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Sample records for energy hydrogen ion

  1. Ion energy distributions in silane-hydrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hamers, E.A.G.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Bezemer, J.; Weg, W.F. van der; Goedheer, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    For the first time ion energy distributions (IED) of different ions from silane-hydrogen (SiH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}) RF plasmas are presented, i.e., the distributions of SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, SiH{sub 2}{sup +} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +}. The energy distributions of SiH{sub 3}{sup +} and SiH{sub 2}{sup +} ions show peaks, which are caused by a charge exchange process in the sheath. A method is presented by which the net charge density in the sheath is determined from the plasma potential and the energy positions of the charge exchange peaks. Knowing the net charge density in the sheath and the plasma potential, the sheath thickness can be determined and an estimation of the absolute ion fluxes can be made. The flux of ions can, at maximum, account for 10% of the observed deposition rate.

  2. Energy loss of heavy ions in a dense hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, K.-G.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Wahl, H.; Haas, C. R.; Kunze, H.; Brandenburg, W.; Noll, R.

    1990-12-01

    The energy loss of heavy ions with an energy of 1.4 MeV/u in a hydrogen plasma has been measured. A 20 cm long z-pinch has been used as plasma target. Our data show a strong enhancement of the stopping power of the plasma compared to that of a cold gas with equal density. The results completely confirm the predictions of the standard stopping power model.

  3. Transition energies and polarizabilities of hydrogen like ions in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Madhusmita

    2012-09-01

    Effect of plasma screening on various properties like transition energy, polarizability (dipole and quadrupole), etc. of hydrogen like ions is studied. The bound and free state wave functions and transition matrix elements are obtained by numerically integrating the radial Schrodinger equation for appropriate plasma potential. We have used adaptive step size controlled Runge-Kutta method to perform the numerical integration. Debye-Huckel potential is used to investigate the variation in transition lines and polarizabilities (dipole and quadrupole) with increasing plasma screening. For a strongly coupled plasma, ion sphere potential is used to show the variation in excitation energy with decreasing ion sphere radius. It is observed that plasma screening sets in phenomena like continuum lowering and pressure ionization, which are unique to ions in plasma. Of particular interest is the blue (red) shift in transitions conserving (non-conserving) principal quantum number. The plasma environment also affects the dipole and quadrupole polarizability of ions in a significant manner. The bound state contribution to polarizabilities decreases with increase in plasma density whereas the continuum contribution is significantly enhanced. This is a result of variation in the behavior of bound and continuum state wave functions in the presence of plasma. We have compared the results with existing theoretical and experimental data wherever present.

  4. Transition energies and polarizabilities of hydrogen like ions in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Madhusmita

    2012-09-15

    Effect of plasma screening on various properties like transition energy, polarizability (dipole and quadrupole), etc. of hydrogen like ions is studied. The bound and free state wave functions and transition matrix elements are obtained by numerically integrating the radial Schrodinger equation for appropriate plasma potential. We have used adaptive step size controlled Runge-Kutta method to perform the numerical integration. Debye-Huckel potential is used to investigate the variation in transition lines and polarizabilities (dipole and quadrupole) with increasing plasma screening. For a strongly coupled plasma, ion sphere potential is used to show the variation in excitation energy with decreasing ion sphere radius. It is observed that plasma screening sets in phenomena like continuum lowering and pressure ionization, which are unique to ions in plasma. Of particular interest is the blue (red) shift in transitions conserving (non-conserving) principal quantum number. The plasma environment also affects the dipole and quadrupole polarizability of ions in a significant manner. The bound state contribution to polarizabilities decreases with increase in plasma density whereas the continuum contribution is significantly enhanced. This is a result of variation in the behavior of bound and continuum state wave functions in the presence of plasma. We have compared the results with existing theoretical and experimental data wherever present.

  5. Effects due to adsorbed atoms upon angular and energy distributions of surface produced negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, M.; Bacal, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kato, S.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to Cs added hydrogen discharge makes surface of plasma grid of a negative hydrogen ion source covered with Cs and hydrogen. A Monte-Carlo particle simulation code ACAT was run to evaluate the effects due to adsorbed Cs and H atoms upon the angular and energy distributions of H atoms leaving the surface. Accumulation of H atoms on the surface reduces particle reflection coefficients and the mean energy of backscattered H atoms. Angular distributions of H atoms reflected from the hydrogen covered surface tend to be under-cosine at lower energies. Desorption of adsorbed H atoms is more efficient for hydrogen positive ions than for Cs positive ions at lower incident energy. At higher energy more than 100 eV, Cs ions desorb adsorbed H atoms more efficiently than hydrogen ions.

  6. Use of low energy hydrogen ion implants in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.; Singh, R.

    1985-01-01

    This program is a study of the use of low energy hydrogen ion implantation for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. The first quarterly report focuses on two tasks of this program: (1) an examination of the effects of low energy hydrogen implants on surface recombination speed; and (2) an examination of the effects of hydrogen on silicon regrowth and diffusion in silicon. The first part of the project focussed on the measurement of surface properties of hydrogen implanted silicon. Low energy hydrogen ions when bombarded on the silicon surface will create structural damage at the surface, deactivate dopants and introduce recombination centers. At the same time the electrically active centers such as dangling bonds will be passivated by these hydrogen ions. Thus hydrogen is expected to alter properties such as the surface recombination velocity, dopant profiles on the emitter, etc. In this report the surface recombination velocity of a hydrogen emplanted emitter was measured.

  7. Angle-resolved intensity and energy distributions of positive and negative hydrogen ions released from tungsten surface by molecular hydrogen ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Tanaka, N.; Sasao, M.; Kisaki, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nishiura, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Wada, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen ion reflection properties have been investigated following the injection of H+, H2+ and H3+ ions onto a polycrystalline W surface. Angle- and energy-resolved intensity distributions of both scattered H+ and H- ions are measured by a magnetic momentum analyzer. We have detected atomic hydrogen ions reflected from the surface, while molecular hydrogen ions are unobserved within our detection limit. The reflected hydrogen ion energy is approximately less than one-third of the incident beam energy for H3+ ion injection and less than a half of that for H2+ ion injection. Other reflection properties are very similar to those of monoatomic H+ ion injection. Experimental results are compared to the classical trajectory simulations using the ACAT code based on the binary collision approximation.

  8. A modified broad beam ion source for low-energy hydrogen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, K.; Schindler, A.; Bigl, F.; Schlemm, H.

    1998-03-01

    A modified broad beam ion source for low-energy hydrogen ion implantation of semiconductors is described. Based on a Kaufman type ion source two different solutions are presented: (a) an ion source with an extraction system consisting of two molybdenum grids with a low gas flow conductance reworked for hydrogen operation, and (b) a ten-grid mass separating ion beam system which enables the mass selection of H+, H2+, and H3+. The ion energy could be set in the range of 200-500 eV with a current density reaching from 1 to 100 μA/cm2. It is shown that at higher pressure the main ion created in the ion source is H3+ due to ion-molecule processes, whereas at lower pressure only H2+ and H+ are produced. Special consideration is given to the ion beam analysis of the two grid ion source operating in the 10-3 mbar range allowing to explain the different peak structures by the potential distribution across the ion source and different charge transfer processes. In addition, the analysis reveals neutral and ionized collision products in the ion beam. The ten-grid mass separating ion source could be operated in the 10-4 mbar range resulting in a nearly collision free ion beam which permits the generation of a mass separated hydrogen ion beam.

  9. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivens, R.; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T.

    2014-02-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  10. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Scrivens, R. Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T.

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  11. Characterization of hydrogen binding to tungsten and beryllium surfaces using low energy ion beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolasinski, Robert; Whaley, Josh

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we use low energy ion beam analysis to determine how hydrogen interacts with tungsten and beryllium surfaces. The goal of this work is to provide insight into processes that contribute to recycling from plasma-facing surfaces in magnetic fusion devices. Here we have applied low energy ion scattering (LEIS) to enable detection of adsorbed hydrogen at sub-monolayer resolution and to provide isotopic sensitivity. We probe the surfaces of interest with He + and Ne + at energies less than 5 keV to determine the structure and composition of the first few atomic layers. This approach enables us to examine how hydrogen surface concentrations evolve in real time, providing insight into adsorption kinetics. In addition, we have developed a means of determining the hydrogen binding configuration at different temperatures by exploiting mechanisms of ion channeling along surfaces. Using these methods, we have been able to identify hydrogen binding configurations for the W(100) +H, W(110) +H, and Be(0001) +H adsorption systems. We also report on our efforts to more accurately and efficiently model atomic collisions during scattering, key steps needed to extract structural information from LEIS signals. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Use of low-energy hydrogen ion implants in high-efficiency crystalline-silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.; Sigh, R.; Mu, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of low-energy hydrogen implants in the fabrication of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells was investigated. Low-energy hydrogen implants result in hydrogen-caused effects in all three regions of a solar cell: emitter, space charge region, and base. In web, Czochralski (Cz), and floating zone (Fz) material, low-energy hydrogen implants reduced surface recombination velocity. In all three, the implants passivated the space charge region recombination centers. It was established that hydrogen implants can alter the diffusion properties of ion-implanted boron in silicon, but not ion-implated arsenic.

  13. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  14. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  15. Sputtering of carbon using hydrogen ion beams with energies of 60-800 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Dmitry S.; Chkhalo, Nikolay I.; Mikhailenko, Mikhail S.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N.

    2016-11-01

    This article presents the result of a study on the sputtering of carbon films by low-energy hydrogen ions. In particular, the etching rate and surface roughness were measured. The range of energies where the sputtering switches from pure chemical to a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms was determined. It is shown that Sigmund's theory for ion etching does not work well for fields of energy less than 150 eV and that it accurately describes the dependence of a sputtering coefficient on ion energy for energies greater than 300 eV. A strong smoothing effect for the surface of carbon film was also found. This result is interesting in itself and for its significance for the manufacture of super-smooth surfaces for X-ray applications.

  16. Ionization of hydrogen atoms by multiply charged ions at low energies: The scaling law

    SciTech Connect

    Janev, R.K.; Ivanovski, G.; Solov'ev, E.A. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, St. Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, 91000 Skopje, Macedonia )

    1994-02-01

    Using the adiabatic superpromotion model of low-energy atomic collisions, a simple scaling relationship is derived for the ionization cross section of hydrogen atoms colliding with multiply charged ions. Detailed ionization-cross-section calculations for the systems H(1[ital s])+He[sup 2+], C[sup 6+], and O[sup 8+] have been performed and used to determine three numerical constants in the cross-section-scaling relationship. The scaled cross section represents well the available data for fully stripped ions with charge [ital Z][ge]2 in the energy region below the cross-section maximum.

  17. Hydrogen microscopy and analysis of DNA repair using focused high energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollinger, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Hauptner, A.; Dietzel, S.; Drexler, G. A.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Reichart, P.; Krücken, R.; Cremer, T.; Friedl, A. A.

    2006-08-01

    The ion microprobe SNAKE (Supraleitendes Nanoskop für Angewandte Kernphysikalische Experimente) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, i.e. 4-28 MeV protons or up to 250 MeV gold ions. Due to these ion beams, SNAKE is particularly attractive for ion beam analyses in various fields. Here we describe two main applications of SNAKE. One is the unique possibility to perform three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy by elastic proton-proton scattering utilizing high energy proton beams. The high proton energies allow the analysis of samples with a thickness in the 100 μm range with micrometer resolution and a sensitivity better than 1 ppm. In a second application, SNAKE is used to analyse protein dynamics in cells by irradiating live cells with single focussed ions. Fluorescence from immunostained protein 53BP1 is used as biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells. It is used to examine the irradiated region in comparison with the targeted region. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agree reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating an overall targeting accuracy of about 2 μm while the beam spot size is less than 0.5 μm in diameter. This performance shows successful adaptation of SNAKE for biological experiments where cells are targeted on a sub-cellular level by energetic ions.

  18. DLTS of low-energy hydrogen ion implanted n-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenapanray, Prakash N. K.

    2003-12-01

    We have used deep level transient spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage measurements to study the influence of low-energy hydrogen ion implantation on the creation of defects in n-Si. In particular, we have studied the ion fluence dependence of the free carrier compensation at room temperature, and we have measured the generation of VO-H complex and VP-pair in ion implanted samples. The 7.5 keV H ions created defects in the top 0.3 μm of samples, which resulted in carrier compensation to depths exceeding 1 μm. This effect is not due to defects created by ion channeling but is rather due to the migration of defects as demonstrated using binary collision code MARLOWE.

  19. Measurement of hydrogen and lithium ion energy densities on PBFA II using direct nuclear activation diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Chambers, G.; Schmidlapp, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the light-ion-beam fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories an intense lithium beam is being developed to drive inertial confinement fusion targets. An important issue is the purity of the beam. To assess this concern, direct nuclear activation diagnostics based on the reactions 7Li(p,n)7Be, 10B(p,α)7Be, and 19F(7Li,d)24Na were fielded to measure the energy densities of hydrogen and lithium in the beam. The hydrogen beam energy density was measured to be less than 2% of the lithium beam energy density on a majority (10) of the 19 LiF anode shots taken and was always less than 10%. The total hydrogen energy in the beam ranged from only 0.5-10 kJ. Over this shot series increasing efforts were made to clean the anode prior to each shot. In general, there was a modest reduction in the hydrogen energy fraction with improved cleaning, but no corresponding increase in the lithium energy density was seen. The lithium energy density as a function of location was also measured and found to typically vary by factors of 1.5-4 over the diode.

  20. Precise Determination of the Lyman-1 Transition Energy in Hydrogen-like Gold Ions with Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Kiselev, O.; McCammon, D.; Scholz, P.

    2014-09-01

    The precise determination of the transition energy of the Lyman-1 line in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. We report the determination of the Lyman-1 transition energy of gold ions (Au) with microcalorimeters at the experimental storage ring at GSI. X-rays produced by the interaction of 125 MeV/u Au ions with an internal argon gas-jet target were detected. The detector array consisted of 14 pixels with silicon thermistors and Sn absorbers, for which an energy resolution of 50 eV for an X-ray energy of 59.5 keV was obtained in the laboratory. The Lyman-1 transition energy was determined for each pixel in the laboratory frame, then transformed into the emitter frame and averaged. A Dy-159 source was used for energy calibration. The absolute positions of the detector pixels, which are needed for an accurate correction of the Doppler shift, were determined by topographic measurements and by scanning a collimated Am-241 source across the cryostat window. The energy of the Lyman-1 line in the emitter frame is eV, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the position of the cryostat relative to the interaction region of beam and target.

  1. Influence of pressure on ion energy distribution functions in EUV-induced hydrogen plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Ven, T. H. M.; Reefman, P.; de Meijere, C. A.; Banine, V. Y.; Beckers, J.

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation lithography tools currently use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation to create even smaller features on computer chips. The high energy photons (92 eV) induce a plasma in the low pressure background gas by photoionization. Industries have realized that these plasmas are of significant importance with respect to machine lifetime because impacting ions affect exposed surfaces. The mass resolved ion energy distribution function (IEDF) is therefore one of the main plasma parameters of interest. In this research an ion mass spectrometer is used to investigate IEDFs of ions impacting on surfaces in EUV-induced plasmas. EUV radiation is focused into a vessel with a low pressure hydrogen environment. Here, photoionization creates free electrons with energies up to 76 eV, which further ionize the background gas. The influence of the pressure on plasma composition and IEDFs has been investigated in the range 0.1-10 Pa. In general the ion fluxes towards the surface increase with pressure. However, above 5 Pa the flux of H2+ is not affected by the increase in pressure due to the balance between the creation of H2+ and the conversion of H2+ to H3+. These results will be used to benchmark plasma scaling models and verify numerical simulations.

  2. Precise energy eigenvalues of hydrogen-like ion moving in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, S.; Saha, Jayanta K.; Mukherjee, T. K.

    2015-06-15

    The analytic form of the electrostatic potential felt by a slowly moving test charge in quantum plasma is developed. It has been shown that the electrostatic potential is composed of two parts: the Debye-Huckel screening term and the near-field wake potential. The latter depends on the velocity of the test charge as well as on the number density of the plasma electrons. Rayleigh-Ritz variational calculation has been done to estimate precise energy eigenvalues of hydrogen-like carbon ion under such plasma environment. A detailed analysis shows that the energy levels gradually move to the continuum with increasing plasma electron density while the level crossing phenomenon has been observed with the variation of ion velocity.

  3. Effect of low-energy hydrogen ion implantation on dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Meier, D. L.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Fonash, S. J.; Singh, R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of a low-energy (0.4 keV), short-time (2-min), heavy-dose (10 to the 18th/sq cm) hydrogen ion implant on dendritic web silicon solar cells and material was investigated. Such an implant was observed to improve the cell open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current appreciably for a number of cells. In spite of the low implant energy, measurements of internal quantum efficiency indicate that it is the base of the cell, rather than the emitter, which benefits from the hydrogen implant. This is supported by the observation that the measured minority-carrier diffusion length in the base did not change when the emitter was removed. In some cases, a threefold increase of the base diffusion length was observed after implantation. The effects of the hydrogen implantation were not changed by a thermal stress test at 250 C for 111 h in nitrogen. It is speculated that hydrogen enters the bulk by traveling along dislocations, as proposed recently for edge-defined film-fed growth silicon ribbon.

  4. Hydrogen energy progress 5678

    SciTech Connect

    Veziroglu, T.N. )

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, and includes: international hydrogen energy programs; hydrogen production; storage of hydrogen; hydrogen transmission and distribution; combustion systems/hydrogen engines; fuel cells; and synfuel production.

  5. Surface degeneration of W crystal irradiated with low-energy hydrogen ions

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hongyu; You, Yuwei; Ni, Weiyuan; Yang, Qi; Liu, Lu; Benstetter, Günther; Liu, Dongping; Liu, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    The damage layer of a W (100) crystal irradiated with 120 eV hydrogen ions at a fluence of up to 1.5 × 1025/m2 was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). The periodic surface degeneration of the W crystal at a surface temperature of 373 K was formed at increasing hydrogen fluence. Observations by CCD camera and CAFM indicate the existence of ultrathin surface layers due to low-energy H irradiation. The W surface layer can contain a high density of nanometer-sized defects, resulting in the thermal instability of W atoms in the surface layer. Our findings suggest that the periodic surface degeneration of the W crystal can be ascribed to the lateral erosion of W surface layers falling off during the low-energy hydrogen irradiation. Our density functional theory calculations confirm the thermal instability of W atoms in the top layer, especially if H atoms are adsorbed on the surface. PMID:27020839

  6. Surface degeneration of W crystal irradiated with low-energy hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongyu; You, Yuwei; Ni, Weiyuan; Yang, Qi; Liu, Lu; Benstetter, Günther; Liu, Dongping; Liu, Changsong

    2016-03-29

    The damage layer of a W (100) crystal irradiated with 120 eV hydrogen ions at a fluence of up to 1.5 × 10(25)/m(2) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). The periodic surface degeneration of the W crystal at a surface temperature of 373 K was formed at increasing hydrogen fluence. Observations by CCD camera and CAFM indicate the existence of ultrathin surface layers due to low-energy H irradiation. The W surface layer can contain a high density of nanometer-sized defects, resulting in the thermal instability of W atoms in the surface layer. Our findings suggest that the periodic surface degeneration of the W crystal can be ascribed to the lateral erosion of W surface layers falling off during the low-energy hydrogen irradiation. Our density functional theory calculations confirm the thermal instability of W atoms in the top layer, especially if H atoms are adsorbed on the surface.

  7. Effect of inelastic and elastic energy losses of Xe ions on the evolution of hydrogen blisters in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, V. F.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Sokhatskii, A. S.; Zaluzhnyi, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of irradiation by heavy ions on the formation of blisters on the silicon surface preliminarily ion-doped with hydrogen. An attempt is made at differentiating inelastic and elastic processes of interaction between ions and Si atoms using bombardment of the sample with high-energy charged particles through a bent absorbing filter by varying the radiation doses and the energy of bombarding Xe ions. It is found that irrespective of specific ionization energy losses of heavy ions, the blister formation is completely suppressed in the zone of the inelastic interaction during postradiation annealing. Conversely, stimulated development of hydrogen porosity takes place at the same time in the zone of elastic interaction, which is manifested in the form of blisters and flaking.

  8. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

    1990-10-02

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

  9. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Deb, Satyen K.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing.

  10. Analytical model for ion stopping power and range in the therapeutic energy interval for beams of hydrogen and heavier ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, William; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Ziegler, James F.

    2016-09-01

    Many different approaches exist to calculate stopping power and range of protons and heavy charged particles. These methods may be broadly categorized as physically complete theories (widely applicable and complex) or semi-empirical approaches (narrowly applicable and simple). However, little attention has been paid in the literature to approaches that are both widely applicable and simple. We developed simple analytical models of stopping power and range for ions of hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium that spanned intervals of ion energy from 351 keV u-1 to 450 MeV u-1 or wider. The analytical models typically reproduced the best-available evaluated stopping powers within 1% and ranges within 0.1 mm. The computational speed of the analytical stopping power model was 28% faster than a full-theoretical approach. The calculation of range using the analytic range model was 945 times faster than a widely-used numerical integration technique. The results of this study revealed that the new, simple analytical models are accurate, fast, and broadly applicable. The new models require just 6 parameters to calculate stopping power and range for a given ion and absorber. The proposed model may be useful as an alternative to traditional approaches, especially in applications that demand fast computation speed, small memory footprint, and simplicity.

  11. Single-Ion Solvation Free Energies and the Normal Hydrogen Electrode Potential in Methanol, Acetonitrile, and Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Casey P.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2008-01-01

    The division of thermodynamic solvation free energies of electrolytes into ionic constituents is conventionally accomplished by using the single-ion solvation free energy of one reference ion, conventionally the proton, to set the single-ion scales. Thus the determination of the free energy of solvation of the proton in various solvents is a fundamental issue of central importance in solution chemistry. In the present article, relative solvation free energies of ions and ion-solvent clusters in methanol, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been determined using a combination of experimental and theoretical gas-phase free energies of formation, solution-phase reduction potentials and acid dissociation constants, and gas-phase clustering free energies. Applying the cluster pair approximation to differences between these relative solvation free energies leads to values of −263.5, −260.2, and −273.3 kcal/mol for the absolute solvation free energy of the proton in methanol, acetonitrile, and DMSO, respectively. The final absolute proton solvation free energies are used to assign absolute values for the normal hydrogen electrode potential and the solvation free energies of other single ions in the above solvents. PMID:17214493

  12. Balmer alpha emission and hydrogen atom energy in ion-source discharges

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D.H.; Kim, J.

    1981-07-01

    The structure of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line emission profiles from three types of neutral beam injector ion source plasmas (filling pressure approx. 10 mTorr, electron density approx. 1 to 2 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, electron temperature approx. 2 to 4 eV) is studied with the aid of a simple model for the neutral particle balance and H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission. A large fraction of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ is produced by dissociative excitation of H/sub 2/ and dissociative recombination of H/sub 2//sup +/, while the remainder is produced by excitation of H atoms, most of which have energies that are close to the characteristic H/sub 2/ dissociation energies. The H/sub ..cap alpha../ linewidth is thus insensitive to the discharge operating conditions and equals approx. 0.27 A when only slow (approx. 0.3 eV) dissociatively excited atoms are present or approx. 0.35 A when fast (> 1 eV) atoms, apparently also produced in dissociation reactions, are present as well.

  13. Energies of Various Interactions Between Hydrogen and Helium Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, Robert J.; Mason, Edward A.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.

    1960-01-01

    A compilation is made of those interactions between hydrogen and helium atoms and ions whose potential curves are well established by virtue of being based on experimental data or on essentially exact quantum-mechanical calculations. These potential curves have been fitted with well-known empirical forms which should be useful in calculations of transport properties involving these interactions.

  14. Rotational energy of the hydrogen molecular ion in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Maluendes, S.A.; Fernandez, F.M.; Castro, E.A.

    1983-10-01

    A general method which combines hypervirial relations with the Hellmann-Feynman theorem and perturbation theory is applied in order to calculate the rotational eigenvalues of the hydrogen molecular ion in a magnetic field. Analytical expressions as well as numerical results are presented for both low and high field strengths.

  15. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Kato, S; Miyamoto, T; Nishiura, M; Tsumori, K; Matsumoto, Y; Kenmotsu, T; Okamoto, A; Kitajima, S; Sasao, M; Wada, M; Yamaoka, H

    2014-02-01

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  16. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  17. Inhibited flammability and surface inactivation of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Mateum, Philip Edward R.; Orille, Ross William M.; Ramos, Rafael Julius U.; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C.; Ramos, Henry J.; Bo-ot, Luis Ma. T.

    2007-06-01

    Changes on the properties of wood irradiated by low energy hydrogen ion showers (LEHIS) were examined. The experimental facility employed was an in-house constructed, compact gas discharge ion source with beam energies maintained approximately in the 1 keV range fixed at 1 mA discharge current, 3 mTorr gas filling pressure. Wood specimens used were of species endemic in the Philippines namely Shorea sp., Shorea polysperma and Cocos nucifera. Results showed the processed samples manifested characteristics of inhibited flammability, and became relatively hydrophobic after the treatment. In the fire resistance test, it was also observed during initial flaming that the processed surfaces accumulated less soot attesting to a much lower smoldering rate, i.e. lesser combustibility. To assess the increase in fire endurance time for the processed wood against the control substrates, a non-directional, two-tailed t-test was utilized. Significant at the 0.05 level, the t-statistic measured 9.164 as opposed to only 4.303 in its corresponding critical value at two degrees of freedom. Hence, the treatment appeared to show strong statistical evidence of being effective in enhancing fire resistance. The processed specimens also exhibited moisture absorptive inhibition time of more than 10 min versus an average absorption period of just 8 s for the unprocessed samples. Spectroscopy using a cast steel mass analyzer indicated a predominance of H+ with faint signals of H2+in the ion showers. It is hypothesized that the monatomic ion plays an essential participatory role in the surface modification process. Data from an earlier work using Narra wood (Pterocarpus indicus) [G.Q. Blantocas, H.J. Ramos, M. Wada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 8498] was extended in the current study to substantiate this hypothesis. The data is now presented as current density ratio H+ /H2+versus the change rate constant K of the wetting model equation. It is shown that wood affinity to water decreased as the

  18. Ion Beam Emission within a Low Energy Focus Plasma (0.1 kJ) Operating with Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Aragi, Gamal M.

    2010-07-01

    An investigation of energetic ion beam emission from a low energy plasma focus (0.1 kJ Mather type) device operating with hydrogen gas is studied. The ion beam emission is investigated using time-integrated and time-resolved detectors. The present plasma focus device is powered by a capacitor bank of 1 μF at 18 kV maximum charging voltage. The correlation of ion beam intensity with filling gas pressure indicates that the beam emission is maximized at the optimum pressure for the focus formation at peak current. Energy of ions is determined with a time-of-flight (TOF) method, taking into account distance from the center electrode to the detection plane.

  19. Nano-welding and junction formation in hydrogen titanate nanowires by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhal, Satyanarayan; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Sarkar, Subhrangsu; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Bapat, Rudheer; Ayyub, Pushan

    2015-06-01

    Crystalline hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanowires were irradiated with N+ ions of different energies and fluences. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that at relatively lower fluence the nanowires are bent and start to adhere strongly to one another as well as to the silicon substrate. At higher fluence, the nanowires show large-scale welding and form a network of mainly ‘X’ and ‘Y’ junctions. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering studies confirm a high degree of amorphization of the nanowire surface after irradiation. We suggest that while ion-irradiation induced defect formation and dangling bonds may lead to chemical bonding between nanowires, the large scale nano-welding and junction network formation can be ascribed to localized surface melting due to heat spike. Our results demonstrate that low energy ion irradiation with suitable choice of fluence may provide an attractive route to the formation and manipulation of large-area nanowire-based devices.

  20. Kinetic-energy release of fragments from electron-impact dissociation of the molecular hydrogen ion and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlett, Liam H.; Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor

    2017-08-01

    We calculate the kinetic-energy release distributions of fragments produced for electron-impact dissociation of the vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen ion H2 + and its isotopologues D2 + and T2 +. Here we apply the adiabatic-nuclei convergent close-coupling method and compare results with several different methods, including the δ approximation. Results are presented for a number of dissociative excitation transitions and dissociative ionization as a function of the initial vibrational state of the molecule. We confirm that the square root approximation is a good approximation for the adiabatic-nuclei kinetic-energy release cross sections of H2 +. Agreement with experiment, where available, is good.

  1. Radiation Resistance of Structural Materials of Nuclear Reactors on Irradiation with High-Energy Hydrogen and Helium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, F. F.; Komarov, A. F.; Pil‧ko, Vl. V.; Pil‧ko, V. V.

    2013-11-01

    Basic principles of determination of the radiation resistance of structural materials of nuclear reactors with implantation of high-energy hydrogen and helium atoms have been presented. The parameters of the process of implantation of light irons have been calculated. By scanning-electron-microscopy, optical-microscopy, and interference methods, the authors have studied the surface structure of samples of steel-3, stainless steel, and D16 alloy immediately after irradiating them with hydrogen and helium atoms with an energy of 200 to 400 keV in the range of doses from 1016 to 3 · 1017 ions/cm2 and after annealing these samples thermally at temperatures from 300 to 550°C. Threshold blistering doses for all the studied materials and annealing temperatures for visualizing structural defects have been determined.

  2. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H{sup −} ions. The influence is particularly large for H{sup −} ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H{sup −} ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H{sup −} ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  3. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-01

    Negative hydrogen (H-) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H- ions. The influence is particularly large for H- ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H- ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H- ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  4. Fundamental Transitions and Ionization Energies of the Hydrogen Molecular Ions with Few ppt Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobov, Vladimir I.; Hilico, L.; Karr, J.-Ph.

    2017-06-01

    We calculate ionization energies and fundamental vibrational transitions for H2 + , D2 + , and HD+ molecular ions. The nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics expansion for the energy in terms of the fine structure constant α is used. Previous calculations of orders m α6 and m α7 are improved by including second-order contributions due to the vibrational motion of nuclei. Furthermore, we evaluate the largest corrections at the order m α8. That allows us to reduce the fractional uncertainty to the level of 7.6 ×10-12 for fundamental transitions and to 4.5 ×10-12 for the ionization energies.

  5. Fundamental Transitions and Ionization Energies of the Hydrogen Molecular Ions with Few ppt Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Korobov, Vladimir I; Hilico, L; Karr, J-Ph

    2017-06-09

    We calculate ionization energies and fundamental vibrational transitions for H_{2}^{+}, D_{2}^{+}, and HD^{+} molecular ions. The nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics expansion for the energy in terms of the fine structure constant α is used. Previous calculations of orders mα^{6} and mα^{7} are improved by including second-order contributions due to the vibrational motion of nuclei. Furthermore, we evaluate the largest corrections at the order mα^{8}. That allows us to reduce the fractional uncertainty to the level of 7.6×10^{-12} for fundamental transitions and to 4.5×10^{-12} for the ionization energies.

  6. Global model analysis of negative ion generation in low-pressure inductively coupled hydrogen plasmas with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Jung, Bong-Ki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Yong-Seok; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2015-03-15

    A global model was developed to investigate the densities of negative ions and the other species in a low-pressure inductively coupled hydrogen plasma with a bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution. Compared to a Maxwellian plasma, bi-Maxwellian plasmas have higher populations of low-energy electrons and highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are generated efficiently by high-energy electrons. This leads to a higher reaction rate of the dissociative electron attachment responsible for negative ion production. The model indicated that the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures is favorable for the creation of negative ions. In addition, the electron temperature, electron density, and negative ion density calculated using the model were compared with the experimental data. In the low-pressure regime, the model results of the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distributions agreed well quantitatively with the experimental measurements, unlike those of the assumed Maxwellian electron energy distributions that had discrepancies.

  7. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  8. Reconstruction of energy and angle distribution function of surface-emitted negative ions in hydrogen plasmas using mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, D.; Achkasov, K.; Dubois, J. P. J.; Moussaoui, R.; Faure, J. B.; Layet, J. M.; Simonin, A.; Cartry, G.

    2017-04-01

    A new method involving mass spectrometry and modeling is described in this work, which may highlight the production mechanisms of negative ions (NIs) on surface in low pressure plasmas. Positive hydrogen ions from plasma impact a sample which is biased negatively with respect to the plasma potential. NIs are produced on the surface through the ionization of sputtered and backscattered particles and detected according to their energy and mass by a mass spectrometer (MS) placed in front of the sample. The shape of the measured negative-ion energy distribution function (NIEDF) strongly differs from the NIEDF of the ions emitted by the sample because of the limited acceptance angle of the MS. The reconstruction method proposed here allows to compute the distribution function in energy and angle (NIEADF) of the NIs emitted by the sample based on the NIEDF measurements at different tilt angles of the sample. The reconstruction algorithm does not depend on the NI surface production mechanism, so it can be applied to any type of surface and/or NI. The NIEADFs for highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and gadolinium (low work-function metal) are presented and compared with the SRIM modeling. HOPG and Gd show comparable integrated NI yields, however the key differences in mechanisms of NI production can be identified. While for Gd the major process is backscattering of ions with the peak of NIEDF at 36 eV, in case of HOPG the sputtering contribution due to adsorbed H on the surface is also important and the NIEDF peak is found at 5 eV.

  9. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  10. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  11. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi

    2011-09-26

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  12. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi

    2011-09-01

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  13. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  14. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  15. Hydrogen as an energy carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, C.J.; Nitsch, J

    1988-01-01

    The book deals with the possibilities of an energetic utilization of hydrogen. This energy carrier can be produced from the unlimited energy sources solar energy, wind energy and hydropower, and from nuclear energy. It is also in a position to one day supplement or supersede the fossil energy carriers oil, coal and gas. Contents: Significance and Use of Hydrogen: Energy Supply Structures and the Importance of Gaseous Energy Carriers. Technologies for the Energetic Use of Hydrogen. Hydrogen as Raw Material. Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Energy. Production of Hydrogen from Nonfossil Primary Energy: Photovoltaic Electricity Generation. Thermo-mechanical Electricity Generation. Water Splitting Methods. Selected Hydrogen Production Systems. Storage, Transport and Distribution of Hydrogen. Design of a Future Hydrogen Energy Economy: Potential and Chances of Hydrogen. Hydrogen in a Future Energy Economy. Concepts for the Introduction of Nonfossil Hydrogen. Energy-economic Conditions and the Cooperation with Hydrogen Producing Countries. Index.

  16. Surface channelling and energy losses of 4 keV hydrogen and fluorine ions in grazing scattering on Au(111) and missing row reconstructed Au(110) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Valdés, J E; Vargas, P; Esaulov, V A

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of an experimental and theoretical study of surface channelling and energy loss of 4 keV hydrogen and fluorine ions in grazing scattering on a missing row reconstructed Au(110) surface and a Au(111) surface. We performed measurements of energy losses for grazing angle scattering in surface channelling conditions for various azimuthal orientations of the crystal. Experimental results are discussed in the light of trajectory calculations of hydrogen and fluorine ions scattered under grazing incidence conditions on the surface. A nonlinear model is used in order to calculate the ion energy loss in these crystalline systems. Ab initio electronic crystal structure calculations and semi-classical simulations are performed and allow us to delineate various trajectory classes that correspond to different contributions in the energy loss spectra for various azimuthal orientations of the surface.

  17. CEPA Calculations of potential energy surfaces for open-shell systems. II. The reaction of C + Ions with molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaquet, Ralph; Staemmler, Volker

    1982-07-01

    Ab initio calculations including electron correlation effects (mainly on CEPA-PNO level) have been performed for the potential energy surface (PES) of the reaction of 2P carbon ions with molecular hydrogen. For the collinear abstraction reactions (C ∞v symmetry: 2σ +, 2Π-2) the minimum energy paths have been determined. The vertical insertion reaction (C 2v; 2A 1,B 1, 2B 2) has been investigated with particular emphasis (minimum energy path, barrier heights, intersystem crossing). The influence of the size of the orbital basis and of electron correlation has been studied in some detail. The interaction of the 2A 1, and 2B 2 surfaces has been analyzed, leading to the conclusion that close to C 2v symmetry a low energy path exists by which CH 2+( 2A 1)can be easily formed, with a barrier ( 2B 2 → 2A 1) ≈ 18 kcal/mol below the asymptote. The analysis of electron correlation effects reveals that it is compulsory to correlate the whole valence shell if one wants to obtain reliable surfaces. The influence of singly excited configurations for getting the correct behaviour of the PES is generally small.

  18. High-energy tail of the linear momentum distribution in the ground state of hydrogen atoms or hydrogen-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, E.

    2001-06-01

    A long-standing dispute concerning the high-energy tail of the linear momentum distribution (HTMD) in the ground state of hydrogen atoms/hydrogen-like ions (GSHA) has been unresolved up to now. A possible resolution of the above dispute might be connected to the problem of the role of singular solutions of quantal equations, which is a fundamental problem in its own right. The paradigm is that, even allowing for finite nuclear sizes, singular solutions of the Dirac equation for the Coulomb problem should be rejected for nuclear charges Z < 1/α≈137. In this paper we break this paradigm. First, we derive a general condition for matching a regular interior solution with a singular exterior solution of the Dirac equation for arbitrary interior and exterior potentials. Then we find explicit forms of several classes of potentials that allow such a match. Finally, we show that, as an outcome, the HTMD for the GSHA acquires terms falling off much slower than the 1/p6-law prescribed by the previously adopted quantal result. Our results open up a unique way to test intimate details of the nuclear structure by performing atomic (rather than nuclear) experiments and calculations.

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  20. Hydrogen from solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, R.G.

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes those portions of the Photo/Thermochemical Research Program that possibly apply to the production of hydrogen from sources such as water or hydrogen sulfide. That research centers around understanding high flux solids decomposition reactions and how to best exploit photoreactions so the energy contained in the entire solar spectrum is used. 2 references, 4 figures.

  1. Damage cross-sections for MeV energy He ion induced hydrogen ejection in polymers-material structure effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, H.; Touchrift, B.

    2004-03-01

    Using the elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) method for hydrogen analysis, a He-4(+) ion beam was used simultaneously for irradiating samples and as a tool to measure the hydrogen desorption yield as a function of irradiation dose. The influence of molecular structure on helium-induced desorption is studied for different polymers. The dose-response curves of hydrogen released from irradiated structures are presented and used to determine the damage cross-sections. The deduced desorption extent for a single impact is of the order of a few Angstroms, revealing localized regions of desorption. Hydrogen desorption is found to be sensitive to chemical composition of the target. The overall experimental data of the hydrogen desorption yield are described by the same function of the type Y(phi) = (C/phi(n) ) exp (-sigma phi) where phi is the irradiation dose and C and n are a fitting parameter. The first part of the function describes 'prompt ejection', predominant at lower irradiation dose where the created latent tracks remain separated. The exponential term accounts for the 'thermal ejection' process activated by ion-track overlapping involved at higher irradiation doses. A threshold dose is found that separates the two regimes and above which the overlapping tracks form a highly heated condensed gas and activate chemical processes. Chemical modifications have been studied using infrared-absorption spectroscopy, which reveal the formation of stable molecules that could desorb intact.

  2. Hydrogen from solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurnberger, W.; Seeger, W.; Steeb, H.

    1981-11-01

    It is expected that, at some time in the foreseeable future, processes for obtaining hydrogen on the basis of a use of nonfossil energy will be economically feasible. Nonfossil energy sources considered are related to water power, nuclear energy, and solar energy. The current status of various approaches for the decomposition of water is examined, taking into account a supply of the required energy in form of heat, electric power, or light energy. At the present time only the technology of water electrolysis is sufficiently advanced to provide hydrogen on a large scale. Considerable improvements regarding current electrolysis technology with respect to efficiency and required capital costs should be possible within the foreseeable future. Approaches are considered to obtain the required electric power for the electrolysis with the aid of processes based on the utilization of solar cells. Attention is given to improved procedures for water electrolysis, and approaches for achieving optimal operational relations between solar-cell generators and electrolysis equipment.

  3. Surface modifications of hydrogen storage alloy by heavy ion beams with keV to MeV irradiation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tokuhira, Shinnosuke; Uchida, Hirohisa; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with the effect of surface modifications induced from keV to MeV heavy ion beams on the initial reaction rate of a hydrogen storage alloy (AB5) in electrochemical process. The rare earth based alloys like this sample alloy are widely used as a negative electrode of Ni-MH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) battery. We aimed to improve the initial reaction rate of hydrogen absorption by effective induction of defects such as vacancies, dislocations, micro-cracks or by addition of atoms into the surface region of the metal alloys. Since defective layer near the surface can easily be oxidized, the conductive oxide layer is formed on the sample surface by O+ beams irradiation, and the conductive oxide layer might cause the improvement of initial reaction rate of hydriding. This paper demonstrates an effective surface treatment of heavy ion irradiation, which induces catalytic activities of rare earth oxides in the alloy surface.

  4. Chemical/hydrogen energy systems analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, M.

    1982-12-01

    Four hydrogen energy technologies are addressed including: hydrogen recovery from hydrogen separation using hydride technology, photochemical hydrogen production, anode depolarization in electrolytic hydrogen production.

  5. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  6. Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

  7. An introduction to hydrogen energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilrain, E. E.; Malyshenko, S. P.; Kuleshov, G. G.

    Problems related to the use of hydrogen as a source of energy are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the physicochemical properties of hydrogen; methods of hydrogen production, including traditional and newly developed processes; and storage, transportation and distribution of hydrogen gas. Results of technical and cost-effectiveness analyses are presented for various hydrogen power systems; the principal applications of hydrogen power are discussed.

  8. Negative-ion surface production in hydrogen plasmas: Determination of the negative-ion energy and angle distribution function using mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, J. P. J.; Achkasov, K.; Kogut, D.; Ahmad, A.; Layet, J. M.; Simonin, A.; Cartry, G.

    2016-05-01

    This work focuses on the understanding of the production mechanism of negative-ions on surface in low pressure plasmas of H2/D2. The negative ions are produced on a Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite sample negatively biased with respect to plasma potential. The negative ions created under the positive ion bombardment are accelerated towards the plasma, self-extracted, and detected according to their energy and mass by a mass spectrometer placed in front of the sample. The shape of the measured Negative-Ion Energy Distribution Function (NIEDF) strongly differs from the NIEDF of the ions emitted by the sample because of the limited acceptance angle of the mass spectrometer. To get information on the production mechanisms, we propose a method to obtain the distribution functions in energy and angle (NIEADFs) of the negative-ions emitted by the sample. It is based on an a priori determination of the NIEADF and on an a posteriori validation of the choice by comparison of the modelled and experimental NIEDFs.

  9. Spectroscopic and NMR identification of novel hydride ions in fractional quantum energy states formed by an exothermic reaction of atomic hydrogen with certain catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, R.; Ray, P.; Dhandapani, B.; Good, W.; Jansson, P.; Nansteel, M.; He, J.; Voigt, A.

