable of increasing REE for four hours post-ingestion while

  7. Perception and Accuracy of Hispanics in South Florida in Estimating Energy Expenditure for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Valerie; Escobar, Su-Nui; Harris, Cristen

    2008-01-01

    Background: In 2004, in an attempt to address the current obesity epidemic, the United States Department of Health and Human Services announced a strategy to focus on educating the public on the concept of energy balance. The premise of "Calories Count" was that energy balance is primarily a function of calories in (energy in food)…

  8. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

    PubMed

    Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.

  9. Energy expenditure through physical activity in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: cross-sectional evidences from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Firmo, Josélia O A; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (< 450 MET.min/week) was 31.2%. Unhurried walking accounted for about 1/3 of total energy expenditure. Multivariate analysis based on ordinal logistic regression showed inverse associations between energy expenditure and age and hospitalizations in both sexes. Among men, inverse associations were observed with smoking, number of chronic diseases and number of medical appointments. These results emphasize the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity in older elderly, and underscore the high prevalence of walking in this group.

  10. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant cha...

  11. Cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using accelerometry and heart rate predict energy expenditure of preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction equations of energy expenditure (EE) using accelerometers and miniaturized heart rate (HR) monitors have been developed in older children and adults but not in preschool-aged children. Because the relationships between accelerometer counts (ACs), HR, and EE are confounded by growth and ma...

  12. The Use of the 6-Min Walk Test as a Proxy for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure during Gait in Individuals with Lower-Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kark, Laurena; McIntosh, Andrew S.B; Simmons, Annea

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, and compare, the utility of the 6-min walk test (6 MWT) and self-selected walking speed over 15 m as proxies for the assessment of energy expenditure during gait in individuals with lower-limb amputation. Patients with unilateral, transfemoral amputation (n = 6) and patients with unilateral,…

  13. Cross-Validation of a Recently Published Equation Predicting Energy Expenditure to Run or Walk a Mile in Normal-Weight and Overweight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Cody E.; Owens, Scott G.; Waddell, Dwight E.; Bass, Martha A.; Bentley, John P.; Loftin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An equation published by Loftin, Waddell, Robinson, and Owens (2010) was cross-validated using ten normal-weight walkers, ten overweight walkers, and ten distance runners. Energy expenditure was measured at preferred walking (normal-weight walker and overweight walkers) or running pace (distance runners) for 5 min and corrected to a mile. Energy…

  14. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Masanobu; Kubota, Chie; Mizuno, Tomohito; Aritake, Sayaka; Mitsui, Yuki; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Sunao

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects’ energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were continually measured for 48 h using a whole-room calorimeter. The subjects completed an appetite questionnaire every hour while in the calorimeter. Sleep restriction did not affect total EE or substrate utilisation. The 48-h mean CBT decreased significantly during the 3.5-h sleep condition compared with the 7-h sleep condition (7-h sleep, 36.75 ± 0.11 °C; 3.5-h sleep, 36.68 ± 0.14 °C; p = 0.016). After three consecutive nights of sleep restriction, fasting peptide YY levels and fullness were significantly decreased (p = 0.011), whereas hunger and prospective food consumption were significantly increased, compared to those under the 7-h sleep condition. Shortened sleep increased appetite by decreasing gastric hormone levels, but did not affect EE, suggesting that greater caloric intake during a shortened sleep cycle increases the risk of weight gain. PMID:28071649

  15. Energy expenditure of transfemoral amputees walking on a horizontal and tilted treadmill simulating different outdoor walking conditions.

    PubMed

    Starholm, Inger-Marie; Gjovaag, Terje; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2010-06-01

    Transfemoral amputees often report that walking on tilted pavements or on terrain with the prosthesis on the side of higher elevation is quite strenuous. This study investigates the energy expenditure of transfemoral amputees (n = 8) on a motorized treadmill, simulating different strenuous outdoor walking conditions. Oxygen uptake at self-selected speed of gait was measured during walking at three different treadmill positions: (i) Horizontal treadmill, (ii) 3% tilt in the sagittal plane and (iii) 3% tilt in both the sagittal and frontal plane of the treadmill. The difference in median values of oxygen uptake between position (i) and (ii) was 4.3%, and 16.4% between position (ii) and (iii) (p < or = 0.05, for both comparisons). The subjects utilized about 50% of their VO(2max) when walking in position (i) and (ii), with an increase to about 60% of their VO(2max) when walking in position (iii). Transfemoral amputees use significantly more energy when walking on a moderately tilted surface in the frontal plane compared to walking with a tilt in the sagittal plane. This is probably because the prosthetic leg becomes functionally too long when the walking surface is tilted sideways, and the transfemoral amputees adopt a more energy consuming gait pattern.

  16. The metabolic ER stress sensor IRE1α suppresses alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bo; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chi; Xia, Zhixiong; Dai, Jianli; Shao, Mengle; Zhao, Feng; He, Shengqi; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Mingliang; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia; Liu, Jianmiao; Liu, Jianfeng; Jia, Weiping; Qiu, Yifu; Song, Baoliang; Han, Jing-Dong J; Rui, Liangyou; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Yong

    2017-03-27

    Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation, and ER stress enhances macrophage activation. However, whether ER stress pathways underlie ATM regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identified inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) as a critical switch governing M1-M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance. Myeloid-specific IRE1α abrogation in Ern1(f/f); Lyz2-Cre mice largely reversed high-fat diet (HFD)-induced M1-M2 imbalance in white adipose tissue (WAT) and blocked HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, WAT browning and energy expenditure were significantly higher in Ern1(f/f); Lyz2-Cre mice. Furthermore, IRE1α ablation augmented M2 polarization of macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, IRE1α senses protein unfolding and metabolic and immunological states, and consequently guides ATM polarization. The macrophage IRE1α pathway drives obesity and metabolic syndrome through impairing BAT activity and WAT browning.

  17. Leisure-time versus full-day energy expenditure: a cross-sectional study of sedentarism in a Portuguese urban population

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Diane L; Santos, Ana-Cristina; Barros, Henrique

    2005-01-01

    Background Low physical activity is known to be a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. With high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the Portuguese urban population, little is known about how sedentary this population is and what factors are associated to sedentary lifestyles. This study's objective was to examine sedentary lifestyles and their determinants through a cross-sectional study. Methods 2134 adults (18 years and older) were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, comprising of social, behavioural and clinical information. Time spent in a variety of activities per day, including: work, household chores, sports, sedentary leisure time and sleep, were self-reported. Energy expenditure was estimated based on the related metabolic equivalent (MET) and time spent in each activity (min/day). Those with less than 10% of energy expenditure at a moderate intensity of 4 METs or higher were categorised as sedentary. The proportion of sedentary people and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, and the magnitude of associations, between sedentary lifestyles and the population characteristics, were computed as age-adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression. Results Sedentarism in both genders during leisure time is high at 84%, however in full day energy expenditure, which includes physical activity at work, sleeping hours and household chores, 79% of males and 86% of females are found to be sedentary. In leisure-time only, increased age is associated with higher odds of being sedentary in both genders, as well as in women with increased BMI. In comparison, in full-day energy expenditure, sedentarism is more likely to occur in those with higher levels of education and in white-collar workers. Conclusions A high prevalence of sedentarism is found in the study participants when measuring leisure-time and full-day energy expenditure. The Portuguese population may therefore benefit from additional promotion of physical activity. PMID

  18. Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of an acute bout of low-intensity cycling on food intake and energy expenditure over four days. Thirty healthy, active (n=15) and inactive (n=15) men completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary and wore an Actiheart to estimate energy intake and expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. Ad libitum lunch energy intake did not differ between conditions (p=0.32, d=0.18) or groups (p=0.43, d=0.27). Energy intake in the active group was greater on the exercise experimental day than on the control experimental day (mean difference=2070 kJ; 95% CI 397 to 3743 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.56) while in the inactive group it was increased on only the third day after exercise (mean difference=2225 kJ; 95% CI 414 to 4036 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.80). There was only a group effect (p=0.032, d=0.89) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive over this period. Acute low-intensity exercise did not affect energy intake at the meal immediately after exercise, but induces an acute (within the experimental day) and delayed (third day after the experimental day) increase in energy intake in active and inactive participants, respectively with no compensatory changes to daily energy expenditure. These results suggest that active individuals compensate for an acute exercise-induced energy deficit quicker than inactive individuals.

  19. Short sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and expenditure among African-American and non-Hispanic white adults.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Ruth E; Emond, Jennifer A; Natarajan, Loki; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Kolonel, Laurence N; Jardack, Patricia; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Arab, Lenore