    2004-10-01

    2K+ to K + K2+ and K to K3+ provide a reaction with a net enthalpy equal to one and three times the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, respectively. The presence of these gaseous ions or atoms with thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a so-called resonance transfer (rt)-plasma having strong VUV emission with a stationary inverted Lyman population. Significant line broadening of the Balmer α , β , and γ lines of 18 eV was observed, compared to 3 4 eV from a hydrogen microwave plasma. Emission from rt-plasmas occurred even when the electric field applied to the plasma was zero. The reaction was exothermic since excess power of 20 mW cm-3 was measured by Calvet calorimetry. An energetic catalytic reaction was proposed involving a resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and 2K+ or K to form very stable novel hydride ions H-(1/p) called hydrino hydrides having a fractional principal quantum numbers p = 2 and p = 4, respectively. Characteristic emission was observed from K2+ and K3+ that confirmed the resonant nonradiative energy transfer of 27.2 eV and 3 × 27.2 eV from atomic hydrogen to 2K+ and K, respectively. The product hydride ion H-(1/4) was observed spectroscopically at 110 nm corresponding to its predicted binding energy of 11.2 eV. The 1H MAS NMR spectrum of novel compound KH*Cl relative to external tetramethylsilane (TMS) showed a large distinct upfield resonance at 4.4 corresponding to an absolute resonance shift of 35.9 ppm that matched the theoretical prediction of p = 4. A novel peak of KH*I at 1.5 ppm relative to TMS corresponding to an absolute resonance shift of 33.0 ppm matched the theoretical prediction of p = 2. The predicted catalyst reactions, position of the upfield-shifted NMR peaks for H-(1/4) and H-(1/2), and spectroscopic data for H-(1/4) were found to be in agreement with the experimental observations as well as previously reported spectroscopic data for H-(1/2) and analysis of KH*Cl and KH*I containing these hydride ions.

  10. Hydrogen retention in ion irradiated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, J.D.; Lewis, M.B.; Lee, E.H.

    1998-11-01

    In the future 1--5 MW Spallation Neutron Source, target radiation damage will be accompanied by high levels of hydrogen and helium transmutation products. The authors have recently carried out investigations using simultaneous Fe/He,H multiple-ion implantations into 316 LN stainless steel between 50 and 350 C to simulate the type of radiation damage expected in spallation neutron sources. Hydrogen and helium were injected at appropriate energy and rate, while displacement damage was introduced by nuclear stopping of 3.5 MeV Fe{sup +}, 1 {micro}m below the surface. Nanoindentation measurements showed a cumulative increase in hardness as a result of hydrogen and helium injection over and above the hardness increase due to the displacement damage alone. TEM investigation indicated the presence of small bubbles of the injected gases in the irradiated area. In the current experiment, the retention of hydrogen in irradiated steel was studied in order to better understand its contribution to the observed hardening. To achieve this, the deuterium isotope ({sup 2}H) was injected in place of natural hydrogen ({sup 1}H) during the implantation. Trapped deuterium was then profiled, at room temperature, using the high cross-section nuclear resonance reaction with {sup 3}He. Results showed a surprisingly high concentration of deuterium to be retained in the irradiated steel at low temperature, especially in the presence of helium. There is indication that hydrogen retention at spallation neutron source relevant target temperatures may reach as high as 10%.

  11. Surface Passivation and Junction Formation Using Low Energy Hydrogen Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    New applications for high current, low energy hydrogen ion implants on single crystal and polycrystal silicon grain boundaries are discussed. The effects of low energy hydrogen ion beams on crystalline Si surfaces are considered. The effect of these beams on bulk defects in crystalline Si is addressed. Specific applications of H+ implants to crystalline Si processing are discussed. In all of the situations reported on, the hydrogen beams were produced using a high current Kaufman ion source.

  12. Observation of a helium ion energy threshold for retention in tungsten exposed to hydrogen/helium mixture plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Deslandes, A.; Morgan, T. W.; Elliman, R. G.; De Temmerman, G.; Kluth, P.; Riley, D.; Corr, C. S.

    2016-10-01

    Helium retention is measured in tungsten samples exposed to mixed H/He plasma in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device. It is observed that there is very little He retention below helium ion impact energies of 9.0+/- 1.4 eV, indicating the existence of a potential barrier which must be overcome for implantation to occur. The helium retention in samples exposed to plasma at temperatures  >1000 K is strongly correlated with nano-bubble formation measured using grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The diameters of nano-bubbles were not found to increase with increasing helium concentration, indicating that additional helium must be accommodated by increasing the bubble concentration or an increase in bubble pressure. For some samples pre-irradiation with heavy ions of 2.0 MeV energy is investigated to simulate the effects of neutron damage. It is observed that nano-bubble sizes are comparable between samples pre-irradiated with heavy-ions, and those without heavy-ion pre-irradiation.

  13. Hydrogen as an energy vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing hydrogen as an energy vector is considered, with special attention given to means of hydrogen production. The state-of-the-art in thermochemical processes is reviewed, and criteria for the technical and economic feasibility of large-scale thermochemical water splitting processes are presented. The production of hydrogen from coal and from photolysis of water is discussed.

  14. Hydrogenation of zirconium film by implantation of hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Kaihong; Lv, Huiyi; Liu, Jiwei; Wang, Boyu

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the drive-in target in a D-D type neutron generator, it is essential to study the mechanism of the interaction between hydrogen ion beams and the hydrogen-absorbing metal film. The present research concerns the nucleation of hydride within zirconium film implanted with hydrogen ions. Doses of 30 keV hydrogen ions ranging from 4.30 × 1017 to 1.43 × 1018 ions cm-2 were loaded into the zirconium film through the ion beam implantation technique. Features of the surface morphology and transformation of phase structures were investigated with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Confirmation of the formation of δ phase zirconium hydride in the implanted samples was first made by x-ray diffraction, and the different stages in the gradual nucleation and growth of zirconium hydride were then observed by atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  16. Energy storage mechanism in aqueous fiber-shaped Li-ion capacitors based on aligned hydrogenated-Li4Ti5O12 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Ma, Xiangwen; Bai, Jinglong; Yang, Zhenyu; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Lan, Wei; Zhou, Jin Yuan; Xie, Erqing

    2017-06-22

    It is reported that Li ions can contribute a lot to the capacitance of aqueous Li-ion capacitors (LICs), which might be due to the intercalation/de-intercalation processes of Li(+) ions that also occur at the anodes. However the energy storage mechanism in the aqueous LIC system still requires further proof. In this work, a type of aqueous fiber-shaped LIC has been designed and developed using hydrogenated Li4Ti5O12 (H-LTO) anodes, active carbon (AC) cathodes, and LiCl/PVA gel electrolytes with a double-helical structure. The obtained single LTO wire electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance in volume (34.1 F cm(-3)) and superior cycling stabilities (∼100% over 100 000 cycles), both of which are due to the formed amorphous layers at the surface of the electrodes. Moreover, it is found via sweep voltammetry analysis that most of the energy stored in an aqueous fiber-shaped capacitor electrode is attributed to the Li ions' intercalation, whose content exceeds 85% at a low scan rate and gradually decreases with increasing scan rate; while the energy stored by the double electric layers remains almost unchanged with different scan rates. Furthermore, the well-matched wearable fiber-shaped LICs show high capacitive behaviors (18.44 μW h cm(-2)) and superior static/dynamic cycling stabilities. This research would provide some insight into the charge storage mechanism in electrodes in the aqueous system, and give more suggestions to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped energy storage devices.

  17. Energy conservation by oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen via a sodium ion current in a hyperthermophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Mayer, Florian; Kang, Sung Gyun; Müller, Volker

    2014-08-05

    Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 is known to grow by the anaerobic oxidation of formate to CO2 and H2, a reaction that operates near thermodynamic equilibrium. Here we demonstrate that this reaction is coupled to ATP synthesis by a transmembrane ion current. Formate oxidation leads to H(+) translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane that then drives Na(+) translocation. The ion-translocating electron transfer system is rather simple, consisting of only a formate dehydrogenase module, a membrane-bound hydrogenase module, and a multisubunit Na(+)/H(+) antiporter module. The electrochemical Na(+) gradient established then drives ATP synthesis. These data give a mechanistic explanation for chemiosmotic energy conservation coupled to formate oxidation to CO2 and H2. Because it is discussed that the membrane-bound hydrogenase with the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter module are ancestors of complex I of mitochondrial and bacterial electron transport these data also shed light on the evolution of ion transport in complex I-like electron transport chains.

  18. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  19. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  20. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  1. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  2. Hydrogen energy creeps forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, G.

    1983-05-01

    There have been hopeful forecasts of a 21st centry 'hydrogen economy' in which cheap hydrogen fuel would finally end mankind's dependence on petroleum fuels. The present investigation is concerned with developments related to the possible realization of such forecasts. One vital factor involves the feasibility to provide hydrogen at competitive prices for use as a fuel. Industrial hydrogen is too expensive for applications involving a competition with currently used common fuels. A number of investigations are being conducted in the U.S. and in other countries with the aim to develop an economical process by which hydrogen can be obtained from water. There exist already a great number of feasible different approaches for obtaining hydrogen on the basis of the decomposition of the water molecule. However, problems still to be solved are related to the development of any of these approaches to the point of economic viability. Another crucial factor concerns the strorage of hydrogen. Automakers are testing hydrogen-powered cars in which hydrogen is stored in liquid form or with the aid of metal hydrides.

  3. Hydrogen as an energy medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Coal, though abundant in certain geographical locations of the USA poses environmental problems associated with its mining and combustion. Also, nuclear fission energy appears to have problems regarding safety and radioactive waste disposal that are as yet unresolved. The paper discusses hydrogen use and market projection along with energy sources for hydrogen production. Particular attention is given to hydrogen production technology as related to electrolysis and thermochemical water decomposition. Economics of hydrogen will ultimately be determined by the price and availability of future energy carriers such as electricity and synthetic natural gas. Thermochemical methods of hydrogen production appear to offer promise largely in the efficiency of energy conversion and in capital costs over electrolytic methods.

  4. Hydrogen as an energy medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Coal, though abundant in certain geographical locations of the USA poses environmental problems associated with its mining and combustion. Also, nuclear fission energy appears to have problems regarding safety and radioactive waste disposal that are as yet unresolved. The paper discusses hydrogen use and market projection along with energy sources for hydrogen production. Particular attention is given to hydrogen production technology as related to electrolysis and thermochemical water decomposition. Economics of hydrogen will ultimately be determined by the price and availability of future energy carriers such as electricity and synthetic natural gas. Thermochemical methods of hydrogen production appear to offer promise largely in the efficiency of energy conversion and in capital costs over electrolytic methods.

  5. Ionic hydrogen bond and ion solvation. 6. Interaction energies of the acetate ion with organic molecules. Comparison of CH/sub 3/COO/sup -/ with Cl/sup -/, CN/sup -/, and SH/sup -/

    SciTech Connect

    Meot-Ner Mautner, M.

    1988-06-08

    The interaction energies of CH/sub 3/COO/sup -/ with protic and aprotic molecules were measured by pulsed high-pressure mass spectrometry. The attachment energies of the first three water molecules are 15.8, 12.8, and 11.8 kcal/mol. The rapid approach to ..delta..H/sub condsn/(H/sub 2/O) shows that ionic interactions are accounted for mostly by the first two solvent molecules. CH/sub 3/COO/sup -/ hydrogen bonds strongly to NH acids such as pyrrole, amides, and aniline, with ..delta..H/sup 0//sub D/ = 25-31 kcal/mol. With the carbon acids CH/sub 3/CHO, CH/sub 3/COCH/sub 3/, and CH/sub 3/CN as ligands, the attachment energies are 14-16 kcal/mol and the interactions may involve multiple O/sup -/..HC bonds. Despite the fact that the ions CH/sub 3/COO/sup -/, Cl/sup -/, CN/sup -/, and SH/sup -/ differ in size, structure, electronegativity, isotropy, and available bonding sites, they bond with similar strengths to most OH, NH, and CH hydrogen donors, from H/sub 2/O to large organic molecules such as the dipeptide analogue CH/sub 3/CO-Ala-OCH/sub 3/. Also, the four ions show similar clustering energies with n H/sub 2/O and HCN molecules (n = 1-4).

  6. Hydrogen and OUr Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Tidball; Stu Knoke

    2009-03-01

    In 2003, President George W. Bush announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to accelerate the research and development of hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies that would enable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to reach the commercial market in the 2020 timeframe. The widespread use of hydrogen can reduce our dependence on imported oil and benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutant emissions that affect our air quality. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, reinforces Federal government support for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Title VIII, also called the 'Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005' authorizes more than $3.2 billion for hydrogen and fuel cell activities intended to enable the commercial introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020, consistent with the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. Numerous other titles in the Act call for related tax and market incentives, new studies, collaboration with alternative fuels and renewable energy programs, and broadened demonstrations--clearly demonstrating the strong support among members of Congress for the development and use of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. In 2006, the President announced the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) to accelerate research on technologies with the potential to reduce near-term oil use in the transportation sector--batteries for hybrid vehicles and cellulosic ethanol--and advance activities under the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The AEI also supports research to reduce the cost of electricity production technologies in the stationary sector such as clean coal, nuclear energy, solar photovoltaics, and wind energy.

  7. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  8. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  9. Hydrogen Energy Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-27

    additional work has been done at Jet Propulsion Laboratory concerning the addition of hydrogen to gasoline . The continuing intent of the JPL program is to...extend the lean limits of combustion of gasoline by the addition of hydrogen generated from gasoline . As noted earlier (Ref. 13) and corroborated by...1) some additional , experimental data have been incorporated (particularly for cylinder-fuel-injected engines) and (2) the re- sults of

  10. Hydrogen: A Future Energy Mediator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hydrogen may be the fuel to help the United States to a non fossil energy source. Although hydrogen may not be widely used as a fuel until after the turn of the century, special applications may become feasible in the short term. Costs, uses, safety, and production methods are discussed. (BT)

  11. Ion-molecule reactions and vibrational deactivation of H2/+/ ions in mixtures of hydrogen and helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theard, L. P.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Use of ion cyclotron resonance methods to measure the thermal energy rate constants for a number of ion-molecule reactions involving hydrogen and hydrogen-helium mixtures. Assuming that the distribution of initial vibrational states in the H2(+) ion is a near-Franck-Condon distribution, the occurrence of collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited H2(+) ions by He atoms is identified, and an approximate rate constant for the deactivation process and its dependence on vibrational energy are given.

  12. Historical Development of the Hydrogen Ion Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Carl E.; Jaselskis, Bruno; Florian, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The concept of a positive hydrogen entity, later called the hydrogen ion and proton, seems to have started with Theodor von Grotthuss in 1805. The conception proposed by von Grotthuss has evolved via the works of many scientists; especially the contributions of Justus Liebig, Svante Arrhenius, S. P. L. Sorensen, I. M. Kolthoff, and R. P. Bell.…

  13. Historical Development of the Hydrogen Ion Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Carl E.; Jaselskis, Bruno; Florian, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The concept of a positive hydrogen entity, later called the hydrogen ion and proton, seems to have started with Theodor von Grotthuss in 1805. The conception proposed by von Grotthuss has evolved via the works of many scientists; especially the contributions of Justus Liebig, Svante Arrhenius, S. P. L. Sorensen, I. M. Kolthoff, and R. P. Bell.…

  14. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver

    2010-07-28

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  15. Hydrogen Reduction of Ferric Ions for Use in Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Karl S. Noah; Debby F. Bruhn; John E. Wey; Robert S. Cherry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional copper electrowinning process uses the water hydrolysis reaction as the anodic source of electrons. However this reaction generates acid mist and requires large quantities of energy. In order to improve energy efficiency and avoid acid mist, an alternative anodic reaction of ferrous ion oxidation has been proposed. This reaction does not involve evolution of acid mist and can be carried out at a lower cell voltage than the conventional process. However, because ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions at the anode in this process, there is a need for reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions to continue this process. The most promising method for this reduction is the use of hydrogen gas since the resulting byproduct acid can be used elsewhere in the process and, unlike other reductants, hydrogen does not introduce other species that need subsequent removal. Because the hydrogen reduction technology has undergone only preliminary lab scale testing, additional research is needed to evaluate its commercial potential. Two issues for this research are the potentially low mass transfer rate of hydrogen into the electrolyte stream because of its low solubility in water, and whether other gaseous reductants less expensive than hydrogen, such as natural gas or syngas, might work. In this study various reductants were investigated to carry out the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions using a simulated electrolyte solution recycled through a trickle bed reactor packed with catalyst. The gases tested as reductants were hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and a 50/50 mixture of H2 and CO. Nitrogen was also tested as an inert control. These gases were tested because they are constituents in either natural gas or syngas. The catalysts tested were palladium and platinum. Two gas flow rates and five electrolyte flow rates were tested. Pure hydrogen was an effective reductant of ferric ion. The rates were similar with both palladium and platinum. The ferric

  16. Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ions with screened Coulomb interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song Bin; Chen, Xiang Jun; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Yi Zhi

    2010-06-15

    The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions below the n =2 excitation threshold is investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The contributions of Feshbach and shape resonances to H{sup -} photodetachment cross section are presented when screening length (D) varies from D = {infinity} to D = 4.6 a.u. It is found that the interaction screening has dramatic effects on the photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions in the photoelectron energy region around the n = 2 excitation threshold by strongly affecting the evolution of near-threshold resonances.

  17. Helium-ion-induced release of hydrogen from graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ion-induced release of hydrogen from AXF-5Q graphite was studied for 350-eV helium ions. The hydrogen was implanted into the graphite with a low energy (approx.200 eV) and to a high fluence. This achieved a thin (approx.10-nm), saturated near-surface region. The release of hydrogen was measured as a function of helium fluence. A model that includes ion-induced detrapping, retrapping, and surface recombination was used to analyze the experimental data. A value of (1.65 +- 0.2) x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ was obtained from the detrapping cross section, and a value of (0.5 to 4) x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 4//atoms was obtained for the recombination coefficient. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexey A. Dobrovolsky, Andrey N.; Goretskii, Victor P.

    2016-02-15

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm{sup 2} in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation.

  19. Hydrogen ion dynamics and cancer: an appraisal.

    PubMed

    Harguindey, S

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions plays a critical role in all biochemical processes, including multiple enzymatic reactions, and in the regulation of metabolism. The acid-base aspects of metabolism as applied to cancer are considered. Preliminary data are presented. The primary concept of hydrogen ion dynamics is related to prevention, development, and etiology of carcinogenicity, as well as to the regression of certain malignant malignant tumors. The present overview summarizes, in terms of H+ dynamics, many related concepts in oncologic research and associates and integrates a variety of basic and clinical observations toward better understanding of cancer cell behavior, biology, and host-tumor relationships.

  20. [Hydrogen ion activity in the cell].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Z A

    1976-07-01

    Literature data and results of our experiments evidence for a heterogenous hydrogen distribution in cells. Intracellular pH should be regarded as a mean activity of hydrogen ions which is the sum of activities in different phases of a cell. Intracellular pH value does not depend on the transmembrane action potential difference, and is resistant to respiratory and metabolic disorders of acid-base equilibrium in the body. It also slightly changes with changing the electrolyte composition and pH of the medium and is not influenced by metabolic inhibitors. A low hydrogen activity in the cell has a certain functional significance. The pH stability is ensured by a number of regulatory mechanism: the buffer properties of the protoplasm itself, and the active hydrogen transport into the medium. Hydrogen released from cells is supposed to be connected with functioning of a specific respiratory chain of superficial protoplasmic membranes.

  1. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  2. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  3. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  4. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  5. Condensation and Storage of Hydrogen Cluster Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Application to Hydrogen Mol- ecular Ion (H+) Ground State", J. Chem. Phys. 70(8), 3881-3 (1979). 58. Strand, Michael P .; Reinhardt, William P ...R radius of curvature L length of S.C. magnet (axial) Q cross section, throughput of pumping section r radius of annular plasma p integer A thickness...of plasma (annular) w plasma frequency p vo azimuthal velocity E° 0radial electric fieldr u mass to change ratio viii INTRODUCTION The future

  6. Tribochemistry and superlubricity induced by hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Sun, Liang; Lu, Xinchun; Luo, Jianbin

    2012-11-13

    Friction behavior of aqueous solution at macroscale is quite different from that at nanoscale. At macroscale, tribochemistry usually occurs between lubricant and friction surfaces in the running-in process due to a high contact pressure, and most such processes can lead to friction reduction. In the present work, we reported that the hydrogen ions in aqueous solution played an important role in tribochemistry in running-in process (friction reducing process), which could result in the friction coefficient reducing from 0.4 to 0.04 between Si(3)N(4) and glass surfaces at macroscale. It is found that the running-in process and low friction state are closely dependent on the concentration of hydrogen ions in the contact region between the two friction surfaces. The lubrication mechanism is attributed to tribochemical reaction occurring between hydrogen ions and surfaces in the running-in process, which forms an electrical double layer and hydration layer to lower friction force. Finally, the running-in process of H(3)PO(4) (pH = 1.5) was investigated, which could realize superlubricity with an ultralow friction coefficient of about 0.004.

  7. A guided-ion beam study of the hydrogen atom transfer reaction of state-selected N + 2 with H2 at collision energies ranging from subthermal to 2 eV (c.m.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, W. J.; Proch, D.; Kompa, K. L.; Rose-Petruck, Ch.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents detailed internal and kinetic energy dependent cross sections and reaction rates for the hydrogen atom transfer processes N+2(X 2Σ+g, v+=0-4, J+=2)+H2→N2H++H, which were obtained under single-collision conditions in a guided-ion beam/scattering gas experiment. Preparation of ions in specific states relied on single-color excitation within a resonantly enhanced (2+1) multiphoton ionization scheme. The translational energy of the ions, Elab, was varied from 0.1 eV to approximately 30 eV. A small activation barrier impedes the reaction. Vibronic state preparation of the nitrogen ion is influential on the nature of the energy surface—N+2+H2 or H+2+N2—along which the H atom transfer proceeds. Calculations of model potential energy surfaces suggest that the reaction pathway must involve several exoergic and endoergic channels which open successively as the collision energy increases. A purely collision determined cross section—as would be evidenced by the E-1/2 dependence formulated in the Langevin-Gioumousis-Stevenson model—is observed only within a narrow window of kinetic energies.

  8. Negative hydrogen ion beam extracted from a Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M.

    2011-09-26

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) ion beam was produced without cesium seeding by a Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode. The amount of H{sup -} ion beam current extracted from an original Bernas-type ion source using a hairpin shape filament as a hot cathode was 1 {mu}A with the 0.4 A arc current, while that 300 eV beam energy. In the other hand, H{sup -} ion beam current using the Bernas-type ion source with a coaxial hot cathode reached 4 {mu}A under the same condition. Production efficiency was enhanced by the focused plasma produced by a coaxial hot cathode.

  9. Reflection properties of hydrogen ions at helium irradiated tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, K.; Tawada, Y.; Lee, H. T.; Kato, S.; Tanaka, N.; Sasao, M.; Kisaki, M.; Nishiura, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Wada, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yamaoka, H.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured W surfaces prepared by He bombardment exhibit characteristic angular distributions of hydrogen ion reflection upon injection of 1 keV H+ beam. A magnetic momentum analyzer that can move in the vacuum chamber has measured the angular dependence of the intensity and the energy of reflected ions. Broader angular distributions were observed for He-irradiated tungsten samples compared with that of the intrinsic polycrystalline W. Both intensity and energy of reflected ions decreased in the following order: the polycrystalline W, the He-bubble containing W, and the fuzz W. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations based on Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target code suggests that lower atom density near the surface can make the reflection coefficients lower due to increasing number of collisions.

  10. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  11. Hydrogen Ion-Molecule Isotopomer Collisions: Charge Transfer and Rearrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. G.; Stancil, P. C.

    A survey of existing data for collisions of isotopes of hydrogen atoms, ions, and molecules is presented. The survey was limited to atom - diatom ionic collisions and to energies generally less than about 10 keV/u. The processes include particle-rearrangement and charge transfer, including both dissociative and non-dissociative channels, with an emphasis on state-to-state (or state-selected) data, where available. Since the last survey (Linder, Janev and Botero 1995), a small number of investigations for deuterium and tritium ion-diatom systems have been performed, with some involving state-resolved data, which include the initial-state-resolved and state-to-state processes. While some progress has been made since the last survey, the database involving hydrogen isotope collisional processes, both total and state- resolved, is far from complete.

  12. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, M.; Reichart, P.; Carli, W.; Greubel, C.; Peeper, K.; Hartung, P.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-02-01

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m -2 rad -2 eV -1 directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 μA mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H --current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 μA because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 μA mm -2 mrad -2 MeV -1 in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  13. Plasma Transport in a Magnetic Multicusp Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    1 :15 AFIT/DS/ENP/91 -02 exic PLASMA TRANSPORT IN A MAGNETIC MULTICUSP NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ION kc.esioii Fo- SOURCE DISSERTATION P-1 TA~3 Ricky G. Jones... MULTICUSP NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ION SOURCE DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air...Approved for public release; distributio, unlimited AFIT/DS/ENP/91-02 PLASMA TRANSPORT IN A MAGNETIC MULTICUSP NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ION SOURCE Hicky G. Jones

  14. Hydrogen: The Ultimate Fuel and Energy Carrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinga, Gustav P.

    1988-01-01

    Lists 24 frequently asked questions concerning hydrogen as a fuel with several responses given to each question. Emphasized are hydrogen production, storage, transmission, and application to various energy-consuming sectors. Summarizes current findings and research on hydrogen. An extensive bibliography is included. (ML)

  15. Hydrogen: The Ultimate Fuel and Energy Carrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinga, Gustav P.

    1988-01-01

    Lists 24 frequently asked questions concerning hydrogen as a fuel with several responses given to each question. Emphasized are hydrogen production, storage, transmission, and application to various energy-consuming sectors. Summarizes current findings and research on hydrogen. An extensive bibliography is included. (ML)

  16. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of storing large amounts of energy in a free radical system such as atomic hydrogen is analyzed. Attention is focused on theoretical calculations of the ground state properties of spin-aligned atomic triplet hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. The solid-liquid phase transition in atomic hydrogen is also examined.

  17. Low energy ion-molecule reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with elucidating the dynamics of elementary ion-molecule reactions at collision energies near and below 1 eV. From measurements of the angular and energy distributions of the reaction products, one can infer intimathe details about the nature of collisions leading to chemical reaction, the geometries and lifetimes of intermediate complexes that govern the reaction dynamics, and the collision energy dependence of these dynamical features. The author employs crossed-beam low energy mass spectrometry technology developed over the last several years, with the focus of current research on proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of te O{sup {minus}} ion with species such as HF, H{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3}.

  18. Hydrogen energy for tomorrow: Advanced hydrogen production technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The future vision for hydrogen is that it will be cost-effectively produced from renewable energy sources and made available for widespread use as an energy carrier and a fuel. Hydrogen can be produced from water and when burned as a fuel, or converted to electricity, joins with oxygen to again form water. It is a clean, sustainable resource with many potential applications, including generating electricity, heating homes and offices, and fueling surface and air transportation. To achieve this vision, researchers must develop advanced technologies to produce hydrogen at costs competitive with fossil fuels, using sustainable sources. Hydrogen is now produced primarily by steam reforming of natural gas. For applications requiring extremely pure hydrogen, production is done by electrolysis. This is a relatively expensive process that uses electric current to dissociate, or split, water into its hydrogen and oxygen components. Technologies with the best potential for producing hydrogen to meet future demand fall into three general process categories: photobiological, photoelectrochemical, and thermochemical. Photobiological and photoelectrochemical processes generally use sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Thermochemical processes, including gasification and pyrolysis systems, use heat to produce hydrogen from sources such as biomass and solid waste.

  19. Radio frequency sustained ion energy

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Hooke, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Electromagnetic (E.M.) energy injection method and apparatus for producing and sustaining suprathermal ordered ions in a neutral, two-ion-species, toroidal, bulk equilibrium plasma. More particularly, the ions are produced and sustained in an ordered suprathermal state of existence above the average energy and velocity of the bulk equilibrium plasma by resonant rf energy injection in resonance with the natural frequency of one of the ion species. In one embodiment, the electromagnetic energy is injected to clamp the energy and velocity of one of the ion species so that the ion energy is increased, sustained, prolonged and continued in a suprathermal ordered state of existence containing appreciable stored energy that counteracts the slowing down effects of the bulk equilibrium plasma drag. Thus, selective deuteron absorption may be used for ion-tail creation by radio-frequency excitation alone. Also, the rf can be used to increase the fusion output of a two-component neutral injected plasma by selective heating of the injected deuterons.

  20. Clean energy and the hydrogen economy.

    PubMed

    Brandon, N P; Kurban, Z

    2017-07-28

    In recent years, new-found interest in the hydrogen economy from both industry and academia has helped to shed light on its potential. Hydrogen can enable an energy revolution by providing much needed flexibility in renewable energy systems. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen offers a range of benefits for simultaneously decarbonizing the transport, residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Hydrogen is shown here to have synergies with other low-carbon alternatives, and can enable a more cost-effective transition to de-carbonized and cleaner energy systems. This paper presents the opportunities for the use of hydrogen in key sectors of the economy and identifies the benefits and challenges within the hydrogen supply chain for power-to-gas, power-to-power and gas-to-gas supply pathways. While industry players have already started the market introduction of hydrogen fuel cell systems, including fuel cell electric vehicles and micro-combined heat and power devices, the use of hydrogen at grid scale requires the challenges of clean hydrogen production, bulk storage and distribution to be resolved. Ultimately, greater government support, in partnership with industry and academia, is still needed to realize hydrogen's potential across all economic sectors.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  2. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  3. Optical model analyses of heavy ion fragmentation in hydrogen targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical optical-model methods for calculating cross sections for the fragmentation of high-energy heavy ions by hydrogen targets are presented. The cross sections are calculated with a knockout-ablation collision formalism which has no arbitrary fitting parameters. Predictions of elemental production cross sections from the fragmentation of 1.2A Ge(V(La-139) nuclei and of isotope production cross sections from the fragmentation of 400A MeV(S-32) nuclei are in good agreement with recently reported experimental measurements.

  4. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  5. A novel high energy hybrid Li-ion capacitor with a three-dimensional hierarchical ternary nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles/conductive polymer/carbon nanotubes anode and an activated carbon cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gang; Cao, Liujun; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Yunhuai; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) are considered to be high-performance energy storage devices that have stimulated intense attention to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. Currently, the major challenge for LICs has been to improve the energy density without sacrificing the high rate of power output performance. Herein, we designed a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles wrapped conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) framework with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrid (denoted as, H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs) anode material for LICs through a conventional and green approach. Such a unique network can offer continuous electron transport and reduce the diffusion length of lithium ions. A greatly lithium storage specific capacity is achieved with reversible discharge capacity ∼213 mA h g-1 (based on the mass of TiO2) over 50 cycles (@ 0.1 A g-1), which is almostly three times compared with raw TiO2 (a commercial TiO2 nanoparticles powder). In addition, coupled with commercial activated carbon (AC) cathode, the fully assembled H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs//AC LICs delivers a maximum energy and power densities of 31.3 Wh kg-1 and 4 kW kg-1, a reasonably good cycling stability (∼77.8% retention after 3000 cycles) within the voltage range of 1.0-3.0 V.

  6. Surface and bulk-loss reduction research by low-energy hydrogen doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonash, S.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and bulk loss reduction by low energy hydrogen doping of silicon solar cells was examined. Hydrogen ions provided a suppression of space charge recombination currents. Implantation of hydrogen followed by the anneal cycle caused more redistribution of boron than the anneal which could complicate processing. It was demonstrated that passivation leads to space charge current reduction.

  7. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, D.P.; Peters, J.; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  8. Blister formation in Mo/Si multilayered structures induced by hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bos, R. A. J. M.; Lee, C. J.; Benschop, J. P. H.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-07-01

    We report on blister formation in nanometer thick Mo/Si multilayer structures due to exposure to hydrogen ion fluxes. The influence of hydrogen flux and ion energy for blister formation have been measured and compared to a blister model. The blister number density increases significantly around 100 eV when increasing the ion energy from 50 to 200 eV. This stepwise behavior could be explained by the fact that for energies  >100 eV hydrogen ions could directly penetrate to the depth where delamination takes place. From the blister model also the blisters internal pressure and surface energy was calculated to be around 100-800 MPa and γ =1.87~\\text{J}~{{\\text{m}}-2} respectively.

  9. Pathways to hydrogen as an energy carrier.

    PubMed

    Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I

    2007-04-15

    When hydrogen is used as an alternative energy carrier, it is very important to understand the pathway from the primary energy source to the final use of the carrier. This involves, for example, the understanding of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of hydrogen and throughout the lifecycle of a given utilization pathway as well as various energy or exergy efficiencies and aspects involved. This paper which is based on a talk given at the Royal Society in London assesses and reviews the various production pathways for hydrogen with emphasis on emissions, energy use and energy efficiency. The paper also views some aspects of the breaking of the water molecule and examines some new emerging physical evidence which could pave the way to a new and more feasible pathway. A special attention will be given to the use of the renewable energy pathway. As an example of a hydrogen society that could be based on renewable primary energy, the paper describes the hydrogen society experiments in Iceland as well as unconventional hydrogen obtained from geothermal gases. In the light of our experience, attempts will be made to shed light upon drivers as well as obstacles in the development of a hydrogen society.

  10. Above-threshold ionization of hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions by X-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachau, Henri; Budriga, Olimpia; Dondera, Mihai; Florescu, Viorica

    2013-09-01

    This paper adresses the problem of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of hydrogen interacting with an intense X-ray electromagnetic field. Two approaches have been used. In the first approach, we calculate generalized differential and total cross sections based on second-order perturbation theory for the electron interaction with a monochromatic plane wave, with the A 2 and A · P contributions from the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian (including retardation) treated exactly. In the second approach, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) for a pulsed plane wave using a spectral approach with a basis of oneelectron orbitals, calculated with L 2-integrable B-spline functions for the radial coordinate and spherical harmonics Y lm for the angular part. Retardation effects are included up to O(1/c), they induce extra terms forcing the resolution of the TDSE in a three dimensional space. Relativistic effects [of O (1/c 2)] are fully neglected. The isoelectronic series of hydrogen is explored in the range Z = 1 - 5 in both TDSE and perturbative approaches. Photoelectron angular distributions are obtained for photon energies of 1 keV and 3 keV for hydrogen, and photon energy of 25 keV for the hydrogenic ion B4+. Perturbative and TDSE calculations are compared.

  11. Above-threshold ionization of hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions by X-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachau, Henri; Budriga, Olimpia; Dondera, Mihai; Florescu, Viorica

    2013-09-01

    This paper adresses the problem of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of hydrogen interacting with an intense X-ray electromagnetic field. Two approaches have been used. In the first approach, we calculate generalized differential and total cross sections based on second-order perturbation theory for the electron interaction with a monochromatic plane wave, with the A 2 and A · P contributions from the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian (including retardation) treated exactly. In the second approach, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) for a pulsed plane wave using a spectral approach with a basis of oneelectron orbitals, calculated with L 2-integrable B-spline functions for the radial coordinate and spherical harmonics Y lm for the angular part. Retardation effects are included up to O(1/ c), they induce extra terms forcing the resolution of the TDSE in a three dimensional space. Relativistic effects [of O (1/ c 2)] are fully neglected. The isoelectronic series of hydrogen is explored in the range Z = 1 - 5 in both TDSE and perturbative approaches. Photoelectron angular distributions are obtained for photon energies of 1 keV and 3 keV for hydrogen, and photon energy of 25 keV for the hydrogenic ion B4+. Perturbative and TDSE calculations are compared.

  12. Negative hydrogen ions in a linear helicon plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Cormac; Santoso, Jesse; Samuell, Cameron; Willett, Hannah; Manoharan, Rounak; O'Byrne, Sean

    2015-09-01

    Low-pressure negative ion sources are of crucial importance to the development of high-energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for the ITER experimental tokamak device. Due to their high power coupling efficiency and high plasma densities, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially remove the need for caesium. In helicon sources, the RF power can be coupled efficiently into the plasma and it has been previously observed that the application of a small magnetic field can lead to a significant increase in the plasma density. In this work, we investigate negative ion dynamics in a high-power (20 kW) helicon plasma source. The negative ion fraction is measured by probe-based laser photodetachment, electron density and temperature are determined by a Langmuir probe and tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is used to determine the density of the H(n = 2) excited atomic state and the gas temperature. The negative ion density and excited atomic hydrogen density display a maximum at a low applied magnetic field of 3 mT, while the electron temperature displays a minimum. The negative ion density can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of the magnetic field. Spatial and temporal measurements will also be presented. The Australian Research Grants Council is acknowledged for funding.

  13. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  14. Ion-Pair States in Triplet Molecular Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzer, W.; Baker, B. C.; Ashman, S.; Morgan, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental search is underway to observe the long range triplet ionic states H+ H- of molecular hydrogen. Resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization of the metastable c 3∏u- 2 pπ state is used access to the R(1)nd1 n = 21 Rydberg state that serves as an intermediate stepping stone state to probe the energy region above the ionization limit with a second tunable laser photon. The metastable state is prepared by electron capture of 6 keV H2+ions in potassium in a molecular beam. Formation of the H+ H- triplet configuration involves triplet excited states of the H- ion, especially the 2p23Pe state, the second bound state of H- predicted to exist with a lifetime long compared to typical auto ionization lifetimes but not yet observed experimentally. Details of the experiment and preliminary results to date will be presented at the conference.

  15. Evidence for site-specific intra-ionic hydrogen/deuterium exchange in the low-energy collision-induced dissociation product ion spectra of protonated small molecules generated by electrospray ionisation.

    PubMed

    Holman, Stephen W; Wright, Patricia; Wells, Neil J; Langley, G John

    2010-04-01

    The experimental investigation of site-specific intra-ionic hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange in the low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) product ion spectra of protonated small molecules generated by electrospray ionisation (ESI) is presented. The observation of intra-ionic H/D exchange in such ions under low-energy CID conditions has hitherto been rarely reported. The data suggest that the intra-ionic H/D exchange takes place in a site-specific manner between the ionising deuteron, localised at either a tertiary amine or a tertiary amine-N-oxide, and a gamma-hydrogen relative to the nitrogen atom. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements showed that no H/D exchange takes place in solution, indicating that the reaction occurs in the gas phase. The compounds analysed in this study suggested that electron-withdrawing groups bonded to the carbon atom bearing the gamma-hydrogen can preclude exchange. The effect of the electron-withdrawing group appears dependent upon its electronegativity, with lower chi value groups still allowing exchange to take place. However, the limited dataset available in this study prevented robust conclusions being drawn regarding the effect of the electron-withdrawing group. The observation of site-specific intra-ionic H/D exchange has application in the area of structural elucidation, where it could be used to introduce an isotopic label into the carbon skeleton of a molecule containing specific structural features. This could increase the throughput, and minimise the cost, of such studies due to the obviation of the need to produce a deuterium-labelled analogue by synthetic means. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, J.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.; Corr, C. S.

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ˜3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 1014 m-3 to 7 × 1015 m-3 is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  17. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, J. Corr, C. S.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.

    2015-09-15

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 10{sup 14 }m{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −3} is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  18. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  19. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E.; Peng, S. X. Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  20. High Power Ion Heating in Helium and Hydrogen Plasmas for Advanced Plasma Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Akira; Hagiwara, Tatsuya; Domon, Masakazu; Taguchi, Takahiro

    High power ion cyclotron resonance heating is performed in a fast-flowing plasma operated with hydrogen and helium gases. Ion heating is clearly observed in hydrogen plasma as well as in helium plasma. The resonance region of magnetic field is broader and wave absorption efficiency is higher in hydrogen plasma than those in helium plasma. The thermal energy of the heated ions is converted to the kinetic energy of the exhaust plume by passing through a diverging magnetic nozzle set in a downstream region. In the magnetic nozzle energy conversion occurred as keeping the magnetic moment constant, but some discrepancy was observed in larger gradient of magnetic field. The kinetic energy of the exhaust plume is successfully controlled by an input power of radio-frequency wave, which is one of the key technologies for the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) type plasma thruster.

  1. Hydrogen Energy: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Bibliographic series cites documents relating to use of hydrogen as energy carrier. In addition to cumulative volume, annual supplement is available for 1974, and quarterly update program serves 1975 and current calendar year.

  2. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  3. Hydrogen energy research and developments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Abe, I.

    A development history and current status report is presented for Japanese hydrogen-based energy research and development. The most ambitious of the national programs is the 'Sunshine Project' conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which has spent $20 million for hydrogen-related development since its inception in 1974. The Science and Technology Agency has conducted development efforts for windpower energy heat storage in a metal hydride system. University-based research efforts are primarily concerned with hydrogen production by semiconductor-liquid junction, photochemical, and biological methods. Private enterprise initiatives in this field are also noted.

  4. Hydrogenic and Screened Self-Energies for d-States

    SciTech Connect

    Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

    2005-10-17

    The one-loop self-energy is evaluated for d{sub 3/2} and d{sub 5/2} states in hydrogenic ions, and good agreement found with previous calculations. Results are compared to what is known of the Z{alpha} expansion and higher-order binding corrections inferred for these states as well as for their fine structures. Screened Kohn-Sham potentials are then used to evaluate the one-loop self-energy corrections to n = 2 states of lithiumlike ions for Z = 10 - 100, n = 3 states of sodiumlike ions for Z = 20 - 100, and n = 4 states of copperlike ions for Z = 40 - 100. The importance of these screened calculations for the interpretation of recent high accuracy experiments is emphasized.

  5. Positive ion polymerization in hydrogen diluted silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, S.; Kondo, M.

    2008-12-08

    Mass spectra of positive ions (cations) and neutrals have been measured in hydrogen diluted silane plasmas at gas pressures of 0.1-10 Torr. The mass spectrum of ions changes with the pressure, while that of neutrals maintains a similar shape. The dominant ion species varies from a hydrogen ion group at < or approx. 0.5 Torr to a monosilicon hydride ion group at {approx_equal}0.5-1 Torr and polysilicon hydride ion groups at > or approx. 1 Torr, which is determined from ionization channels and consecutive ion-molecule reactions. The ion bombardment is suppressed with the pressure, from several tens of eV at < or approx. 1 Torr to a few eV at > or approx. 7 Torr.

  6. Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    contribute to understanding of some basic surface physics problems such as adsorption , atomic scattering, desorption mechanisms * and electron transfer in atom...atomic hydrogen and insensitive to molecular hydrogen. Its cisadvantage is easy saturation with hydrogen occurring at higher hydrogen fluxes. It is...should be able to model the dynamic process, and we plan to study this in the future. When the surface is exposed to the cesium beam for a long enough

  7. Conclusions. [hydrogen-based energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Conclusions are presented according to general areas of technology with some specific examples of research and technology needs identified. These conclusions provide a base for the future development of detailed program plans and identify research needs that are not being given attention or are not being supported at a sufficient level. Emphasis is placed on hydrogen production and use.

  8. Estimating the energy of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in chitosan oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, G. P.; Lazarev, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The effect the number of chitosan monomer units CTS n ( n = 1-5), the protonation of chitosan dimers, and the interaction between CTS n ( n = 1-3) and acetate ions have on the energy of intramolecular hydrogen bonds is investigated by means of QTAIM analysis and solving the vibrational problem within the cluster-continuum model. It is established that the number of H-bonds in CTS n is 2 n - 1 and the total energy of H-bonds grows by ~20 kJ/mol. It is concluded that the hydrogen bonds between CTS and acetate ions play a major role in the stabilization of polyelectrolyte complexes in dilute acetic acid solutions of CTS.

  9. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.

    1996-08-13

    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  10. Ion energy analyzer for measurement of ion turbulent transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V.; Sen, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    For local measurement of radial ion thermal transport, we developed a novel time-resolved gridded ion energy analyzer. The turbulent thermal flux is obtained by correlating fluctuations of ion temperature, plasma density and plasma velocity. The simultaneous measurement of the ion current fluctuations from an ion energy analyzer tilde I_{IEA} (t) and the fluctuation of ion saturation current from a conventional Langmuir probe tilde I_{LP} (t) allow us to determine local fluctuations of ion temperature tilde T_i (t). To reduce the effect of plasma potential fluctuations in the energy analyzer measurements, we use special a compensative circuit loop.

  11. Detector and energy analyzer for energetic-hydrogen in beams and plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bastasz, R.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Wampler, W.R.

    1988-11-01

    A detector for detecting energetic hydrogen ions and atoms ranging in energy from about 1 eV up to 1 keV in an evacuated environment includes a Schottky diode with a palladium or palladium-alloy gate metal applied to a silicon-dioxide layer on an n-silicon substrate. An array of the energetic-hydrogen detectors having a range of energy sensitivities form a plasma energy analyzer having a rapid response time and a sensitivity for measuring fluxes of energetic hydrogen. The detector is sensitive to hydrogen and its isotopes but is insensitive to non-hydrogenic particles. The array of energetic-hydrogen detectors can be formed on a single silicon chip, with thin-film layers of gold metal applied in various thicknesses to successive detectors in the array. The gold layers serve as particle energy-filters so that each detector is sensitive to a different range of hydrogen energies. 4 figs.

  12. Detector and energy analyzer for energetic-hydrogen in beams and plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bastasz, Robert J.; Hughes, Robert C.; Wampler, William R.

    1988-01-01

    A detector for detecting energetic hydrogen ions and atoms ranging in energy from about 1 eV up to 1 keV in an evacuated environment includes a Schottky diode with a palladium or palladium-alloy gate metal applied to a silicondioxide layer on an n-silicon substrate. An array of the energetic-hydrogen detectors having a range of energy sensitivities form a plasma energy analyzer having a rapid response time and a sensitivity for measuring fluxes of energetic hydrogen. The detector is sensitive to hydrogen and its isotopes but is insensitive to non-hydrogenic particles. The array of energetic-hydrogen detectors can be formed on a single silicon chip, with thin-film layers of gold metal applied in various thicknesses to successive detectors in the array. The gold layers serve as particle energy-filters so that each detector is sensitive to a different range of hydrogen energies.

  13. Ionic requirements of proximal tubular sodium transport. II. Hydrogen ion.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Giebisch, G

    1975-11-01

    Simultaneous perfusion to proximal convoluted tubules and peritubular capillaries was used to study the effects of different perfusion fluids on sodium reabsorption and hydrogen secretion, which was calculated as bicarbonate reabsorption and titratable acid. Results show that sodium reabsorption was not tightly coupled to hydrogen secretion. Bicarbonate stimulates both sodium reabsorption and hydrogen secretion, but Tris stimulates only sodium reabsorption. Imposing an adverse chloride gradient across the proximal tubule (C1- peritubular greater than C1- luminal) decreased sodium reabsorption but did not diminish hydrogen secretion. Diamox inhibited both net sodium and hydrogen transport. It is concluded that there is not firm linkage between sodium reabsorption and hydrogen secretion and that bicarbonate probably stimulates sodium transport by a number of mechanisms, including an effect on the sodium transport unrelated to its ability to increase hydrogen ion secretion.

  14. Strong parallel magnetic field effects on the hydrogen molecular ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Li, Baiwen; Taylor, K. T.

    2003-09-01

    Equilibrium distances, binding energies and dissociation energies for the ground and low-lying states of the hydrogen molecular ion in a strong magnetic field parallel to the internuclear axis are calculated and refined, by using the two-dimensional pseudospectral method. High-precision results are presented for the binding energies over a wider field regime than already given in the literature (Kravchenko and Liberman 1997 Phys. Rev. A 55 2701). The present work removes a long-standing discrepancy for the Req value in the 1sigmau state at a field strength of 1.0 × 106 T. The dissociation energies of the antibonding 1pig state induced by magnetic fields are determined accurately. We have also observed that the antibonding 1pig potential energy curve develops a minimum if the field is sufficiently strong. Some unreliable results in the literature are pointed out and discussed. A way to efficiently treat vibrational processes and coupling between the nuclear and the electronic motions in magnetic fields is also suggested within a three-dimensional pseudospectral scheme.

  15. High-precision spectroscopy of hydrogen molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhen-Xiang; Tong, Xin; Yan, Zong-Chao; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we overview recent advances in high-precision structure calculations of the hydrogen molecular ions ( and HD+), including nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections. In combination with high-precision measurements, it is feasible to precisely determine a molecular-based value of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. An experimental scheme is presented for measuring the rovibrational transition frequency (v,L) : (0,0) → (6,1) in HD+, which is currently underway at the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11474316, 11004221, 10974224, and 11274348), the “Hundred Talent Program” of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Yan Zong-Chao was supported by NSERC, SHARCnet, ACEnet of Canada, and the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams.

  16. Characterizations of Hydrogen Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Energetics Inc

    2003-04-01

    In 1996, Dr. Ed Skolnik of Energetics, Incorporated, began a series of visits to the locations of various projects that were part of the DOE Hydrogen Program. The site visits/evaluations were initiated to help the DOE Program Management, which had limited time and limited travel budgets, to get a detailed snapshot of each project. The evaluations were soon found to have other uses as well: they provided reviewers on the annual Hydrogen Program Peer Review Team with an in-depth look at a project--something that is lacking in a short presentation--and also provided a means for hydrogen stakeholders to learn about the R&D that the Hydrogen Program is sponsoring. The visits were conducted under several different contract mechanisms, at project locations specified by DOE Headquarters Program Management, Golden Field Office Contract Managers, or Energetics, Inc., or through discussion by some or all of the above. The methodology for these site-visit-evaluations changed slightly over the years, but was fundamentally as follows: Contact the Principal Investigator (PI) and arrange a time for the visit; Conduct a literature review. This would include a review of the last two or three years of Annual Operating Plan submittals, monthly reports, the paper submitted with the last two or three Annual Peer Review, published reviewers' consensus comments from the past few years, publications in journals, and journal publications on the same or similar topics by other researchers; Send the PI a list of questions/topics about a week ahead of time, which we would discuss during the visit. The types of questions vary depending on the project, but include some detailed technical questions that delve into some fundamental scientific and engineering issues, and also include some economic and goal-oriented topics; Conduct the site-visit itself including--Presentations by the PI and/or his staff. This would be formal in some cases, informal in others, and merely a ''sit around the table

  17. Sequential desorption energy of hydrogen from nickel clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Deepika,; Kumar, Rakesh; R, Kamal Raj.; Kumar, T. J. Dhilip

    2015-06-24

    We report reversible Hydrogen adsorption on Nickel clusters, which act as a catalyst for solid state storage of Hydrogen on a substrate. First-principles technique is employed to investigate the maximum number of chemically adsorbed Hydrogen molecules on Nickel cluster. We observe a maximum of four Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom, but the average Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom decrease with cluster size. The dissociative chemisorption energy per Hydrogen molecule and sequential desorption energy per Hydrogen atom on Nickel cluster is found to decrease with number of adsorbed Hydrogen molecules, which on optimization may help in economical storage and regeneration of Hydrogen as a clean energy carrier.

  18. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  19. Production of negative hydrogen and deuterium ions in microwave-driven ion sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, D.

    1998-09-11

    The authors report progress they have made in the production of negative hydrogen and deuterium atomic ions in magnetically-confined microwave-driven (2.45 GHz) ion sources. The influence of source surface material, microwave power, source gas pressure and magnetic field configuration on the resulting ion current is discussed. Results strongly suggest that, at least in the source, vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen, the precursor to atomic negative ion production, is produced via a surface mechanism suggested by Hall et al. rather than via a gas phase reaction as is generally believed to be the case in most ion sources.

  20. Unresolved problems in cesiation processes of negative hydrogen ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Motoi

    2013-09-01

    Attempts are being made to optimize negative hydrogen (H-) ion current by introducing Cs into an ion source, but there are some unanswered questions in properly handling Cs to realize stable extraction of H- ion beams. For example, Cs amount to optimize H- production often becomes much larger than the amount predicted to realize partial monolayer of Cs on the source wall. Additional charge of Cs into a source to recover reduced H- current by continuous operation does not necessarily realize the original value. Beam intensity of H- changes with the impurity content in the ion source. The purpose of the present paper is to list up these uncertainties and unknown factors in negative ion source performance operated with Cs. The paper tries to identify possible mechanisms causing these problems by running a simulation code ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target). The code predicts that glancing injection of hydrogen ions doubles the numbers of both reflection coefficients and ion induced desorption yields from those for the normal incidence. It also indicates smaller hydrogen desorption yields for thick layer of adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. These results are compared with experimental data obtained in UHV conditions.

  1. Hydrogen - Energy carrier of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsch, Joachim; Steeb, Hartmut

    1986-11-01

    The potential of hydrogen as an energy carrier - in conventional burners, in internal-combustion or turbine engines, in fuel cells, in catalytic burners, or in steam generators - is discussed, and the current status of the Hysolar program is reviewed. Hysolar is a cooperative project of the University of Stuttgart, DFVLR, and Saudi Arabia to develop industrial-scale hydrogen-production facilities employing solar-cell arrays and electrolysis. Hysolar calls for basic research in photoelectrochemistry, electrolysis, and fuel-cell technology; studies of hydrogen production systems and application technology; training of personnel; and construction of a 2-kW laboratory installation at Jiddah, a 10-kW experimental installation at Stuttgart, and a 100-kW demonstration installation at Riad (producing about 44,000 N cu m of hydrogen per year). Diagrams, drawings, and tables are provided.

  2. Measurement of parallel ion energy distribution function in PISCES plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tynan, G.R.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    The PISCES facility is used to conduct controlled plasma-surface interaction experiments. Plasma parameters typical of those found in the edge plasmas of major fusion confinement experiments are produced. In this work, the energy distribution of the ion flux incident on a material surface is measured using a gridded energy analyzer in place of a material sample. The full width at half maximum energy distribution of the ion flux is found to vary from 10 eV to 30 eV both hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. Helium plasmas have a much lower FWHM energy spread than hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. The FWHM ion energy spread is found to be linearly related to the electron temperature. The most probable ion energy is found to be linearly related to the bias applied to the energy analyzer. Other plasma parameters have a weak influence upon the energy distribution of the ion flux. Two possible physical mechanisms for producing the observed results are introduced and suggestions for further work are made. The impact of the reported measurements on the materials experiments conducted in the PISCES facility are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  3. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  4. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Several recent experiments designed to produce and store macroscopic quantities of atomic hydrogen are discussed. The bulk, ground state properties of atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium systems are calculated assuming that all pair interactions occur via the atomic triplet potential. The conditions required to obtain this system, including inhibition of recombination through the energetically favorable singlet interaction, are discussed. The internal energy, pressure, and compressibility are calculated applying the Monte Carlo technique with a quantum mechanical variational wavefunction. The system studied consisted of 32 atoms in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Results show that atomic triplet hydrogen and deuterium remain gaseous at 0 K; i.e., the internal energy is positive at all molar volumes considered.

  5. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Several recent experiments designed to produce and store macroscopic quantities of atomic hydrogen are discussed. The bulk, ground state properties of atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium systems are calculated assuming that all pair interactions occur via the atomic triplet potential. The conditions required to obtain this system, including inhibition of recombination through the energetically favorable singlet interaction, are discussed. The internal energy, pressure, and compressibility are calculated applying the Monte Carlo technique with a quantum mechanical variational wavefunction. The system studied consisted of 32 atoms in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Results show that atomic triplet hydrogen and deuterium remain gaseous at 0 K; i.e., the internal energy is positive at all molar volumes considered.

  6. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen ion in hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Schuszter, Gábor; Gehér-Herczegh, Tünde; Szűcs, Árpád; Tóth, Ágota; Horváth, Dezső

    2017-05-17

    The role of diffusion in chemical pattern formation has been widely studied due to the great diversity of patterns emerging in reaction-diffusion systems, particularly in H(+)-autocatalytic reactions where hydrogels are applied to avoid convection. A custom-made conductometric cell is designed to measure the effective diffusion coefficient of a pair of strong electrolytes containing sodium ions or hydrogen ions with a common anion. This together with the individual diffusion coefficient for sodium ions, obtained from PFGSE-NMR spectroscopy, allows the determination of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen ions in hydrogels. Numerical calculations are also performed to study the behavior of a diffusion-migration model describing ionic diffusion in our system. The method we present for one particular case may be extended for various hydrogels and diffusing ions (such as hydroxide) which are relevant e.g. for the development of pH-regulated self-healing mechanisms and hydrogels used for drug delivery.

  7. Product distributions and rate constants for ion-molecule reactions in water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Pinizzotto, R. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal energy, bimolecular ion-molecule reactions occurring in gaseous water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane have been identified and their rate constants determined using ion cyclotron resonance methods. Absolute rate constants were determined for the disappearance of the primary ions by using the trapped ion method, and product distributions were determined for these reactions by using the cyclotron ejection method. Previous measurements are reviewed and compared with the results using the present methods. The relative rate constants for hydrogen-atom abstraction, proton transfer, and charge transfer are also determined for reactions of the parent ions.

  8. Product distributions and rate constants for ion-molecule reactions in water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Pinizzotto, R. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal energy, bimolecular ion-molecule reactions occurring in gaseous water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane have been identified and their rate constants determined using ion cyclotron resonance methods. Absolute rate constants were determined for the disappearance of the primary ions by using the trapped ion method, and product distributions were determined for these reactions by using the cyclotron ejection method. Previous measurements are reviewed and compared with the results using the present methods. The relative rate constants for hydrogen-atom abstraction, proton transfer, and charge transfer are also determined for reactions of the parent ions.

  9. Ion energy distribution near a plasma meniscus for multielement focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2009-05-01

    The axial ion energy spread near a plasma meniscus for multielement focused ion beams is investigated experimentally in atomic and molecular gaseous plasmas of krypton, argon, and hydrogen by tailoring the magnetic field in the region. In the case of magnetic end plugging, the ion energy spread reduces by approx50% near the meniscus as compared to the bulk plasma, thereby facilitating beam focusing. A quadrupole filter can be used to control the mean energy of the ions. Comparison with standard Maxwellian and Druyvesteyn distributions with the same mean energy indicates that the ion energy distribution in the meniscus is deficient in the population of low and high energy tail ions, resulting in a Gaussian-like profile with a spread of approx4 and approx5 eV for krypton and argon ions, respectively. By carefully tuning the wave power, plasma collisionality, and the magnetic field in the meniscus, the spread can be made lower than that of liquid metal ion sources, for extracting focused ion beams of other elements with adequate current density, for research and applications in nanosystems

  10. Hydrogen production through solar energy water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, D.

    Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Hydrogen energy production from direct solar energy conversion facilities located on the shores of oceans and lakes is discussed. The electrolysis interface is shown to be conveniently adapted to direct solar energy conversion; this, however, will depend on technical and economic feasibility aspects as they emerge from the research phases. The basic requirements for relatively immense solar collection areas for large-scale central conversion facilities, with widely variable electricity charges, are outlined. The operation of electrolysis and photovoltaic array combination is verified at various insolation levels. It is pointed out that solar cell arrays and electrolyzers are producing the expected results with solar energy inputs that are continuously varying.

  11. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  12. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement And Stacking-Fault Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parr, R. A.; Johnson, M. H.; Davis, J. H.; Oh, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    Embrittlement in Ni/Cu alloys appears related to stacking-fault porbabilities. Report describes attempt to show a correlation between stacking-fault energy of different Ni/Cu alloys and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. Correlation could lead to more fundamental understanding and method of predicting susceptibility of given Ni/Cu alloy form stacking-fault energies calculated from X-ray diffraction measurements.

  14. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the

  15. Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.

  16. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange of myoglobin ions in a linear quadrupole ion trap.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dunmin; Ding, Chuanfan; Douglas, D J

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of gas-phase ions of holo- and apo-myoglobin has been studied by confining the ions in a linear quadrupole ion trap with D(2)O or CD(3)OD at a pressure of several mTorr. Apo-myoglobin ions were formed by collision-induced dissociation of holo-myoglobin ions between the orifice and skimmer of the ion sampling system. The exchange takes place on a time scale of seconds. Earlier cross section measurements have shown that holo-myoglobin ions can have more compact structures than apo-myoglobin. Despite this, both holo-myoglobin and apo-myoglobin in charge states +8 to +14 are found to exchange nearly the same number of hydrogens (ca. 103) in 4 s. It is possible the ions fold or unfold to new conformations on the much longer time scale of the exchange experiment compared with the cross section measurements.

  17. Iss observations of aluminum surfaces under hydrogen ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagara, A.; Kamada, K.; Higashida, Y.

    1984-12-01

    The shadowing effect of ISS was applied to observe the surface behavior of H atoms implanted with 500 eV/atom on a high-purity A1 sample. This study confirmed that this technique is powerful to observe the retention kinetics of H atoms especially on the topmost material surface with simultaneous analysis for surface contaminants such as oxygen during irradiation with hydrogen ions. The result obtained from the initially cleaned surface showed a remarkable increase in the H retention with increasing fluence of H2+ up to about 1018 H/cm2 at room temperature, depending on the fluence of predamage given by He+ ions, but showed no increase in the retention at the temperatures above 100 ° C. Therefore, because Al is a metal well known to be passive for chemisorption of H2 molecules and H atoms, it was concluded that the observed H retention originates from the traps produced by radiation damage. The activation energy for thermal desorption of the trapped H atoms was estimated to be 1.1±0.4 eV by ISS measurements. The oxygen-covered surface showed a rapid increase in the retention at fluence of less than 1017 H/cm2.

  18. Periodic orbits of the hydrogen molecular ion and their quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Y.; Yuan, J.; Bao, C.

    1995-11-01

    In a classical study of the hydrogen molecular ion beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), we have found that segments of trajectories resemble that of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation periodic orbits. The importance of this fact to the classical understanding of chemical bonding leads us to a systematic study of the periodic orbits of the planar hydrogen molecular ion within the BOA. Besides introducing a classification scheme for periodic orbits, we discuss the convergence properties of families of periodic orbits and their bifurcation patterns according to their types. Semiclassical calculations of the density of states based on these periodic orbits yield results in agreement with the exact quantum eigenvalues of the hydrogen molecular ion system.

  19. Operation of RF driven negative ion source in a pure-hydrogen mode

    SciTech Connect

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu. Gusev, I.; Senkov, D.; Sanin, A.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Kondakov, A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2015-04-08

    The production of negative hydrogen ions in the radio-frequency driven long-pulsed source with external antenna is studied. RF drivers with various geometry of external antenna, Faraday shield and magnets at the rear flange were examined. H- beam extraction through the single emission aperture was performed in the source pure-hydrogen mode with no external seed of alkali additives. H- beam with ion emission current density up to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} and energy up to 75 keV was regularly obtained in the 1 s pulses of the pure-hydrogen mode. The regular temporal increase of H- ion production due to deposition of impurities on the plasma grid surface was recorded. The H- emission current density increased up to 9 mA/cm{sup 2} in this case.

  20. Operation of RF driven negative ion source in a pure-hydrogen mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A. A.; Gusev, I.; Senkov, D.; Sanin, A.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sotnikov, O.; Kondakov, A.

    2015-04-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions in the radio-frequency driven long-pulsed source with external antenna is studied. RF drivers with various geometry of external antenna, Faraday shield and magnets at the rear flange were examined. H- beam extraction through the single emission aperture was performed in the source pure-hydrogen mode with no external seed of alkali additives. H- beam with ion emission current density up to 5 mA/cm2 and energy up to 75 keV was regularly obtained in the 1 s pulses of the pure-hydrogen mode. The regular temporal increase of H- ion production due to deposition of impurities on the plasma grid surface was recorded. The H- emission current density increased up to 9 mA/cm2 in this case.

  1. A simple correction for the Born approximation for electron impact excitation of hydrogenic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Young-Dae

    1992-01-01

    An analytic procedure is developed for obtaining the electron impact excitation cross sections for hydrogenic ions. A simple modification of the Born approximation, in order to include Coulomb focusing of the continuum wave functions, produces the correct energy dependence of the cross section near excitation threshold. This procedure is used to compute the 1s yields 2s and 1s yields 2p excitation cross sections for hydrogenic ions (Z approaches infinity), and compare these modified-Born cross sections with numerical Colomb-Born calculations. The modified-Born cross sections agree well with the Coulomb-Born cross sections and thus provide a reliable generalized analytic expression for electron impact excitation of hydrogenic ions. By treating effective charges, the results in this work can be extended to nonhydrogenic target systems.

  2. Progress in hydrogen energy; Proceedings of the National Workshop on Hydrogen Energy, New Delhi, India, July 4-6, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, R. P.

    1987-06-01

    The present conference on the development status of hydrogen energy technologies considers electrolytic hydrogen production, photoelectrolytic hydrogen production, microorganic hydrogen production, OTEC hydrogen production, solid-state materials for hydrogen storage, and a thin-film hydrogen storage system. Also discussed are the cryogenic storage of hydrogen; liquid hydrogen fuel for ground, air, and naval vehicles; hydrogen-fuel internal combustion engines; the use of hydrogen for domestic, commercial, and industrial applications; hydrogen fuel-cell development; enzyme electrodes for the use of hydrogen-rich fuels in biochemical fuel cells; an analysis of H2-O2 MHD generators; and hydrogen energy technology characterization and evaluation on the basis of an input-output structure.

  3. Wind-To-Hydrogen Energy Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Rebenitsch; Randall Bush; Allen Boushee; Brad G. Stevens; Kirk D. Williams; Jeremy Woeste; Ronda Peters; Keith Bennett

    2009-04-24

    WIND-TO-HYDROGEN ENERGY PILOT PROJECT: BASIN ELECTRIC POWER COOPERATIVE In an effort to address the hurdles of wind-generated electricity (specifically wind's intermittency and transmission capacity limitations) and support development of electrolysis technology, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) conducted a research project involving a wind-to-hydrogen system. Through this effort, BEPC, with the support of the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota, evaluated the feasibility of dynamically scheduling wind energy to power an electrolysis-based hydrogen production system. The goal of this project was to research the application of hydrogen production from wind energy, allowing for continued wind energy development in remote wind-rich areas and mitigating the necessity for electrical transmission expansion. Prior to expending significant funding on equipment and site development, a feasibility study was performed. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to provide BEPC and The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to make a determination whether or not to proceed with Phase II of the project, which was equipment procurement, installation, and operation. Four modes of operation were considered in the feasibility report to evaluate technical and economic merits. Mode 1 - scaled wind, Mode 2 - scaled wind with off-peak, Mode 3 - full wind, and Mode 4 - full wind with off-peak In summary, the feasibility report, completed on August 11, 2005, found that the proposed hydrogen production system would produce between 8000 and 20,000 kg of hydrogen annually depending on the mode of operation. This estimate was based on actual wind energy production from one of the North Dakota (ND) wind farms of which BEPC is the electrical off-taker. The cost of the hydrogen produced ranged from $20 to $10 per kg (depending on the mode of operation). The economic sensitivity analysis performed as part of the feasibility

  4. Project plan hydrogen energy systems technology. Phase 1: Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the potential need for hydrogen as a source of energy in the future was presented in order to identify and define the technology requirements for the most promising approaches to meet that need. The following study objectives were discussed: (1) determination of the future demand for hydrogen, based on current trends and anticipated new uses, (2) identification of the critical research and technology advances required to meet this need considering, to the extent possible, raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects, and (3) definition and recommendation of the scope and space of a National Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology Program and outline of a Program Development Plan.

  5. Method for fabricating MNOS structures utilizing hydrogen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saks, N. S.

    1984-05-01

    An improved method for reducing the density of electronic trapping states and fixed insulator charge in the thin oxide layer of an MNOS structure is discussed. The method includes the steps of implanting hydrogen ions in field region of the oxide layer and annealing the MNOS structure at 400 deg C to cause the ions to diffuse laterally into the gate region of the oxide layer.

  6. Improved ion implant fluence uniformity in hydrogen enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation into silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.; Li, L. H. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Liu, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zuo, X. J.; Zhu, P. Z.; Ma, Y. F.; Yu, K. M.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-06-15

    Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation does not require an external plasma source but ion focusing affects the lateral ion fluence uniformity, thereby hampering its use in high-fluence hydrogen ion implantation for thin film transfer and fabrication of silicon-on-insulator. Insertion of a metal ring between the sample stage and glass chamber improves the ion uniformity and reduces the ion fluence non-uniformity as the cathode voltage is raised. Two-dimensional multiple-grid particle-in-cell simulation confirms that the variation of electric field inside the chamber leads to mitigation of the ion focusing phenomenon and the results are corroborated experimentally by hydrogen forward scattering.

  7. Anionic Hydrogen Cluster Ions as a New Form of Condensed Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzler, Michael; Kuhn, Martin; Mauracher, Andreas; Lindinger, Albrecht; Scheier, Paul; Ellis, Andrew M.

    2016-12-01

    We report the first experimental observation of negatively charged hydrogen and deuterium cluster ions, Hn- and Dn- , where n ≥5 . These anions are formed by an electron addition to liquid helium nanodroplets doped with molecular hydrogen or deuterium. The ions are stable for at least the lifetime of the experiment, which is several tens of microseconds. Only anions with odd values of n are detected, and some specific ions show anomalously high abundances. The sizes of these "magic number" ions suggest an icosahedral framework of H2 (D2 ) molecules in solvent shells around a central H- (D- ) ion. The first three shells, which contain a total of 44 H2 or D2 molecules, appear to be solidlike, but thereafter a more liquidlike arrangement of the H2 (D2 ) molecules is adopted.

  8. Review of Negative Hydrogen Ion Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    250 mA/cm 2 Second Symposium (1980) BNL 51304, with reduced e/H" ratios. At high cesium levels, where extraction Third Symposium ( 1983 ) ABp Conf...Sym. on Ion Sources and Formation of Ion Beams, Typically the accelerator usage has stressed duty factor, Berkeley, LBL -3399 (1974) VIII-1. reliability...source and for low-duty usage the lifetime can be NS-30 ( 1983 ) 2743. many months to a year as witnessed by operating magnetrons. 13. H. S. Zhang, G.-G

  9. Photoionization of hydrogen-like ions in dense quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Y. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    The photoionization of hydrogen-like ions in n ≤ 3 bound states, embedded in cold, dense quantum plasmas, is investigated in detail. The electron energies and wave functions for the bound and continuum states are determined by numerically solving the scaled Schrödinger equation by the fourth-order symplectic integration scheme. The monotonic behavior of the photoionization cross section for a pure Coulomb potential is dramatically changed due to the plasma screening effects described by the cosine-Debye-Hückel potential. In the region of low photoelectron energies, the photoionization cross section, besides the usual Wigner-law threshold behavior, exhibits a rich structure of shape and virtual-state resonances when the plasma screening parameter takes values around the critical screening parameter for which a bound state enters the continuum. It is observed that a shape resonance is followed by a Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section when the principal quantum number of continuum quasi-bound state is equal to the one of the initial bound states.

  10. Study of back streaming ion using a slot-type grounded grid in hydrogen negative-ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kamio, S.; Tsumori, K.; Geng, S.; Takeiri, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The properties of cesium (Cs) recycling due to back-streaming ions have been investigated using an optical emission spec-troscopy in the hydrogen negative ion (H-) source with a slot-type grounded grid (GG). The slot-type GG performed well to enhance the beam performance, and to reduce the thermal loading on GG by high transparency. We clearly observed increase of Cs optical emission intensity during beam extraction owing to the increase of the Cs ions sputtered from the back plate of the source due to the back-streaming positive hydrogen ions. Increase of Cs is closely related with the extracted H- current, but it does not depend on the beam energy. Recycling Cs from the back plate is deeply relevant to the perveance condition of the H- beam, and is minimized at the optimum perveance. Strong Cs recycling from the back plate owing to the back-streaming ions is promoted in the high perveance condition with large divergence, which is consistent with the numerical calculation for the distribution of back streaming ions. This high Cs recycling condition, however, is not suitable for safety beam operation with high energy beam. The output of beam power is saturated by the space charge limitation, and divergent beam is trapped in the grounded grid (GG), which may cause damage on the slot-type GG surface by high thermal loading as large as in the aperture-type GG.

  11. Angular distribution of low-energy electron emission in collisions of 6-MeV/u bare carbon ions with molecular hydrogen: Two-center mechanism and interference effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Deepankar; Kelkar, A.; Kadhane, U.; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Y. P.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Fainstein, P. D.

    2007-05-01

    We report the energy and angular distribution of electron double differential cross sections (DDCS) in collision of 6-MeV/uC6+ ions with molecular hydrogen. We explain the observed distributions in terms of the two-center effect and the Young-type interference effect. The secondary electrons having energies between 1 and 1000eV are detected at about 10 different emission angles between 30° and 150° . The measured data are compared with the state-of-the-art continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state and the first Born model calculations which use molecular wave function. The single differential cross sections are derived and compared with the theoretical predictions. The oscillations due to the interference effect are derived in the DDCS ratios using theoretical cross sections for the atomic H target. The effect of the atomic parameters on the observed oscillations is discussed. An evidence of interference effect has also been shown in the single differential cross section. The electron energy dependence of the forward-backward asymmetry parameter shows a monotonically increasing behavior for an atomic target, such as He, which could be explained in terms of the two-center effect only. In contrast, for the molecular H2 the asymmetry parameter reveals an oscillatory behavior due to the Young-type interference effect superimposed with the two-center effect. The asymmetry parameter technique provides a self-normalized method to reveal the interference oscillation which does not require either a theoretical model or complementary measurements on the atomic H target.

  12. A Cartoon in One Dimension of the Hydrogen Molecular Ion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Sourav; Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Dutta-Roy, Binayak

    2008-01-01

    To illustrate the basic methodology involved in the quantum mechanics of molecules, a one-dimensional caricature of the hydrogen molecular ion (H[superscript +][subscript 2]) is presented, which is exactly solvable, in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in terms of elementary functions. The purpose of the exercise is to elucidate in a simple…

  13. A Cartoon in One Dimension of the Hydrogen Molecular Ion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Sourav; Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Dutta-Roy, Binayak

    2008-01-01

    To illustrate the basic methodology involved in the quantum mechanics of molecules, a one-dimensional caricature of the hydrogen molecular ion (H[superscript +][subscript 2]) is presented, which is exactly solvable, in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in terms of elementary functions. The purpose of the exercise is to elucidate in a simple…

  14. Localization of Hydrogen Ion and Chloride Ion Fluxes in Nitella

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Donald G.; Barr, June K.; Barr, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    Alternating bands of acid and base formation have been detected along the length of the internodal cell of Nitella clavata when it is illuminated, while in the dark this phenomenon is minimal. Chloride influx occurs only or largely in the acid-extruding regions, and this is also a light-dependent ion movement. Chloride efflux is slightly dependent on illumination and is not localized as are H+ efflux and Cl- influx. The results obtained support Kitasato's (1968) proposal that a large passive H+ influx is balanced by an active efflux of this ion. Transport mechanisms suggested by the correlations of Cl- and HCO3- influxes with H+ extrusion are discussed. PMID:5806597

  15. Energy Generation and Utilization in Hydrogen Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, L.

    1970-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between cell synthesis and energy utilization in Hydrogenomonas eutropha have shown that the amount of oxidative energy required for synthetic reactions depends on the conditions of growth. The energy of hydrogen oxidation was most efficiently used when growth conditions were optimal (continuous culture, cells in exponential growth phase) and when the rate of growth was limited by H2 or O2 supply. Under these conditions, 2 to 2.5 atoms of oxygen were consumed by the oxyhydrogen reaction for the concomitant conversion of 1 mole of CO2 to cell matter. This conversion efficiency, expressed as the O/C energyyield value, was observed with continuous cultures. A less efficient conversion was found with batch cultures. With limiting concentrations of CO2 the rate of hydrogen oxidation was relatively high, and the O/C value was dependent on the growth rate. With nonlimiting concentrations of CO2, the rate of hydrogen oxidation was strictly proportional to the rate of CO2 fixation, and the O/C value was independent of growth rate. This proportionality between the rate of H2 oxidation and the rate of CO2 fixation suggested that energy supply regulates the (maximum) rate of growth. From the energy-yield measurements, we concluded that the oxidation of 1 mole of H2 yields the equivalent of 2 moles of adenosine triphosphate for H. eutropha, and that at least 5 moles of this high-energy phosphate is required for the conversion of 1 mole of CO2 into cellular constituents. PMID:4990759

  16. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee: Annual report-Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The HECC (Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee) was organized to improve communications between various groups performing research related to hydrogen. The FY 1987 summary is the tenth consecutive yearly report providing an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented on the HECC. These offices include Basic Energy Sciences, Energy Storage and Distribution, Fossil Energy, Fusion Energy, Inertial Fusion, Military Application, Solar Energy, and Transportation Systems. (DLC)

  17. Micro structure processing on plastics by accelerated hydrogen molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Nishikawa, H.

    2017-08-01

    A proton has 1836 times the mass of an electron and is the lightest nucleus to be used for accelerator in material modification. We can setup accelerator with the lowest acceleration voltage. It is preferable characteristics of Proton Beam Writer (PBW) for industrial applications. On the contrary ;proton; has the lowest charge among all nuclei and the potential impact to material is lowest. The object of this research is to improve productivity of the PBW for industry application focusing on hydrogen molecular ions. These ions are generated in the same ion source by ionizing hydrogen molecule. There is no specific ion source requested and it is suitable for industrial use. We demonstrated three dimensional (3D) multilevel micro structures on polyester base FPC (Flexible Printed Circuits) using proton, H2+ and H3+. The reactivity of hydrogen molecular ions is much higher than that of proton and coincident with the level of expectation. We can apply this result to make micro devices of 3D multilevel structures on FPC.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-01

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H-) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H- current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  19. A future, intense source of negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefken, Hugh; Stein, Charles

    1994-01-01

    By directly heating lithium hydride in a vacuum, up to 18 micro-A/sq cm of negative hydrogen has been obtained from the crystal lattice. The amount of ion current extracted and analyzed is closely related to the temperature of the sample and to the rate at which the temperature is changed. The ion current appears to be emission limited and saturates with extraction voltage. For a fixed extraction voltage, the ion current could be maximized by placing a grid between the sample surface and the extraction electrode. Electrons accompanying the negative ions were removed by a magnetic trap. A Wein velocity filter was designed and built to provide definitive mass analysis of the extracted ion species. This technique when applied to other alkali hydrides may produce even higher intensity beams possessing low values of emittance.

  20. A hydrogen energy carrier. Volume 1: Summary. [for meeting energy requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. E. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The production, technology, transportation, and implementation of hydrogen into the energy system are discussed along with the fossil fuel cycle, hydrogen fuel cycle, and the demands for energy. The cost of hydrogen production by coal gasification; electrolysis by nuclear energy, and solar energy are presented. The legal aspects of a hydrogen economy are also discussed.

  1. Effect of Ion Bombardment on the Growth and Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Jérôme; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Hirano, Naoto; Matsuura, Hideharu; Matsuda, Akihisa

    1989-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the effect of ion bombardment during the growth of amorphous silicon-germanium alloy films from silane and germane rf-glow discharge. Independent control of the plasma and the ion flux and energy is obtained by using a triode configuration. The ion contribution to the total deposition rate can reach 20% on negatively biased substrates. Although the Si and Ge composition of the film does not depend on the ion flux and energy, the optical, structural and electronic properties are drastically modified at low deposition temperatures when the maximum ion energy increases up to 50 eV, and remain constant above 50 eV. For a Ge atomic concentration of 37% and a temperature of 135°C, the optical gap decreases from 1.67 to 1.45 eV. This is correlated with a modification of hydrogen bonding configurations. Silicon dihydride sites disappear and preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon is reduced in favour of germanium. Moreover the photoconductivity increases which shows that ion bombardment is a key parameter to optimize the quality of low band gap amorphous silicon-germanium alloys.

  2. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  3. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  4. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  5. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  6. Transport of hydrogen in metals with occupancy dependent trap energies

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, K. Toussaint, U. von; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2014-10-07

    Common diffusion trapping models for modeling hydrogen transport in metals are limited to traps with single de-trapping energies and a saturation occupancy of one. While they are successful in predicting typical mono isotopic ion implantation and thermal degassing experiments, they fail at describing recent experiments on isotope exchange at low temperatures. This paper presents a new modified diffusion trapping model with fill level dependent de-trapping energies that can also explain these new isotope exchange experiments. Density function theory (DFT) calculations predict that even mono vacancies can store between 6 and 12 H atoms with de-trapping energies that depend on the fill level of the mono vacancy. The new fill level dependent diffusion trapping model allows to test these DFT results by bridging the gap in length and time scale between DFT calculations and experiment.

  7. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH... Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer is a device that consists of a catheter-tip pH electrode and that...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH... Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer is a device that consists of a catheter-tip pH electrode and that...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH... Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer is a device that consists of a catheter-tip pH electrode and that...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH... Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer is a device that consists of a catheter-tip pH electrode and that...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1170 - Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH... Indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood hydrogen ion concentration (pH) analyzer is a device that consists of a catheter-tip pH electrode and that...

  12. Hydrogen production by hybrid electrolysis combined with assistance of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Z.; Yoshizawa, S.

    As a means of reducing the electrical energy needed to produce hydrogen from water, a process is presented, whereby an aqueous sulfuric acid solution containing Fe(2+) ions is electrolyzed, hydrogen being an energy storage material which levels load variation of electrical utilities. In an electrolytic cell, Fe(2+) ions are oxidized on a packed bed carbon anode to form Fe(3+) ions. H(+) ions diffuse through a cation exchange membrane, and are then reduced to hydrogen gas on the cathode. The Fe(3+) ions, produced in the cell, are decomposed in a photodecomposition cell. Oxygen evolves on the TiO2 anode, illuminated by solar light; the produced H(+) ions are diffused through a cation exchange membrane and electrons move through the metal inserted in the membrane to the cathode. The solution containing Fe(+) ions, introduced in the cathode chamber, is reduced cathodically on the platinized platinum. Cell voltage is determined for the process and it is found to be only about 1.0 V for electrolysis of 50mA/sq cm at room temperature. For the case of direct electrolysis of 2N NaOH aqueous solution, the cell voltage is 2.2V electrolysis of 30mA/sq cm. Results indicate a large reduction of electrical energy needed for the production of hydrogen in the process presented.

  13. Hydrogen ions associated with the dry deposition of pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.; Khalili, E.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The data provided in this paper demonstrates that pollen can generate significant amounts of hydrogen ions when added to water and that the deposition of tree pollen in forested areas represents a significant hydrogen ion source. Measurements of dry deposition of pollen were made during the months of May and June, 1987 in Northern Wisconsin, using a smooth surrogate surface. Rain samples were also collected. Deposited particles were weighed to determine mass fluxes, then washed and ion chromatographed for SO {sub 4} = and NO {sub 3} {minus} analysis. Species of pollen collected from different types of trees during the sampling period were analyzed for SO{sub 4} = NO {sub 3} and other trace constituents. The micrograms of hydrogen ions (protons) generated per gram for different types of pollen added to water, were measured. From 56 to 566 gm were generated per gram or pollen added. The amount generated varied with pollen type. Based on this information, the equivalent protons from the dry deposition of pollen were calculated and compared with the wet deposition proton data. The sulfate, nitrate, and protons associated with dry deposition were of a magnitude comparable with wet deposition.

  14. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  15. Use of predissociation to enhance the atomic hydrogen ion fraction in ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1979-01-01

    A duopigatron ion source is modified by replacing the normal oxide-coated wire filament cathode of the ion source with a hot tungsten oven through which hydrogen gas is fed into the arc chamber. The hydrogen gas is predissociated in the hot oven prior to the arc discharge, and the recombination rate is minimized by hot walls inside of the arc chamber. With the use of the above modifications, the atomic H.sub.1.sup.+ ion fraction output can be increased from the normal 50% to greater than 70% with a corresponding decrease in the H.sub.2.sup.+ and H.sub.3.sup.+ molecular ion fraction outputs from the ion source.

  16. Effects of a dielectric material in an ion source on the ion beam current density and ion beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Y. Sakakita, H.; Nakamiya, A.; Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S.

    2016-02-15

    To understand a strong focusing phenomenon that occurs in a low-energy hydrogen ion beam, the electron temperature, the electron density, and the space potential in an ion source with cusped magnetic fields are measured before and after the transition to the focusing state using an electrostatic probe. The experimental results show that no significant changes are observed before or after the transition. However, we found unique phenomena that are characterized by the position of the electrostatic probe in the ion source chamber. Specifically, the extracted ion beam current density and energy are obviously enhanced in the case where the electrostatic probe, which is covered by a dielectric material, is placed close to an acceleration electrode.

  17. EPR and optical absorption studies on Gd 3+ ions in ammonium hydrogen malonate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripal, Ram; Mishra, Indrajeet

    2010-01-01

    X-Band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of Gd 3+ ions in ammonium hydrogen malonate single crystals have been done at room temperature. Detailed EPR analysis indicates the presence of four physically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent sites. The zero-field splitting parameters and g factor are determined. The Gd 3+ ion is in 8S state; its levels are split by the action of the crystalline electric field of monoclinic symmetry. The optical absorption spectra of Gd 3+ ions in single crystals of ammonium hydrogen malonate are also recorded at room temperature. The energy levels of the 4f 7 configuration are calculated and compared with those observed experimentally. The values of E1=5854±11, E2=31±0.36, E3=592±3.3 and ζ 4f=1595±25 cm -1 are found to give the best over-all agreement between experimentally observed and calculated levels.

  18. Hydrogen pathways for massive solar energy utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastri, M. V. C.; Krishna Murthy, M. V.

    Two characteristic features of solar radiation, though beneficial and even essential for plant and animal life, are serious handicaps to the large-scale commercial utilization of solar energy. These are: (1) its diffuse nature and relatively low level of intensity, and (2) its diurnal intermittency and periodic variations. The first-mentioned factor implies a need for large collecting and concentrating devices and vast land areas, which may not always be available, especially in densely populated and industrialized localities, where the energy need will be most. Location of the collectors far removed from the centers of demand will engender the problems of energy transmission. The obvious solution to these problems is to provide an effective means by which sunshine energy can be stored in a form that can be transported and used subsequently when and where required. Conversion to hydrogen through the highly endergonic dissociation of water provides a very capacious and versatile means for solar energy storage and distribution. More importantly, it 'decouples' the primary energy source completely from its end-uses and thus enables it to subserve all the energy needs of industrialized society, unhampered by the constraints characteristic of the prime source and indeed, as efficiently as petroleum fuels. The paper discusses the merits of this proposal and the methods by which it may be achieved in the near term and long term.

  19. Intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, C.; Tamain, B.

    The intermediate energy heavy ion induced reactions are extensively studied for several years. In this paper, we try to summarize the present knowledge. The peripheral reactions appear to be intermediate between the fragmentation and the deep inelastic regimes. Many questions remain open concerning the energy relaxation mechanisms and an eventual participant zone creation. In the case of central collisions, it has been shown that very hot nuclei can be built. The fusion limits are discussed and the very hot nuclei properties are considered. In some cases, hot spot formation or compression effects could play a role. Multifragmentation is discussed as a possible decay channel. In all these aspects, a difficult question concerns the validity of the temperature concept and more generally of collective thermodynamical variables. Such collective effects have been investigated in pion production experiments. Les réactions induites par ions lourds d'énergie intermédiaire sont très étudiées depuis quelques années. Dans cet article, nous essayons de résumer l'état actuel des connaissances. Les mécanismes mis en jeu dans les collisions périphériques sont intermédiaires entre les collisions très inélastiques et la fragmentation. La cible joue clairement un rôle déterminant et des effets importants de champ moyen demeurent. De nombreuses questions restent sans réponse comme par exemple les mécanismes de relaxation d'énergie ou l'existence d'une éventuelle zone participante. Dans le cas des collisions centrales, il a pu être montré que des noyaux très chauds sont fabriqués. Les limites au processus de fusion et les propriétés des noyaux très chauds sont discutées. Dans certains cas, des effets de compression ou de points chauds peuvent être envisagés. La multifragmentation est une voie de désexcitation possible. Une importante question concerne la validité du concept de température et plus généralement la notion de variable collective

  20. Displacement of the proton in hydrogen-bonded complexes of hydrogen fluoride by beryllium and magnesium ions

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Sean A. C.

    2009-05-14

    The displacement of the proton by a beryllium ion and by a magnesium ion from hydrogen-bonded complexes of hydrogen fluoride, of varying hydrogen bond strengths, was investigated theoretically using ab initio methods. Stable metal-containing species were obtained from all of the hydrogen-bonded complexes regardless of the strength of the hydrogen bond. It was found that the beryllium ion was energetically very effective in displacing the proton from hydrogen bonds, whereas the magnesium ion was unable to do so. The high stability of the beryllium-containing complexes is mainly due to the strong electrostatic bonding between the beryllium and fluoride atoms. This work supports the recent finding from a multidisciplinary bioinorganic study that beryllium displaces the proton in many strong hydrogen bonds.

  1. Displacement of the proton in hydrogen-bonded complexes of hydrogen fluoride by beryllium and magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Sean A C

    2009-05-14

    The displacement of the proton by a beryllium ion and by a magnesium ion from hydrogen-bonded complexes of hydrogen fluoride, of varying hydrogen bond strengths, was investigated theoretically using ab initio methods. Stable metal-containing species were obtained from all of the hydrogen-bonded complexes regardless of the strength of the hydrogen bond. It was found that the beryllium ion was energetically very effective in displacing the proton from hydrogen bonds, whereas the magnesium ion was unable to do so. The high stability of the beryllium-containing complexes is mainly due to the strong electrostatic bonding between the beryllium and fluoride atoms. This work supports the recent finding from a multidisciplinary bioinorganic study that beryllium displaces the proton in many strong hydrogen bonds.

  2. Measurement of Gas Temperature in Negative Hydrogen Ion Source by Wavelength-Modulated Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Kisaki, M.; Tsumori, K.; NIFS-NBI Team

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of the energy distribution of hydrogen atom is important and essential to understand the production mechanism of its negative ion (H-) in cesium-seeded negative ion sources. In this work, we evaluated the temperature of atomic hydrogen in the large-scale arc-discharge negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS by wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy. The laser beam was passed through the adjacent region to the grid electrode for extracting negative ions. The frequency of the laser was scanned slowly over the whole range of the Doppler width (100 GHz in 1s). A sinusoidal frequency modulation at 600 Hz with a width of 30 GHz was superposed onto the slow modulation. The transmitted laser was detected using a photodiode, and its second harmonic component of the sinusoidal modulation was amplified using a lock-in amplifier. The obtained spectrum was in good agreement with an expected spectrum of the Doppler-broadened Balmer- α line. The estimated temperature of atomic hydrogen was approximately 3000 K. The absorption increased with the arc-discharge power, while the temperature was roughly independent of the power. This work is supported by the NIFS Collaboration Research Program NIFS13KLER021.

  3. Hydrogen in the U.S. energy picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.; Manvi, R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of hydrogen in the U.S. program performed by the Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology (HEST) investigation is reported. Historic production and use of hydrogen, hydrogen use projections, hydrogen supply, economics of hydrogen production and supply, and future research and development needs are discussed. The study found current U.S. hydrogen utilization to be dominated by chemical and petroleum industries, and to represent 3% of total energy consumption. Hydrogen uses are projected to grow by a factor of 5 to 20 during the remainder of this century, and new applications in synthetic fuel from coal manufacture and directly as energy storage or fuel are expected to develop. The study concluded that development of new methods of supplying hydrogen replacing natural gas and petroleum feedstocks with alternate sources such as coal and heavy oils, and electrolysis techniques is imperative.

  4. Hydrogen in the U.S. energy picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.; Manvi, R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of hydrogen in the U.S. program performed by the Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology (HEST) investigation is reported. Historic production and use of hydrogen, hydrogen use projections, hydrogen supply, economics of hydrogen production and supply, and future research and development needs are discussed. The study found current U.S. hydrogen utilization to be dominated by chemical and petroleum industries, and to represent 3% of total energy consumption. Hydrogen uses are projected to grow by a factor of 5 to 20 during the remainder of this century, and new applications in synthetic fuel from coal manufacture and directly as energy storage or fuel are expected to develop. The study concluded that development of new methods of supplying hydrogen replacing natural gas and petroleum feedstocks with alternate sources such as coal and heavy oils, and electrolysis techniques is imperative.

  5. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Batalin, V. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Litovko, I. V.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J; Storozhenko, P. A.

    2008-02-15

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P{sup 2+} [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+}Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  6. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  7. Optical damage assessment and recovery investigation of hydrogen-ion and deuterium-ion plasma-irradiated bulk ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Empizo, Melvin John F.; Yamanoi, Kohei; Mori, Kazuyuki; Iwano, Keisuke; Iwasa, Yuki; Minami, Yuki; Arita, Ren; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Takano, Keisuke; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Makoto; Yoshimura, Masashi; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Hangyo, Masanori; Azechi, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tsuguo; Singidas, Bess G.; Sarmago, Roland V.; Oya, Makoto; Ueda, Yoshio

    2017-05-01

    In realizing zinc oxide (ZnO) scintillator applications, we assess the optical damage and investigate the recovery of hydrogen-ion (H-ion) and deuterium-ion (D-ion) plasma-irradiated bulk ZnO single crystals. Hydrothermal-grown bulk crystals are irradiated with H-ion and D-ion beams with 1 keV energy and ˜ 10 20 m - 2 s - 1 flux. After irradiation, the single crystals exhibit decreased visible transparencies, redshifted ultraviolet (UV) emission peaks, shortened UV emission lifetimes, and suppressed visible emission bands. These changes in the optical transmittances and photoluminescence emissions are attributed to the generation of defects during irradiation and to the interaction of hydrogen with other defects and/or impurities. Although modified by ion irradiation, the optical properties of the ZnO crystals, except for the UV emission lifetimes, recover hours after without any sample treatment and only at room temperature. Compared with the H-ion-irradiated sample, the D-ion-irradiated crystal has a slower recovery which may be related to the ions' masses, energy losses, and absolute diffusivities. Our results nevertheless show that bulk ZnO single crystals exhibit resistance to and recovery from H-ion and D-ion irradiation and can therefore be used as scintillator materials for radiation detectors inside future fusion reactors.

  8. Metastability of isoformyl ions in collisions with helium and hydrogen. [in interstellar molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1984-01-01

    The stability of HOC(+) ions under conditions in interstellar molecular clouds is considered. In particular, the possibility that collisions with helium or hydrogen will induce isomerization to the stable HCO(+) form is examined theoretically. Portions of the electronic potential energy surfaces for interaction with He and H atoms are obtained from standard quantum mechanical calculations. Collisions with He atoms are found to be totally ineffective for inducing isomerization. Collisions with H atoms are found to be ineffective at low interstellar temperatures owing to a small (about 500 K) barrier in the entrance channel; at higher temperatures where this barrier can be overcome, however, collisions with hydrogen atoms do result in conversion to the stable HCO(+) form. Although detailed calculations are not presented, it is argued that low-energy collisions with H2 molecules are also ineffective in destroying the metastable ion.

  9. Ion Pairs or Neutral Molecule Adducts? Cooperativity in Hydrogen Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKock, Roger L.; Schipper, Laura A.; Dykhouse, Stephanie C.; Heeringa, Lee P.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies on the systems NH[subscript 3] times HF times mH[subscript 2]O, NH[subscript 3] times HCl times mH[subscript 2]O, with m = 0, 1, 2, and 6. The molecules with m = 0 form hydrogen-bonded adducts with little tendency to form an ion-pair structure. The molecule NH[subscript 3] times HCl times H[subscript 2]O cannot be…

  10. Ion Pairs or Neutral Molecule Adducts? Cooperativity in Hydrogen Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKock, Roger L.; Schipper, Laura A.; Dykhouse, Stephanie C.; Heeringa, Lee P.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies on the systems NH[subscript 3] times HF times mH[subscript 2]O, NH[subscript 3] times HCl times mH[subscript 2]O, with m = 0, 1, 2, and 6. The molecules with m = 0 form hydrogen-bonded adducts with little tendency to form an ion-pair structure. The molecule NH[subscript 3] times HCl times H[subscript 2]O cannot be…

  11. Hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, D.S.; Vaniman, D.T.; Anderson, J.L.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Feber, R.C. Jr.; Frost, H.M.; Meek, T.T.; Wallace, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering hydrogen from extraterrestrial materials (lunar and Martian soils, asteroids) using microwave energy is presented. Reasons for harvesting and origins and locations of hydrogen are reviewed. Problems of hydrogen recovery are discussed in terms of hydrogen release characteristics and microwave coupling to insulating materials. From results of studies of hydrogen diffusivities (oxides, glasses) and tritium release (oxides) as well as studies of microwave coupling to ilmenite, alkali basalt and ceramic oxides it is concluded that using microwave energy in hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials could be the basis for a workable process.

  12. The case for solar/hydrogen energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    Available solar technologies for producing H2-based fuels for all uses by the turn of the century are discussed. Although the annual global insolation is over 20 times the total remaining fossil fuels, the source is diffuse and variable, and areas of greatest input are not collocated with sites of greatest use. Therefore, the H2 supply must be transportable and storable, and the production facilities require large areas. Hydrogen fuels have a naturally occurring, nearly limitless supply, water, are nonpolluting, recyclable, and have the highest energy conversion efficiency of all liquid fuels. The production energy sources feasible before the year 2000 are identified as thermal heat engines, solar cells, hydroelectric plants, and wind turbines. Water electrolysis is concluded to be the sole method available for solar/hydrogen systems, and it is shown that ocean cryotanker transport of H2 fuels could be accomplished at the same efficiency and cost as with LNG fuels. Systems for production and/or storage of H2 fuels for the home, in automobiles, and on ocean platforms are described, and an international program to develop the H2-based fuel system is recommended.

  13. Microsecond pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions stored in a linear ion trap.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Khadijeh

    2015-02-07

    A pulse of D2O vapour on the order of microseconds is allowed to react with the +6 to +9 charge states of ubiquitin confined in a linear ion trap (LIT). Two envelopes of peaks are detected for the ions of ubiquitin, corresponding to the ions that exchange more quickly and more slowly. The deuterium uptake of the protonated sites on ubiquitin ions accounts for the ion population with the fast exchange. The hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) kinetics of ubiquitin ions trapped in the LIT for 200 ms showed comparable structural transitions to those trapped for 300 ms. When ions are trapped for longer, i.e. up to 2000 ms, mainly the slow exchanging ion population is detected. In all experiments the +7 ions exchange the most, suggesting a short distance between the surface protonated sites and nearby charged sites, and concomitantly high accessibility of surface protonated sites towards D2O. The +6 ions are more compact than the +7 ions but have one fewer protonated site, therefore fewer surface availabilities for D2O attack. The data suggest that the +6 ions keep most of their solution-phase contacts intact while the hydrophobic core is slightly interrupted in the +7 ions, possibly due to the exposure of charged His68 that is normally buried in the hydrophobic pocket. The +8 and +9 ions have more protonated sites but are less compact than the +7 ions because of Coulombic repulsion, resulting in a larger distance between the protonated sites and the basic sites. The data indicate that the HDX mechanism of ions with the slower exchange corresponding to the second envelope of peaks is primarily governed via a relay mechanism. The results suggest that the pulsed HDX MS method is sampling a population of ubiquitin ions with a similar backbone fold to the solution.

  14. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    SciTech Connect

    Akai, Makoto

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  15. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies of Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, Ilija N; Seely, D. G.; McCammon, D; Havener, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    Accurate studies of low energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H like, and He like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H like ions of C, N, O and fully stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV u 20 keV u) and compared to previous H oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV u 3.3 keV u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  16. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C.; Seely, D. G.; McCammon, D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  17. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Phillip W. K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2017-03-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  18. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  19. Spectroscopic observation of helium-ion- and hydrogen-catalyzed hydrino transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Randell L.; Lu, Ying; Akhtar, Kamran

    2010-06-01

    Four predictions of Mills’ Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUTCP) regarding atomic hydrogen undergoing a catalytic reaction with certain atomized elements and ions which resonantly, nonradiatively accept integer multiples of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, m · 27.2 eV wherein m is an integer, have been confirmed experimentally. Specifically, a catalyst comprises a chemical or physical process with an enthalpy change equal to an integer multiple m of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, 27.2 eV. For He+ m = 2, due to its ionization reaction to He2+, and two H atoms formed from H2 by collision with a third, hot H can also act as a catalyst with m = 2 for this third H. The product is H(1/ p), fractional Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen called “hydrino atoms” wherein n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, …, 1/ p( p≤137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. The predictions for the hydrino reaction of (1) pumping of the catalyst excited states, (2) characteristic EUV continuum radiation, (3) fast H, and (4) hydrino products were observed in multiple catalyst-hydrogen plasma systems.

  20. Spectroscopic observation of helium-ion- and hydrogen-catalyzed hydrino transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Randell; Lu, Ying; Akhtar, Kamran

    2010-06-01

    Four predictions of Mills' Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUTCP) regarding atomic hydrogen undergoing a catalytic reaction with certain atomized elements and ions which resonantly, nonradiatively accept integer multiples of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, m · 27.2 eV wherein m is an integer, have been confirmed experimentally. Specifically, a catalyst comprises a chemical or physical process with an enthalpy change equal to an integer multiple m of the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, 27.2 eV. For He+ m = 2, due to its ionization reaction to He2+, and two H atoms formed from H2 by collision with a third, hot H can also act as a catalyst with m = 2 for this third H. The product is H(1/p), fractional Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen called "hydrino atoms" wherein n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, …, 1/p(p≤137 is an integer) replaces the well-known parameter n = integer in the Rydberg equation for hydrogen excited states. The predictions for the hydrino reaction of (1) pumping of the catalyst excited states, (2) characteristic EUV continuum radiation, (3) fast H, and (4) hydrino products were observed in multiple catalyst-hydrogen plasma systems.

  1. The negative hydrogen Penning ion gauge ion source for KIRAMS-13 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    An, D. H.; Jung, I. S.; Kang, J.; Chang, H. S.; Hong, B. H.; Hong, S.; Lee, M. Y.; Kim, Y.; Yang, T. K.; Chai, J. S.

    2008-02-15

    The cold-cathode-type Penning ion gauge (PIG) ion source for the internal ion source of KIRAMS-13 cyclotron has been used for generation of negative hydrogen ions. The dc H-beam current of 650 {mu}A from the PIG ion source with the Dee voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.0 A is extrapolated from the measured dc extraction beam currents at the low extraction dc voltages. The output optimization of PIG ion source in the cyclotron has been carried out by using various chimneys with different sizes of the expansion gap between the plasma boundary and the chimney wall. This paper presents the results of the dc H-extraction measurement and the expansion gap experiment.

  2. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D. R.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Havener, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  3. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  4. The Behavior of Ion-Implanted Hydrogen in Gallium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Headley, T.J.; Hills, C.R.; Han, J.; Petersen, G.A.; Seager, C.H.; Wampler, W.R.

    1999-01-07

    Hydrogen was ion-implanted into wurtzite-phase GaN, and its transport, bound states, and microstructural effects during annealing up to 980 C were investigated by nuclear-reaction profiling, ion-channeling analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy. At implanted concentrations 1 at.%, faceted H{sub 2} bubbles formed, enabling identification of energetically preferred surfaces, examination of passivating N-H states on these surfaces, and determination of the diffusivity-solubility product of the H. Additionally, the formation and evolution of point and extended defects arising from implantation and bubble formation were characterized. At implanted H concentrations 0.1 at.%, bubble formation was not observed, and ion-channeling analysis indicated a defect-related H site located within the [0001] channel.

  5. Hydrogen Highways: Lessons on the Energy Technology-Policy Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waegel, Alex; Byrne, John; Tobin, Daniel; Haney, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently. Common reasons cited for investigating hydrogen energy options are improved energy security, reduced environmental impacts, and its contribution to a transition to sustainable energy sources. In anticipation of these benefits, national and local initiatives have been launched in the…

  6. Hydrogen Highways: Lessons on the Energy Technology-Policy Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waegel, Alex; Byrne, John; Tobin, Daniel; Haney, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently. Common reasons cited for investigating hydrogen energy options are improved energy security, reduced environmental impacts, and its contribution to a transition to sustainable energy sources. In anticipation of these benefits, national and local initiatives have been launched in the…

  7. Apparent Velocity Threshold in the Electronic Stopping of Slow Hydrogen Ions in LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Draxler, M.; Chenakin, S.P.; Markin, S.N.; Bauer, P.

    2005-09-09

    The electronic energy loss of hydrogen ions (protons and deuterons) in thin supported films of LiF has been studied in backscattering geometry for specific energies from 700 eV/u to 700 keV/u, using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and time-of-flight low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. For specific energies below 8 keV/u, our data confirm velocity proportionality for the stopping cross section {epsilon} (like in a metal) down to 3.8 keV/u, as observed previously for protons and antiprotons despite the large band gap (14 eV) of LiF. Below 3.8 keV/u, the present results indicate an apparent velocity threshold at about 0.1 a.u. for the onset of electronic stopping.

  8. Sputtering Threshold Energies of Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, Maris A.

    1999-01-01

    Sputter erosion in ion thrusters has been measured in lifetests at discharge voltages as low as 25 V. Thruster operation at this discharge voltage results in component erosion rates sufficiently low to satisfy most mission requirements. It has been recognized that most of the internal sputtering in ion thrusters is done by doubly charged ions. Knowledge of the sputtering threshold voltage of a xenon molybdenum system would be beneficial in understanding the sputtering process as well as making more accurate calculations of the sputtering rates of ion thruster components. Sputtering threshold energies calculated from various formulations found in the literature results in values ranging from 28 to 200 eV. It is evident that some of these formulations cannot be relied upon to provide sputtering thresholds with any degree of accuracy. This paper re-examines the threshold energies measurements made in the early sixties by Askerov and Sena, and Stuart and Wehner. The threshold voltages as derived by Askerov and au have been reevaluated by using a different extrapolation method of sputter yields at low ion energies. The resulting threshold energies are in general similar to those measured by Stuart and Wehner. An empirical relationship is derived,for mercury and xenon ions for the ratio of the sputtering threshold energy to the sublimation energy as a function of the ratio of target to ion atomic mass.

  9. Ion energy spread and current measurements of the rf-driven multicusp ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Pickard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.

    1997-03-01

    Axial energy spread and useful beam current of positive ion beams have been carried out using a radio frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion source. Operating the source with a 13.56 MHz induction discharge, the axial energy spread is found to be approximately 3.2 eV. The extractable beam current of the rf-driven source is found to be comparable to that of filament-discharge sources. With a 0.6 mm diameter extraction aperture, a positive hydrogen ion beam current density of 80 mA/cm2 can be obtained at a rf input power of 2.5 kW. The expected source lifetime is much longer than that of filament discharges.

  10. Hydrogen permeation of carbon steel in weak alkaline solution containing hydrogen sulfide and cyanide ion

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakawa, K; Nishimura, R.

    1999-01-01

    The hydrogen permeation behavior of carbon steel (CS) was investigated electrochemically in weak alkaline solutions containing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) with various cyanide ion (CN{sup {minus}}) concentrations under open-circuit conditions. Anodic and cathodic polarization behaviors of CS also were investigated under the same environmental conditions. Little hydrogen content (C{sub 0}) was detected in alkaline solutions without CN{sup {minus}}. However, when a small amount of CN was added in the alkaline solution, a rapid increase in C{sub 0} was observed after the induction time, which corresponded to a rapid decrease in rest potential. Surface abrasion also produced a similar increase in C{sub o} in the presence of CN{sup {minus}}. Results were explained in terms of formation and destruction of iron sulfide (FeS), soluble species of H{sub 2}S, and iron dissolution.

  11. Hydrogen-induced defects in ion-implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socher, S.; Lavrov, E. V.; Weber, J.

    2012-09-01

    Single crystalline silicon implanted with 28Si ions and subsequently hydrogenated from an rf plasma at 200∘C is studied by Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A broad Raman band at 3830 cm-1 previously assigned to the rovibrational transitions of hydrogen molecules trapped in Si multivacancies [Ishioka , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.60.10852 60, 10852 (1999)] reveals a complex line shape at 60 K. In contrast, our study correlates the Raman band to three different localized traps for hydrogen molecules which are identified from the dependence on the ion dose and annealing behavior. Each of these traps, which is saturated with H2, gives rise to three Raman transitions due to para- and ortho-H2. The H2 signals are shown to correlate with the Si-H vibrational modes at 1888, 1930, and 1964 cm-1. Ortho to para conversion rates of H2 at 77 K and room temperature were found to be 62±15 and 8±2 h, respectively.

  12. Hydrogen Tunneling above Room Temperature Evidenced by Infrared Ion Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Mathias; Peckelsen, Katrin; Paul, Mathias; Martens, Jonathan; Oomens, Jos; Berden, Giel; Berkessel, Albrecht; Meijer, Anthony J H M

    2017-04-26

    While hydrogen tunneling at elevated temperatures has, for instance, often been postulated in biochemical processes, spectroscopic proof is thus far limited to cryogenic conditions, under which thermal reactivity is negligible. We report spectroscopic evidence for H-tunneling in the gas phase at temperatures around 320-350 K observed in the isomerization reaction of a hydroxycarbene into an aldehyde. The charge-tagged carbene was generated in situ in a tandem mass spectrometer by decarboxylation of oxo[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]acetic acid upon collision induced dissociation. All ion structures involved are characterized by infrared ion spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The charge-tagged phenylhydroxycarbene undergoes a 1,2-H-shift to the corresponding aldehyde with an half-life of about 10 s, evidenced by isomer-selective two-color (IR-IR) spectroscopy. In contrast, the deuterated (OD) carbene analogue showed much reduced 1,2-D-shift reactivity with an estimated half-life of at least 200 s under the experimental conditions, and provides clear evidence for hydrogen atom tunneling in the H-isotopologue. This is the first spectroscopic confirmation of hydrogen atom tunneling governing 1,2-H-shift reactions at noncryogenic temperatures, which is of broad significance for a range of (bio)chemical processes, including enzymatic transformations and organocatalysis.

  13. Dependence of low energy ion beam exposure effects in silicon on ion species, exposure history, and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. J.; Climent, A.; Fonash, S. J.

    1985-03-01

    Several groups have shown that low energy (25-1500 eV) ion bombardment of silicon causes significant surface damage; these disordered layers are hundreds of ángströms deep and are easily characterized by electron spin resonance and Rutherford backscattering techniques. This surface damage also manifests itself as positive charge residing at the metal-semiconductor interface of metal contacts to these layers. Recently we have shown that this damage increases with the inverse of the ion size, if ion energy is kept constant. However, we have demonstrated that impingement by the lightest of ions (H +) can electrically passivate the damage caused by other ions; namely, hydrogen itself causes extensive damage, but it also passivates by tying up dangling bonds. This interaction of hydrogen with the damage caused by other ions is fairly complex. For example, the 0.4 keV hydrogen ions used to completely passivate 1.0 keV Ar + ion damage (as determined by electrical measurements) cause significant disorder and result in electrically active damage, when not preceded by the Ar + impingement. Thus low energy ion beam damage is found to depend on ion size, ion chemical activity, and sample exposure history. In addition, we have also seen significant differences in the annealing behavior of ion damage in float-zoned versus Czochralski-grown silicon. While 1.0 keV Ar + damage of CZ silicon anneals only at 1000°C, damaged FZ silicon anneals nearly completely at 800°C. Such behavior strongly suggests that background oxygen and carbon may play a role in ion beam damage of silicon.

  14. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 ..mu..sec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of ion bombardment on hydrogen terminated Si(001)2×1 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Koji; Graves, David B.

    2003-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate H2+ and SiH3+ ion bombardment of hydrogen terminated Si(001)2×1 surfaces. Normal incidence ion bombardment effects on dangling bond generation, adatom diffusion, and nucleation were studied as a function of incident energy between 10 and 40 eV. The dangling bond generation rate due to H2+ impacts at 20 and 40 eV was about twice that of SiH3+. However these effects appeared to be insignificant compared to probable neutral radical effects under typical plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition conditions. The enhanced diffusion of Si adatoms due to ion bombardment was observed to be minor in comparison with thermal diffusion and the disruption of ledge sites due to SiH3+ ion bombardment is not significant, with ion incident energies up to 40 eV. Ion bombardment in the incident energy range between 10 and 20 eV can contribute the modification of surface kinetics without bulk damage.

  16. Research Issues for Development of Hydrogen Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi

    It is generally considered that use of hydrogen in energy system is attractive because it produces no matters to cause air pollution or water pollution. Following this recognition, research to develop a car with low temperature fuel cell or hydrogen engine is extensively performed. The future energy system where hydrogen is used as the key material is shown in the figure below. To realize this system we must develop 1) the reasonable way to produce electricity or heat by using hydrogen as fuel, 2) the infrastructure to supply hydrogen to whole society, 3) energy sources and methods to produce huge amount of cheap hydrogen with minimum impact on nature, 4) together with assurance of resources to construct the system and 5) establishment of understanding about the basic behavior of hydrogen in various materials.

  17. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  18. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Long, J. D.; He, X. Z.; Zhang, K. Z.; Zhang, L. W.; Wang, X.

    2012-06-15

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H{sup -} beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H{sup -} beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  19. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Yang, Z; Dong, P; long, J D; He, X Z; Wang, X; Zhang, K Z; Zhang, L W

    2012-06-01

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H(-)) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H(-) beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H(-) beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance heating by magnetic filter field in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, June Young Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-02-15

    The influence of magnetic filter field on plasma properties in the heating region has been investigated in a planar-type inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) H{sup −} ion source. Besides filtering high energy electrons near the extraction region, the magnetic filter field is clearly observed to increase the electron temperature in the heating region at low pressure discharge. With increasing the operating pressure, enhancement of electron temperature in the heating region is reduced. The possibility of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in the heating region due to stray magnetic field generated by a filter magnet located at the extraction region is examined. It is found that ECR heating by RF wave field in the discharge region, where the strength of an axial magnetic field is approximately ∼4.8 G, can effectively heat low energy electrons. Depletion of low energy electrons in the electron energy distribution function measured at the heating region supports the occurrence of ECR heating. The present study suggests that addition of axial magnetic field as small as several G by an external electromagnet or permanent magnets can greatly increase the generation of highly ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region, thus improving the performance of H{sup −} ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  1. Understanding the mechanism of DNA deactivation in ion therapy of cancer cells: hydrogen peroxide action*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatnytskyi, Dmytro V.; Zdorevskyi, Oleksiy O.; Perepelytsya, Sergiy M.; Volkov, Sergey N.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the medium of biological cells under ion beam irradiation has been considered as a possible cause of cell function disruption in the living body. The interaction of hydrogen peroxide, a long-lived molecular product of water radiolysis, with active sites of DNA macromolecule was studied, and the formation of stable DNA-peroxide complexes was considered. The phosphate groups of the macromolecule backbone were picked out among the atomic groups of DNA double helix as a probable target for interaction with hydrogen peroxide molecules. Complexes consisting of combinations including: the DNA phosphate group, H2O2 and H2O molecules, and Na+ counterion, were considered. The counterions have been taken into consideration insofar as under the natural conditions they neutralise DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. The energy of the complexes have been determined by considering the electrostatic and the Van der Waals interactions within the framework of atom-atom potential functions. As a result, the stability of various configurations of molecular complexes was estimated. It was shown that DNA phosphate groups and counterions can form stable complexes with hydrogen peroxide molecules, which are as stable as the complexes with water molecules. It has been demonstrated that the formation of stable complexes of H2O2-Na+-PO4- may be detected experimentally by observing specific vibrations in the low-frequency Raman spectra. The interaction of H2O2 molecule with phosphate group of the double helix backbone can disrupt DNA biological function and induce the deactivation of the cell genetic apparatus. Thus, the production of hydrogen peroxide molecules in the nucleus of living cells can be considered as an additional mechanism by which high-energy ion beams destroy tumour cells during ion beam therapy. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo García, Eugene

  2. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O.

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  3. Energy loss of hydrogen projectiles in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefermueller, A.; Golser, R.; Stohl, R.; Semrad, D. )

    1993-12-01

    The stopping cross sections of H[sub 2], D[sub 2], He, and Ne for hydrogen projectiles in the energy range 3--20 keV per nucleon have been measured by time of flight. We compare our experimental result to the sum of the individual contributions due to excitation and ionization of the target and of the projectile, respectively, and due to charge exchange, using published cross-section data. Satisfactory agreement is found only for the He target and only at moderate projectile velocities, whereas for H[sub 2] and D[sub 2] the calculated values are about 30% too low. A Monte Carlo program allows us to simulate the measured time-of-flight spectra and to explain minor trends in the experimental data: for increased Ne gas pressure, an increased specific energy loss has been found that can be traced to different regions of impact parameters selected in our transmission geometry. This also explains, in part, the increased specific energy loss for deuterons compared to protons of equal velocity that is most evident for Ne. In contrast, a decrease of the specific energy loss with increasing pressure for He may be explained by impurities in the target gas. If we correct for the effect of impurities, the stopping cross section of He at 4 keV per nucleon is slightly smaller (0.60[times]10[sup [minus]15] eV cm[sup 2]) than published earlier (0.72[times]10[sup [minus]15] eV cm[sup 2]) and depends on the 3.8th power of projectile velocity.

  4. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  5. Low energy ion distribution around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Tanaka, T.; Asamura, K.; Nishino, M. N.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2009-04-01

    More than a year has passed since MAP-PACE onboard KAGUYA (SELENE) started continuous observation of the low energy charged particles around the Moon from 100km-altitude polar orbit. MAP (MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment) was developed for the comprehensive measurement of the magnetic field and three-dimensional plasma around the Moon. MAP consists of MAP-LMAG (Lunar MAGnetometer) and MAP-PACE (Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment). MAP-PACE consists of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). Since each sensor has hemispherical field of view, two electron sensors and two ion sensors that are installed on the spacecraft panels opposite to each other can make full 3-dimensional measurements of low energy electrons and ions. One of the ion sensors IMA is an energy mass spectrometer. IMA measures mass identified ion energy spectra that have never been obtained at 100km altitude around the Moon. Low energy charged particles around the Moon were vigorously observed by Moon orbiting satellites and plasma instrumentation placed on the lunar surface in 1960s and 1970s. Though there were some satellites that explored the Moon afterwards, most of them were dedicated to the global mapping of the lunar surface. There has been almost no new information about the low energy charged particles around the Moon except the low energy electron measurement by Lunar Prospector, the lunar wake plasma data obtained by WIND during its Moon fly-by, and reports on remote detection of the lunar ions, lunar electrons and ULF waves generated by electron beams around the lunar wake. The newly observed data show characteristic ion distributions around the Moon. Besides the solar wind, MAP-PACE-IMA discovered four clearly distinguishable ion distributions: 1) Solar wind ions reflected/scattered at the lunar surface, 2) Solar wind ions reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, 3) Ions that are

  6. Effect of chloride ions on adsorption and permeation of hydrogen in iron

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, A.M.; Pickering, H.W.; Ateya, B.G.

    1997-04-01

    Effects of chloride ions on hydrogen absorption into iron and on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on an iron surface were studied in acid and alkaline solutions at 23 C using the permeation method of Devanathan and Stachurski. Cl{sup {minus}} ions reduced the overpotential ({eta}) for HER and, in turn, reduced hydrogen coverage and permeation.Effects on hydrogen permeation were more pronounced in alkaline than in acid solutions. Permeation transients at constant electrode potential of he charging surface and subsequent surface analyses of the uppermost atom layers of the hydrogen-charged iron surface indicated a reversible or low coverage with Cl{sup {minus}} ions, a low hydrogen coverage that was not influenced significantly by Cl{sup {minus}} ion concentration at low {eta}, and a marked effect of Cl{sup {minus}} ions in reducing hydrogen coverage of the surface and permeability in alkaline solutions at high cathodic polarizations.

  7. Measurements of low energy auroral ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, A.

    1981-12-01

    Ion measurements in the energy range 0.1-30 keV observed during the 'Substorm Phenomena' and 'Porcupine' campaigns are summarized. Acceleration of the ions by an electrostatic field aligned parallel to the magnetic field is identified and found to be accompanied by intense electron precipitation. On the other hand, deceleration of the ions is observed in other field-aligned current sheets which are indicated by the electron and magnetic field measurements. Temporal successive monoenergetic ion variations suggest energy dispersion and a location of the source region at 9 earth radii. What is more, ion fluxes higher than those of the electrons are measured at pitch angles parallel to the magnetic field. It is noted that each of the examples was observed during different flights.

  8. Relativistic effects in the photoionization of hydrogen-like ions with screened Coulomb interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, L. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.

    2014-06-15

    The relativistic effects in the photoionization of hydrogen-like ion with screened Coulomb interaction of Yukawa type are studied for a broad range of screening lengths and photoelectron energies. The bound and continuum wave functions have been determined by solving the Dirac equation. The study is focused on the relativistic effects manifested in the characteristic features of photoionization cross section for electric dipole nl→ε,l±1 transitions: shape resonances, Cooper minima and cross section enhancements due to near-zero-energy states. It is shown that the main source of relativistic effects in these cross section features is the fine-structure splitting of bound state energy levels. The relativistic effects are studied in the photoionization of Fe{sup 25+} ion, as an example.

  9. Capacitively coupled hydrogen plasmas sustained by tailored voltage waveforms: vibrational kinetics and negative ions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomede, P.; Bruneau, B.; Longo, S.; Johnson, E.; Booth, J.-P.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive hybrid model of a hydrogen capacitively coupled plasma, including a detailed description of the molecular vibrational kinetics, has been applied to the study of the effect of tailored voltage waveforms (TVWs) on the production kinetics and transport of negative ions in these discharges. Two kinds of TVWs are considered, valleys-to-peaks and saw-tooth, with amplitude and slope asymmetry respectively. By tailoring the voltage waveform only, it is possible to exert substantial control over the peak density and position of negative ions inside the discharge volume. This control is particularly effective for saw-tooth waveforms. Insight into the mechanisms allowing this control is provided by an analysis of the model results. This reveals the roles of the vibrational distribution function and of the electron energy distribution and their correlations, as well as changes in the negative ion transport in the electric field when using different TVWs. Considering the chemical reactivity of H- ions, the possibility of a purely electrical control of the negative ion cloud in a reactor operating with a feedstock gas diluted by hydrogen may find interesting applications. This is the first study of vibrational kinetics in the context of TVWs in molecular gases.

  10. Trapping and diffusion kinetic of hydrogen in carbon-cluster ion-implantation projected range in Czochralski silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Ryosuke; Masada, Ayumi; Kadono, Takeshi; Hirose, Ryo; Koga, Yoshihiro; Okuda, Hidehiko; Kurita, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the diffusion behavior of hydrogen in a silicon wafer made by a carbon-cluster ion-implantation technique after heat treatment and silicon epitaxial growth. A hydrogen peak was observed after high-temperature heat treatment (>1000 °C) and silicon epitaxial growth by secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis. We also confirmed that the hydrogen peak concentration decreased after epitaxial growth upon additional heat treatment. Such a hydrogen diffusion behavior has not been reported. Thus, we derived the activation energy from the projected range of a carbon cluster, assuming only a dissociation reaction, and obtained an activation energy of 0.76 ± 0.04 eV. This value is extremely close to that for the diffusion of hydrogen molecules located at the tetrahedral interstitial site and hydrogen molecules dissociated from multivacancies. Therefore, we assume that the hydrogen in the carbon-cluster projected range diffuses in the molecular state, and hydrogen remaining in the projected range forms complexes of carbon, oxygen, and vacancies.

  11. Thermochemical water decomposition. [hydrogen separation for energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    At present, nearly all of the hydrogen consumed in the world is produced by reacting hydrocarbons with water. As the supply of hydrocarbons diminishes, the problem of producing hydrogen from water alone will become increasingly important. Furthermore, producing hydrogen from water is a means of energy conversion by which thermal energy from a primary source, such as solar or nuclear fusion of fission, can be changed into an easily transportable and ecologically acceptable fuel. The attraction of thermochemical processes is that they offer the potential for converting thermal energy to hydrogen more efficiently than by water electrolysis. A thermochemical hydrogen-production process is one which requires only water as material input and mainly thermal energy, or heat, as an energy input. Attention is given to a definition of process thermal efficiency, the thermodynamics of the overall process, the single-stage process, the two-stage process, multistage processes, the work of separation and a process evaluation.

  12. Thermochemical water decomposition. [hydrogen separation for energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    At present, nearly all of the hydrogen consumed in the world is produced by reacting hydrocarbons with water. As the supply of hydrocarbons diminishes, the problem of producing hydrogen from water alone will become increasingly important. Furthermore, producing hydrogen from water is a means of energy conversion by which thermal energy from a primary source, such as solar or nuclear fusion of fission, can be changed into an easily transportable and ecologically acceptable fuel. The attraction of thermochemical processes is that they offer the potential for converting thermal energy to hydrogen more efficiently than by water electrolysis. A thermochemical hydrogen-production process is one which requires only water as material input and mainly thermal energy, or heat, as an energy input. Attention is given to a definition of process thermal efficiency, the thermodynamics of the overall process, the single-stage process, the two-stage process, multistage processes, the work of separation and a process evaluation.

  13. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee. Annual report-summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE officers represented on the Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee is presented. A historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of these offices is given. Distribution by mission-related program element and by the non-mission-related activities are tabulated for FY 1985. Total DOE funding in FY 1985 for mission-related hydrogen research was $4.1 million; DOE non-mission-related hydrogen research funding totaled $19.5 million. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information is given in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A.

  14. Ion exchange in KTiOPO4 crystals irradiated by copper and hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruifeng; Lu, Fei; Lian, Jie; Liu, Hanping; Liu, Xiangzhi; Lu, Qingming; Ma, Hongji

    2008-05-12

    Cs(+)-K+ ion exchanges were produced on KTiOPO4 crystals which is prior irradiated by Cu+ can H+ ions. The energy and dose of implanted Cu+ ions are 1.5 MeV and 0.5 x 10(14) ions/cm2, and that of H+ are 300 keV and 1 x 10(16) ions/cm2, respectively. The temperature of ions exchange is 430 degrees C, and the time range from 15 minutes to 30 minutes. The prism coupling method is used to measure the dark mode spectra of the samples. Compared with results of ion exchange on the sample without irradiations, both the number of guided mode and its corresponding effective refractive index are decreased. The experimental results indicate that the ion exchange rate closely related with the lattice damage and the damage layers formed in the depth of maximum nuclear energy deposition act as a barrier to block the ions diffuse into the sample and the concentration of defects can modify the speed of ion exchange..

  15. Note: Development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen Positive

    SciTech Connect

    Miracoli, R. Feuchtwanger, J.; Arredondo, I.; Belver, D.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Corres, J.; Djekic, S.; Echevarria, P.; Eguiraun, M.; Garmendia, N.; Muguira, L.

    2014-02-15

    The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported.

  16. Note: development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen positive.

    PubMed

    Miracoli, R; Feuchtwanger, J; Arredondo, I; Belver, D; Gonzalez, P J; Corres, J; Djekic, S; Echevarria, P; Eguiraun, M; Garmendia, N; Muguira, L

    2014-02-01

    The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported.

  17. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5-1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  18. Charge exchange and ionization in hydrogen atom-fully stripped ion collisions in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wang, J. G.; He, B.; Qiu, Y. B.; Janev, R. K.

    2007-05-15

    The processes of charge exchange and ionization in collisions of ground state hydrogen atom with fully stripped ions in a weakly coupled plasma are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method in the collision energy range 10-900 keV/amu. The interparticle interactions are described by the Debye-Hueckel model with inclusion of dynamical effects associated with the projectile velocity. The microcanonical distribution of initial state electronic coordinates and momenta has been determined by inclusion of plasma screening effects. The cross section dependencies on plasma parameters and ion charge and velocity are investigated. It is shown that plasma effects on charge exchange and ionization cross sections are significant and particularly pronounced at low collision velocities. The results of systematic cross section calculations for different values of Debye screening length (in the range 1-50a{sub 0}) and ion charges (in the range 1-14) are presented.

  19. Ground state of a hydrogen ion molecule immersed in an inhomogeneous electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Valdes, J.; Gutierrez, F. A.; Matamala, A. R.; Denton, C. D.; Vargas, P.; Valdes, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we have calculated the ground state energy of the hydrogen molecule, H2+, immersed in the highly inhomogeneous electron gas around a metallic surface within the local density approximation. The molecule is perturbed by the electron density of a crystalline surface of Au <1 0 0> with the internuclear axis parallel to the surface. The surface spatial electron density is calculated through a linearized band structure method (LMTO-DFT). The ground state of the molecule-ion was calculated using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for a fixed-ion while the screening effects of the inhomogeneous electron gas are depicted by a Thomas-Fermi like electrostatic potential. We found that within our model the molecular ion dissociates at the critical distance of 2.35 a.u. from the first atomic layer of the solid.

  20. Effect of bombardment with iron ions on the evolution of helium, hydrogen, and deuterium blisters in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, V. F.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Sokhatskii, A. S.; Zaluzhnyi, A. G.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of bombardment with iron ions on the evolution of gas porosity in silicon single crystals has been studied. Gas porosity has been produced by implantation hydrogen, deuterium, and helium ions with energies of 17, 12.5, and 20 keV, respectively, in identical doses of 1 × 1017 cm-2 at room temperature. For such energy of bombarding ions, the ion doping profiles have been formed at the same distance from the irradiated surface of the sample. Then, the samples have been bombarded with iron Fe10+ ions with energy of 150 keV in a dose of 5.9 × 1014 cm-2. Then 30-min isochoric annealing has been carried out with an interval of 50°C in the temperature range of 250-900°C. The samples have been analyzed using optical and electron microscopes. An extremely strong synergetic effect of sequential bombardment of silicon single crystals with gas ions and iron ions at room temperature on the nucleation and growth of gas porosity during postradiation annealing has been observed. For example, it has been shown that the amorphous layer formed in silicon by additional bombardment with iron ions stimulates the evolution of helium blisters, slightly retards the evolution of hydrogen blisters, and completely suppresses the evolution of deuterium blisters. The results of experiments do not provide an adequate explanation of the reason for this difference; additional targeted experiments are required.

  1. Some properties of Stark states of hydrogenic atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, J. D.

    2007-10-01

    The motivation for this work is the problem of providing accurate values of the atomic transition matrix elements for the Stark components of Rydberg Rydberg transitions in atomic hydrogen and hydrogenic ions, for use in spectral line broadening calculations applicable to cool, low-density plasmas, such as those found in H II regions. Since conventional methods of calculating these transition matrix elements cannot be used for the high principal quantum numbers now easily attained in radio astronomical spectra, we attempt to show that the recurrence relation (ladder operator) method recently employed by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889 97) and Hey (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641 64) can be taken over into the parabolic coordinate system used to describe the Stark states of the atomic (ionic) radiators. The present method is therefore suggested as potentially useful for extending the work of Griem (1967 Astrophys. J. 148 547 58, 2005 Astrophys. J. 620 L133 4), Watson (2006), Stambulchik et al (2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 016401(9 pp) on Stark broadening in transitions between states of high principal quantum number, to physical conditions where the binary, impact approximation is no longer strictly applicable to both electron and ion perturbers. Another possible field of application is the study of Stark mixing transitions in 'ultracold' Rydberg atoms perturbed by long-range interactions with slow atoms and ions. Preparatory to the derivation of recurrence relations for states of different principal quantum number, a number of properties and recurrence relations are also found for states of identical principal quantum number, including the analogue in parabolic coordinates to the relations of Pasternack (1937 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 23 91 4, 250) in spherical polar coordinates.

  2. Inelastic processes in ion/surface collisions: Direct recoil ion fractions as a function of kinetic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, J. Wayne; Chen, Jie-Nan

    1986-09-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of the scattered and recoiled particles resulting from 1-10 keV Ar+ ions impingent on surfaces of MgO, Mg(OH)2, graphite, Si, and SiO2 have been obtained. Measurements of directly recoiled (DR) neutrals plus ions and neutrals only are used to calculate positive and negative ion fractions Y+,- from DR events. These positive and negative ion yields observed for DR of H, C, O, and Si have distinctly different behavior as a function of ion kinetic energy. The Y+ values exhibit a ``threshold-type'' behavior with a steep rise followed by a slowly rising or plateau region at higher energy. The Y- values exhibit a maximum in the low energy region followed by a decreasing yield as energy increases. The Y-/Y+ ratio for C and O is very sensitive to the amount of hydrogen present, with the Y+ yields dropping as hydrogen concentration increases. The recently developed model for electronic transitions in keV ion/surface collisions which considers Auger and resonant transitions along the ion trajectory and electron promotions in the quasidiatomic molecule of the close atomic encounter is extended to include DR events. Analytical expressions for Y+,- are derived for the case of surface atoms in positive, neutral, and negative bonding environments. These model expressions are fitted to the experimental data, allowing determination of the probabilities of ionization in the close atomic encounter and of electron capture along the outgoing trajectory.

  3. Energy-banded ions in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Badman, S. V.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kivelson, M. G.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-05-01

    Using data from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer ion mass spectrometer, we report the first observation of energy-banded ions at Saturn. Observed near midnight at relatively high magnetic latitudes, the banded ions are dominantly H+, and they occupy the range of energies typically associated with the thermal pickup distribution in the inner magnetosphere (L < 10), but their energies decline monotonically with increasing radial distance (or time or decreasing latitude). Their pitch angle distribution suggests a source at low (or slightly southern) latitudes. The band energies, including their pitch angle dependence, are consistent with a bounce-resonant interaction between thermal H+ ions and the standing wave structure of a field line resonance. There is additional evidence in the pitch angle dependence of the band energies that the particles in each band may have a common time of flight from their most recent interaction with the wave, which may have been at slightly southern latitudes. Thus, while the particles are basically bounce resonant, their energization may be dominated by their most recent encounter with the standing wave.Plain Language SummaryDuring an outbound passage by the Cassini spacecraft through Saturn's inner magnetosphere, <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions were observed that featured discrete flux peaks at regularly spaced <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The peaks persisted over several hours and several Saturn radii of distance away from the planet. We show that these "bands" of <span class="hlt">ions</span> are plausibly the result of an interaction between the Saturnian plasma and standing waves that form along the magnetospheric magnetic field lines. These observations are the first reported evidence that such standing waves may be present in the inner magnetosphere, where they could contribute to the radial transport of Saturn's radiation belt particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482956"><span>Optimization of plasma parameters with magnetic filter field and pressure to maximize H{sup −} <span class="hlt">ion</span> density in a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Kim, June Young; Hwang, Y. S.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Transverse magnetic filter field as well as operating pressure is considered to be an important control knob to enhance negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production via plasma parameter optimization in volume-produced negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources. Stronger filter field to reduce electron temperature sufficiently in the extraction region is favorable, but generally known to be limited by electron density drop near the extraction region. In this study, unexpected electron density increase instead of density drop is observed in front of the extraction region when the applied transverse filter field increases monotonically toward the extraction aperture. Measurements of plasma parameters with a movable Langmuir probe indicate that the increased electron density may be caused by low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron accumulation in the filter region decreasing perpendicular diffusion coefficients across the increasing filter field. Negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> populations are estimated from the measured profiles of electron temperatures and densities and confirmed to be consistent with laser photo-detachment measurements of the H{sup −} populations for various filter field strengths and pressures. Enhanced H{sup −} population near the extraction region due to the increased low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons in the filter region may be utilized to increase negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> beam currents by moving the extraction position accordingly. This new finding can be used to design efficient H{sup −} sources with an optimal filtering system by maximizing high <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron filtering while keeping low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons available in the extraction region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87bB136C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87bB136C"><span>Optimization of plasma parameters with magnetic filter field and pressure to maximize H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> density in a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Kim, June Young; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Transverse magnetic filter field as well as operating pressure is considered to be an important control knob to enhance negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production via plasma parameter optimization in volume-produced negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources. Stronger filter field to reduce electron temperature sufficiently in the extraction region is favorable, but generally known to be limited by electron density drop near the extraction region. In this study, unexpected electron density increase instead of density drop is observed in front of the extraction region when the applied transverse filter field increases monotonically toward the extraction aperture. Measurements of plasma parameters with a movable Langmuir probe indicate that the increased electron density may be caused by low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron accumulation in the filter region decreasing perpendicular diffusion coefficients across the increasing filter field. Negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> populations are estimated from the measured profiles of electron temperatures and densities and confirmed to be consistent with laser photo-detachment measurements of the H- populations for various filter field strengths and pressures. Enhanced H- population near the extraction region due to the increased low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons in the filter region may be utilized to increase negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> beam currents by moving the extraction position accordingly. This new finding can be used to design efficient H- sources with an optimal filtering system by maximizing high <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron filtering while keeping low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons available in the extraction region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26932018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26932018"><span>Optimization of plasma parameters with magnetic filter field and pressure to maximize H⁻ <span class="hlt">ion</span> density in a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Kim, June Young; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Transverse magnetic filter field as well as operating pressure is considered to be an important control knob to enhance negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production via plasma parameter optimization in volume-produced negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources. Stronger filter field to reduce electron temperature sufficiently in the extraction region is favorable, but generally known to be limited by electron density drop near the extraction region. In this study, unexpected electron density increase instead of density drop is observed in front of the extraction region when the applied transverse filter field increases monotonically toward the extraction aperture. Measurements of plasma parameters with a movable Langmuir probe indicate that the increased electron density may be caused by low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron accumulation in the filter region decreasing perpendicular diffusion coefficients across the increasing filter field. Negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> populations are estimated from the measured profiles of electron temperatures and densities and confirmed to be consistent with laser photo-detachment measurements of the H(-) populations for various filter field strengths and pressures. Enhanced H(-) population near the extraction region due to the increased low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons in the filter region may be utilized to increase negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> beam currents by moving the extraction position accordingly. This new finding can be used to design efficient H(-) sources with an optimal filtering system by maximizing high <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron filtering while keeping low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons available in the extraction region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994NIMPB..91..540H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994NIMPB..91..540H"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> beam assisted deposition of <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> amorphous silicon nitride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hubler, G. K.; Donovan, E. P.; Gossett, C. R.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrogenated</span> silicon nitride films were produced near room temperature by electron beam evaporation of Si and simultaneous bombardment with a 500 eV ammonia <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam from a Kaufman <span class="hlt">ion</span> source and for a variety of ratios of incident charge to evaporant fluxes. The composition of N, Si and H in the films as a function of <span class="hlt">ion</span> current density was measured by means of Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil detection analyses. Reflection and transmission spectroscopy in the wavelength range 400 nm to 3125 nm were employed to measure optical thickness and refractive index. From the data we extracted the number of nitrogen atoms in the ammonia beam per unit charge collected, the sputtering coefficient for ammonia incident on Si, and the refractive index versus composition of the alloys. At the highest N composition, the films were clear in the visible with the UV cut-off less than 400 nm, the index was 1.80 which is lower than that of pure Si3N4 and the H content was as high as 27 at.%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878437"><span>In-Situ Cleaning of Metal Cathodes Using a <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dowell, D.H.; King, F.K.; Kirby, R.E.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Improving and maintaining the quantum efficiency (QE) of a metal photocathode in an s-band RF gun requires a process for cleaning the surface. In this type of gun, the cathode is typically installed and the system is vacuum baked to {approx}200 degrees C. If the QE is too low, the cathode is usually cleaned with the UV-drive laser. While laser cleaning does increase the cathode QE, it requires fluences close to the damage threshold and rastering the small diameter beam, both of which can produce nonuniform electron emission and potentially damage the cathode. This paper investigates the efficacy of a low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam to produce high-QE metal cathodes. Measurements of the QE vs. wavelength, surface contaminants using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface roughness were performed on a copper sample, and the results showed a significant increase in QE after cleaning with a 1keV <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. The H-<span class="hlt">ion</span> beam cleaned an area approximately 1cm in diameter and had no effect on the surface roughness while significantly increasing the QE. These results and a comparison with theory as well as a scheme for installing an H-<span class="hlt">ion</span> cleaner on an s-band gun are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740003615','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740003615"><span>A <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> carrier. Volume 2: Systems analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A systems analysis of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as an <span class="hlt">energy</span> carrier in the United States indicated that it is feasible to use <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in all <span class="hlt">energy</span> use areas, except some types of transportation. These use areas are industrial, residential and commercial, and electric power generation. Saturation concept and conservation concept forecasts of future total <span class="hlt">energy</span> demands were made. Projected costs of producing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> from coal or from nuclear heat combined with thermochemical decomposition of water are in the range $1.00 to $1.50 per million Btu of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> produced. Other methods are estimated to be more costly. The use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as a fuel will require the development of large-scale transmission and storage systems. A pipeline system similar to the existing natural gas pipeline system appears practical, if design factors are included to avoid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> environment embrittlement of pipeline metals. Conclusions from the examination of the safety, legal, environmental, economic, political and societal aspects of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel are that a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> carrier system would be compatible with American values and the existing <span class="hlt">energy</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7261V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7261V"><span>The potential impact of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> use on the atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> models show very different trajectories for future <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-based <span class="hlt">energy</span> system. The potential impact of such <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> economy on the atmosphere mostly use <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in the global <span class="hlt">energy</span> system and the related emissions of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and other air pollutants are derived from the global <span class="hlt">energy</span> system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an <span class="hlt">energy</span> system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2682590','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2682590"><span>Correlation of <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-Atom Abstraction Reaction Efficiencies for Aryl Radicals with their Vertical Electron Affinities and the Vertical Ionization <span class="hlt">Energies</span> of the <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Atom Donors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jing, Linhong; Nash, John J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The factors that control the reactivities of aryl radicals toward <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors were studied by using a dual-cell Fourier-transform <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT – ICR). <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies for two substrates, cyclohexane and isopropanol, were measured for twenty-three structurally different, positively-charged aryl radicals, which included dehydrobenzenes, dehydronaphthalenes, dehydropyridines, and dehydro(iso)quinolines. A logarithmic correlation was found between the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) vertical electron affinities (EA) of the aryl radicals. Transition state <span class="hlt">energies</span> calculated for three of the aryl radicals with isopropanol were found to correlate linearly with their (calculated) EAs. No correlation was found between the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) enthalpy changes for the reactions. Measurement of the reaction efficiencies for the reactions of several different <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors with a few selected aryl radicals revealed a logarithmic correlation between the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the vertical ionization <span class="hlt">energies</span> (IE) of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors, but not the lowest homolytic X – H (X = heavy atom) bond dissociation <span class="hlt">energies</span> of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors. Examination of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reactions of twenty-nine different aryl radicals and eighteen different <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors showed that the reaction efficiency increases (logarithmically) as the difference between the IE of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donor and the EA of the aryl radical decreases. This dependence is likely to result from the increasing polarization, and concomitant stabilization, of the transition state as the <span class="hlt">energy</span> difference between the neutral and ionic reactants decreases. Thus, the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiency for an aryl radical can be “tuned” by structural changes that influence either</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DMP.Q1098D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DMP.Q1098D"><span>Status of Charge Exchange Cross Section Measurements for Highly Charged <span class="hlt">Ions</span> on Atomic <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C.; Schultz, D. R.; Seely, D. G.; Schultz, P. C.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Total cross sections of charge exchange (CX) for C5+, N6+, and O7+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> on ground state atomic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> are measured in an extended collision <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of 1 - 20,000 eV/u. Absolute CX measurements are performed using an improved merged-beams technique with intense highly charged <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR <span class="hlt">ion</span> source mounted on a high voltage platform. In order to improve the problematic H+ signal collection for these exoergic CX collisions at low relative <span class="hlt">energies</span>, a new double focusing electrostatic analyzer was installed. Experimental CX data are in good agreement with all previous H-oven relative measurements at higher collision <span class="hlt">energies</span>. We compare our results with the most recent molecular orbital close-coupling (MOCC) and atomic orbital close-coupling (AOCC) theoretical calculations. Work supported by the NASA Solar & Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and the Office of Basic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Sciences of the U.S. DoE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611680','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611680"><span>Cavity Ring-Down System for Density Measurement of Negative <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> on Negative <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nakano, Haruhisa; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Shibuya, Masayuki; Kisaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Katsunori; Osakabe, Masaki; Kaneko, Osamu; Asano, Eiji; Kondo, Tomoki; Sato, Mamoru; Komada, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Haruo; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Fantz, Ursel</p> <p>2011-09-26</p> <p>A Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) system was applied to measure the density of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> (H{sup -}) in vicinity of extraction surface in the H{sup -} source for the development of neutral beam injector on Large Helical Device (LHD). The density measurement with sampling time of 50 ms was carried out. The measured density with the CRD system is relatively good agreement with the density evaluated from extracted beam-current with applying a similar relation of positive <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources. In cesium seeded into <span class="hlt">ion</span>-source plasma, the linearity between an arc power of the discharge and the measured density with the CRD system was observed. Additionally, the measured density was proportional to the extracted beam current. These characteristics indicate the CRD system worked well for H{sup -} density measurement in the region of H{sup -} and extraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-22/pdf/2013-17507.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-22/pdf/2013-17507.pdf"><span>78 FR 43870 - <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-22</p> <p>... of Availability <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project... availability of the <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project Preliminary... the <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> California's (HECA) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, which would...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/912966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/912966"><span>Green <span class="hlt">Energy</span>: Advancing Bio-<span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alber, D.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-producting photosynthetic organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072842','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072842"><span>Regulating <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of excited carriers and the case for excitation-induced <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> dissociation on <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bang, Junhyeok; Meng, Sheng; Sun, Yi-Yang; West, Damien; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Shengbai</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>Understanding and controlling of excited carrier dynamics is of fundamental and practical importance, particularly in photochemistry and solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> applications. However, theory of <span class="hlt">energy</span> relaxation of excited carriers is still in its early stage. Here, using ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) coupled with time-dependent density functional theory, we show a coverage-dependent <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of photoexcited carriers in <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphene, giving rise to distinctively different <span class="hlt">ion</span> dynamics. Graphene with sparsely populated H is difficult to dissociate due to inefficient transfer of the excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> into kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the H. In contrast, H can easily desorb from fully <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphane. The key is to bring down the H antibonding state to the conduction band minimum as the band gap increases. These results can be contrasted to those of standard ground-state MD which predicts H in the sparse case should be much less stable than that in fully <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphane. Our findings thus signify the importance of carrying out explicit electronic dynamics in excited-state simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3549080','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3549080"><span>Regulating <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of excited carriers and the case for excitation-induced <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> dissociation on <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bang, Junhyeok; Meng, Sheng; Sun, Yi-Yang; West, Damien; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Zhang, S. B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Understanding and controlling of excited carrier dynamics is of fundamental and practical importance, particularly in photochemistry and solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> applications. However, theory of <span class="hlt">energy</span> relaxation of excited carriers is still in its early stage. Here, using ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) coupled with time-dependent density functional theory, we show a coverage-dependent <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of photoexcited carriers in <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphene, giving rise to distinctively different <span class="hlt">ion</span> dynamics. Graphene with sparsely populated H is difficult to dissociate due to inefficient transfer of the excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> into kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the H. In contrast, H can easily desorb from fully <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphane. The key is to bring down the H antibonding state to the conduction band minimum as the band gap increases. These results can be contrasted to those of standard ground-state MD that predict H in the sparse case should be much less stable than that in fully <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphane. Our findings thus signify the importance of carrying out explicit electronic dynamics in excited-state simulations. PMID:23277576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23277576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23277576"><span>Regulating <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of excited carriers and the case for excitation-induced <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> dissociation on <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bang, Junhyeok; Meng, Sheng; Sun, Yi-Yang; West, Damien; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Zhang, S B</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>Understanding and controlling of excited carrier dynamics is of fundamental and practical importance, particularly in photochemistry and solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> applications. However, theory of <span class="hlt">energy</span> relaxation of excited carriers is still in its early stage. Here, using ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) coupled with time-dependent density functional theory, we show a coverage-dependent <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of photoexcited carriers in <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphene, giving rise to distinctively different <span class="hlt">ion</span> dynamics. Graphene with sparsely populated H is difficult to dissociate due to inefficient transfer of the excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> into kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the H. In contrast, H can easily desorb from fully <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphane. The key is to bring down the H antibonding state to the conduction band minimum as the band gap increases. These results can be contrasted to those of standard ground-state MD that predict H in the sparse case should be much less stable than that in fully <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> graphane. Our findings thus signify the importance of carrying out explicit electronic dynamics in excited-state simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19654636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19654636"><span>Warm target recoil <span class="hlt">ion</span> momentum spectroscopy for fragmentation of molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> by ultrashort laser pulses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jia; Wu, Jian; Czasch, Achim; Zeng, Heping</p> <p>2009-07-20</p> <p>We demonstrate warm target recoil <span class="hlt">ion</span> momentum spectroscopy for the fragmentation dynamics of the warm <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecules at room temperature. The thermal movement effect of the warm molecule is removed by using a correction algorithm in the momentum space. Based on the reconstructed three-dimensional momentum vectors as well as the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> release spectra, different vibrational states of the H(2)(+) ground state are clearly visible and the internuclear separation for charge resonance enhanced ionization of the second electron is identified. The results show adequate accordance with the former experiments using other techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763421"><span>Experimental studies of the Negative <span class="hlt">Ion</span> of <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>. Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bryant, Howard C.</p> <p>1999-06-30</p> <p>This document presents an overview of the results of the DOE'S support of experimental research into the structure and interactions of the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> conducted by the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of New Mexico at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The work involves many collaborations with scientists from both institutions, as well as others. Although official DOE support for this work began in 1977, the experiment that led to it was done in 1971, near the time the 800 MeV linear accelerator at Los Alamos (LAMPF) first came on line. Until the mid nineties, the work was performed using the relativistic beam at LAMFF. The most recent results were obtained using the 35 keV injector beam for the Ground Test Accelerator at Los Alamos. A list of all published results from this work is presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013613"><span>Radiative Corrections to One-Photon Decays of <span class="hlt">Hydrogenic</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sapirstein, J; Pachucki, K; Cheng, K T</p> <p>2003-11-11</p> <p>Radiative corrections to the decay rate of n = 2 states of <span class="hlt">hydrogenic</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are calculated. The transitions considered are the M1 decay of the 2s state to the ground state and the E1(M2) decays of the 2p{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 3/2} states to the ground state. The radiative corrections start in order {alpha}(Z{alpha}){sup 2}, but the method used sums all orders of Z{alpha}. The leading {alpha}(Z{alpha}){sup 2} correction for the E1 decays is calculated and compared with the exact result. The extension of the calculational method to parity nonconserving transitions in neutral atoms is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ080340.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ080340.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>: Its Future Role in the Nation's <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Winsche, W. E.; And Others</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Advocates the development of a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fuel+AND+economy&pg=4&id=EJ080340','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fuel+AND+economy&pg=4&id=EJ080340"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>: Its Future Role in the Nation's <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Winsche, W. E.; And Others</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Advocates the development of a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983DoUkr.......77S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983DoUkr.......77S"><span>Metal-hydride <span class="hlt">energy</span>-technological processing of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solovei, V. V.</p> <p>1983-03-01</p> <p>The external and internal irreversibility of the thermochemical <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> compression cycle is analyzed in relation to the efficiency of heat utilization in a metal-hydride <span class="hlt">energy</span> system. The properties of the working fluid and the design of the metal-hydride elements are shown to have a considerable effect on the thermodynamic performance of a heat-utilizing installation for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPGP1044Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPGP1044Y"><span>Development of a Fast <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, W. C.; Bellan, P. M.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>In an effort to measure the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra of short duration plasmas, two different analyzers are being compared for usability on short time scales. A traditional <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer, the retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer (RFEA), is being compared to a design using an electric field to deflect <span class="hlt">ions</span> onto multiple collectors. The use of multiple collectors allows for simultaneous measurement of several <span class="hlt">energies</span> overcoming the major limitation of the RFEA is measuring only a single <span class="hlt">energy</span> per plasma shot. The tradeoff is that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution of the new design is limited by the number of collectors. These methods are being tested on both a single <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron gun and also on a spheromak with a plasma duration of 20-30 μs and <span class="hlt">ion</span> temperature of 20 eV. Both designs have been demonstrated to work under simplified conditions using an electron gun. Currently the RFEA is being tested on the spheromak and efforts are being made to increase the resolution and lower the noise of the new analyzer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25d6105H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25d6105H"><span>Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> (H+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Honey, S.; Naseem, S.; Ishaq, A.; Maaza, M.; Bhatti, M. T.; Wan, D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> (H+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam at different <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an <span class="hlt">energy</span> range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. Project supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the French Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, iThemba-LABS, the UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS), Organization of Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW), the Abdus Salam ICTP via the Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6287961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6287961"><span><span class="hlt">Ion-ion</span> interaction and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of 4+ transuranium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in cerium tetrafluoride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, G.K.; Beitz, J.V.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Dynamics of excited 5f electron states of the transuranium <span class="hlt">ions</span> Cm{sup 4+} and Bk{sup 4+} in CeF{sub 4} are compared. Based on time- and wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence, excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer processes have been probed. Depending on concentration and electronic <span class="hlt">energy</span> level structure of the studied 4+ transuranium <span class="hlt">ion</span>, the dominant <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer mechanisms were identified as cross relaxation, exciton-exciton annihilation, and trapping. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> transfer rates derived from the fitting of the observed fluorescence decays to theoretical models, based on electric multipolar <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> interactions, are contrasted with prior studies of 4f states of 3+ lanthanide and 3d states of transition metal <span class="hlt">ions</span>. 16 refs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94b2712W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94b2712W"><span>Water fragmentation by bare and dressed light <span class="hlt">ions</span> with MeV <span class="hlt">energies</span>: Fragment-<span class="hlt">ion-energy</span> and time-of-flight distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolff, W.; Luna, H.; Schuch, R.; Cariatore, N. D.; Otranto, S.; Turco, F.; Fregenal, D.; Bernardi, G.; Suárez, S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> and time-of-flight distributions of water ionic fragments produced by impact of fast atoms and bare and dressed <span class="hlt">ions</span>; namely, H+, Li0 -3 +, C1 +, and C2 + are reported in this work. Fragment species as a function of emission <span class="hlt">energy</span> and time-of-flight were recorded by using an electrostatic spectrometer and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, respectively. An improved Coulomb explosion model coupled to a classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation gave the <span class="hlt">energy</span> centroids of the fragments for the dissociation channels resulting from the removal of two to five electrons from the water molecule. For the <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution ranging up to 50 eV, both the experiment and model reveal an isotropic production of multiple charged oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>. From the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution, relative yields of the dissociation resulting from multiple ionization were obtained as a function of the charge state, as well as for several projectile <span class="hlt">energies</span>. Multiple-ionization yields with charge state up to 4+, were extracted from the measurements of the time-of-flight spectra, focused on the production of single and multiple charged oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The measurements were compared to <span class="hlt">ion</span>-water collision experiments investigated at the keV <span class="hlt">energy</span> range available in the literature, revealing differences and similarities in the fragment-<span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20643775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20643775"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> loss of helium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in zinc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lantschner, G.H.; Eckardt, J.C.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Arista, N.R.; Araujo, L.L.; Duarte, P.F.; Santos, J.H.R. dos; Behar, M.; Dias, J.F.; Grande, P.L.; Montanari, C.C.; Miraglia, J.E.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss of helium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in zinc has been measured in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range from 37.5 to 1750 keV/amu using the transmission technique and the Rutherford backscattering method. In addition, calculations using the extended Friedel sum rule, the unitary convolution approximation, and the local plasma approximation have been performed. The contributions of the inner-shell and valence electrons to the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss are separately evaluated. The measurements and calculations are in good agreement over an extended range of <span class="hlt">energies</span>, and both of them yield stopping values higher than those provided by SRIM 2003.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045529','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045529"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Kill Brain at Concentrations Reached in Ischemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kraig, Richard P.; Petito, Carol K.; Plum, Fred; Pulsinelli, William A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary Elevation of brain glucose before the onset of nearly complete ischemia leads to increased lactic acid within brain. When excessive, such acidosis may be a necessary factor for converting selective neuronal loss to brain infarction from nearly complete ischemia. To examine the potential neurotoxicity of excessive lactic acid concentrations, we microinjected (0.5 µl/min) 150 mM sodium lactate solutions (adjusted to 6.50-4.00 pH) for 20 min into parietal cortex of anesthetized rats. Interstitial pH (pH0) was monitored with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> ion–selective microelectrodes. Animals were allowed to recover for 24 h before injection zones were examined with the light microscope. Injectants produced brain necrosis in a histological pattern resembling ischemic infarction only when pH0 was ≤ 5.30. Nonlethal injections showed only needle tract injuries. Abrupt deterioration of brain acid-base homeostatic mechanisms correlated with necrosis since pH0 returned to baseline more slowly after lethal tissue injections than after nonlethal ones. The slowed return of pH0 to baseline after the severely acidic injections may reflect altered function of plasma membrane antiport systems for pH regulation and loss of brain <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> buffers. PMID:3611202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18270755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18270755"><span>Control of redox reactivity of flavin and pterin coenzymes by metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> coordination and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kojima, Takahiko</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The electron-transfer activities of flavin and pterin coenzymes can be fine-tuned by coordination of metal <span class="hlt">ions</span>, protonation and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding. Formation of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds with a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bond receptor in metal-flavin complexes is made possible depending on the type of coordination bond that can leave the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding sites. The electron-transfer catalytic functions of flavin and pterin coenzymes are described by showing a number of examples of both thermal and photochemical redox reactions, which proceed by controlling the electron-transfer reactivity of coenzymes with metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> binding, protonation and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20787712','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20787712"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Levels of '<span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Atom' in Discrete Time Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khrennikov, Andrei; Volovich, Yaroslav</p> <p>2006-01-04</p> <p>We analyze dynamical consequences of a conjecture that there exists a fundamental (indivisible) quant of time. In particular we study the problem of discrete <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atom. We are able to reconstruct potential which in discrete time formalism leads to <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of unperturbed <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atom. We also consider linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of quantum harmonic oscillator and show how they are produced in the discrete time formalism. More generally, we show that in discrete time formalism finite motion in central potential leads to discrete <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum, the property which is common for quantum mechanical theory. Thus deterministic (but discrete time{exclamation_point}) dynamics is compatible with discrete <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7229228','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7229228"><span>Solar-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> system model for Libya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eljrushi, G.S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A solar-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>-system model for Libya was developed, obtaining relationships for and between the main <span class="hlt">energy</span> and <span class="hlt">energy</span> related parameters of Libya and the world. The parameters included are: population, <span class="hlt">energy</span> demand, fossil-fuel production, fossil-fuel resources, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> introduction rates, <span class="hlt">energy</span> prices, gross domestic product, pollution and quality of life. The trends of these parameters with and without <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> introduction were investigated over a period of time - through the year 2100. The results indicate that the fossil-fuel resources in Libya could be exhausted, due to production for local and export demands, within three to four decades unless serious measures for reducing production are taken. The results indicate that adopting solar-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> system would extend the availability of fossil-fuel resources for a longer time period, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent <span class="hlt">energy</span> system for Libya. It also shows that eventually Libya could export <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in lieu of oil and natural gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021298','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021298"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>: A bibliography with abstracts. Cumulative volume, 1953 - 1973</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cox, K. E.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A bibliography on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as an <span class="hlt">energy</span> source is presented. Approximately 8,000 documents are abstracted covering the period 1953 through 1973. Topics covered include: production, utilization, transmission, distribution, storage, and safety.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316376"><span>Quantum <span class="hlt">energy</span> teleportation with trapped <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hotta, Masahiro</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p>We analyze a protocol of quantum <span class="hlt">energy</span> teleportation that transports <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the left edge of a linear <span class="hlt">ion</span> crystal to the right edge by local operations and classical communication at a speed considerably greater than the speed of a phonon in the crystal. A probe qubit is strongly coupled with phonon fluctuation in the ground state for a short time and it is projectively measured in order to obtain information about this phonon fluctuation. During the measurement process, phonons are excited by the time-dependent measurement interaction and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the excited phonons must be infused from outside the system. The obtained information is transferred to the right edge of the crystal through a classical channel. Even though the phonons excited at the left edge do not arrive at the right edge at the same time as when the information arrives at the right edge, we are able to soon extract <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the <span class="hlt">ions</span> at the right edge by using the transferred information. Because the intermediate <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the crystal are not excited during the execution of the protocol, <span class="hlt">energy</span> is transmitted in the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-transfer channel without heat generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19061320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19061320"><span>Correlation of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies for aryl radicals with their vertical electron affinities and the vertical ionization <span class="hlt">energies</span> of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jing, Linhong; Nash, John J; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I</p> <p>2008-12-31</p> <p>The factors that control the reactivities of aryl radicals toward <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors were studied by using a dual-cell Fourier-transform <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies for two substrates, cyclohexane and isopropyl alcohol, were measured for 23 structurally different, positively charged aryl radicals, which included dehydrobenzenes, dehydronaphthalenes, dehydropyridines, and dehydro(iso)quinolines. A logarithmic correlation was found between the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) vertical electron affinities (EA) of the aryl radicals. Transition state <span class="hlt">energies</span> calculated for the reaction of three of the aryl radicals with isopropyl alcohol were found to correlate linearly with their (calculated) EAs. No correlation was found between the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) enthalpy changes for the reactions. Measurement of the reaction efficiencies for the reactions of 15 different <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors with two selected aryl radicals revealed a logarithmic correlation between the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the vertical ionization <span class="hlt">energies</span> (IE) of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors, but not the lowest homolytic X-H (X = heavy atom) bond dissociation <span class="hlt">energies</span> of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors. Examination of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reactions of 29 different aryl radicals and 18 different <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donors showed that the reaction efficiency increases (logarithmically) as the difference between the IE of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom donor and the EA of the aryl radical decreases. This dependence is likely to result from the increasing polarization, and concomitant stabilization, of the transition state. Thus, the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-atom abstraction reaction efficiency for an aryl radical can be "tuned" by structural changes that influence either the vertical EA of the aryl radical or the vertical IE of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atom donor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/188635','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/188635"><span>Measurement of charge exchange cross sections for highly charged xenon and thorium <span class="hlt">ions</span> with molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in a Penning <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Trap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weinberg, G.M.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Highly charged xenon (35+ to 46+) and thorium (72+ to 79+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> were produced in an Electron Beam <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Trap (EBIT). The <span class="hlt">ions</span> were extracted from EBIT in a short pulse. <span class="hlt">Ions</span> of one charge state were selected using an electromagnet. The <span class="hlt">ions</span> were recaptured at low <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP). As the <span class="hlt">ions</span> captured electrons from molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, populations of the various charge states were obtained by measuring the image currents induced by the <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the electrodes of the trap. Data on the number of <span class="hlt">ions</span> in each charge state vs. time were compared to theoretical rate equations in order to determine the average charge exchange rates. These rates were compared to charge exchange rates of an <span class="hlt">ion</span> with a known charge exchange cross section (Ar{sup 11+}) measured in a similar manner in order to determine the average charge exchange cross sections for the highly charged <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> of interaction between the highly charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> was estimated to be 4 eV in the center of mass frame. The mean charge exchange cross sections were 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup 2} for Xe{sup 43+} to Xe{sup 46+} and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2} for Th{sup 73+} to Th{sup 79+}. Double capture was approximately 20--25% of the total for both xenon and thorium. A fit indicated that the cross sections were approximately proportional to q. This is consistent with a linear dependence of cross section on q within the measurement uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16052652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16052652"><span>Characterization of the monovalent <span class="hlt">ion</span> position and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bond network in guanine quartets by DFT calculations of NMR parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Mourik, Tanja; Dingley, Andrew J</p> <p>2005-10-07</p> <p>Conformational stability of G-quartets found in telomeric DNA quadruplex structures requires the coordination of monovalent <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Here, an extensive Hartree-Fock and density functional theory analysis of the energetically favored position of Li+, Na+, and K+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> is presented. The calculations show that at quartet-quartet distances observed in DNA quadruplex structures (3.3 A), the Li+ and Na+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> favor positions of 0.55 and 0.95 A outside the plane of the G-quartet, respectively. The larger K+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> prefers a central position between successive G-quartets. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier separating the minima in the quartet-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-quartet model are much smaller for the Li+ and Na+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> compared with the K+ <span class="hlt">ion</span>; this suggests that K+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> will not move as freely through the central channel of the DNA quadruplex. Spin-spin coupling constants and isotropic chemical shifts in G-quartets extracted from crystal structures of K+- and Na+-coordinated DNA quadruplexes were calculated with B3LYP/6-311G(d). The results show that the sizes of the trans-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bond couplings are influenced primarily by the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bond geometry and only slightly by the presence of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>. The calculations show that the R(N2N7) distance of the N2-H2...N7 <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bond is characterized by strong correlations to both the chemical shifts of the donor group atoms and the (h2)J(N2N7) couplings. In contrast, weaker correlations between the (h3)J(N1C6') couplings and single geometric factors related to the N1-H1...O6=C6 <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bond are observed. As such, deriving geometric information on the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bond through the use of trans-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bond couplings and chemical shifts is more complex for the N1-H1...O6=C6 <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bond than for the N2-H2...N7 moiety. The computed trans-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bond couplings are shown to correlate with the experimentally determined couplings. However, the experimental values do not show such strong geometric dependencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECKW2006N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECKW2006N"><span>Spatial and temporal evolution of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a pulsed inductively coupled <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasma source across a magnetic filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nulty, Stuart; Corr, Cormac</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Low-temperature electronegative plasmas have important applications in high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> sources for fusion <span class="hlt">energy</span>, plasma thrusters and materials processing. Neutral beam injection systems and space thruster technology such as the PEGASUS propulsion system rely on efficiently producing extractable negative <span class="hlt">ions</span>. In this work we investigate the production of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a pulsed inductively coupled plasma across a magnetic filter. The electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution function, plasma density and electron temperature are determined using an RF compensated Langmuir probe, and time-resolved laser photo-detachment is used to measure the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> fraction. The spatial and temporal evolution of these plasma parameters within the plasma source will be presented. Using a pulsed plasma and a magnetic filter, the electron temperature can be efficiently controlled and a higher density of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> compared to electrons can be obtained at certain locations within the source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3234991','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3234991"><span>Accelerated High-Resolution Differential <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Mobility Separations Using <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Smith, Richard D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The resolving power of differential <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) was dramatically increased recently by carrier gases comprising up to 75% He or various vapors, enabling many new applications. However, the need for resolution of complex mixtures is virtually open-ended and many topical analyses demand yet finer separations. Also, the resolving power gains are often at the expense of speed, in particular making high-resolution FAIMS incompatible with online liquid-phase separations. Here, we report FAIMS employing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, specifically in mixtures with N2 containing up to 90% H2. Such compositions raise the mobilities of all <span class="hlt">ions</span> and thus the resolving power beyond that previously feasible, while avoiding the electrical breakdown inevitable in He-rich mixtures. The increases in resolving power and ensuing peak resolution are especially significant at H2 fractions above ~50%. Higher resolution can be exchanged for acceleration of the analyses by up to ~4 times, at least. For more mobile species such as multiply-charged peptides, this exchange is presently forced by the constraints of existing FAIMS devices, but future designs optimized for H2 should consistently improve resolution for all analytes. PMID:22074292</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23457415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23457415"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Peroxide as a Sustainable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide or four-electron O2-reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide fuel cell. A <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel cells that require membranes. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign <span class="hlt">energy</span> carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O2, which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide fuel cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3584454','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3584454"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Peroxide as a Sustainable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Peroxide and the Fuel Cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide or four-electron O2-reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide fuel cell. A <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel cells that require membranes. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign <span class="hlt">energy</span> carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O2, which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide fuel cells. PMID:23457415</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DPPNI3001T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DPPNI3001T"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Ionic Plasma and Particle Dynamics in Negative <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Source for NBI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsumori, Katsuyoshi</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Three negative-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-based neutral beam injectors (NBIs) have been developed for plasma heating in the Large Helical Device. The NBIs achieve successfully the nominal injection power and beam <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and understanding of the production and transport mechanisms of H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> is required to obtain more stable high power beam. In the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source development, we have found <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> ionic plasmas with extremely low electron density are produced in the beam extraction region. The plasma is measured with a combination of an electrostatic probe, millimeter-wave interferometer and cavity ring down (CRD). It has been observed for the first time that the charge neutrality of the ionic plasma is broken with H- extraction and electrons compensate the extracted H- charge. The influence of the extraction field widely affects to the ionic plasma in the extraction region. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation (2D-PIC) has been applied to investigate the particle transport and reproduces the production of the ionic plasma and electron compensation due to H- extraction. In particle model, produced H- <span class="hlt">ions</span> leave from the Cs covered PG surface in opposite direction to beam extraction. The direction can be changed with the electric field and collective effect due to the presence of plasma. A new technique using CCD camera with H α filter applied to measure the two-dimensional distribution of H- density. In the ionic plasma, H α light is emitted via electron-impact excitation and mutual neutralization processes with H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> and proton. Comparing the results obtained with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probe and CRD, it is shown the H α emission is dominated with the mutual neutralization. By subtracting the CCD images with and without beam extraction, it becomes clear that H- <span class="hlt">ions</span> are extracted not directly from the PG surface but from the bulk of the ionic plasma. The result suggests the initial <span class="hlt">energy</span> of H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> is dumped rapidly in the ionic plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1840i0006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1840i0006K"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exchange membrane in <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khoiruddin, Aryanti, Putu T. P.; Hakim, Ahmad N.; Wenten, I. Gede</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ion</span>-exchange membrane (IEM) may play an important role in the future of electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> generation which is considered as renewable and clean <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Fell cell (FC) is one of the promising technologies for solving <span class="hlt">energy</span> issues in the future owing to the interesting features such as high electrical efficiency, low emissions, low noise level, and modularity. IEM-based processes, such as microbial fuel cell (MFC) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) may be combined with water or wastewater treatment into an integrated system. By using the integrated system, water and <span class="hlt">energy</span> could be produced simultaneously. The IEM-based processes can be used for direct electricity generation or long term <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage such as by harnessing surplus electricity from an existing renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> system to be converted into <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> gas via electrolysis or stored into chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> via redox flow battery (RFB). In this paper, recent development and applications of IEM-based processes in <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion are reviewed. In addition, perspective and challenges of IEM-based processes in <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion are pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/330655','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/330655"><span>A manual of recommended practices for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoagland, W.; Leach, S.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Technologies for the production, distribution, and use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> are rapidly maturing and the number and size of demonstration programs designed to showcase emerging <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems is expanding. The success of these programs is key to <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> commercialization. Currently there is no comprehensive set of widely-accepted codes or standards covering the installation and operation of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems. This lack of codes or standards is a major obstacle to future <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> demonstrations in obtaining the requisite licenses, permits, insurance, and public acceptance. In a project begun in late 1996 to address this problem, W. Hoagland and Associates has been developing a Manual of Recommended Practices for <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Systems intended to serve as an interim document for the design and operation of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> demonstration projects. It will also serve as a starting point for some of the needed standard-setting processes. The Manual will include design guidelines for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> procedures, case studies of experience at existing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> demonstration projects, a bibliography of information sources, and a compilation of suppliers of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> equipment and hardware. Following extensive professional review, final publication will occur later in 1997. The primary goal is to develop a draft document in the shortest possible time frame. To accomplish this, the input and guidance of technology developers, industrial organizations, government R and D and regulatory organizations and others will be sought to define the organization and content of the draft Manual, gather and evaluate available information, develop a draft document, coordinate reviews and revisions, and develop recommendations for publication, distribution, and update of the final document. The workshop, Development of a Manual of Recommended Practices for <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Systems, conducted on March 11, 1997 in Alexandria, Virginia, was a first step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17831094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17831094"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>: Its Future Role in the Nation's <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Economy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winsche, W E; Hoffman, K C; Salzano, F J</p> <p>1973-06-29</p> <p>In examining the potential role of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> economy of the future, we take an optimistic view. All the technology required for implementation is feasible but a great deal of development and refinement is necessary. A pessimistic approach would obviously discourage further thinking about an important and perhaps the most reasonable alternative for the future. We have considered a limited number of alternative <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems involving <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and have shown that <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> could be a viable secondary source of <span class="hlt">energy</span> derived from nuclear power; for the immediate future, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> could be derived from coal. A <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> supply system could have greater flexibility and be competitive with a more conventional all-electric delivery system. Technological improvements could make <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as an <span class="hlt">energy</span> source an economic reality. The systems examined in this article show how <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> can serve as a general-purpose fuel for residential and automotive applications. Aside from being a source of heat and motive power, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> could also supply the electrical needs of the household via fuel cells (19), turbines, or conventional "total <span class="hlt">energy</span> systems." The total cost of <span class="hlt">energy</span> to a residence supplied with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel depends on the ratio of the requirements for direct fuel use to the requirements for electrical use. A greater direct use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as a fuel without conversion to electricity reduces the overall cost of <span class="hlt">energy</span> supplied to the household because of the greater expense of electrical transmission and distribution. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> fuel is especially attractive for use in domestic residential applications where the bulk of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> requirement is for thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Although a considerable amount of research is required before any <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> delivery system can be implemented, the necessary developments are within the capability of present-day technology and the system could be made attractive economically .Techniques for producing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> from water by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..396..920F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApSS..396..920F"><span>DFT study on the interaction between <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> sulfide <span class="hlt">ions</span> and cerussite (110) surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Qicheng; Wen, Shuming; Deng, Jiushuai; Zhao, Wenjuan</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The interaction between <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> sulfide <span class="hlt">ions</span> (HS-) and the cerussite surface was simulated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated results show that Pb atoms are the dominating active sites for the subsequent reaction on the cerussite (110) surface. The S atom in HS- <span class="hlt">ions</span> can readily interact with the Pb atoms at the cerussite surface layers with the interaction <span class="hlt">energy</span> of -5.19 eV, resulting in the formation of lead sulfide species. An obvious difference occurs when HS- <span class="hlt">ions</span> interact with the various Pb atoms on the cerussite surface. The density of state analysis reveals that the Pb 6p orbital at the mineral surface layers and S 3p orbital from HS- <span class="hlt">ions</span> are overlapped between -1.5 and 0.5 eV near the Fermi level, indicating a stable chemical adsorption. The Mulliken population result suggests that the electron transfer exists between the bonding atoms and the oxidation of the HS- <span class="hlt">ions</span> is involved in the adsorption process. This study provides an insight into the sulfidization mechanism at an atomic level, and further confirms the experimental phenomenon proposed in our previous work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22063877','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22063877"><span>Extraction of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> from a compact 14 GHz microwave <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wada, M.; Kasuya, T.; Nishida, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Maeno, S.; Nishiura, M.; Shinto, K.; Yamaoka, H.</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>A pair of permanent magnets has formed enough intensity to realize electron cyclotron resonance condition for a 14 GHz microwave in a 2 cm diameter 9 cm long alumina discharge chamber. A three-electrode extraction system assembled in a magnetic shielding has formed a stable beam of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> (H{sup -}) in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The measured H{sup -} current density was about 1 mA/cm{sup 2} with only 50 W of discharge power, but the beam intensity had shown saturation against further increase in microwave power. The beam current decreased monotonically against increasing pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11706159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11706159"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> production. Green algae as a source of <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melis, A; Happe, T</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> gas is thought to be the ideal fuel for a world in which air pollution has been alleviated, global warming has been arrested, and the environment has been protected in an economically sustainable manner. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> and electricity could team to provide attractive options in transportation and power generation. Interconversion between these two forms of <span class="hlt">energy</span> suggests on-site utilization of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> to generate electricity, with the electrical power grid serving in <span class="hlt">energy</span> transportation, distribution utilization, and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> regeneration as needed. A challenging problem in establishing H(2) as a source of <span class="hlt">energy</span> for the future is the renewable and environmentally friendly generation of large quantities of H(2) gas. Thus, processes that are presently conceptual in nature, or at a developmental stage in the laboratory, need to be encouraged, tested for feasibility, and otherwise applied toward commercialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PhDT........60S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PhDT........60S"><span>Electron collisional detachment processes for a 250 keV D- <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam in a partially ionized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> target</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savas, S. E.</p> <p>1981-08-01</p> <p>Neutral atom beams with <span class="hlt">energies</span> above 200 keV are required for various purposes in magnetic fusion devices following TFTR, JET and MFTF-B. These beams are produced much more efficiently by electron detachment from negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams than by electron capture by positive <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The efficiency with which such neutral atoms can be produced by electron detachment in partially ionized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasma neutralizers is investigated. Neutralization efficiencies for partially ionized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> targets are calculated making use of cross sections. Previously calculated only for a pure electron gas neutralizer, this result was extended to conditions of arbitrary mixture of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> gas and plasma using an averaging technique on the cross sections for the different target species. The effect of mixtures with contaminating gases and O2 and N2 on the neutralizer efficiency are also studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/441656','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/441656"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> and the materials of a sustainable <span class="hlt">energy</span> future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zalbowitz, M.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>The National Educator`s Workshop (NEW): Update 96 was held October 27--30, 1996, and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This was the 11th annual conference aimed at improving the teaching of material science, engineering and technology by updating educators and providing laboratory experiments on emerging technology for teaching fundamental and newly evolving materials concepts. The <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Education Outreach Activity at Los Alamos National Laboratory organized a special conference theme: <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> and the Materials of a Sustainable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Future. The <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> component of the NEW:Update 96 offered the opportunity for educators to have direct communication with scientists in laboratory settings, develop mentor relationship with laboratory staff, and bring leading edge materials/technologies into the classroom to upgrade educational curricula. Lack of public education and understanding about <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is a major barrier for initial implementation of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies and is an important prerequisite for acceptance of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> outside the scientific/technical research communities. The following materials contain the papers and view graphs from the conference presentations. In addition, supplemental reference articles are also included: a general overview of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and an article on handling <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> safely. A resource list containing a curriculum outline, bibliography, Internet resources, and a list of periodicals often publishing relevant research articles can be found in the last section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhB.114..213B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhB.114..213B"><span>The electric quadrupole moment of molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and their potential for a molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> clock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakalov, D.; Schiller, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The systematic shifts of the transition frequencies in the molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are of relevance to ultra-high-resolution radio-frequency, microwave and optical spectroscopy of these systems, performed in <span class="hlt">ion</span> traps. We develop the ab initio description of the interaction of the electric quadrupole moment of this class of molecules with the static electric field gradients present in <span class="hlt">ion</span> traps. In good approximation, it is described in terms of an effective perturbation Hamiltonian. An approximate treatment is then performed in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We give an expression of the electric quadrupole coupling parameter valid for all <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> species and evaluate it for a large number of states of H{2/+}, HD+, and D{2/+}. The systematic shifts can be evaluated as simple expectation values of the perturbation Hamiltonian. Results on radio-frequency, one-photon electric dipole (E1), and two-photon E1 transitions between hyperfine states in HD+ are reported. For two-photon E1 transitions between rotationless states, the shifts vanish. For a large subset of rovibrational one-photon transitions, the absolute values of the quadrupole shifts range from 0.3 to 10 Hz for an electric field gradient of 108 V/m2. We point out an experimental procedure for determining the quadrupole shift which will allow reducing its contribution to the uncertainty of unperturbed rovibrational transition frequencies to the 1 × 10-15 fractional level and, for selected transitions, even below it. The combined contributions of black-body radiation, Zeeman, Stark and quadrupole effects are considered for a large set of transitions, and it is estimated that the total transition frequency uncertainty of selected transitions can be reduced below the 1 × 10-15 level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1655d0001F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1655d0001F"><span>Size scaling of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources for fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The RF-driven negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source (H-, D-) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21325845','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21325845"><span>Precise Lamb Shift Measurements in <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-Like Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span>--Status and Perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Andrianov, V.; Beckert, K.; Chatterjee, Ch.; Gumberidze, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Reuschl, R.; Stoehlker, T.; Trassinelli, M.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kiselev, O.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Meier, J. P.; Kilbourne, C.</p> <p>2009-12-16</p> <p>The precise determination of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the Lyman {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 lines in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-like heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. For the first time, a calorimetric low-temperature detector was applied in an experiment to precisely determine the transition <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the Lyman lines of lead <span class="hlt">ions</span> {sup 207}pb{sup 81+} at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. The detectors consist of silicon thermistors, provided by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and Pb or Sn absorbers to obtain high quantum efficiency in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of 40-80 keV, where the Doppler-shifted Lyman lines are located. The measured <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the Lyman {alpha}1 line, E(Ly-{alpha}1, {sup 207}Pb{sup 81+}) = (77937{+-}12{sub stat}{+-}23{sub syst}) eV, agrees within errors with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is mainly due to uncertainties in the non-linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> calibration of the detectors as well as the relative position of detector and gas-jet target.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865724','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865724"><span>XUV-Exposed, Non-Hydrostatic <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-Rich Upper Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. Part II: <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Coronae and <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Escape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Abstract We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a “super-Earth” with a radius of 2 REarth and a mass of 10 MEarth, located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the evolution of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold <span class="hlt">ions</span> of planetary origin. We found that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×1025 s−1 to ∼5.3×1030 s−1, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary <span class="hlt">ions</span> are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal <span class="hlt">ion</span> pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> (EOH) to <3 EOH and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates. Key Words: Stellar activity—Low-mass stars—Early atmospheres—Earth-like exoplanets—Energetic neutral</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338904"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding network and <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates in high salt solutions and <span class="hlt">ion</span> effects on water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters, <span class="hlt">ion</span> networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structure that can be classified as either <span class="hlt">ion</span> cluster or <span class="hlt">ion</span> network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of <span class="hlt">ion</span> networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the <span class="hlt">ion</span> network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate growth mechanism via either <span class="hlt">ion</span> cluster or <span class="hlt">ion</span> network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific <span class="hlt">ion</span> effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020092085','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020092085"><span>Evidence that Clouds of keV <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Clusters Bounce Elastically from a Solid Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, R. A.; Martin, James J.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The behavior of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters is tested by an inject/hold/extract technique in a Penning-Malmberg trap. The timing pattern of the extraction signals is consistent with the clusters bouncing elastically from a detector several times. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters behave more like an elastic fluid than a beam of <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5997884','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5997884"><span>Production of intense negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hershcovitch, A.</p> <p>1984-02-13</p> <p>A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ <span class="hlt">ions</span> that are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21152345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21152345"><span>Anti-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production with positron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> trap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Itahashi, Takahisa</p> <p>2008-08-08</p> <p>In low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> antiproton physics, it is advantageous to be able to manipulate anti-particles as freely as normal particles. A robust production and storage system for high-quality positrons and antiprotons would be a substantial advance for the development of anti-matter science. The idea of electron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> trap could be applied for storage of anti-particle when the electron beam could be replaced by the positron beam. The bright positron beam would be brought about using synchrotron radiation source with a superconducting wiggler. The new scheme for production of anti-particles is proposed by using new accelerator technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806549"><span>Desalination and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchange and precipitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G</p> <p>2012-08-28</p> <p>We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of <span class="hlt">ions</span>, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple <span class="hlt">ions</span> in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.331..144M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.331..144M"><span>Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markwitz, A.; Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation using 6 kV C3Hy+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm-3. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp2/sp3 bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation with 6 kV produces <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> amorphous carbon coatings with a sp3 content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam technology for industrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17143867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17143867"><span>How resonance assists <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding interactions: an <span class="hlt">energy</span> decomposition analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beck, John Frederick; Mo, Yirong</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which is a variant of the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory, was employed to explore the nature of resonance-assisted <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds (RAHBs) and to investigate the mechanism of synergistic interplay between pi delocalization and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding interactions. We examined the dimers of formic acid, formamide, 4-pyrimidinone, 2-pyridinone, 2-hydroxpyridine, and 2-hydroxycyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-one. In addition, we studied the interactions in beta-diketone enols with a simplified model, namely the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds of 3-hydroxypropenal with both ethenol and formaldehyde. The intermolecular interaction <span class="hlt">energies</span>, either with or without the involvement of pi resonance, were decomposed into the Hitler-London <span class="hlt">energy</span> (DeltaEHL), polarization <span class="hlt">energy</span> (DeltaEpol), charge transfer <span class="hlt">energy</span> (DeltaECT), and electron correlation <span class="hlt">energy</span> (DeltaEcor) terms. This allows for the examination of the character of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds and the impact of pi conjugation on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding interactions. Although it has been proposed that resonance-assisted <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds are accompanied with an increasing of covalency character, our analyses showed that the enhanced interactions mostly originate from the classical dipole-dipole (i.e., electrostatic) attraction, as resonance redistributes the electron density and increases the dipole moments in monomers. The covalency of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds, however, changes very little. This disputes the belief that RAHB is primarily covalent in nature. Accordingly, we recommend the term "resonance-assisted binding (RAB)" instead of "resonance-assisted <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding (RHAB)" to highlight the electrostatic, which is a long-range effect, rather than the electron transfer nature of the enhanced stabilization in RAHBs. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012564','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012564"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Coordinating Committee: Annual report, Summary of DOE <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> programs for FY 1986</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The FY 1986 Summary is the ninth consecutive yearly report providing an overview of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-related programs of the DOE offices represented on the <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Coordinating Committee. A historical summary of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> budgets of these offices is given. Table 2a provides the distribution by mission-related program element for FY 1986, while Table 2b pertains to the non-mission-related activities. Total DOE funding in FY 1986 for mission-related <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> research was $3.3 million; DOE non-mission-related <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> research funding totaled $21.2 million. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information is given in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..OSS.B1003J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..OSS.B1003J"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>; the 35th anniversary of the Hindenburg Society</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Lawrence</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>It is noteworthy that this is the 35th anniversary of the Hindenburg Society, formed in 1972 to promote the use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as a vehicular fuel, and so named - on the 35th anniversary of the Hindenburg disaster - to underscore the awareness of the possible dangers of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The motivations for a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> vehicular fuel system have only grown in the intervening years, and, with the evolution of fuel cells and the hybrid vehicle concept, become even more attractive. None of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> alternatives to fossil fuels - nuclear, solar, wind, geothermal, etc. - are directly usable for vehicular applications. As an <span class="hlt">energy</span> carrier, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> has a much higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> per unit mass than storage batteries or other options. The advantages of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as a vehicular and jet aircraft fuel, and a possible evolution to a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel economy will be discussed. <small>To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.B1.3</small></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JPS....71..264M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JPS....71..264M"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> saving system using by-product <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miki, Hirofumi; Yamarnoto, Hirotaka; Ganke, Toshihiko; Satake, Ichirou; Nogi, Toshihide; Yoshioka, Hiroshi</p> <p></p> <p>The authors in conjunction with Shikoku Electric Power and Toagosei have been developing a new <span class="hlt">energy</span> saving system using by-product <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> assisted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AISI) of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) since 1993. The main unit of the system is a 100-kW class phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) utilizing by-product <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>. The development technology of this <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> PAFC system include the following items; (1) recycling technology for using unreacted exhaust <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> at the anode outlet (2) safe processing technology of exhaust <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>. The system was constructed at the Tokushima plant of Toagosei and has operated from December 1996. The total operating time reached over 3000 h as of June 1997. The demonstration test will be conducted from 1996 through FY 1998.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThEng..63..107S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThEng..63..107S"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-air <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage gas-turbine system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-air <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> sources (RES). The basic feature of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage system in question is combination of storing the <span class="hlt">energy</span> in compressed air and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-air <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-air <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1260322','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1260322"><span>Resource Assessment for <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Production: <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This study examines the <span class="hlt">energy</span> resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected <span class="hlt">energy</span> resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following <span class="hlt">energy</span> resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cells&pg=2&id=EJ1062311','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cells&pg=2&id=EJ1062311"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean <span class="hlt">Energy</span>: <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>/Fuel Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Global interest in both renewable <span class="hlt">energies</span> and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=renewable+AND+energies&pg=3&id=EJ1062311','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=renewable+AND+energies&pg=3&id=EJ1062311"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean <span class="hlt">Energy</span>: <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>/Fuel Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Global interest in both renewable <span class="hlt">energies</span> and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875518','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875518"><span>High <span class="hlt">energy</span> H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport and stripping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chou, W.; /Fermilab</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> H{sup -} <span class="hlt">ions</span> because the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451157','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451157"><span>Fractionation of inorganic arsenic by adjusting <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> concentration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Andrea; Gonzalez, Mario Henrique; Queiroz, Helena Müller; Cadore, Solange</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>The inorganic fraction of arsenic species, iAs=∑[As(III)+As(V)] present in fish samples can be quantified in the presence of other arsenic species also found in fishes, such as: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB). The toxic arsenic fraction was selected taking into account the dissociation constants of these arsenic species in different <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> concentration leading to the arsine formation from iAs compounds detected as As(III) by HG AAS. For thus, a microwave assisted extraction was carried out using HCl 1molL(-1) in order to maintain the integrity of the arsenic species in this mild extraction media. Recovery experiments were done for iAs fraction, in the presence of other arsenic species. The recovery values obtained for iAs fraction added were quantitative about 87-107% (for N=3, RSD⩽3%). The limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ), were 5μgkg(-1) and 16μgkg(-1) respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10180031','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10180031"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> programs for FY 1991--1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Coordinating Committee (HECC) was established over 14 years ago to ensure that the many varied aspects of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> technology research and development within the Department are coordinated. Each year the committee brings together technical representatives within the Department to coordinate activities, share research results and discuss future priorities and directions. An annual report is published summarizing the work in progress. This summary is the fourteenth consecutive report. It provides an overview of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-related programs of the DOE offices represented in the HECC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..24..735X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..24..735X"><span>Performance Analysis of Hybrid Solar-<span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Jinsheng; Guan, Xuehua</p> <p></p> <p>The system of solar thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid generation for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production is designed in this paper. The mathematical model of the hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is carried out. And the logic control system is designed. The current of the various sub-systems and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage tank are simulated and analyzed, this paper proves the solar hybrid system can be reliable and effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94d3425M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94d3425M"><span>Photoelectron momentum distributions of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> driven by multicycle near-infrared laser pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murakami, Mitsuko; Chu, Shih-I.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The photoelectron momentum distributions (PMDs) of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> H2+ driven by strong near-infrared laser pulses are studied based on the ab initio numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and the Volkov wave propagation. Both linear and circular polarization are considered, in accordance with the recent experiment by M. Odenweller et al. [Phys. Rev. A 89, 013424 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.013424]. We will discuss the difference between the molecular (diatomic) and the atomic PMDs and the effect of molecular potential to the photoelectron <span class="hlt">energy</span>. In particular, we demonstrate that the above-threshold ionization spectra of H2+ could upshift their <span class="hlt">energy</span> when driven by a linearly polarized laser field parallel to the molecular axis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006REDS..161..331G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006REDS..161..331G"><span>Dependence of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> released on the charge state of incident <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, D. P.; Chauhan, R. S.; Kumar, S.; Diwan, P. K.; Khan, S. A.; Tripathi, A.; Singh, F.; Ghosh, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mittal, V. K.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>The behavior of polymers under heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment is of great interest. In the present study, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> released from polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was investigated as a function of charge state (11(+) , 14(+) , and 25(+) ) for 130 MeV 107 Ag <span class="hlt">ions</span>. It was found that <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> released from the polymers varies as alpha q(n) , where n was found to be 2.98 and 1.94 for PP and PET, respectively, when compared with the value of similar to 3.0 reported in the literature for different polymers and <span class="hlt">ion</span> combinations. Radii of the damaged zones or <span class="hlt">ion</span> track formed were deduced from the slope of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> released versus <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence curves. This radius was also found to depend upon the charge state of the incident <span class="hlt">ion</span>. It varies as beta q(m) , where m is 1.25 and 0.741 for PP and PET, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482952"><span>Optimum plasma grid bias for a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source operation with Cs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bacal, Marthe; Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; McAdams, Roy</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>The functions of a biased plasma grid of a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> (H{sup −}) <span class="hlt">ion</span> source for both pure volume and Cs seeded operations are reexamined. Proper control of the plasma grid bias in pure volume sources yields: enhancement of the extracted negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> current, reduction of the co-extracted electron current, flattening of the spatial distribution of plasma potential across the filter magnetic field, change in recycling from <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atomic/molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> to atomic/molecular neutrals, and enhanced concentration of H{sup −} <span class="hlt">ions</span> near the plasma grid. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with Cs with additional direct emission of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> under positive <span class="hlt">ion</span> and neutral <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bombardment onto the plasma electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386621"><span>Desorption of cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> from solid Ne by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> impact.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tachibana, T; Fukai, K; Koizumi, T; Hirayama, T</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We investigated Ne(+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> and Ne(n)(+) (n = 2-20) cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> desorbed from the surface of solid Ne by 1.0 keV Ar(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> impact. Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> analysis shows a considerably narrower <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution for Ne(n)(+) (n ≥ 3) <span class="hlt">ions</span> than for Ne(n)(+) (n = 1, 2) <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The dependence of <span class="hlt">ion</span> yields on Ne film thickness indicates that cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> (n ≥ 3) are desorbed only from relatively thick films. We conclude that desorbed <span class="hlt">ions</span> grow into large cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> during the outflow of deep bulk atoms to the vacuum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144t4126C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144t4126C"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structure and water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Dissolved <span class="hlt">ions</span> in water tend to form polydisperse <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates such as <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs, relatively compact <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters, and even spatially extended <span class="hlt">ion</span> networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates and water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates and water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding networks in high salt solutions. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> network-forming K+ and SCN- <span class="hlt">ions</span> at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but <span class="hlt">ion</span> cluster-forming <span class="hlt">ions</span> in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates to percolating <span class="hlt">ion</span>-water mixture morphology. Despite that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming <span class="hlt">ions</span> in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823670','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823670"><span>Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Molecule Reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James M. Farrar</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>This objective of this project is to study the dynamics of the interactions of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> important in combustion with small molecules in the gas phase and with liquid hydrocarbon surfaces. The first of these topics is a long-standing project in our laboratory devoted to probing the key features of potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> surfaces that control chemical reactivity. The project provides detailed information on the utilization of specific forms of incident <span class="hlt">energy</span>, the role of preferred reagent geometries, and the disposal of total reaction <span class="hlt">energy</span> into product degrees of freedom. We employ crossed molecular beam methods under single collision conditions, at collision <span class="hlt">energies</span> from below one eV to several eV, to probe potential surfaces over a broad range of distances and interaction <span class="hlt">energies</span>. These studies allow us to test and validate dynamical models describing chemical reactivity. Measurements of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and angular distributions of the reaction products with vibrational state resolution provide the key data for these studies. We employ the crossed beam low <span class="hlt">energy</span> mass spectrometry methods that we have developed over the last several years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24283926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24283926"><span>XUV-exposed, non-hydrostatic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part II: <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> coronae and <span class="hlt">ion</span> escape.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kislyakova, Kristina G; Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Kulikov, Yuri N; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a "super-Earth" with a radius of 2 R(Earth) and a mass of 10 M(Earth), located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the evolution of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold <span class="hlt">ions</span> of planetary origin. We found that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×10²⁵ s⁻¹ to ∼5.3×10³⁰ s⁻¹, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary <span class="hlt">ions</span> are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal <span class="hlt">ion</span> pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> (EO(H)) to <3 EO(H) and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304506','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304506"><span>Effect of nickel grid parameters on production of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oohara, W.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, Toshiaki; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Kawata, K.</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid. When positive <span class="hlt">ions</span> passing through the grid are decelerated by an electric field, the extraction current density of passing positive <span class="hlt">ions</span> is sharply reduced by neutralization and negative ionization of the <span class="hlt">ions</span>. This phenomenon is found to depend on the specific surface area of the grid and the current density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391424"><span>Size scaling of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources for fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fantz, U. Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.</p> <p>2015-04-08</p> <p>The RF-driven negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source (H{sup −}, D{sup −}) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21103567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21103567"><span>In vitro <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production--using <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the sun.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krassen, Henning; Ott, Sascha; Heberle, Joachim</p> <p>2011-01-07</p> <p>Using solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> to produce molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is a promising way to supply the civilization with clean <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Nature provides the key components to collect solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> as well as to reduce protons, scientists have developed mimics of these enzymatic centers and also found new ways to catalyze the same reactions. This perspective article surveys the different components and in particular the various coupling possibilities of a light sensitizer and catalyst. Pros and cons are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PlST....1...79Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PlST....1...79Y"><span>Interaction between Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> and the Complicated Organism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Zeng-liang</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exist widely in natural world, but people pay a little attention on the interaction between low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and matter, it is even more out of the question of studying on the relation of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and the complicated organism. The discovery of bioeffect induced by <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation has, however, opened a new branch in the field of <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam application in life sciences. This paper reports recent advances in research on the role of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in chemical synthesis of the biomolecules and application in genetic modification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160182"><span>Community <span class="hlt">Energy</span>: Analysis of <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Distributed <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59d4013N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59d4013N"><span>Microinstabilities in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>- and helium-dominated multi-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-species plasmas in LHD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nunami, Masanori; Nakata, Motoki; Sugama, Hideo; Tanaka, Kenji; Toda, Shinichiro</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ion</span> scale microinstabilities in the large helical device (LHD) are investigated by the gyrokinetic simulations for the multi-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-species plasmas including <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, helium, and impurity <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The observations in the LHD experiments show that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> temperature increases with the decreases of the ratio of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> density to helium density. It is found from the linear gyrokinetic simulations with the multi-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-species and real-mass kinetic electrons in the LHD discharges that the growth rates of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> scale microinstabilities are reduced for the helium-dominated multi-species plasma compared with the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-dominated one. In addition to the differences of the conditions including the temperature, the density profiles, and the temperature ratio between both plasmas, due to the dependence on the mass number and the electric charge of the mixed <span class="hlt">ion</span> species, the mixing length estimates obtained from the linear simulations predicts smaller <span class="hlt">ion</span> thermal diffusivity for the helium-dominated plasma than the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-dominated one in the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> gyro-Bohm unit, which is consistent with the experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391436"><span>Laser photodetachment diagnostics of a 1/3-size negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source for NBI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Geng, S.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.</p> <p>2015-04-08</p> <p>To investigate the flows of charged particles in front of the plasma grid (PG) in a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, the information of the local densities of electrons and negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> (H-) are necessary. For this purpose, the laser photodetachment is applied for pure <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasmas and Cs-seeded plasma in a 1/3-size negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source in NIFS-NBI test stand. The H- density obtained by photodetachment is calibrated by the results from cavity ring-down (CRD). The pressure dependence and PG bias dependence of the local H- density are presented and discussed. The results show that H- density increases significantly by seeding Cs into the plasma. In Cs-seeded plasma, relativity exists between the H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> density and plasma potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1655d0014G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1655d0014G"><span>Laser photodetachment diagnostics of a 1/3-size negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source for NBI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geng, S.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To investigate the flows of charged particles in front of the plasma grid (PG) in a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, the information of the local densities of electrons and negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> (H-) are necessary. For this purpose, the laser photodetachment is applied for pure <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasmas and Cs-seeded plasma in a 1/3-size negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source in NIFS-NBI test stand. The H- density obtained by photodetachment is calibrated by the results from cavity ring-down (CRD). The pressure dependence and PG bias dependence of the local H- density are presented and discussed. The results show that H- density increases significantly by seeding Cs into the plasma. In Cs-seeded plasma, relativity exists between the H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> density and plasma potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428584"><span>Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (μ = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Experimental result indicates that the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> on friction surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245528','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245528"><span>Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (μ = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Experimental result indicates that the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E7226L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E7226L"><span>Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (μ = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Experimental result indicates that the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> on friction surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28396976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28396976"><span>Preface: photosynthesis and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> research for sustainability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I</p> <p>2017-04-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> supply, climate change, and global food security are among the main chalenges facing humanity in the twenty-first century. Despite global <span class="hlt">energy</span> demand is continuing to increase, the availability of low cost <span class="hlt">energy</span> is decreasing. Together with the urgent problem of climate change due to CO2 release from the combustion of fossil fuels, there is a strong requirement of developing the clean and renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> system for the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production. Solar fuel, biofuel, and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> production gained unlimited possibility and feasibility due to understanding of the detailed photosynthetic system structures. This special issue contains selected papers on photosynthetic and biomimetic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production presented at the International Conference "Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2016", that was held in Pushchino (Russia), during June 19-25, 2016, with the sponsorship of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (ISPR) and of the International Association for <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (IAHE). This issue is intended to provide recent information on the photosynthetic and biohydrogen production to our readers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910070447&hterms=negative+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910070447&hterms=negative+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> acceleration to cosmic ray <span class="hlt">energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Martin A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The acceleration and transport environment of the outer heliosphere is described schematically. Acceleration occurs where the divergence of the solar-wind flow is negative, that is at shocks, and where second-order Fermi acceleration is possible in the solar-wind turbulence. Acceleration at the solar-wind termination shock is presented by reviewing the spherically-symmetric calculation of Webb et al. (1985). Reacceleration of galactic cosmic rays at the termination shock is not expected to be important in modifying the cosmic ray spectrum, but acceleration of <span class="hlt">ions</span> injected at the shock up to <span class="hlt">energies</span> not greater than 300 MeV/charge is expected to occur and to create the anomalous cosmic ray component. Acceleration of energetic particles by solar wind turbulence is expected to play almost no role in the outer heliosphere. The one exception is the energization of interstellar pickup <span class="hlt">ions</span> beyond the threshold for acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular termination shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008668','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008668"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-rich components as a means of storing and transporting <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hausz, W.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A one-megawatt wind <span class="hlt">energy</span> source is assumed that uses half of its output to serve customers as electricity, and stores the other half by conversion to <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, to liquid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, to stored LH2, and back to electricity. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> costs and capital costs of the conversions escalate unit costs to 12.9 cents per kilowatt hour. High conversion costs can be reduced by using Mg2NiH4 and FeTiH2 storage, or by using a 100- or 1000 megawatt system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.748a2009A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.748a2009A"><span>Thermal cycling and high power density <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation of tungsten layers on tungsten substrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Gretskaya, I. Yu; Grunin, A. V.; Dyachenko, M. Yu; Puntakov, N. A.; Sadovskiy, Ya A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Tungsten layers with iron impurity were deposited on tungsten substrates modeling re-deposited layers in a fusion device. The samples were tested by thermocycling and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam tests. Thermocycling revealed globule formation on the surface. The size of the globules depended on iron impurity content in the coating deposited. Pore formation was observed which in some cases lead to exfoliation of the coatings. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation lead to formation of blisters on the coating and finally its exfoliation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920057179&hterms=isotopic+enrichment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Disotopic%2Benrichment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920057179&hterms=isotopic+enrichment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Disotopic%2Benrichment"><span>The production of He-3 and heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> enrichment in He-3-rich flares by electromagnetic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cyclotron waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Temerin, M.; Roth, I.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A new model is presented for the production of He-3 and heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> enrichments in He-3-rich flares using a direct single-stage mechanism. In analogy with the production of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cyclotron waves in earth's aurora by electron beams, it is suggested that such waves should exist in the electron acceleration region of impulsive solar flares. Both analytic and test-particle models of the effect of such waves in a nonuniform magnetic field show that these waves can selectively accelerate He-3 and heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> to MeV <span class="hlt">energies</span> in a single-stage process, in contrast to other models which require a two-stage mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216905','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216905"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> and Electron Interactions at Thermal and Suprathermal <span class="hlt">Energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-09-30</p> <p>has allowed the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> to be elevated above that appropriate to the carer -gas temperature by impressing an electric field along the axis of a...classified according to the observed products; when the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> products are the parent molecular negative tons (e.g., SF,- from SF and CF from CF... parent negative <span class="hlt">ion</span>. M -. or modify the product <span class="hlt">ion</span> distribution (i.e., as between parent <span class="hlt">ions</span> or fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span>, see below). For such reactions it is to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6061730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6061730"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport in urinary bladder of water turtle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinmetz, P R</p> <p>1967-10-01</p> <p>The mechanism of acidification by the urinary bladder of the water turtle was studied in an in vitro system which permitted control and measurement of electrical and concentration driving forces. The rate of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> secretion was measured by means of a pH stat technique in the absence of exogenous carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. Transport of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> into the solution bathing the mucosal surface of the bladder was associated with the appearance of alkali in the serosal compartment. The mean rate of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> secretion in the absence of electrical and concentration gradients across the bladder was 0.96 mumole/hr. The secretion rate was only slightly greater in the presence of the spontaneous potential difference. The maximal <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> gradient that could be generated by the bladder was 3.33 pH units in the presence of the spontaneous voltage and 3.02 pH units in the short-circuited state. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> secretion was markedly reduced by acetazolamide and anaerobiosis, which indicated that under our experimental conditions acidification depended on the production and enzymatic hydration of metabolic carbon dioxide. On the basis of the stoichiometry of the pH changes across the membrane under different conditions, it is suggested that the active transport mechanism for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> is located near the mucosal surface of the epithelial cell and that the alkali generated in back of the pump moves passively into the serosal fluid along an electrochemical gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..GECHW1068L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..GECHW1068L"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Distribution in Magnetized ICP using Multi-channel <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Hyuk; Kim, Jiwon; Cheong, Hee Woon; Koo, Il Gyo; Lee, Soojin; Seong, Hyo-Seong; Whang, Ki-Woong</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In plasma etch processes, the flux and <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">ions</span> incident on the substrate are the important parameters that control the etch profile and the etch rate. In this regard, retarding field <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Analyzer (IEA) has been developed and applied to plasma etch. As the size of wafer and etch chamber increase, simultaneous measurement at multi points in radial and poloidal direction becomes important. For this purpose, Plasma lab in Seoul National University and SEMES jointly developed an IEA that can measure the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions at five positions in 6-inch wafer at the same time. The IEA is composed of 4 mesh grids (floating, electron repelling, discriminator, secondary electron retarding) and one metal layer (<span class="hlt">Ion</span> collector). We used a remote controllable voltage source and DAC to supply the stepwise wave form to discriminator voltage source. We used the developed IEA to measure the radial and polodial uniformity of <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">ions</span> incident on the substrate with the change of bias power, gas pressure and bias power frequency. This was supported by SEMES cooperative research project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860033303&hterms=MORIN&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMORIN','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860033303&hterms=MORIN&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMORIN"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution in flowing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> microwave plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, R.; Morin, T.; Finzel, M.; Hawley, M. C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An electrothermal propulsion concept utilizing a microwave plasma system as the mechanism to convert electromagnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> into kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a flowing gas is investigated. A calorimetry system enclosing a microwave plasma system has been developed to accurately measure the <span class="hlt">energy</span> inputs and outputs of the microwave plasma system. The rate of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transferred to the gas can be determined to within + or - 1.8 W from an <span class="hlt">energy</span> balance around the microwave plasma system. The percentage of the power absorbed by the microwave plasma system transferred to the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> gas as it flows through the system is found to increase with the increasing flow rate, to decrease with the increasing pressure, and to be independent of the absorbed power. An upper bound for the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> gas temperature is estimated from the <span class="hlt">energy</span> content, heat capacity, and flow rate of the gas stream. A lower bound for an overall heat-transfer coefficient is then calculated, characterizing the <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss from the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> gas stream to the air cooling of the plasma discharge tube wall. The heat-transfer coefficient is found to increase with the increasing flow rate and pressure and to be independent of the absorbed power. This result indicates that a convective-type mechanism is responsible for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018394','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018394"><span>Predicted <span class="hlt">energy</span> densitites for nickel-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and silver-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cells embodying metallic hydrides for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Easter, R. W.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric <span class="hlt">energy</span> densities for metal <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior <span class="hlt">energy</span> densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric <span class="hlt">energy</span> densities that also retain gravimetric <span class="hlt">energy</span> densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-05/pdf/2013-21588.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-05/pdf/2013-21588.pdf"><span>78 FR 54640 - Extension of Public Comment Period <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> California's Integrated Gasification Combined...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-05</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> Extension of Public Comment Period <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle... Public Comment Period and Public Hearing for the <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> California's Integrated Gasification...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215374','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215374"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Laboratory)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eichman, Joshua</p> <p>2015-07-30</p> <p>This presentation summarizes opportunities for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Laboratory to quantify the value of <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple <span class="hlt">energy</span> sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and grid services) are economically competitive, while <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., <span class="hlt">energy</span>, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current <span class="hlt">energy</span> and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..DMP.D6096C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..DMP.D6096C"><span>Dissociation and ionization in capture of antiprotons by the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, James S.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Antiprotonic atoms and anti-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> are hot areas of current experimental research. Cross sections for antiproton capture will soon be measured directly for the first time by the ASACUSA collaboration at the CERN antiproton decelerator and trap. In the present work [1], cross sections and initial quantum number distributions are calculated for capture of the antiproton (p) and the negative muon (^-) by the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> H2^+ using the fermion molecular dynamics (FMD) method. The capture of p is found to be almost entirely adiabatic, occurring via target dissociation without ionization, but nonadiabatic effects are found to play a significant role in the capture of ^-, especially at the higher capture <span class="hlt">energies</span>. Generally good agreement is obtained with the recent adiabatic classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC-a) calculation of Sakimoto [2]. The capture properties of H2^+ are shown to be completely different from those previously calculated for both the H atom and neutral H2 molecule. Proposed experiments [3] on p capture by H, H2 and H2^+, at the same relative collision <span class="hlt">energies</span>, will provide a major test of our theoretical understanding [4].[1] J.S. Cohen, J. Phys. B (to be published).[2] K. Sakimoto, J. Phys. B 37, 2255 (2004).[3] Y. Yamazaki et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 154, 174 (1999); 214, 196 (2004); Hyperfine Interact. 138, 141 (2001).[4] J.S. Cohen, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 1769 (2004).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJAP..5423404A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJAP..5423404A"><span>EMR modelling of a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-based electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agbli, K. S.; Hissel, D.; Péra, M.-C.; Doumbia, I.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>This paper deals with multi-physics modelling of the stationary system. This modelling is the first step to reach the fuel cell system dimensioning aim pursued. Besides this modelling approach based on the stationary energetic system, the novelty in this paper is both the new approach of the photovoltaic EMR modelling and the EMR of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage process. The granular modelling approach is used to model each component of the system. Considering a stand alone PEM fuel cell system, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is expected to be produced and stored on the spot from renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> (photovoltaic) in order to satisfy the fuel availability. In fact, to develop a generic and modular model, energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is used as graphical modelling tool. Allowing to be easily grasped by the experts even not necessarily gotten used to the modelling formalism, EMR is helpful to model the multi-domains energetic chain. The solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> through solar module is converted in electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span>; part of this <span class="hlt">energy</span> is transformed in chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> (<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>) thanks to an electrolyser. Then the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is compressed into a tank across a storage system. The latter part of the solar module <span class="hlt">energy</span> is stored as electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> within supercapacitor or lead-acid battery. Using the modularity feature of the EMR, the whole system is modelled entity by entity; afterwards by putting them together the overall system has been reconstructed. According to the scale effect of the system entities, some simulation and/or experimental results are given. Given to the different aims which are pursued in the sustainable <span class="hlt">energy</span> framework like prediction, control and optimisation, EMR modelling approach is a reliable option for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> management in real time of energetic system in macroscopic point of view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674694','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/674694"><span>Electric utility applications of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.</p> <p>1997-10-15</p> <p>This report examines the capital cost associated with various <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage (SMES) and Flywheel <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as a electricity storage alternative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhD...47h5201A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhD...47h5201A"><span>Negative-<span class="hlt">ion</span> production on carbon materials in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasma: influence of the carbon hybridization state and the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> content on H- yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, Ahmad; Pardanaud, Cédric; Carrère, Marcel; Layet, Jean-Marc; Gicquel, Alix; Kumar, Pravin; Eon, David; Jaoul, Cédric; Engeln, Richard; Cartry, Gilles</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Highly oriented polycrystalline graphite (HOPG), boron-doped diamond (BDD), nanocrystalline diamond, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon surfaces are exposed to low-pressure <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasma in a 13.56 MHz plasma reactor. Relative yields of surface-produced H- <span class="hlt">ions</span> due to bombardment of positive <span class="hlt">ions</span> from the plasma are measured by an <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyser cum quadrupole mass spectrometer. Irrespective of plasma conditions (0.2 and 2 Pa), HOPG surfaces show the highest yield at room temperature (RT), while at high temperature (HT), the highest yield (˜3-5 times compared to HOPG surface at RT) is observed on BDD surfaces. The shapes of <span class="hlt">ion</span> distribution functions are compared at RT and HT to demonstrate the mechanism of <span class="hlt">ion</span> generation at the surface. Raman spectroscopy analyses of the plasma-exposed samples reveal surface modifications influencing H- production yields, while further analyses strongly suggest that the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> content of the material and the sp3/sp2 ratio are the key parameters in driving the surface ionization efficiency of carbon materials under the chosen plasma conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018447','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018447"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Curves of <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Fluoride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fallon, Robert J.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.; Mason, Edward A.</p> <p>1960-01-01</p> <p>Potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> curves for the X(sup 1)sigma+ and V(sup 1)sigma+ states of HF and DF have been calculated by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees method. The results calculated from the different sets of data for HF and DF are found to be in very good agreement. The theoretical results of Karo are compared to the experimental results obtained here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084034"><span>Method and system for producing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> using sodium <span class="hlt">ion</span> separation membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman</p> <p>2013-05-21</p> <p>A method of producing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium <span class="hlt">ion</span> separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium <span class="hlt">ion</span> separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is also disclosed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0211.pdf','DOE-RDACC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0211.pdf"><span>High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Physics with <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Bubble Chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/fieldedsearch.html">DOE R&D Accomplishments Database</a></p> <p>Alvarez, L. W.</p> <p>1958-03-07</p> <p>Recent experience with liquid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bubble chambers of 25 and 40 cm dia. in high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> physics experiments is discussed. Experiments described are: interactions of K{sup -} mesons with protons, interactions of antiprotons with protons, catalysis of nuclear fusion reactions by muons, and production and decay of hyperons from negative pions. (W.D.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/564039','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/564039"><span>Assessment of methods for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production using concentrated solar <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glatzmaier, G.; Blake, D.; Showalter, S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this work was to assess methods for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production using concentrated solar <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The results of this work can be used to guide future work in the application of concentrated solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> to <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production. Specifically, the objectives were to: (1) determine the cost of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> produced from methods that use concentrated solar thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, (2) compare these costs to those of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> produced by electrolysis using photovoltaics and wind <span class="hlt">energy</span> as the electricity source. This project had the following scope of work: (1) perform cost analysis on ambient temperature electrolysis using the 10 MWe dish-Stirling and 200 MWe power tower technologies; for each technology, sue two cases for projected costs, years 2010 and 2020 the dish-Stirling system, years 2010 and 2020 for the power tower, (2) perform cost analysis on high temperature electrolysis using the 200 MWe power tower technology and projected costs for the year 2020, and (3) identify and describe the key technical issues for high temperature thermal dissociation and the thermochemical cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=orbital+AND+molecular&pg=6&id=EJ375443','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=orbital+AND+molecular&pg=6&id=EJ375443"><span>Orbital <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Levels in Molecular <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>. A Simple Approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Willis, Christopher J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Described are the energetics involved in the formation of molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> using concepts that should be familiar to students beginning the study of molecular orbital theory. Emphasized are experimental data on ionization <span class="hlt">energies</span>. Included are two-electron atomic and molecular systems. (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1248409-liquidliquid-phase-transition-hydrogen-coupled-electronion-monte-carlo-simulations','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1248409-liquidliquid-phase-transition-hydrogen-coupled-electronion-monte-carlo-simulations"><span>Liquid–liquid phase transition in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> by coupled electron–<span class="hlt">ion</span> Monte Carlo simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Pierleoni, Carlo; Morales, Miguel A.; Rillo, Giovanni; ...</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>The phase diagram of high-pressure <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is of great interest for fundamental research, planetary physics, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> applications. A first-order phase transition in the fluid phase between a molecular insulating fluid and a monoatomic metallic fluid has been predicted. The existence and precise location of the transition line is relevant for planetary models. Recent experiments reported contrasting results about the location of the transition. Theoretical results based on density functional theory are also very scattered. We report highly accurate coupled electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> Monte Carlo calculations of this transition, finding results that lie between the two experimental predictions, close to that measuredmore » in diamond anvil cell experiments but at 25-30 GPa higher pressure. Here, the transition along an isotherm is signaled by a discontinuity in the specific volume, a sudden dissociation of the molecules, a jump in electrical conductivity, and loss of electron localization.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4983859','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4983859"><span>Liquid–liquid phase transition in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> by coupled electron–<span class="hlt">ion</span> Monte Carlo simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morales, Miguel A.; Rillo, Giovanni; Holzmann, Markus; Ceperley, David M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The phase diagram of high-pressure <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is of great interest for fundamental research, planetary physics, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> applications. A first-order phase transition in the fluid phase between a molecular insulating fluid and a monoatomic metallic fluid has been predicted. The existence and precise location of the transition line is relevant for planetary models. Recent experiments reported contrasting results about the location of the transition. Theoretical results based on density functional theory are also very scattered. We report highly accurate coupled electron–<span class="hlt">ion</span> Monte Carlo calculations of this transition, finding results that lie between the two experimental predictions, close to that measured in diamond anvil cell experiments but at 25–30 GPa higher pressure. The transition along an isotherm is signaled by a discontinuity in the specific volume, a sudden dissociation of the molecules, a jump in electrical conductivity, and loss of electron localization. PMID:27099295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976443"><span>An <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread correction for ERDA <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> depth profiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Verda, R. D.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A technique for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis called the channel-depth conversion was introduced by Verda, et al.' However, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, which causes a broadening in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range and leads to errors in depth profiling, was not addressed by this technique. Here we introduce a technique to addresses this problem, called the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread correction. Together, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread correction and the channel-depth conversion techniques comprise the depth profiling method presented in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538527"><span>Nanoscale Layer Transfer by <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Cut Processing: A Brief Review Through Recent U.S. Patents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Benjamin T-H</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-based <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Cut layer-transfer technique, the so-called <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Cut or Smart-Cut processing, has been used in transferring a semiconductor membrane onto a desired substrate to reveal unique characteristics on a nanoscale size and to build functional electronic and photonic devices that are used for specific purposes. For example, the sub-100 nm thick silicon membrane transferred onto an insulator became a key substrate for fabricating nanoscale integrated circuit (IC) devices. Recent U.S. patents have exhibited integration of various thinning approaches requiring precision of a few nanometers in fabricating large-area semiconductor nanomembranes, especially for silicon. This paper reviews published patents and work on fabricating sub-100 nm silicon membranes with welldefined features without a chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) thinning process. This included material analysis leads to ultraprecision thickness in the sub-100 nm region. This paper combines an analysis of peer-reviewed articles and issued patents using focused review keywords of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> implantation, wafer bonding, and layer splitting. The quality of selected patents was appraised based on the authors' 20-year research experience in the field of ultrathin silicon layer-transfer technology. The paper covered more than 10 U.S. patents that have been filed on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-based <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Cut layer-transfer techniques. These patents described approaches for inserting <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> to split at a well-defined location and then transfer the as-split silicon membrane at the nanoscale thickness onto a desired substrate. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-trap sites, implantation <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and interface of the distinct doped regions could define the layer-split location. The insertion of high-dose <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> could be thoroughly achieved by <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation, plasma <span class="hlt">ion</span> immersion implantation (PIII), plasma diffusion, and electrolysis. The article concludes with the discussion of the patent-orientated review of layer-transfer techniques</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211226','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211226"><span>Correlating <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation and evolution activity on platinum at different pH with measured <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> binding <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sheng, WC; Zhuang, ZB; Gao, MR; Zheng, J; Chen, JGG; Yan, YS</p> <p>2015-01-08</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation/evolution reactions are two of the most fundamental reactions in distributed renewable electrochemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion and storage systems. The identification of the reaction descriptor is therefore of critical importance for the rational catalyst design and development. Here we report the correlation between <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation/evolution activity and experimentally measured <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> binding <span class="hlt">energy</span> for polycrystalline platinum examined in several buffer solutions in a wide range of electrolyte pH from 0 to 13. The <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation/evolution activity obtained using the rotating disk electrode method is found to decrease with the pH, while the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> binding <span class="hlt">energy</span>, obtained from cyclic voltammograms, linearly increases with the pH. Correlating the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation/evolution activity to the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> binding <span class="hlt">energy</span> renders a monotonic decreasing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation/evolution activity with the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> binding <span class="hlt">energy</span>, strongly supporting the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> binding <span class="hlt">energy</span> is the sole reaction descriptor for the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation/evolution activity on monometallic platinum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9611313.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995STIN...9611313."><span>The green <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> report: The 1995 progress report of the Secretary of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Technical Advisory Panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report presents the idea that <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and electricity, ultimately derived from renewable technologies, will serve as the clean, inexhaustible <span class="hlt">energy</span> carriers in the next century. The widespread introduction of these <span class="hlt">energy</span> forms would dramatically reduce the nation's air pollution, enhance its <span class="hlt">energy</span> security, and ameliorate potential global climate problems. The topics of the report include the role of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, research priorities, and use of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in surface transportation and aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CPL...497...81T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CPL...497...81T"><span>Correlated sputtering from a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-terminated Si surface by individual highly charged <span class="hlt">ion</span> impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tona, Masahide; Sakurai, Makoto; Yamada, Chikashi; Ohtani, Shunsuke</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The interaction of slow iodine highly charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> (HCIs), Iq+, with a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-terminated Si(1 1 1)-(1 × 1) surface was investigated for a wide range of q from 17 to 53 (fully stripped <span class="hlt">ion</span>). The coincidence measurement for secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> emission reveals that correlated sputtering is enhanced toward higher q, that is, while Si+ sputtering is anti-correlated with H+, multiple H+ are simultaneously emitted. The direct observation of the HCI-bombarded surface with a scanning tunneling microscope supports the result of the multiple <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> emission. These results are discussed in consideration of the strong Coulomb interaction of incident HCIs with the surface and subsurface atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22348038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22348038"><span>Depopulation of metastable helium by radiative association with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and lithium <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Augustovičová, L.; Soldán, P.; Kraemer, W. P.</p> <p>2014-02-10</p> <p>Depopulation of metastable He(2{sup 3}S) by radiative association with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and lithium <span class="hlt">ions</span> is investigated using a fully quantal approach. Rate coefficients for spontaneous and stimulated radiative association of the HeH{sup +}, HeD{sup +}, and LiHe{sup +} molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the spin-triplet manifold are presented as functions of temperature considering the association to rotational-vibrational states of the lowest triplet electronic states a {sup 3}Σ{sup +} and b {sup 3}Σ{sup +} from the continuum states of the b {sup 3}Σ{sup +} electronic state. Evaluation of the rate coefficients is based on highly accurate quantum calculations, taking into account all possible state-to-state transitions at thermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> (for spontaneous association) or at higher background <span class="hlt">energies</span> (stimulated association). As expected, calculations show that the rate coefficients for radiative association to the a state are several orders of magnitude larger than the one for the b state formation. A noticeable effect by blackbody background radiation on the radiative association is only obtained for the b → b process. Aspects of the formation and abundance of the metastable HeH{sup +}(a {sup 3}Σ{sup +}) in astrophysical environments are briefly discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20650521"><span>Electron capture by Ne{sup 4+} <span class="hlt">ions</span> from atomic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Havener, C.C.; Rejoub, R.; Vane, C.R.; Krause, H.F.; Savin, D.W.; Schnell, M.; Wang, J.G.; Stancil, P.C.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory <span class="hlt">ion</span>-atom merged-beams apparatus, the absolute total electron-capture cross section has been measured for collisions of Ne{sup 4+} with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and deuterium at relative <span class="hlt">energies</span> in the center-of-mass frame between 0.10 and 1006 eV/u. Comparison with previous measurements shows large discrepancies between 80 and 600 eV/u. For <span class="hlt">energies</span> below {approx}1 eV/u, a sharply increasing cross section is attributed to the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-induced dipole attraction between the reactants. Multichannel Landau-Zener calculations are performed between 0.01 and 5000 eV/u and compare well to the measured total cross sections. Below {approx}5 eV/u, the present total cross section calculations show a significant target isotope effect. At 0.01 eV/u, the H:D total cross section ratio is predicted to be {approx}1.4 where capture is dominated by transitions into the Ne{sup 3+} (2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}3d) configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RScI...67..993B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RScI...67..993B"><span>Negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production in multicusp volume source with a pulsed discharge (abstract)a)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bacal, M.; Belchenko, Yu. I.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>The pulsed operation of a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> volume source has been investigated, both with a magnetic filter present and without it, under conditions of full-scale acceleration of the extracted negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. We report the observation of three afterglow negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> peaks. As the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> current during the discharge pulse, each of the afterglow peaks can be optimized by varying the pressure, the plasma electrode bias and the extraction voltage. Under optimum conditions, the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> current during the discharge pulse exceeds the afterglow peaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b3509O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b3509O"><span>Negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> extracted from metal grids and an ionic plasma owing to diffusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oohara, W.; Yokoyama, H.; Takamori, S.; Kamikawa, T.; Anegawa, N.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Metal grids made of nickel, copper, titanium, and iron are used for production of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> through the irradiation of positive <span class="hlt">ions</span>. It is easy to determine the existing negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the diffused plasma through the Langmuir probe measurement; however, the negative current, indicating the diminution of the extraction current from the grid, is found to not clearly depend on the work function and electronegativity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RScI...75.1699B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RScI...75.1699B"><span>Contribution of wall material to the vibrational excitation and negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> formation in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources (invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Glass-Maujean, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Nishiura, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The wall production contribution to the negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> formation in multicusp <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources has been investigated using the photodetachment diagnostic (for determining the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> density and temperature), negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> and electron extraction, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectroscopy. The wall material was modified either by depositing thin films from filaments made of different material or by depositing fresh material of the same filament. Thus we show that a fresh tantalum film leads to enhanced negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> density and enhanced temperature of the hot negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> population. The slow poisoning effect due to argon additive also indicates the presence of the wall contribution to H- formation. The study of the VUV spectra with different wall materials indicates the presence of vibrationally excited states of H2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930011327','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930011327"><span>High specific <span class="hlt">energy</span>, high capacity nickel-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cell design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wheeler, James R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cell has been designed and tested to deliver high capacity at a C/1.5 discharge rate. Its specific <span class="hlt">energy</span> yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet made at a discharge rate this high in the 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters, performance, and future test plans are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span>Production of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Near an <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Several researchers have measured <span class="hlt">ions</span> leaving <span class="hlt">ion</span> thruster discharge chambers with <span class="hlt">energies</span> far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and a comparison with measured <span class="hlt">ion</span> spectra. The source of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> has been a puzzle because they not only have <span class="hlt">energies</span> in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon <span class="hlt">ions</span> accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span>Production of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Near an <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Several researchers have measured <span class="hlt">ions</span> leaving <span class="hlt">ion</span> thruster discharge chambers with <span class="hlt">energies</span> far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and a comparison with measured <span class="hlt">ion</span> spectra. The source of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> has been a puzzle because they not only have <span class="hlt">energies</span> in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon <span class="hlt">ions</span> accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4110C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143j4110C"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structure and water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ions</span> in high salt solutions form a variety of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates, from <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each <span class="hlt">ion</span> cluster or <span class="hlt">ion</span> network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structures, i.e., <span class="hlt">ion</span> cluster and <span class="hlt">ion</span> network. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other <span class="hlt">ion</span>-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved <span class="hlt">ions</span> nor on the morphological structures of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374021"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structure and water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ions</span> in high salt solutions form a variety of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates, from <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each <span class="hlt">ion</span> cluster or <span class="hlt">ion</span> network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregate structures, i.e., <span class="hlt">ion</span> cluster and <span class="hlt">ion</span> network. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other <span class="hlt">ion</span>-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved <span class="hlt">ions</span> nor on the morphological structures of <span class="hlt">ion</span> aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833083"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> is an <span class="hlt">energy</span> source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole</p> <p>2011-08-10</p> <p>The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two <span class="hlt">energy</span> sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as an <span class="hlt">energy</span> source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is abundant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECVF1001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECVF1001H"><span>Electronic excitation of molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hargreaves, Leigh</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is the most abundant element in the universe, particularly in interstellar plasmas such as atmospheres of gas giant planets and stars. Electron collision data for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> is critical to interpreting the spectroscopy of interstellar objects, as well as being of applied value for modelling technological plasmas. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> is also fundamentally interesting, as while highly accurate wave functions for this simple molecule are available, providing an accurate, ab initio, treatment the collision dynamics has proven challenging, on account of the need to have a complete description of channel coupling and polarization effects. To date, no single theoretical approach has been able to replicate experimental results across all transitions and incident <span class="hlt">energies</span>, while the experimental database that is available is far from complete and not all available measurements are in satisfactory agreement. In this talk, we present differential and integral cross section measurements for electronic excitation cross sections for molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electron impact. The data were measured at incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> below 20eV, using a well-tested crossed beam apparatus and employing a moveable gas source approach to ensure that background contributions to the scattering are accurately accounted for. These measurements are compared with new theoretical results employing the convergent close coupling approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NIMPB.242...41R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NIMPB.242...41R"><span>Effect of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation on wettability of narra ( Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramos, Henry J.; Monasterial, Jonathan Lee C.; Blantocas, Gene Q.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) wood chips were irradiated with positive <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> H+ and H2+ to make them hydrophobic. The <span class="hlt">ions</span> were produced and extracted from a gas discharge <span class="hlt">ion</span> source. The extracted beam current ranges from 0.01 to 0.07 μA for discharge currents of 1.0-4.0 mA, discharge potential between 600 V and 1000 V. The chips, positioned at 70 mm downstream from the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, were processed for different time periods and discharge currents. The wettability was characterized by the contact angle of the liquid droplet with respect to the wood surface. Surface modifications were assessed with by measurements of the water contact angle. Tests indicate retarded absorption characteristics for <span class="hlt">ion</span>-irradiated samples compared to controlled samples. The longest absorptive inhibition were exhibited by samples irradiated for 30 min, at discharge current of 1.0 mA, 720 eV <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> and 0 V extraction potential. Scanning electron micrographs reveal the difference in morphologies of treated and untreated samples. The results prove that low <span class="hlt">energy</span> beams of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> from a gas discharge <span class="hlt">ion</span> source are suitable in transforming surfaces of wood chips to be water resistant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408239','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408239"><span>Ab initio molecular treatment for charge transfer by P{sup 3+} <span class="hlt">ions</span> on <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and helium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moussa, A.; Zaidi, A.; Lahmar, S.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M.-C.</p> <p>2010-02-15</p> <p>A theoretical treatment of charge-transfer processes induced by collision of phosphorus P{sup 3+}(3s{sup 2}){sup 1}S <span class="hlt">ions</span> on atomic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and helium has been carried out using ab initio potential-<span class="hlt">energy</span> curves and couplings at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory. The cross sections calculated by means of semiclassical collision methods show the existence of a significant charge transfer in the 0.1-700-keV laboratory <span class="hlt">energy</span> range. Radial and rotational coupling interactions were analyzed for both collision systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7067698','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7067698"><span>Electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.</p> <p>1979-10-25</p> <p>An electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the <span class="hlt">ions</span> as they are extracted from the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source plasma generator and before the <span class="hlt">ions</span> are accelerated to their full <span class="hlt">energy</span>. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage <span class="hlt">energy</span> while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> from a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source beam at < 4% of full <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770014074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770014074"><span>Analysis of the theory of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, J. W.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Procedures for the approximation of the transport of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are discussed on the basis of available data on <span class="hlt">ion</span> nuclear reactions. A straightahead approximation appears appropriate for space applications. The assumption that the secondary-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-fragment velocity is equal to that of the fragmenting nucleus is inferior to straightahead theory but is of sufficient accuracy if the primary <span class="hlt">ions</span> display a broad <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum. An iterative scheme for the solution of the inhomogenous integral transport equations holds promise for practical calculation. A model calculation shows that multiple charged <span class="hlt">ion</span> fragments penetrate to greater depths in comparison with the free path of a primary heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6473891','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6473891"><span>Transport of carbon <span class="hlt">ion</span> test particles and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> recycling in the plasma of the Columbia tokamak HBT'' (High Beta Tokamak)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Jian-Hua.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Carbon impurity <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport is studied in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT), using a carbon tipped probe which is inserted into the plasma (n{sub e} {approx} 1 {minus} 5 {times} 10{sup 14} (cm{sup {minus}3}), T{sub e} {approx} 4 {minus} 10 (eV), B{sub t} {approx} 0.2 {minus} 0.4(T)). Carbon impurity light, mainly the strong lines of C{sub II}(4267A, emitted by the C{sup +} <span class="hlt">ions</span>) and C{sub III} (4647A, emitted by the C{sup ++} <span class="hlt">ions</span>), is formed by the ablation or sputtering of plasma <span class="hlt">ions</span> and by the discharge of the carbon probe itself. The diffusion transport of the carbon <span class="hlt">ions</span> is modeled by measuring the space-and-time dependent spectral light emission of the carbon <span class="hlt">ions</span> with a collimated optical beam and photomultiplier. The point of emission can be observed in such a way as to sample regions along and transverse to the toroidal magnetic field. The carbon <span class="hlt">ion</span> diffusion coefficients are obtained by fitting the data to a diffusion transport model. It is found that the diffusion of the carbon <span class="hlt">ions</span> is classical'' and is controlled by the high collisionality of the HBT plasma; the diffusion is a two-dimensional problem and the expected dependence on the charge of the impurity <span class="hlt">ion</span> is observed. The measurement of the spatial distribution of the H{sub {alpha}} emissivity was obtained by inverting the light signals from a 4-channel polychromator, the data were used to calculate the minor-radial influx, the density, and the recycling time of neutral <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms or molecules. The calculation shows that the particle recycling time {tau}{sub p} is comparable with the plasma <span class="hlt">energy</span> confinement time {tau}{sub E}; therefore, the recycling of the hot plasma <span class="hlt">ions</span> with the cold neutrals from the walls is one of the main mechanisms for loss of plasma <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392493','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392493"><span>Magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer measuring the particle flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane; Dudin, Stanislav</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier allowing both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution below 5 eV. The effective <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is found that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution measurements in various experimental setups with <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> above 10 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026517"><span>Magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer measuring the particle flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Dudin, Stanislav; Aanesland, Ane</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier allowing both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution below 5 eV. The effective <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is found that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution measurements in various experimental setups with <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> above 10 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/527715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/527715"><span>Thermopower and conductivity activation <span class="hlt">energies</span> in <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> amorphous silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dyalsingh, H.M.; Kakalios, J.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The long range fluctuation model has been widely used to account for the difference in activation <span class="hlt">energies</span> seen experimentally in dark conductivity and thermopower measurements in <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> amorphous silicon. The authors report on a test of this model using measurements of the conductivity and thermoelectric effects carried out in both open and short circuit configurations. While the thermopower activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> is less than that of the dark conductivity, the short circuit Seebeck conductivity is found to be nearly identical to the dark conductivity in both activation <span class="hlt">energy</span> and magnitude, consistent with the long range fluctuation model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082754"><span>U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Storage Cost Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon</p> <p>2013-03-11</p> <p>The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> storage system costs closer to this DOE target</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.365..394T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.365..394T"><span>Measurement of ultra-low <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> of decelerated <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam using a deflecting electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In investigation on ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment effect on DNA, an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. Measurement of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> after deceleration was necessary to confirm the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. The beam bending distance depended on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...343..197Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...343..197Z"><span>New <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> titanium phosphate sulfate electrodes for Li-<span class="hlt">ion</span> and Na-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Ran; Mieritz, Daniel; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Chan, Candace K.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>NASICON-type materials with general formula AxM2(PO4)3 (A = Li or Na, M = Ti, V, and Fe) are promising candidates for Li- and Na-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries due to their open three-dimensional framework structure. Here we report the electrochemical properties of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> titanium phosphate sulfate, H0.4Ti2(PO4)2.4(SO4)0.6 (HTPS), a new mixed polyanion material with NASICON structure. Micron-sized HTPS aggregates with crystallite grain size of ca. 23 nm are synthesized using a sol-gel synthesis in an acidic medium. The properties of the as-synthesized HTPS, ball-milled HTPS, and samples prepared as carbon composites using an in-situ glucose decomposition reaction are investigated. A capacity of 148 mAh g-1 corresponding to insertion of 2 Li+ per formula unit is observed in the ball-milled HTPS over the potential window of 1.5-3.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Lithiation at ca. 2.8 and 2.5 V is determined to occur through filling of the M1 and M2 sites, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used characterize the HTPS before and after cycling. Evaluation of the HTPS in a Na-<span class="hlt">ion</span> cell is also performed. A discharge capacity of 93 mAh g-1 with sodiation at ca. 2.9 and 2.2 V vs. Na/Na+ is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013320','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013320"><span>Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, <span class="hlt">ions</span> drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, conductive <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching. PMID:27600368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6061731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6061731"><span>Independence of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> secretion and transport of other electrolytes in turtle bladder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinmetz, P R; Omachi, R S; Frazier, H S</p> <p>1967-10-01</p> <p>The relationship between <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> secretion and the transport of other electrloytes was examined in the isolated urinary bladder of the water turtle. Symmetrical solutions which were free from exogenous carbon dioxide and bicarbonate bathed the two surfaces of the preparation, and the spontaneous electrical potential of the bladder was nullified by a voltage clamp. Active transport of sodium from mucosal to serosal medium was confirmed by simultaneous bidirectional flux measurements and found to be slightly, but not significantly, greater than the short-circuit current. In the absence of sodium in the bathing solutions, the normal potential difference across the bladder reversed and the current required to nullify this reversed potential difference had the same magnitude as the simultaneously measured rate of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> secretion. The results indicate that, under these experimental conditions, the bladder transports sodium and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> actively, but that chloride movement does not contribute to the short-circuit current. The rate of secretion of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> was not affected by replacement of the sodium in the bathing media by cesium, or by inhibition of sodium transport by dinitrophenol. Acidification continued when chloride in the solutions was replaced by sulfate, or when potassium or calcium was removed from the solution bathing the mucosal surface. Secretion of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> by the turtle bladder is not dependent on the simultaneous transport of other electrolytes across the bladder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.371..230M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.371..230M"><span>Near-surface <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct <span class="hlt">ion</span> deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct <span class="hlt">ion</span> deposition using a system based on a Penning <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> depleted. The increase of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of <span class="hlt">ion</span> species, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct <span class="hlt">ion</span> deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27600368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27600368"><span>Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng</p> <p>2016-09-07</p> <p>In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, <span class="hlt">ions</span> drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, conductive <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632712Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632712Z"><span>Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, <span class="hlt">ions</span> drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, conductive <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780018922&hterms=Chemical+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DChemical%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780018922&hterms=Chemical+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DChemical%2Benergy"><span>Status of photoelectrochemical production of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The efficiency for conversion of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> to chemical and electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> utilizing semiconductor single crystals as photoanodes in electrochemical cells was investigated. Efficiencies as high as 20 percent were achieved for the conversion of 330 nm radiation to chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the form of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> by the photoelectrolysis of water in a SrTiO3 based cell. The SrTiO3 photoanodes were shown to be stable in 9.5 M NaOH solutions for periods up to 48 hours. Efficiencies of 9 percent were measured for the conversion of broadband visible radiation to <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> using n-type GaAs crystals as photoanodes. Crystals of GaAs coated with 500 nm of gold, silver, or tin for surface passivation show no significant change in efficiency. By suppressing the production of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in a CdSe-based photogalvanic cell, an efficiency of 9 percent was obtained in conversion of 633 nm light to electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span>. A CdS-based photogalvanic cell produced a conversion efficiency of 5 percent for 500 nm radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005500','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005500"><span>Surface modification using low <span class="hlt">energy</span> ground state <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A method of effecting modifications at the surfaces of materials using low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams of known quantum state, purity, flux, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> is presented. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam is obtained by bombarding <span class="hlt">ion</span>-generating molecules with electrons which are also at low <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The electrons used to bombard the <span class="hlt">ion</span> generating molecules are separated from the <span class="hlt">ions</span> thus obtained and the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam is directed at the material surface to be modified. Depending on the type of <span class="hlt">ion</span> generating molecules used, different <span class="hlt">ions</span> can be obtained for different types of surface modifications such as oxidation and diamond film formation. One area of application is in the manufacture of semiconductor devices from semiconductor wafers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28948614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28948614"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>- and Halogen-Bonds between <span class="hlt">Ions</span> of like Charges: Are They Anti-Electrostatic in Nature?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Changwei; Fu, Yuzhuang; Zhang, Lina; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason; Mo, Yirong</p> <p>2017-09-26</p> <p>Recent theoretical studies suggested that <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds between <span class="hlt">ions</span> of like charges are of a covalent nature due to the dominating nD →σ*H-A charge-transfer (CT) interaction. In this work, <span class="hlt">energy</span> profiles of typical <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> (H) and halogen (X) bonding systems formed from <span class="hlt">ions</span> of like charges are explored using the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method, which can derive optimal geometries and wave functions with the CT interaction "turned off." The results demonstrate that the kinetic stability, albeit reduced, is maintained for most investigated systems even after the intermolecular CT interaction is quenched. Further <span class="hlt">energy</span> decomposition analyses based on the BLW method reveal that, despite a net repulsive Coulomb repulsion, a stabilizing component exists due to the polarization effect that plays significant role in the kinetic stability of all systems. Moreover, the fingerprints of the augmented electrostatic interaction due to polarization are apparent in the variation patterns of the electron density. All in all, much like in standard H- and X-bonds, the stability of such bonds between <span class="hlt">ions</span> of like charges is governed by the competition between the stabilizing electrostatic and charge transfer interactions and the destabilizing deformation <span class="hlt">energy</span> and Pauli exchange repulsion. While in most cases of "anti-electrostatic" bonds the CT interaction is of a secondary importance, we also find cases where CT is decisive. As such, this work validates the existence of anti-electrostatic H- and X-bonds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866198','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866198"><span>Production of intense negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hershcovitch, Ady</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ions</span> that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ions</span> to spin polarize the H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ions</span> and produce first and second populations or groups of <span class="hlt">ions</span>, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ions</span>, without neutralizing the <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ions</span> each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of <span class="hlt">ions</span> are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ions</span> away from the group of neutralized <span class="hlt">ions</span>, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004IJMSp.233..361H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004IJMSp.233..361H"><span>Surface collisions of small cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> at incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> 10-102 eV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herman, Zdenek</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>A short review of the field of collisions of slow cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> with surfaces is presented. The main subject of the paper is a survey of results of a series of studies on slow cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions with surfaces carried out in Innsbruck. In these studies the incident <span class="hlt">ions</span> were fullerene multiply-charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> and small cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> of polyatomic molecules (acetone and acetonitrile radical cations, protonated ethanol, clustered by 2-4 monomer molecules). For collisions of multiply-charged fullerene cations C60z+ (z from 1 to 5, incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> 100-500 eV) only singly-charged product <span class="hlt">ions</span> were observed which were formed by sequential loss of C2 units. The effect of multiple-charge of the projectile on its fragmentation was less pronounced than expected from a full conversion of electronic <span class="hlt">energy</span> gained in the surface neutralization process. Fragmentation upon surface collision excitation of acetone, acetonitrile and protonated ethanol cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> (incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> 10-80 eV) was found to follow the unimolecular dissociation kinetics. Formation of protonated monomers in collisions of acetone and acetonitrile stoechiometric clusters resulted both from an intra-cluster reaction and from a reaction of the monomer product <span class="hlt">ion</span> with the surface <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>; it could be rationalized using the double-well potential model. Incident <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependence of relative abundance of dissociation products from surface collisions of protonated ethanol trimers, dimers and monomers could be mutually rationalized, if the fraction of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transformed in the surface collision into internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> was related to one internal degree of freedom. A diagram resembling a break-down pattern of the projectile <span class="hlt">ion</span> was obtained in this way. All internal degrees of freedom of the projectile <span class="hlt">ion</span> seemed to be involved in the unimolecular dissociation kinetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6187055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6187055"><span>Electron collisional detachment processes for a 250 keV D/sup -/ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam in a partially ionized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> target</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Savas, S.E.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>Neutral atom beams with <span class="hlt">energies</span> above 200 keV may be required for various purposes in magnetic fusion devices following TFTR, JET and MFTF-B. These beams can be produced much more efficiently by electron detachment from negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams than by electron capture by positive <span class="hlt">ions</span>. We have investigated the efficiency with which such neutral atoms can be produced by electron detachment in partially ionized <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasma neutralizers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972168"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> and Competing Technologies for Utility-Scale <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steward, D.</p> <p>2010-02-11</p> <p>Presentation about the National Renewable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Laboratory's analysis of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage scenarios, including analysis framework, levelized cost comparison of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and competing technologies, analysis results, and conclusions drawn from the analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21207627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21207627"><span>Aromatic and aliphatic CH <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds fight for chloride while competing alongside <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairing within triazolophanes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hua, Yuran; Ramabhadran, Raghunath O; Uduehi, Esther O; Karty, Jonathan A; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Flood, Amar H</p> <p>2011-01-03</p> <p>Triazolophanes are used as the venue to compete an aliphatic propylene CH <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bond donor against an aromatic phenylene one. Longer aliphatic C-H...Cl(-) <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds were calculated from the location of the chloride within the propylene-based triazolophane. The gas-phase energetics of chloride binding (ΔG(bind) , ΔH(bind) , ΔS(bind) ) and the configurational entropy (ΔS(config) ) were computed by taking all low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> conformations into account. Comparison between the phenylene- and propylene-based triazolophanes shows the computed gas-phase free <span class="hlt">energy</span> of binding decreased from ΔG(bind) =-194 to -182 kJ mol(-1) , respectively, with a modest enthalpy-entropy compensation. These differences were investigated experimentally. An (1) H NMR spectroscopy study on the structure of the propylene triazolophane's 1:1 chloride complex is consistent with a weaker propylene CH <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bond. To quantify the affinity differences between the two triazolophanes in dichloromethane, it was critical to obtain an accurate binding model. Four equilibria were identified. In addition to 1:1 complexation and 2:1 sandwich formation, <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairing of the tetrabutylammonium chloride salt (TBA(+) ⋅Cl(-) ) and cation pairing of TBA(+) with the 1:1 triazolophane-chloride complex were observed and quantified. Each complex was independently verified by ESI-MS or diffusion NMR spectroscopy. With <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairing deconvoluted from the chloride-receptor binding, equilibrium constants were determined by using (1) H NMR (500 μM) and UV/Vis (50 μM) spectroscopy titrations. The stabilities of the 1:1 complexes for the phenylene and propylene triazolophanes did not differ within experimental error, ΔG=(-38±2) and (-39±1) kJ mol(-1) , respectively, as verified by an NMR spectroscopy competition experiment. Thus, the aliphatic CH donor only revealed its weaker character when competing with aromatic CH donors within the propylene-based triazolophane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5472371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5472371"><span>Neutral beamline with improved <span class="hlt">ion-energy</span> recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.</p> <p>1981-04-13</p> <p>A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery is provided which enhances the <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery of the full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The <span class="hlt">ions</span>, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exiting the cell with the full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> do not detract from the <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery efficiency of full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483002','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483002"><span>Operating modes of a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source based on a hollow-cathode pulsed Penning discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oks, E. M.; Shandrikov, M. V. Vizir, A. V.</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">ion</span> source based on a hollow-cathode Penning discharge was switched to a high-current pulsed mode (tens of amperes and tens of microseconds) to produce an intense <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. With molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> (H{sub 2}), the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam contained three species: H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +}. For all experimental conditions, the fraction of H{sub 2}{sup +} <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the beam was about 10 ÷ 15% of the total <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current and varied little with <span class="hlt">ion</span> source parameters. At the same time, the ratio of H{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} depended strongly on the discharge current, particularly on its distribution in the gap between the hollow and planar cathodes. Increasing the discharge current increased the H{sup +} fraction in <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. The maximum fraction of H{sup +} reached 80% of the total <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current. Forced redistribution of the discharge current in the cathode gap for increasing the hollow cathode current could greatly increase the H{sub 3}{sup +} fraction in the beam. At optimum parameters, the fraction of H{sub 3}{sup +} <span class="hlt">ions</span> reached 60% of the total <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046682"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-Bromine Flow Battery: <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their <span class="hlt">energy</span> are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more <span class="hlt">energy</span> because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6544656','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6544656"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> options: real economics and the solar-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bockris, J.O'M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>All price comparisons being made at present, upon which <span class="hlt">energy</span> decisions only effective decades later are being made, are irelevant, the author feels. The relevant economics is that of the time beyond the year 2000, when the fossil fuels will be playing a diminishing role in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> mix, at <span class="hlt">energy</span> prices greatly above those of the present time. This book attempts to put numbers in the various years concerned, and to discuss now the financing. It shows that the coal-nuclear policy, which is the basis of the present <span class="hlt">energy</span> thrust in research and in financing, is incompatible with environmental and health considerations. However, Prof. Bockris notes that the alternatives are not those of having nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> or having gross unemployment, but rather those of having nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> or solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> on a massive scale by means of collection in desert areas. Solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> is not primarily a source for rooftops and water heating, but one which could supply factories, industries, commerce and transportation. The key to the difference in viewpoint is the introduction of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> as a transmission, storage, and distribution medium, the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> coming from the electrolysis of water, and the electricity for this coming from the solar source. The title of the book arises because of the newly introduced subjects of the Second Law economics and the real economics which takes into account the Second Law cost, but also the differing cost of health with each alternative-<span class="hlt">energy</span> system. It is only if one takes into account economics from the point of view of the consumer of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> that the relevant order of preference of the various <span class="hlt">energy</span> options can be ascertained. 526 references, 148 figures, 94 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26467120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26467120"><span>Peptide fragmentation caused by Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> depending on primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aoyagi, Satoka; Kawashima, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Yuta</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>Time-of-flight secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) with an Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam as a primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> source provides useful information in terms of peptide analysis. It is, however, difficult to interpret the spectra. The ToF-SIMS peptide spectra obtained with Ar clusters having different <span class="hlt">energies</span> have been investigated in order to classify the secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span> into the peptide fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> and those related to contaminants or the substrate. Three peptides having different molecular weights from 600 to 1300 u were measured with Ar cluster beams having different <span class="hlt">energies</span> per atom from 4 to 40 eV/atom. In the spectra normalized to a geometric average of all the spectra, the amino acid fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> are distinguished from other secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span>. In the mass range above 600 u, the peptide fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> increase with mass while those not related to the peptide decrease with mass. <span class="hlt">Energy</span>-dependence fragmentation helps in understanding the peptide spectra. Specific peptide fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the larger peptides are likely to be detected under lower <span class="hlt">energy</span> than <span class="hlt">energy</span> higher than 10 eV/atom. Although it is difficult to interpret the TOF-SIMS spectra of a peptide obtained with an Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, the secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span> can be classified by comparing those obtained with different <span class="hlt">energy</span> Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253771"><span>Effects of discharge chamber length on the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> generation in volume-produced negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bong-Ki; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Hwang, Y. S.</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>In a volume-produced negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of highly vibrationally excited <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecules in the heating region as well as the generation of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In this study, geometric effects of the cylindrical discharge chamber on negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> generation via electron temperature changes are investigated in two discharge chambers with different lengths of 7.5 cm and 11 cm. Measurements with a radio-frequency-compensated Langmuir probe show that the electron temperature in the heating region is significantly increased by reducing the length of the discharge chamber due to the reduced effective plasma size. A particle balance model which is modified to consider the effects of discharge chamber configuration on the plasma parameters explains the variation of the electron temperature with the chamber geometry and gas pressure quite well. Accordingly, H{sup −} <span class="hlt">ion</span> density measurement with laser photo-detachment in the short chamber shows a few times increase compared to the longer one at the same heating power depending on gas pressure. However, the increase drops significantly as operating gas pressure decreases, indicating increased electron temperatures in the extraction region degrade dissociative attachment significantly especially in the low pressure regime. It is concluded that the increase of electron temperature by adjusting the discharge chamber geometry is efficient to increase H{sup −} <span class="hlt">ion</span> production as long as low electron temperatures are maintained in the extraction region in volume-produced negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010013','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760010013"><span>Minimum <span class="hlt">energy</span>, liquid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> supersonic cruise vehicle study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The potential was examined of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-fueled supersonic vehicles designed for cruise at Mach 2.7 and at Mach 2.2. The aerodynamic, weight, and propulsion characteristics of a previously established design of a LH2 fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle (SCV) were critically reviewed and updated. The design of a Mach 2.2 SCV was established on a corresponding basis. These baseline designs were then studied to determine the potential of minimizing <span class="hlt">energy</span> expenditure in performing their design mission, and to explore the effect of fuel price and noise restriction on their design and operating performance. The baseline designs of LH2 fueled aircraft were than compared with equivalent designs of jet A (conventional hydrocarbon) fueled SCV's. Use of liquid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> for fuel for the subject aircraft provides significant advantages in performance, cost, noise, pollution, sonic boom, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> utilization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16054664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16054664"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> peroxide bleaching of cotton in ultrasonic <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mistik, S Ilker; Yükseloglu, S Müge</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>It is well known that, conventional <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide bleaching process is an important and a specific step for wet processors; however it has some problems such as long time, high <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption. On the other hand, using ultrasonic <span class="hlt">energy</span> in bleaching is an alternative method for the conventional processes. In this work, 100% cotton materials of different forms such as raw fibre, ring-spun yarns and knitted fabrics produced from these cottons, were treated with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> peroxide in two different concentrations (5 mL/L and 10 mL/L), at three different temperatures (20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C) and times (20 min, 30 min, 60 min). Whiteness Index of the samples were then measured spectrophotometrically and the overall results were compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6989119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6989119"><span>Effects of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment on the growth of Cu films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bai, Peng.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This thesis presents an experimental study on the interaction of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> with solid surfaces and its implications in the growth of Cu films. The experimental method is provided by a high-vacuum thin-film growth technique, referred to as partially ionized beam (PIB) deposition technique, which involves a physical vapor deposition process with a concurrent <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment of the substrate. The <span class="hlt">ions</span> (0-5% of the depositing beam) are derived from the depositing materials and have <span class="hlt">energies</span> less than 5 keV. A study of the surface impurity sputtering is carried out on the PIB Du deposition on Si(111) substrate which contains a thin layer of impurities on the surface. A reduction of impurities at the Cu/Si interface is observed as a function of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-bombardment parameters. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependences of the sputtering cross sections of oxygen, carbon and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> at the Cu/Si interface by Cu <span class="hlt">ions</span> are calculated and compared to experimental data. A theoretical study of the thermal spike effect induced by <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment, with particular emphasis on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependence of the substrate surface temperature, is carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22303659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22303659"><span>Dynamics of the fully stripped <span class="hlt">ion-hydrogen</span> atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei</p> <p>2014-09-15</p> <p>The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped <span class="hlt">ion</span> colliding with a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle <span class="hlt">energy</span>. At high <span class="hlt">energies</span>, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low <span class="hlt">energies</span>, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720024505','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720024505"><span>Gadolinium-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchange of zirconium phosphate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The Gd(+3)/H(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) <span class="hlt">ion</span> is sorbed on only one site of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050080718','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050080718"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>An introduction to the closed cycle <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985CP.....93....1G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985CP.....93....1G"><span>Vibrational excitation and negative-<span class="hlt">ion</span> production in magnetic multicusp <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorse, C.; Capitelli, M.; Bretagne, J.; Bacal, M.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>A self-consistent approach based on the simultaneous solution of the vibrational master equation, the Boltzmann equation and the plasma chemistry describing the dissociation process has been used to obtain: (a) vibrational distributions, (b) electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution functions, (c) electron number densities ( n c) and electron temperatures ( T c), (d) degree of dissociation, and (e) the concentration of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> ( NH -) in magnetic multicusp H 2 plasmas. The approach is an extension of a model presented earlier. The main differences come from the insertion of a source term (an electron beam) instead of the electric field in the Boltzmann equation and from the inclusion of new important processes in the vibrational master equation. The results which are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental vibrational distributions obtained by CARS spectroscopy, with the n c, T c values obtained by probe techniques and with the production of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> obtained by a photodetachment technique, show the importance of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms and of wall deactivation in affecting the properties of multicusp H 2 plasmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005exnu.conf..592Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005exnu.conf..592Y"><span>Gas Feeding System Supplying the U-400M Cyclotron <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Source with <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Antilopov, V. V.; Apasov, V. A.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Golubkov, A. N.; Gornostaev, Ye. V.; Grishechkin, S. K.; Demin, A. M.; Zlatoustovski, S. V.; Klevtsov, V. G.; Kuryakin, A. V.; Malkov, I. N.; Musyaev, R. K.; Pustovoi, V. I.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Yefremov, A. A.; Zelenak, A.; Leporis, M.; Loginov, V. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pashchenko, S. V.; Rodin, A. M.; Smirnov, Yu. I.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Yazvitski, N. Yu.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Automated system feeding into <span class="hlt">ion</span> source <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> isotopes as molecules with preset ratio of the fluxes is described. The control system automatically maintained the working parameters and provided graphic and digital representation of the controlled processes. The radiofrequency (RF) <span class="hlt">ion</span> source installed at the axial injection line of the cyclotron produced <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams of HD+, HT+, DT+, D2H+, etc. At a several months DT+ beam acceleration the tritium consumption was less than 108 Bq/hr. The intensity of a 58.2 MeV triton beam (T+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>) extracted from the cyclotron chamber was about 10 nA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1025164','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1025164"><span>Modular <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage System for <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Fuel Cell Vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, Janice</p> <p>2010-08-27</p> <p>The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> management between electrically powered devices in alternative <span class="hlt">energy</span> vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and <span class="hlt">energy</span> delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative <span class="hlt">energy</span> vehicle markets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866805','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866805"><span>Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> or deuterium <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Leung, Ka-Ngo</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A high concentration of positive molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive <span class="hlt">ion</span> source having a short path length of extracted <span class="hlt">ions</span>, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other <span class="hlt">ion</span> species by collision between the positive <span class="hlt">ions</span> and gas molecules. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118g3303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118g3303S"><span>First experiments with Cs doped Mo as surface converter for negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schiesko, L.; Cartry, G.; Hopf, C.; Höschen, T.; Meisl, G.; Encke, O.; Heinemann, B.; Achkasov, K.; Amsalem, P.; Fantz, U.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A study was conducted on the properties of molybdenum implanted with caesium as an approach to reduce the Cs consumption of negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources based on evaporated Cs. The depth profiles of the implanted Cs were simulated by SDTrimSP and experimentally determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. In particular, one year after implantation, the depth profiles showed no signs of Cs diffusion into the molybdenum, suggesting long term stability of the implanted Cs atoms. The H- surface generation mechanisms on the implanted samples in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasma were investigated, and the stability of the H- yield during four hours low power <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasma discharges was demonstrated. An estimation of the work function reduction (-0.8 eV) by the Cs implantation was performed, and a comparison of the relative negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> yields between the implanted samples and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite showed that the Cs doped Mo negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> yield was larger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20995553','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20995553"><span>Nuclear <span class="hlt">Energy</span> - <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhiwei Zhou</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant <span class="hlt">energy</span> mix and the environmental stress due to <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable <span class="hlt">energy</span> strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's <span class="hlt">energy</span> market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in <span class="hlt">energy</span> utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable <span class="hlt">energy</span> development policy and pay great attention to the construction of <span class="hlt">energy</span> saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span> development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese <span class="hlt">energy</span> industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production with nuclear <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28767313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28767313"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Species-Dependent Induction of DNA Double-Strand Breaks: <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and Fluence Thresholds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thopan, Prutchayawoot; Yu, Liangdeng; Brown, Ian G; Tippawan, Udomrat</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to determine the critical <span class="hlt">ion</span>-radiation conditions under which heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams can induce DNA double-strand breaks. Helium, nitrogen and argon-<span class="hlt">ion</span> beams in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of 20 eV to 2 keV were used to irradiate naked DNA plasmid pGFP to fluences of 1, 2 and 4 × 10(15) <span class="hlt">ions</span>/cm(2). The topological forms of DNA were subsequently analyzed using gel electrophoresis. The DNA forms were changed from the original supercoiled to damaged relaxed and linear forms, depending on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass, <span class="hlt">energy</span>, fluence and inertia. We found <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> and fluence thresholds above which direct double-strand breaks can occur. The threshold is discussed in terms of the areal <span class="hlt">ion-energy</span> density and the cross-section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARW32003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARW32003R"><span>Free <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Wells and Barriers to <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Transport Across Membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rempe, Susan</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The flow of <span class="hlt">ions</span> across cellular membranes is essential to many biological processes. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> transport is also important in synthetic materials used as battery electrolytes. Transport often involves specific <span class="hlt">ions</span> and fast conduction. To achieve those properties, <span class="hlt">ion</span> conduction pathways must solvate specific <span class="hlt">ions</span> by just the ``right amount.'' The right amount of solvation avoids <span class="hlt">ion</span> traps due to deep free <span class="hlt">energy</span> wells, and avoids <span class="hlt">ion</span> block due to high free <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> channel proteins in cellular membranes demonstrate this subtle balance in solvation of specific <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Using ab initio molecular simulations, we have interrogated the link between binding site structure and <span class="hlt">ion</span> solvation free <span class="hlt">energies</span> in biological <span class="hlt">ion</span> binding sites. Our results emphasize the surprisingly important role of the environment that surrounds <span class="hlt">ion</span>-binding sites for fast transport of specific <span class="hlt">ions</span>. We acknowledge support from Sandia's LDRD program. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the US DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=combustion&pg=3&id=EJ826560','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=combustion&pg=3&id=EJ826560"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Balloons to Display Metal <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maynard, James H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We have optimized a procedure for igniting <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products. We report air quality measurements in a lecture hall immediately after the demonstration. While we recommend that this demonstration be done outdoors or in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+quality&pg=4&id=EJ826560','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+quality&pg=4&id=EJ826560"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Balloons to Display Metal <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maynard, James H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We have optimized a procedure for igniting <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products. We report air quality measurements in a lecture hall immediately after the demonstration. While we recommend that this demonstration be done outdoors or in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPlPh..79..489M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPlPh..79..489M"><span>Soft X-ray continuum radiation from low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> pinch discharges of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mills, R.; Booker, R.; Lu, Y.; Lu</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Under a study contracted by GEN3 Partners, spectra of high current pinch discharges in pure <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> and helium were recorded in the extreme ultraviolet radiation region at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in an attempt to reproduce experimental results published by BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) showing predicted continuum radiation due to <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> in the 10-30 nm region (Mills, R. L. and Lu, Y. 2010 Hydrino continuum transitions with cutoffs at 22.8 nm and 10.1 nm. Int. J. Hydrog. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> 35, 8446-8456, doi:10.1016?j.ijhydene.2010.05.098). Alternative explanations were considered to the claimed interpretation of the continuum radiation as being that emitted during transitions of H to lower-<span class="hlt">energy</span> states (hydrinos). Continuum radiation was observed at CfA in the 10-30 nm region that matched BLP's results. Considering the low <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 5.2 J per pulse, the observed radiation in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of about 120-40 eV, reference experiments and analysis of plasma gases, cryofiltration to remove contaminants, and spectra of the electrode metal, no conventional explanation was found in the prior or present work to be plausible including contaminants, electrode metal emission, and Bremsstrahlung, <span class="hlt">ion</span> recombination, molecular or molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> band radiation, and instrument artifacts involving radicals and energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> reacting at the charge-coupled device and H2 re-radiation at the detector chamber. Moreover, predicted selective extraordinarily high-kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> H was observed by the corresponding Doppler broadening of the Balmer α line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780065439&hterms=anomalous+NMR&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Danomalous%2BNMR','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780065439&hterms=anomalous+NMR&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Danomalous%2BNMR"><span>NMR relaxation rate and the libron <span class="hlt">energy</span> of solid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugawara, K.; Woollam, J. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>By taking the rotational relaxation of orthohydrogen (o-H2) in solid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> into account, the authors have theoretically investigated the longitudinal NMR spin lattice relaxation rate of o-H2. The rate is characterized by an anomalous maximum, as a function of temperature, at temperatures close to the mean libron <span class="hlt">energy</span> of o-H2. Application of the theory for o-H2 concentrations between 42% and 75% reveals a nearly concentration-independent mean libron <span class="hlt">energy</span> equivalent to about 1 K. This qualitatively and quantitatively contradicts the conclusions of other theories, but agrees with recent experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780065439&hterms=nmr&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnmr','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780065439&hterms=nmr&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnmr"><span>NMR relaxation rate and the libron <span class="hlt">energy</span> of solid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugawara, K.; Woollam, J. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>By taking the rotational relaxation of orthohydrogen (o-H2) in solid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> into account, the authors have theoretically investigated the longitudinal NMR spin lattice relaxation rate of o-H2. The rate is characterized by an anomalous maximum, as a function of temperature, at temperatures close to the mean libron <span class="hlt">energy</span> of o-H2. Application of the theory for o-H2 concentrations between 42% and 75% reveals a nearly concentration-independent mean libron <span class="hlt">energy</span> equivalent to about 1 K. This qualitatively and quantitatively contradicts the conclusions of other theories, but agrees with recent experiments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhB...50b5104A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhB...50b5104A"><span>Leading-order relativistic corrections to the dipole polarizability of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aznabayev, D. T.; Bekbaev, A. K.; Zhaugasheva, S. A.; Korobov, V. I.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The static dipole polarizability for the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> {{{H}}}2+, HD+, and {{{D}}}2+ are calculated. These new data for polarizability take into account the leading-order relativistic corrections to the wave function of the three-body system resulting from the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian of m{α }4 order. Our study covers a wide range of rotational (J=0-5) and vibrational (v=0-10) states, which are of practical interest for precision spectroscopy of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106585"><span>Unconventional <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding to organic <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the gas phase: stepwise association of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cyanide with the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations and protonated pyridine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamid, Ahmed M; El-Shall, M Samy; Hilal, Rifaat; Elroby, Shaaban; Aziz, Saadullah G</p> <p>2014-08-07</p> <p>Equilibrium thermochemical measurements using the <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility drift cell technique have been utilized to investigate the binding <span class="hlt">energies</span> and entropy changes for the stepwise association of HCN molecules with the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations forming the C5H5N(+·)(HCN)n and C4H4N2 (+·)(HCN)n clusters, respectively, with n = 1-4. For comparison, the binding of 1-4 HCN molecules to the protonated pyridine C5H5NH(+)(HCN)n has also been investigated. The binding <span class="hlt">energies</span> of HCN to the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations are nearly equal (11.4 and 12.0 kcal/mol, respectively) but weaker than the HCN binding to the protonated pyridine (14.0 kcal/mol). The pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations form unconventional carbon-based ionic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonds with HCN (CH(δ+)⋯NCH). Protonated pyridine forms a stronger ionic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bond with HCN (NH(+)⋯NCH) which can be extended to a linear chain with the clustering of additional HCN molecules (NH(+)⋯NCH··NCH⋯NCH) leading to a rapid decrease in the bond strength as the length of the chain increases. The lowest <span class="hlt">energy</span> structures of the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cation clusters containing 3-4 HCN molecules show a strong tendency for the internal solvation of the radical cation by the HCN molecules where bifurcated structures involving multiple <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding sites with the ring <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms are formed. The unconventional H-bonds (CH(δ+)⋯NCH) formed between the pyridine or the pyrimidine radical cations and HCN molecules (11-12 kcal/mol) are stronger than the similar (CH(δ+)⋯NCH) bonds formed between the benzene radical cation and HCN molecules (9 kcal/mol) indicating that the CH(δ+) centers in the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations have more effective charges than in the benzene radical cation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20722230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20722230"><span>Rates of complex formation in collisions of rotationally excited homonuclear diatoms with <span class="hlt">ions</span> at very low temperatures: Application to <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> isotopes and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-containing <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dashevskaya, E.I.; Litvin, I.; Nikitin, E.E.; Troe, J.</p> <p>2005-05-08</p> <p>State-selected rate coefficients for the capture of ground and rotationally excited homonuclear molecules by <span class="hlt">ions</span> are calculated, for low temperatures, within the adiabatic channel classical (ACCl) approximation, and, for zero temperature, via an approximate calculation of the Bethe limit. In the intermediate temperature range, the accurate quantal rate coefficients are calculated for j=0 and j=1 states of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> isotopes (H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2}) colliding with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-containing <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and simple analytical expressions are suggested to approximate the rate coefficients. For the ground rotational state of diatoms, the accurate quantal rate coefficients are higher compared to their ACCl counterparts, while for the first excited rotational state the reverse is true. The physical significance of quantum effects for low-temperature capture and the applicability of the statistical description of capture are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the role of Coriolis interaction. The relevance of the present capture calculations for rates of ortho-para conversion of H{sub 2} in collisions with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-containing <span class="hlt">ions</span> at low temperatures is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28102938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28102938"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Catalytic Electrolysis for Simultaneous <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Evolution and Lignin Depolymerization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Xu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhe; Mulyadi, Arie; Brittain, Alex; Gong, Jian; Deng, Yulin</p> <p>2017-03-09</p> <p>Here, a new proton-exchange-membrane electrolysis is presented, in which lignin was used as the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> source at the anode for <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production. Either polyoxometalate (POM) or FeCl3 was used as the catalyst and charge-transfer agent at the anode. Over 90 % Faraday efficiency was achieved. In a thermal-insulation reactor, the heat <span class="hlt">energy</span> could be maintained at a very low level for continuous operation. Compared to the best alkaline-water electrolysis reported in literature, the electrical-<span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption could be 40 % lower with lignin electrolysis. At the anode, the Kraft lignin (KL) was oxidized to aromatic chemicals by POM or FeCl3 , and reduced POM or Fe <span class="hlt">ions</span> were regenerated during the electrolysis. Structure analysis of the residual KL indicated a reduction of the amount of hydroxyl groups and the cleavage of ether bonds. The results suggest that POM- or FeCl3 -mediated electrolysis can significantly reduce the electrolysis <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production and, simultaneously, depolymerize lignin to low-molecular-weight value-added aromatic chemicals. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764322"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions using a combined <span class="hlt">energy</span> and mass analyzer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walton, S G; Fernsler, R F; Leonhardt, D</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A method is described for measuring <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions using a commercially available, combined <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer/mass spectrometer. The distributions were measured at an electrode located adjacent to pulsed, electron beam-generated plasmas produced in argon. The method uses <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dependent tuning and was tested for various plasma conditions. The results indicate an improved collection efficiency of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> when compared to conventional approaches in measuring <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1637748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1637748"><span>Studies of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> by collision-induced decomposition and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-deuterium exchange techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hunt, D F; Sethi, S K; Shabanowitz, J</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Development of two new techniques for studying the gas phase chemistry of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> is reported. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> has been accomplished in a newly constructed triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. This instrument was assembled by adding two additional Finnigan quadrupole mass filters to a Finnigan Model 3200 CI mass spectrometer. Generation of (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> is accomplished by allowing OH- and sample to react under CI conditions in the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source. The first quadrupole mass filter, Q1, is then employed to selectively pass the (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ion</span> into a second quadrupole filter containing argon or neon at 10(-3) torr. On collision with the inert gas the (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> dissociate into fragments which are then mass analyzed in the third quadrupole filter, CID spectra of (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> from twelve carbonyl compounds are presented in this paper. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> molecule isotope exchange reactions in the CI <span class="hlt">ion</span> source can be used to count the number of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms in many different chemical environments. Collisions between sample (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> and deuterium-labeled reagent gases (ND3, D2O, EtOD) facilitate incorporation of deuterium into the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> if the basicities of the sample and reagent anions are similar. Thus it is possible to selectively incorporate deuterium into many organic samples by controlling the exothermicity of the acid base, <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule chemistry. PMID:7428745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7428745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7428745"><span>Studies of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> by collision-induced decomposition and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-deuterium exchange techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hunt, D F; Sethi, S K; Shabanowitz, J</p> <p>1980-06-01</p> <p>Development of two new techniques for studying the gas phase chemistry of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> is reported. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> has been accomplished in a newly constructed triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. This instrument was assembled by adding two additional Finnigan quadrupole mass filters to a Finnigan Model 3200 CI mass spectrometer. Generation of (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> is accomplished by allowing OH- and sample to react under CI conditions in the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source. The first quadrupole mass filter, Q1, is then employed to selectively pass the (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ion</span> into a second quadrupole filter containing argon or neon at 10(-3) torr. On collision with the inert gas the (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> dissociate into fragments which are then mass analyzed in the third quadrupole filter, CID spectra of (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> from twelve carbonyl compounds are presented in this paper. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> molecule isotope exchange reactions in the CI <span class="hlt">ion</span> source can be used to count the number of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms in many different chemical environments. Collisions between sample (M-1)- <span class="hlt">ions</span> and deuterium-labeled reagent gases (ND3, D2O, EtOD) facilitate incorporation of deuterium into the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> if the basicities of the sample and reagent anions are similar. Thus it is possible to selectively incorporate deuterium into many organic samples by controlling the exothermicity of the acid base, <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule chemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391393','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391393"><span>Roles of a plasma grid in a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.</p> <p>2015-04-08</p> <p>The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> under positive <span class="hlt">ion</span> and neutral <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bombardment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482906"><span>Lifetime of <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> composite cathodes in a vacuum arc <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Savkin, K. P. Frolova, V. P.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Oks, E. M.; Barengolts, S. A.</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>The paper reports on a study of the mass-charge state of the plasma produced in a vacuum arc discharge with composite cathodes which were copper-disk coated with a <span class="hlt">hydrogenated</span> Zr film of thicknesses 9, 22, and 35 μm. The cathodes allow the generation of multicomponent gas and metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams with a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> content from several to several tens of percent. Also investigated is the dependence of the H <span class="hlt">ion</span> fraction in a beam on the Zr film thickness during erosion to the point of disappearance of Zr peaks in mass-charge spectra. The ability of the vacuum arc system to produce H <span class="hlt">ions</span> is analyzed by analyzing the cathode lifetime as a function of the film thickness and pulse repetition frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170355"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melaina, M.; Eichman, J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of <span class="hlt">energy</span> sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740029720&hterms=Exchange+rate&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DExchange%2Brate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740029720&hterms=Exchange+rate&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DExchange%2Brate"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> momentum and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer rates for charge exchange collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The rates of momentum and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between <span class="hlt">ion</span> and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting <span class="hlt">ion</span> momentum and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985DoSSR.283.1355N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985DoSSR.283.1355N"><span>Calculation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of lithium-like <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadykto, B. A.</p> <p></p> <p>An attempt is made to develop a straightforward and sufficiently accurate method for calculating the <span class="hlt">energies</span> of complex <span class="hlt">ion</span> states. The method is based on Bohr's computational model and Sommerfeld's model in relativistic form (for circular orbits only). The method proposed here makes it possible to calculate excited <span class="hlt">ion</span> states having different atomic and quantum numbers. A similar method can be used for calculating the <span class="hlt">energies</span> of <span class="hlt">ion</span> states with the number of electrons exceeding three.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25267084"><span>Combining <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility spectrometry with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-deuterium exchange and top-down MS for peptide <span class="hlt">ion</span> structure analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Maleki, Hossein; Arndt, James R; Donohoe, Gregory C; Valentine, Stephen J</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The gas-phase conformations of electrosprayed <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the model peptide KKDDDDIIKIIK have been examined by <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility spectrometry (IMS) and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> deuterium exchange (HDX)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques. [M+4H](4+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> exhibit two conformers with collision cross sections of 418 Å(2) and 471 Å(2). [M+3H](3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> exhibit a predominant conformer with a collision cross section of 340 Å(2) as well as an unresolved conformer (shoulder) with a collision cross section of ~367 Å(2). Maximum HDX levels for the more compact [M+4H](4+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> and the compact and partially-folded [M+3H](3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> are ~12.9, ~15.5, and ~14.9, respectively. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) suggest that this ordering of HDX level results from increased charge-site/exchange-site density for the more compact <span class="hlt">ions</span> of lower charge. Additionally, a new model that includes two distance calculations (charge site to carbonyl group and carbonyl group to exchange site) for the computer-generated structures is shown to better correlate to the experimentally determined per-residue deuterium uptake. Future comparisons of IMS-HDX-MS data with structures obtained from MDS are discussed with respect to novel experiments that will reveal the HDX rates of individual residues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASMS..25.2103K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASMS..25.2103K"><span>Combining <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Mobility Spectrometry with <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>-Deuterium Exchange and Top-Down MS for Peptide <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Structure Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Maleki, Hossein; Arndt, James R.; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The gas-phase conformations of electrosprayed <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the model peptide KKDDDDIIKIIK have been examined by <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility spectrometry (IMS) and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> deuterium exchange (HDX)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques. [M+4H]4+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> exhibit two conformers with collision cross sections of 418 Å2 and 471 Å2. [M+3H]3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> exhibit a predominant conformer with a collision cross section of 340 Å2 as well as an unresolved conformer (shoulder) with a collision cross section of ~367 Å2. Maximum HDX levels for the more compact [M+4H]4+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> and the compact and partially-folded [M+3H]3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> are ~12.9, ~15.5, and ~14.9, respectively. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) suggest that this ordering of HDX level results from increased charge-site/exchange-site density for the more compact <span class="hlt">ions</span> of lower charge. Additionally, a new model that includes two distance calculations (charge site to carbonyl group and carbonyl group to exchange site) for the computer-generated structures is shown to better correlate to the experimentally determined per-residue deuterium uptake. Future comparisons of IMS-HDX-MS data with structures obtained from MDS are discussed with respect to novel experiments that will reveal the HDX rates of individual residues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...324..674S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...324..674S"><span>In-tank <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-ferric <span class="hlt">ion</span> recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selverston, S.; Savinell, R. F.; Wainright, J. S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>An H2sbnd Fe3+ recombination method is being developed for all-iron flow batteries. Working principles are described and a proof-of-concept in-tank reactor is demonstrated. A membrane-less galvanic reactor is characterized using potential, polarization and impedance measurements at <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> partial pressures ranging from 0.3 to 11.3 psig. Through a vertical reactor geometry, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> recombination rates of up to 60 mA cm-2 were measured at PH2 = 4.5 psig for a reactor with a platinum loading of 3.2 mg cm-2, based on the geometric catalyzed area. This is equivalent to over 375 mA cm-2 with respect to the cross sectional area of the reactor at the waterline. This rate is sufficient that the reactor will readily fit inside the positive reservoir of a flow battery. The reactor was found to be resistant to degradation by flooding or catalyst loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RScI...88f3306G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RScI...88f3306G"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> mass and <span class="hlt">energy</span> selective hyperthermal <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam assisted deposition setup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerlach, J. W.; Schumacher, P.; Mensing, M.; Rauschenbach, S.; Cermak, I.; Rauschenbach, B.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>For the synthesis of high-quality thin films, <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a frequently used technique providing precise control over several substantial film properties. IBAD typically relies on the use of a broad-beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source. Such <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources suffer from the limitation that they deliver a blend of <span class="hlt">ions</span> with different <span class="hlt">ion</span> masses, each of them possessing a certain distribution of kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. In this paper, a compact experimental setup is presented that enables the separate control of <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass and <span class="hlt">ion</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the region of hyperthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> (few 1 eV - few 100 eV). This <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> region is of increasing interest not only for <span class="hlt">ion</span>-assisted film growth but also for the wide field of preparative mass spectrometry. The setup consists of a constricted glow-discharge plasma beam source and a tailor-made, compact quadrupole system equipped with entry and exit <span class="hlt">ion</span> optics. It is demonstrated that the separation of monoatomic and polyatomic nitrogen <span class="hlt">ions</span> (N+ and N2+) is accomplished. For both <span class="hlt">ion</span> species, the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is shown to be selectable in the region of hyperthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span>. At the sample position, <span class="hlt">ion</span> current densities are found to be in the order of 1 μA/cm2 and the full width at half maximum of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam profile is in the order of 10 mm. Thus, the requirements for homogeneous deposition processes in sufficiently short periods of time are fulfilled. Finally, employing the described setup, for the first time in practice epitaxial GaN films were deposited. This opens up the opportunity to fundamentally study the influence of the simultaneous irradiation with hyperthermal <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the thin film growth in IBAD processes and to increase the flexibility of the technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5092409','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5092409"><span>Interaction of impurity <span class="hlt">ions</span> with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple <span class="hlt">hydrogenic</span> plasma. [None</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Terry, W.K.</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>The average acceleration of an ensemble of /open quotes/test particles/close quotes/ in a plasma is called the /open quotes/dynamical friction/close quotes/; the average rate at which their velocity vectors spread out in velocity-space diffusion-rate tensor. These quantities are derived for impurity <span class="hlt">ions</span> intereacting with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple <span class="hlt">hydrogenic</span> plasma. The distribution functions for the plasma <span class="hlt">ions</span> and electrons are written explicitly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7062403','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7062403"><span>Interaction of impurity <span class="hlt">ions</span> with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple <span class="hlt">hydrogenic</span> plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Terry, W.K.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>The average acceleration of an ensemble of ''test particles'' in a plasma is called the ''dynamical friction''; the average rate at which their velocity vectors spread out in velocity space is expressed in a velocity-space diffusion-rate tensor. These quantities are derived for impurity <span class="hlt">ions</span> interacting with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple <span class="hlt">hydrogenic</span> plasma. The distribution functions for the plasma <span class="hlt">ions</span> and electrons are written explicitly. 5 refs., 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/147830','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/147830"><span>Distortion effects in electron excitation of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms by impact of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ramirez, C.A.; Rivarola, R.D.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Electron excitation from the fundamental state of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atoms by impact of bare <span class="hlt">ions</span> is studied at intermediate and high collision velocities. Total cross sections for final {ital np} states by impact of protons, alpha particles, and He{sup +} <span class="hlt">ions</span> are calculated using the symmetric eikonal approximation and compared with experimental data. This comparison supports the existence of distortion effects recently predicted by Bugacov and co-workers [Phys. Rev. A {bold 47}, 1052 (1993)]. The validity of scaling laws is analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA229486','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA229486"><span>Theoretical Investigations of Negative <span class="hlt">Ions</span> in a <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-08-31</p> <p>choice of trial wave function yields practically the same values of the differential and integrated cross sections for the elastic scattering as well as...results of the elastic and total scattering of electrons and positrons by a <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> atom obtained recently by Byron et al. 2 using the unitarized...eastic cattern 57 the imaginary part of the second Born term. Im f,92 ,. diverges in the forward direction and. for e z atom elastic scattering, the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493761','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493761"><span>Favorable target positions for intense laser acceleration of electrons in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-like, highly-charged <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pi, Liang-Wen; Starace, Anthony F.; Hu, S. X.</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>Classical relativistic Monte Carlo simulations of petawatt laser acceleration of electrons bound initially in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-like, highly-charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> show that both the angles and <span class="hlt">energies</span> of the laser-accelerated electrons depend on the initial <span class="hlt">ion</span> positions with respect to the laser focus. Electrons bound in <span class="hlt">ions</span> located after the laser focus generally acquire higher (≈GeV) <span class="hlt">energies</span> and are ejected at smaller angles with respect to the laser beam. Our simulations assume a tightly-focused linearly-polarized laser pulse with intensity approaching 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2}. Up to fifth order corrections to the paraxial approximation of the laser field in the focal region are taken into account. In addition to the laser intensity, the Rayleigh length in the focal region is shown to play a significant role in maximizing the final <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the accelerated electrons. Results are presented for both Ne{sup 9+} and Ar{sup 17+} target <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365556"><span>Equation of state of metallic <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> from coupled electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> Monte Carlo simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morales, Miguel A; Pierleoni, Carlo; Ceperley, D M</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>We present a study of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> at pressures higher than molecular dissociation using the coupled electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> Monte Carlo method. These calculations use the accurate reptation quantum Monte Carlo method to estimate the electronic <span class="hlt">energy</span> and pressure while doing a Monte Carlo simulation of the protons. In addition to presenting simulation results for the equation of state over a large region of the phase diagram, we report the free <span class="hlt">energy</span> obtained by thermodynamic integration. We find very good agreement with density-functional theory based molecular-dynamics calculations for pressures beyond 600 GPa and densities above rho=1.4 g/cm(3) , both for thermodynamic and structural properties. This agreement provides a strong support to the different approximations employed in the density-functional treatment of the system, specifically the approximate exchange-correlation potential and the use of pseudopotentials for the range of densities considered. We find disagreement with chemical models, which suggests that a reinvestigation of planetary models--previously constructed using the Saumon-Chabrier-Van Horn equations of state--might be needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d5019B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d5019B"><span>Capacitively coupled <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> plasmas sustained by tailored voltage waveforms: excitation dynamics and <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux asymmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruneau, B.; Diomede, P.; Economou, D. J.; Longo, S.; Gans, T.; O'Connell, D.; Greb, A.; Johnson, E.; Booth, J.-P.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Parallel plate capacitively coupled plasmas in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> at relatively high pressure (~1 Torr) are excited with tailored voltage waveforms containing up to five frequencies. Predictions of a hybrid model combining a particle-in-cell simulation with Monte Carlo collisions and a fluid model are compared to phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy measurements, yielding information on the dynamics of the excitation rate in these discharges. When the discharge is excited with amplitude asymmetric waveforms, the discharge becomes electrically asymmetric, with different <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> at each of the two electrodes. Unexpectedly, large differences in the \\text{H}2+ fluxes to each of the two electrodes are caused by the different \\text{H}3+ <span class="hlt">energies</span>. When the discharge is excited with slope asymmetric waveforms, only weak electrical asymmetry of the discharge is observed. In this case, electron power absorption due to fast sheath expansion at one electrode is balanced by electron power absorption at the opposite electrode due to a strong electric field reversal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611658"><span>A discharge with a magnetic X-point as a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsankov, Tsanko; Czarnetzki, Uwe</p> <p>2011-09-26</p> <p>The study presents first results from investigations of a novel low-pressure plasma source, intended for a negative <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production. The source utilizes a dc magnetic field, shaped to form a cusp with a magnetic null-point (X-point). Beside the common role of filtering out the high <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons, this magnetic field configuration ensures in the present case also an interesting mechanism of coupling the RF power to the plasma. Investigations performed using radio frequency modulation spectroscopy (RFMOS) reveal that the main power coupling to the electrons is confined in the region on one side of the X-point. The modulation of the light intensity indicates also the presence of a strong dc drift close to the plane of the X-point. Several hypothesises for its explanation are raised: an azimuthal diamagnetic drift due to strong axial gradients of the electron <span class="hlt">energy</span>, the excitation of a standing helicon wave, which couples to the radial magnetic field in the plane of the X-point, or a Trivelpiece-Gould wave which is resonantly absorbed near the plane of the X-point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.282a2018R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.282a2018R"><span>Symmetry <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Effects on Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Dissipative Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rizzo, C.; Baran, V.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Odsuren, M.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>We investigate the reaction path followed by Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collisions with exotic nuclear beams at low <span class="hlt">energies</span>. We focus on the interplay between reaction mechanisms, fusion vs. break-up (fast-fission, deep-inelastic), that in exotic systems is expected to be influenced by the symmetry <span class="hlt">energy</span> term at densities around the normal value. The method described here, based on the event by event evolution of phase space quadrupole collective modes, will nicely allow to extract the fusion probability at relatively early times, when the transport results are reliable. Fusion probabilities for reactions induced by 132Sn on 64,58Ni targets at 10 AMeV are evaluated. We obtain larger fusion cross sections for the more n-rich composite system, and, for a given reaction, with a soft symmetry term above saturation. A collective charge equilibration mechanism (the Dynamical Dipole Resonance, DDR) is revealed in both fusion and break-up events, depending on the stiffness of the symmetry term just below saturation. Finally we investigate the effect of the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel for systems with the same overall isospin content and similar initial charge asymmetry. As expected we find reduced fusion probabilities for the more mass symmetric case, while the DDR strength appears not much affected. This is a nice confirmation of the prompt nature of such collective isovector mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26996438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26996438"><span>Rechargeable dual-metal-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries for advanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo</p> <p>2016-04-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric <span class="hlt">energy</span>, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries (e.g. Li-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries, Na-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries and Mg-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries in which various metal <span class="hlt">ions</span> simultaneously engage to store <span class="hlt">energy</span> are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018877','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018877"><span>High specific <span class="hlt">energy</span>, high capacity nickel-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cell design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wheeler, James R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cell was designed and tested to deliver high capacity at steady discharge rates up to and including a C rate. Its specific <span class="hlt">energy</span> yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-<span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet of any type in a 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters and performance are described. Also covered is an episode of capacity fading due to electrode swelling and its successful recovery by means of additional activation procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20199092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20199092"><span><span class="hlt">Ions</span> and <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> bonding in a hydrophobic environment: CCl(4).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisson, Patrick; Xiao, Han; Kuo, Margaret; Kamelamela, Noe; Shultz, Mary Jane</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>It is generally expected that <span class="hlt">ions</span> in an aqueous ionic solution in contact with a hydrophobic phase enter the hydrophobic phase accompanied by a hydration shell. This expectation suggests that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> mole fraction in the hydrophobic phase is less than, or at most, equal to that of water. Both gravimetric and spectroscopic evidence shows that for a model hydrophobic phase, carbon tetrachloride, this is not the case: In contact with a 1 M simple salt solution (sodium or potassium halide), the salt concentration in carbon tetrachloride ranges from 1.4 to nearly 3 times that of water. Infrared spectra of the OH stretch region support a model in which water associates with the cation, primarily as water monomers. Salts containing larger, more polarizable anions can form outer-sphere <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs that support water dimers, giving rise to a spectral signature at 3440 cm(-1). In CCl(4), the infrared spectral signature of the normally strongly ionized acid HCl clearly shows the presence of molecular HCl. Additionally, the presence of a Q branch for HCl indicates restricted rotational motion. The spectral and gravimetric data provide compelling evidence for <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters in the hydrophobic phase, which is a result that may have implications for hydrophobic matter in both biological and environmental systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=electric+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectric%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=electric+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectric%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> partitioning of gaseous <span class="hlt">ions</span> in an electric field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, H.-S.; Mason, E. A.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The partitioning of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> among thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, drift <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and random-field <span class="hlt">energy</span> is studied by solution of the Boltzmann equation. An expansion in powers of the square of the electric field strength is obtained by Kihara's method. Numerical calculations for several <span class="hlt">ion</span>-neutral force laws show that Wannier's constant mean-free-time model gives a reasonable first approximation. The formal extension to multicomponent mixtures is also given. The matrix elements obtained are tabulated, and can be used to study the field dependence of other moments of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-distribution function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> partitioning of gaseous <span class="hlt">ions</span> in an electric field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, H.-S.; Mason, E. A.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The partitioning of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> among thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, drift <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and random-field <span class="hlt">energy</span> is studied by solution of the Boltzmann equation. An expansion in powers of the square of the electric field strength is obtained by Kihara's method. Numerical calculations for several <span class="hlt">ion</span>-neutral force laws show that Wannier's constant mean-free-time model gives a reasonable first approximation. The formal extension to multicomponent mixtures is also given. The matrix elements obtained are tabulated, and can be used to study the field dependence of other moments of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-distribution function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67...11K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67...11K"><span>Study on Introduction of CO2 Free <span class="hlt">Energy</span> to Japan with Liquid <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamiya, Shoji; Nishimura, Motohiko; Harada, Eichi</p> <p></p> <p>In Japan, both CO2(Carbon dioxide) emission reduction and <span class="hlt">energy</span> security are the very important social issues after Fukushima Daiichi accident. On the other hand, FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle)using <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> will be on the market in 2015. Introducing large mass <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> is being expected as expanding <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> applications, or solution to <span class="hlt">energy</span> issues of Japan.And then,the Japanese government announced the road map for introducing <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply chain in this June,2014. Under these circumstances, imported CO2 free <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> will be one of the solutions for <span class="hlt">energy</span> security and CO2 reduction, if the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> price is affordable. To achieve this, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) performed a feasibility studyon CO2-free <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> supply chainfrom Australian brown coal linked with CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) to Japan. In the study, <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> production systems utilizing brown coal gasificationandLH2 (liquid <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>)systems as storing and transporting <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> are examined.This paper shows the possibilityof realizingthe CO2 free <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> supply chain, the cost breakdown of imported <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> cost, its cost competitiveness with conventionalfossil, andLH2systems as key technologies of the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.332..326S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.332..326S"><span>Biomaterial imaging with MeV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seki, Toshio; Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Shunichiro; Aoki, Takaaki; Ishihara, Akihiko; Matsuo, Jiro</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The spatial distribution of several chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells can be obtained with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In conventional secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectrometry (SIMS) with keV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms of constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making the acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams with MeV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> excite near-surface electrons and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules; hence, SIMS spectra of fragment-suppressed ionized molecules can be obtained with MeV-SIMS. To compare between MeV and conventional SIMS, we used the two methods based on MeV and Bi3-keV <span class="hlt">ions</span>, respectively, to obtain molecular images of rat cerebellum. Conventional SIMS images of m/z 184 were clearly observed, but with the Bi3 <span class="hlt">ion</span>, the distribution of the molecule with m/z 772.5 could be observed with much difficulty. This effect was attributed to the low secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> yields and we could not get many signal counts with keV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> beam. On the other hand, intact molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> distributions of lipids were clearly observed with MeV-SIMS, although the mass of all lipid molecules was higher than 500 Da. The peaks of intact molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> in MeV-SIMS spectra allowed us to assign the mass. The high secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> sensitivity with MeV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> is very useful in biomaterial analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........93A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........93A"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> determination in chemically delithiated lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery cathodes by prompt gamma activation analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alvarez, Emilio, II</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries, due to their relatively high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, are now widely used as the power source for portable electronics. Commercial lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> cells currently employ layered LiCoO2 as a cathode but only 50% of its theoretical capacity can be utilized. The factors that cause the limitation are not fully established in the literature. With this perspective, prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has been employed to determine the <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> content in various oxide cathodes that have undergone chemical extraction of lithium (delithiation). The PGAA data is complemented by data obtained from atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), redox titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass spectroscopy to better understand the capacity limitations and failure mechanisms of lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery cathodes. As part of this work, the PGAA facility has been redesigned and reconstructed. The neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds have been reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Detection limits for elements have also been improved. Special attention was given to the experimental setup including potential sources of error and system calibration for the detection of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>. Spectral interference with <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> arising from cobalt was identified and corrected for. Limits of detection as a function of cobalt mass present in a given sample are also discussed. The data indicates that while delithiated layered Li1- xCoO2, Li1-xNi 1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, and Li1- xNi0.5Mn0.5O2 take significant amounts of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> into the lattice during deep extraction, orthorhombic Li 1-xMnO2, spinel Li1- xMn2O4, and olivine Li1- xFePO4 do not. Layered LiCoO2, LiNi 0.5Mn0.5O2, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co 1/3O2 have been further analyzed to assess their relative chemical instabilities while undergoing stepped chemical delithiation. Each system takes increasing amounts of protons at lower lithium contents. The differences are attributed to the relative chemical instabilities of the various cathodes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218004"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> effects in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>-induced blistering of Mo/Si multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuznetsov, A. S.; Gleeson, M. A.; Bijkerk, F.</p> <p>2013-09-21</p> <p>The role that energetic (>800 eV) <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> play in inducing and modifying the formation of blisters in nanoscale Mo/Si multilayer samples is investigated. Such samples are confirmed to be susceptible to blistering by two separate mechanisms. The first is attributed to the segregation of H atoms to voids and vacancies associated with the outermost Mo layer, driving blister formation in the form of H{sub 2} filled bubbles. This process can occur in the absence of <span class="hlt">ions</span>. A second blister distribution emerges when energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> are present in the irradiating flux. This is attributed to an <span class="hlt">ion</span>-induced vacancy clustering mechanism that produces void blisters. The defects and strained states associated with the Mo-on-Si interfaces provide the preferred nucleation points for blistering in both cases. The effects of <span class="hlt">ions</span> are ascribed to promotion of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> uptake and mobility, in particular through the Si layers; to the generation of additional mobile species in the Si and Mo layers; and to the creation of new blister nucleation points. In addition to directly stimulating blistering via vacancy clustering, <span class="hlt">ions</span> modify the development of H{sub 2}-filled blisters. This is most evident in the formation of multi-component structures due to overlapping delaminations at different layer interfaces. This affect is attributed to the introduction of active transport of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> from the H{sub 2} filled blisters across the outermost Mo-on-Si interface to the underlying layers. <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-induced variations in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> uptake and distribution and in the rates of blister nucleation and growth produce lateral differences in blister size and areal number density that create a macroscopic concentric pattern across the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.307..618T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.307..618T"><span>An <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment of naked DNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L. D.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Study of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition in the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> range. To investigate effects from very-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment on biological materials, an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam line. The final decelerated-<span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment with <span class="hlt">energy</span> as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16552795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16552795"><span>Recycling asymmetric <span class="hlt">hydrogenation</span> catalysts by their immobilization onto <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exchange resins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barbaro, Pierluigi</p> <p>2006-07-24</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ion</span>-exchange resins can be used as supports for the preparation of single-site, heterogenised asymmetric <span class="hlt">hydrogenation</span> catalysts. The immobilised catalysts obtained can be efficiently and conveniently recovered and recycled. This article reviews the significant contributions in the field including the main concepts behind the design and the applications of this type of catalyst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20722261','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20722261"><span>Capacitively Coupled Radio Frequency Discharge Plasmas In <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span>: Particle Modeling and Negative <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Kinetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Diomede, P.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.</p> <p>2005-05-16</p> <p>We present a 1D(r)2D(v) particle code for capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasmas in <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span>, which includes a rigorous kinetic modeling of <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport and several solutions to speed up the convergence. In a test case the effect of surface atom recombination and molecule vibrational deactivation on H- concentration is investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...53a2033R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...53a2033R"><span>Role of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in standard and activation heap leaching of gold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubtsov, YuI</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in activation heap leaching of gold from rebellious ore has been studied, which has allowed enhancing gold recovery. The author puts forward a gold leaching circuit with the use of activated oxygen-saturated solutions acidified to pH = 6–9.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11452','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11452"><span><span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> input to the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, during the last decade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Gene E. Likens; F. Herbert Bormann; John S. Eaton; Robert S. Pierce; Noye M. Johnson</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Being downwind of eastern and midwestern industrial centers, the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest offers a prime location to monitor long-term trends in atmospheric chemistry. Continuous measurements of precipitation chemistry during the last 10 years provide a measure of recent changes in precipitation inputs of <span class="hlt">hydrogen</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span>. The weighted average pH of precipitation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1837d0013M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1837d0013M"><span>Effects of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the optical, structural and chemical properties of polycarbonate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raveesha P., M.; Nabhiraj P., Y.; Menon, Ranjini; Sanjeev, Ganesh</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> Argon (Ar+) and <span class="hlt">Hydrogen</span> (H+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> were made to fall on the surface of Polycarbonate (PC) films. The depth profile calculations of <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the material were carried out using Stopping and Range of <span class="hlt">Ions</span> in Matter (SRIM-2008) code. The influence of bombarded <span class="hlt">ions</span> with regard to the optical, structural and chemical properties was studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The obtained results from UV-Visible study show a slight shift in the absorption edge towards higher wavelength region. The optical band gap found to be decreased after irradiation. XRD analysis showed minor changes in the structural parameters. The obtained FTIR spectra show reduction in the intensity of vibration bands for irradiated samples.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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