    2014-04-01

    Habitual short sleep duration appears to increase the risk of obesity. The objective of this paper is to investigate the association of habitual sleep duration with objective measures of energy balance. One hundred twelve African-American and 111 non-Hispanic whites aged 21-69 y participated in a cross-sectional study of dietary assessment and biomarkers. Participants reported the mean number of hours per day spent sleeping over the past year. Short sleep duration was defined as ≤6 h/d of sleep. Energy intake (kilocalories) was objectively assessed using the 2-point doubly labeled water technique to determine total energy expenditure, which is approximately equal to energy intake. Physical activity energy expenditure (kilocalories) was estimated as total energy expenditure minus each participant's calculated basal metabolic rate and the thermogenic effect of food. Compared with participants who slept ≤6 h, individuals who slept 8 h were significantly less likely to be obese (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.79). However, this association was not linear across 6-9 h of sleep (P-trend = 0.16). There was an inverse association between sleep and energy intake (P-trend = 0.07): compared with ≤6 h/d, adults who reported ≥9 h sleep consumed 178 fewer kcal/d. There was also an inverse association between sleep and physical activity (P-trend = 0.05): compared with ≤6 h/d of sleep, adults who reported 9 h of usual sleep expended 113 fewer kcal/d in physical activity. These data indicate that, compared with longer sleep duration, adults who report habitual short sleep duration have somewhat higher physical activity energy expenditure but considerably higher energy intake. Habitual short sleep duration appears to be 1 of the facets of modern life leading to a mismatch between energy intake and physical activity.

  20. Mechanical energy expenditures and movement efficiency in full body reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Sha, Daohang; France, Christopher R; Thomas, James S

    2010-02-01

    The effect of target location, speed, and handedness on the average total mechanical energy and movement efficiency is studied in 15 healthy subjects (7 males and 8 females with age 22.9 +/- 1.79 years old) performing full body reaching movements. The average total mechanical energy is measured as the time average of integration of joint power, potential energy, and kinetic energy respectively. Movement efficiency is calculated as the ratio of total kinetic energy to the total joint power and potential energy. Results show that speed and target location have significant effects on total mechanical energy and movement efficiency, but reaching hand only effects kinetic energy. From our findings we conclude that (1) efficiency in whole body reaching is dependent on whether the height of the body center of mass is raised or lowered during the task; (2) efficiency is increased as movement speed is increased, in part because of greater changes in potential energy; and (3) the CNS does not appear to use movement efficiency as a primary planning variable in full body reaching. It may be dependent on a combination of other factors or constraints.

  1. Suburb-to-suburb intercity travel: Energy, time and dollar expenditures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fels, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of adding suburb to terminal and terminal to suburb travel is examined. The energy consumed in entire trips was estimated. The total energy costs are compared with total travel times, and dollar costs to the traveler. Trips between origins in seven suburbs of Newark, New Jersey and destinations in two Washington, D. C. suburbs are analyzed.

  2. [Healthcare expenditure].

    PubMed

    Huguier, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare expenditure is divided between medical infrastructure and individual patient management. Total healthcare costs in France amount to roughly 175 billion euros, financed through public health insurance (77%), private insurance (14%), and individual expenditure (9%). The principal expenditures are for hospitalization (44%), community medical, dental and paramedical care (28%), drugs (20%) and miscellaneous resources (8%). The main factors of rising costs are medical progress and aging. More controllable costs include healthcare provision, the level of reimbursement, public education and information, and physician training. France devotes 9.2% of its gross national product to healthcare, compared to 7-8% in Sweden, Germany and the United Kingdom, representing a diference of about 18 billion euros. In France there is a chronic imbalance between resources and expenditure, creating a cumulative budget deficit of about 100 billlion euros. Major efforts must be made to improve efficiency, and it will be necessary to choose between preserving our healthcare system or our financial system. If the latter is prioritized, healthcare will inevitably deteriorate.

  3. Role of sleep and circadian disruption on energy expenditure and in metabolic predisposition to human obesity and metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    McHill, A W; Wright, K P

    2017-02-01

    Weight gain, obesity and diabetes have reached alarming levels in the developed world. Traditional risk factors such as over-eating, poor nutritional choices and lack of exercise cannot fully account for the high prevalence of metabolic disease. This review paper examines the scientific evidence on two novel risk factors that contribute to dys-regulated metabolic physiology: sleep disruption and circadian misalignment. Specifically, fundamental relationships between energy metabolism and sleep and circadian rhythms and the impact of sleep and circadian disruption on metabolic physiology are examined. Millions of individuals worldwide do not obtain sufficient sleep for healthy metabolic function, and many participate in shift work and social activities at times when the internal physiological clock is promoting sleep. These behaviours predispose an individual for poor metabolic health by promoting excess caloric intake in response to reduced sleep, food intake at internal biological times when metabolic physiology is not prepared, decreased energy expenditure when wakefulness and sleep are initiated at incorrect internal biological times, and disrupted glucose metabolism during short sleep and circadian misalignment. In addition to the traditional risk factors of poor diet and exercise, disturbed sleep and circadian rhythms represent modifiable risk factors for prevention and treatment of metabolic disease and for promotion of healthy metabolism.

  4. Vitamin D and Calcium-Sensing Receptor polymorphisms differentially associate with resting energy expenditure in peri-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Casazza, Krista; Ashraf, Ambika P.; Ramanadham, Sasanka; Ard, Jamy; Bray, Molly S.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    Given that calcium metabolism is influenced by genes and is tightly linked to energy-utilizing pathways, this study evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) with resting energy expenditure (REE). In 273 boys and girls, 7-12y, cross-sectional REE was measured via indirect calorimetry, body composition by DXA, and dietary measures by 24-hour recall. SNPs for VDR Cdx-2 (rs11568820) and CASR A986S (rs1801725) were genotyped using the Illumina Golden Gate assay. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the association between SNPs and REE. African American carriers of the ‘A’ VDR Cdx2 allele had increased levels of REE in the overall sample and this association was apparent among participants with an adiposity level of <25% and 30% body fat in males and females, respectively. For CASR, an association between carriers of the ‘A’ allele and REE was observed only in those in the upper median of calcium intake. VDR and CASR variants are associated with REE in children, and are influenced by levels of calcium intake and adiposity. Our results bring awareness to mechanisms underlying the regulation of REE and biological and dietary influential factors. PMID:23546818

  5. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects.

  6. Heart rate and energy expenditure of incubating wandering albatrosses: basal levels, natural variation, and the effects of human disturbance.

    PubMed

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Shaffer, Scott A; Mabille, Geraldine; Martin, Julien; Boutard, Olivier; Rouanet, Jean Louis

    2002-02-01

    We studied the changes in heart rate (HR) associated with metabolic rate of incubating and resting adult wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) on the Crozet Islands. Metabolic rates of resting albatrosses fitted with external HR recorders were measured in a metabolic chamber to calibrate the relationship between HR and oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) (V(O(2))=0.074 x HR+0.019, r(2)=0.567, P<0.001, where V(O(2)) is in ml kg(-1) min(-1) and HR is in beats min(-1)). Incubating albatrosses were then fitted with HR recorders to estimate energy expenditure of albatrosses within natural field conditions. We also examined the natural variation in HR and the effects of human disturbance on nesting birds by monitoring the changes in HR. Basal HR was positively related to the mass of the individual. The HR of incubating birds corresponded to a metabolic rate that was 1.5-fold (males) and 1.8-fold (females) lower than basal metabolic rate (BMR) measured in this and a previous study. The difference was probably attributable to birds being stressed while they were held in the metabolic chamber or wearing a mask. Thus, previous measurements of metabolic rate under basal conditions or for incubating wandering albatrosses are likely to be overestimates. Combining the relationship between HR and metabolic rate for both sexes, we estimate that wandering albatrosses expend 147 kJ kg(-1) day(-1) to incubate their eggs. In addition, the cost of incubation was assumed to vary because (i) HR was higher during the day than at night, and (ii) there was an effect of wind chill (<0 degrees C) on basal HR. The presence of humans in the vicinity of the nest or after a band control was shown to increase HR for extended periods (2-3 h), suggesting that energy expenditure was increased as a result of the disturbance. Lastly, males and females reacted differently to handling in terms of HR response: males reacted more strongly than females before handling, whereas females took longer to recover

  7. Parametric Modeling of Human Gradient Walking for Predicting Minimum Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Saborit, Gerard; Casinos, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model to predict the optimum gradient for a minimum energetic cost is proposed, based on previous results that showed a minimum energetic cost when gradient is −10%. The model focuses on the variation in mechanical energy during gradient walking. It is shown that kinetic energy plays a marginal role in low speed gradient walking. Therefore, the model considers only potential energy. A mathematical parameter that depends on step length was introduced, showing that the optimal gradient is a function of that parameter. Consequently, the optimal negative gradient depends on the individual step length. The model explains why recent results do not suggest a single optimal gradient but rather a range around −10%. PMID:26417377

  8. An international comparison of government expenditures for energy conservation research and development:

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.C.

    1988-03-01

    This study provides a comparison of US and foreign government spending for energy conservation research and development (R and D). The countries included in this analysis are: the United States, United Kingdom, France, Sweden, West Germany, and Japan. The approach of this paper was to compare the research program of each country at a high level of aggregation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) program structure. This paper does not allow for differences in the way each country defines or accounts for research.

  9. Energy Expenditure, Physical Work Load and Postural Control During Walking on a Moving Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    SMS) beyond. Ventilatoire parameters, indicatief voor het energieverbruik van het lichaam ( metabolisme ), werden bepaald, evenals hartslag frequentie...McArdle, W.D., Katch, El. & Katch, VL. (1991). Exercise physiology, energy, nutrition and human performance, Third Edition. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger