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Sample records for energy light ions

  1. Angular distributions of sputtered atoms for low-energy heavy ions, medium ions and light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Mizuno, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Hidetoshi

    1986-03-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered atoms for the near-threshold sputtering of heavy ions, medium ions, and light ions have been investigated by a few-collision model and the ACAT computer simulation code. For heavy-ion sputtering the preferential angle of sputtered atoms is about 50° which is measured from the surface normal, while in the case of the near-threshold light-ion sputtering the preferential angles are nearly equal to the surface normal and do not depend on angle of incidence. It is found that the agreement between the ACAT preferential angles and theoretical values due to a few-collision model is very good.

  2. A New Formula for Energy Spectrum of Sputtered Atoms Due to Low-Energy Light Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yamamura, Yasunori; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawamura, Takaichi

    A new formula has been derived to describe the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a target material bombarded by light ions. We assume that sputtered atoms bombarded by low-energy light ions are mainly primary knock-on atoms which are created by large-angle backscattered light ions. The escape processes of recoil atoms are estimated on the basis of the Falcone-Sigmund model. The new formula has the dependence on the incident energy of a projectile. We have compared the new formula with simulation results calculated with ACAT code for a Fe target material bombarded by 50eV, 100eV and 500eV D+ ions. Good agreements are found for 50eV and 100eV D+ ions.

  3. Threshold energies of light-ion sputtering and heavy-ion sputtering as a function of angle of incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.

    1984-03-01

    The angular dependence of threshold energies has been investigated for light-ion sputtering and heavy-ion sputtering, and simple expressions for the angular dependences of threshold energies are derived for these two cases. For not-too-large angles of incidence, the threshold energy of heavy-ion sputtering is a decreasing function of the angle of incidence because of the anisotropy of the velocity distribution of recoil atoms, while the threshold energy of light-ion sputtering shows a weak angular dependence. For grazing angles of incidence, the threshold energies of these two cases are increasing functions of the angle of incidence because of surface scattering. In order to examine these theoretical angular dependences of threshold energies, the computer simulations have been performed using the ACAT code. It is found that in the near-threshold regime the angular dependences of sputtering yield by heavy ions are much different from those by light ions.

  4. Generating High-Brightness Light Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Cuneno, M.E.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Filuk, A.B.; Hanson, D.L.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlohorn, T.A.; Menge, P.R.; Olson, C.L.; Pointon, T.D. Slutz, S.A.; Vesey, R.A.; Welch, D.R.; Wenger, D.F.

    1998-10-22

    Light ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver from the standpoint of ei%ciency, standoff, rep-rate operation and cost. This approach uses high-energy-density pulsed power to efficiently accelerate ions in one or two stages at fields of 0.5 to 1.0 GV/m to produce a medium energy (30 MeV), high-current (1 MA) beam of light ions, such as lithium. Ion beams provide the ability for medium distance transport (4 m) of the ions to the target, and standofl of the driver from high- yield implosions. Rep-rate operation of' high current ion sources has ako been demonstrated for industrial applications and couId be applied to IFE. Although (hese factors make light ions the best Iong-teml pulsed- power approach to IFE, light-ion research is being suspended this year in favor of a Z-pinch-driven approach which has the best opport lnity to most-rapidly achieve the U.S. Department of Energy sponsor's goal of high-yield fusion. This paper will summarize the status and most recent results of the light-ion beam program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and document the prospects of light ions for future IFE driver development.

  5. Low energy stopping cross section of light ions in light gases using time of flight techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrejcic, David

    Electronic stopping occurs when an energetic particle interacts with the electrons of a target material, causing charge exchange, excitation, and ionization of the atomic electrons and a corresponding energy loss for the impinging particle. Charge exchange between the projectile and target, in the form of electron capture and electron stripping, is the dominant mode of energy transfer for low energy projectiles in the keV region. In the case of protons in Helium gas, the difference between the ground state energy level of an ionized H atom and the first ionization energy of a Helium atom is large (11.0 eV), and so the process of electron capture is suppressed at very low energy. This leads to a reduction in the stopping cross section near this threshold, and a resultant deviation from the velocity proportionality which is otherwise characteristic of this low energy regime. The present work uses time-of-flight techniques to directly measure the stopping cross section of various target gases for the light ions H +, D+, and He+ using projectile energies between 2.4 -- 22 keV/u. Measurements are obtained using a low-energy linear accelerator fed by an RF ion source at the Colorado School of Mines Department of Physics. System accuracy is checked with a projectile-target pair which has been well measured in the past using gaseous targets in the energy regime of interest (He+-N2). Data is then accumulated for several projectile-target pairs (H+-He, D+-He, H+-N 2, D+-N2, H+-Ne, D+ -Ne, He+-H2, He+-He, He +-Ne). Results show that the stopping cross section of H+, D+ in He does exhibit a threshold effect for projectile energies lower than ˜20 keV/u. This work provides an independent measurement of this interaction, for which we find only two previous data sets below the threshold energy, and whose results differ by an order of magnitude below 6 keV/u. This work also provides measurements of several other projectile-target pairs for which there exist only limited

  6. Vanishing Electronic Energy Loss of Very Slow Light Ions in Insulators with Large Band Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, S. N.; Primetzhofer, D.; Bauer, P.

    2009-09-11

    Electronic energy loss of light ions in nanometer films of materials with large band gaps has been studied for very low velocities. For LiF, a threshold velocity is observed at 0.1 a.u. (250 eV/u), below which the ions move without transferring energy to the electronic system. For KCl, a lower (extrapolated) threshold velocity is found, identical for H and He ions. For SiO{sub 2}, no clear velocity threshold is observed for He particles. For protons and deuterons, electronic stopping is found to perfectly fulfill velocity scaling, as expected for binary ion-electron interaction.

  7. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L. R.

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  8. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.; Lockner, T.; Mazarakis, M.; Olson, C.; Smith, D. ); Peterson, R.; Adler, D.; Bruggink, D.; Englestad, R.; Khater, H.; Kulcinski, G.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Morgahead, E.; Moses, G.; Rutledge, S.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslalvsky, I.; Wang, P.; Wittenberg, L. )

    1994-10-05

    A review of anticipated achievements in the light ion beam method of the inertial confinement fusion program is presented. They allow to estimate the cost of produced electric energy. It appears to be quite competitive to other fusion reactor designs at the 1000 MWe level and above. (AIP) [copyright] [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics] 1994

  9. Pulsed ion hall accelerator for investigation of reactions between light nuclei in the astrophysical energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Bystritsky, Vit. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    The factors defining the constraints on the current characteristics of the magnetically insulated ion diode (IDM) are considered. The specific current parameters close to the maximum possible ones are obtained for the particular IDM-40 design assigned for acceleration of light ions and investigation of nuclear reactions with small cross sections in the astrophysical energy range (2-40 keV) in the entrance channel. It is experimentally demonstrated that the chosen optimal operation conditions for IDM-40 units provide high stability of the parameters (energy distribution and composition of accelerated particle beams, degree of neutralization) of the accelerated particle flux, which increases during the working pulse.

  10. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  11. Hypertriton and light nuclei production at Lambda-production subthreshold energy in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Zu, Z.; Chen, J.H., Ma, Y.G., Cai, X-Z, Ma, G.L., Zhong, C.

    2011-08-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collisions produce abundant hyperons and nucleons. A dynamical coalescence model coupled with the ART model is employed to study the production probabilities of light clusters, deuteron (d), triton (t), helion ({sup 3}He), and hypertriton ({sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H) at subthreshold energy of Aproduction ({approx} 1 GeV per nucleon). We study the dependence on the reaction system size of the coalescence penalty factor per additional nucleon and entropy per nucleon. The Strangeness Population Factor (S{sub 3} = {sup 3}{sub {Lambda}}H/({sup 3}He x {Lambda}/p)) shows an extra suppression of hypertriton comparing to light clusters of the same mass number. This model predicts a hypertriton production cross-section of a few {mu}b in {sup 36}Ar+{sup 36}Ar, {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 56}Ni+{sup 56}Ni in 1 A GeV reactions. The production rate is as high as a few hypertritons per million collisions, which shows that the fixed-target heavy-ion collisions at CSR (Lanzhou/China) at {Lambda} subthreshold energy are suitable for breaking new ground in hypernuclear physics.

  12. Defect engineering in GaAs using high energy light ion irradiation: Role of electronic energy loss

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiraj, D.; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    We report on the application of high energy light ions (Li and O) irradiation for modification of defects, in particular, for annihilation of point defects using electronic energy loss in GaAs to minimize the defects produced by nuclear collisions. The high resolution x-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy have been used to monitor that no lattice damage or amorphization take place due to irradiating ions. The effects of irradiation on defects and their energy levels have been studied using thermally stimulated current spectroscopy. It has been observed that till an optimum irradiation fluence of 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} there is annihilation of native defects but further increase in irradiation fluence results in accumulation of defects, which scales with the nuclear energy loss process, indicating that the rate of defects produced by the binary collision process exceeds rate of defect annihilation. Defect annihilation due to electronic energy loss has been discussed on the basis of breaking of bonds and enhanced diffusivity of ionized native defects.

  13. Neutron Transport Models and Methods for HZETRN and Coupling to Low Energy Light Ion Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, S.R.; Slaba, T.C.; Heinbockel, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure estimates inside space vehicles, surface habitats, and high altitude aircraft exposed to space radiation are highly influenced by secondary neutron production. The deterministic transport code HZETRN has been identified as a reliable and efficient tool for such studies, but improvements to the underlying transport models and numerical methods are still necessary. In this paper, the forward-backward (FB) and directionally coupled forward-backward (DC) neutron transport models are derived, numerical methods for the FB model are reviewed, and a computationally efficient numerical solution is presented for the DC model. Both models are compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETCHEDS and FLUKA, and the DC model is shown to agree closely with the Monte Carlo results. Finally, it is found in the development of either model that the decoupling of low energy neutrons from the light ion (A<4) transport procedure adversely affects low energy light ion fluence spectra and exposure quantities. A first order correction is presented to resolve the problem, and it is shown to be both accurate and efficient.

  14. Neutron Transport Models and Methods for HZETRN and Coupling to Low Energy Light Ion Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, S.R.; Slaba, T.C.; Heinbockel, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure estimates inside space vehicles, surface habitats, and high altitude aircraft exposed to space radiation are highly influenced by secondary neutron production. The deterministic transport code HZETRN has been identified as a reliable and efficient tool for such studies, but improvements to the underlying transport models and numerical methods are still necessary. In this paper, the forward-backward (FB) and directionally coupled forward-backward (DC) neutron transport models are derived, numerical methods for the FB model are reviewed, and a computationally efficient numerical solution is presented for the DC model. Both models are compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETCHEDS and FLUKA, and the DC model is shown to agree closely with the Monte Carlo results. Finally, it is found in the development of either model that the decoupling of low energy neutrons from the light ion (A<4) transport procedure adversely affects low energy light ion fluence spectra and exposure quantities. A first order correction is presented to resolve the problem, and it is shown to be both accurate and efficient.

  15. The light ion trough.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A distinct feature of the ion composition results from the OGO-2, 4 and 6 satellites is the light ion trough, wherein the mid-latitude concentrations of H+ and He+ decrease sharply with latitude. In contrast to the 'main trough' in electron density observed primarily as a nightside phenomenon, the light ion trough persists during both day and night. For daytime winter hemisphere conditions and for all seasons during night, the mid-latitude light ion concentration decrease is a pronounced feature. In the dayside summer and equinox hemispheres, the rate of light ion decrease with latitude is comparatively gradual, and the trough boundary is less well defined, particularly for quiet magnetic conditions. In response to magnetic storms, the light ion trough minimum moves equatorward, and deepens, consistent with earlier evidence of the contraction of the plasmasphere in response to storm time enhancements in magnetospheric plasma convection.

  16. An extended formula for the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a material irradiated by light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, T.; Aoki, Y.; Kawamura, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    2005-03-01

    We extend a formula proposed by Kenmotsu et al. (hereafter Paper I), which fits with the energy spectrum of atoms sputtered from a heavy material hit by low-energy light ions (H +, D +, T +, He +) by taking into account an inelastic energy loss neglected in Paper I. We assume that primary knock-on atoms produced by ions backscattered at large angles do not lose energy while penetrating the material up to the surface, instead of the energy-loss model used in Paper I. The extended formula is expressed in terms of a normalized energy-distribution function and is compared with the data calculated with the ACAT code for 50 eV, 100 eV and 1 keV D + ions impinging on a Fe target. Our formula fits well with the data in a wide range of incident energy.

  17. Predictions for the energy loss of light ions in laser-generated plasmas at low and medium velocities.

    PubMed

    Cayzac, W; Bagnoud, V; Basko, M M; Blažević, A; Frank, A; Gericke, D O; Hallo, L; Malka, G; Ortner, A; Tauschwitz, An; Vorberger, J; Roth, M

    2015-11-01

    The energy loss of light ions in dense plasmas is investigated with special focus on low to medium projectile energies, i.e., at velocities where the maximum of the stopping power occurs. In this region, exceptionally large theoretical uncertainties remain and no conclusive experimental data are available. We perform simulations of beam-plasma configurations well suited for an experimental test of ion energy loss in highly ionized, laser-generated carbon plasmas. The plasma parameters are extracted from two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, and a Monte Carlo calculation of the charge-state distribution of the projectile ion beam determines the dynamics of the ion charge state over the whole plasma profile. We show that the discrepancies in the energy loss predicted by different theoretical models are as high as 20-30%, making these theories well distinguishable in suitable experiments.

  18. Complete Fusion and Break-up Fusion Reactions in Light Ion Interactions at Low Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Foertsch, S. V.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Fujita, H.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Dlamini, J.; Cowley, A. A.; Connell, S. H.

    2007-10-26

    Experimental spectra of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) produced in the interaction of two {sup 12}C ions at incident energy of 200 MeV and their reproduction by a binary fragmentation model and the Boltzmann Master Equation theory as implemented into the Monte Carlo transport and interaction code FLUKA are shown.

  19. The stopping power and energy straggling of light ions in graphene oxide foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikšová, R.; Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Sofer, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Energy-loss and straggling experiments were performed using 2-4 MeV 1H+ and 7.4-9.0 MeV 4He2+ ions in graphene oxide foils by the transmission technique. The thickness of the graphene oxide foils was determined using a detailed image analysis of a graphene oxide cut, which was used to refine the graphene oxide density. The density was determined by the standard technique of micro-balance weighing. The stoichiometry of the graphene oxide foils before the irradiation was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) using 2 and 2.5 MeV 4He+. The measured energy stopping powers for hydrogen and helium ions in graphene oxide were compared with the predictions obtained from the SRIM-2013 code. The energy straggling was compared with that calculated using Bohr's, Bethe-Livingston and Yang predictions. The results show that the stopping power of graphene oxide foils irradiated by both ion species decreases with increasing energies, the differences between the measured and predicted values being below 3.8%. The energy straggling determined in our experiment is higher than Bohr's and Bethe-Livingston predicted values; the predictions by Yang are in better agreement with our experiment.

  20. Water fragmentation by bare and dressed light ions with MeV energies: Fragment-ion-energy and time-of-flight distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, W.; Luna, H.; Schuch, R.; Cariatore, N. D.; Otranto, S.; Turco, F.; Fregenal, D.; Bernardi, G.; Suárez, S.

    2016-08-01

    The energy and time-of-flight distributions of water ionic fragments produced by impact of fast atoms and bare and dressed ions; namely, H+, Li0 -3 +, C1 +, and C2 + are reported in this work. Fragment species as a function of emission energy and time-of-flight were recorded by using an electrostatic spectrometer and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, respectively. An improved Coulomb explosion model coupled to a classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation gave the energy centroids of the fragments for the dissociation channels resulting from the removal of two to five electrons from the water molecule. For the energy distribution ranging up to 50 eV, both the experiment and model reveal an isotropic production of multiple charged oxygen ions, as well as hydrogen ions. From the ion energy distribution, relative yields of the dissociation resulting from multiple ionization were obtained as a function of the charge state, as well as for several projectile energies. Multiple-ionization yields with charge state up to 4+, were extracted from the measurements of the time-of-flight spectra, focused on the production of single and multiple charged oxygen ions. The measurements were compared to ion-water collision experiments investigated at the keV energy range available in the literature, revealing differences and similarities in the fragment-ion energy distribution.

  1. Proton and light ion deflection at medium energies with planar bent crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, C.; Dauvergne, D.

    2017-07-01

    The transmission of protons in planar channeling or in the regime of crystal reflection in bent crystals is now routinely used at high energy. We used the property that channeling critical angle increases as the incident particle momentum decreases, to explore the region of moderate energies (100 MeV-1 GeV). Indeed, such energies are particularly interesting since medical applications such as particle therapy have to face the constraints of being compatible with hospital-based accelerators. Therefore, replacing tens- or even hundreds-tons gantries by bent crystals would - if feasible - meet societal applications. We used binary-encounter simulations of trajectories inside crystals oriented along planar directions. The Molière potential with thermally vibrating lattice atoms was used, and additional transverse heating was introduced to account for multiple elastic scattering by close-collisions on electrons, which depends on the transverse energy of the channeled ions. The survival yield (i.e. the fraction of ions keeping trajectories within plus-minus one critical planar channeling angle with respect to lattice planes) was simulated for protons and carbon ions, as a function of crystal nature (silicon or germanium), crystal temperature, thickness and curvature. Although the transmitted yields are far from the necessary yields required to treat patients, significant survival yields were found through cm-thick crystals at angles beyond 10°. We will discuss possible experimental verification of these findings, and in particular practical aspects of such very large bending angles.

  2. Particle and light fragment emission in peripheral heavy ion collisions at Fermi energies

    SciTech Connect

    Piantelli, S.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Bardelli, L.; Bartoli, A.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Coppi, C.; Mangiarotti, A.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.; Vanzi, E.

    2006-09-15

    A systematic investigation of the average multiplicities of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments emitted in peripheral and semiperipheral collisions is presented as a function of the beam energy, violence of the collision, and mass of the system. The data have been collected with the FIASCO setup in the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 93}Nb at (17,23,30,38)A MeV and {sup 116}Sn+{sup 116}Sn at (30,38)A MeV. The midvelocity emission has been separated from the emission of the projectile-like fragment. This last component appears to be compatible with an evaporation from an equilibrated source at normal density, as described by the statistical code GEMINI at the appropriate excitation energy. On the contrary, the midvelocity emission presents remarkable differences in both the dependence of the multiplicities on the energy deposited in the midvelocity region and the isotopic composition of the emitted light charged particles.

  3. Modifications of EL2 related stable and metastable defects in semi-insulating GaAs by high energy light ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiraj, D.; Ghosh, S.

    2005-10-01

    We report the effect of high energy light ion irradiation on the defect energy levels related to the stable and metastable states of EL2 in undoped semi-insulating GaAs. GaAs samples have been irradiated at different fluences with 50 MeV Li ions. The energy of the irradiated ions is chosen in such a way that the range of the ions is more than the sample thickness. So the implantation of the irradiated ions and the formation of the extended defects at the end of the range could be avoided. The modification of the existing native point defects and the formation of new point defects under irradiation have been studied by photocurrent and thermally stimulated current spectroscopic measurements under the photoexcitation of both sub-band gap and above band gap lights.

  4. Hybrid Lead-Acid/Lithium-Ion Energy Storage System with Power-Mix Control for Light Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Steven

    This work presents a hybrid energy storage system (HESS), using lithium-ion (LI) and lead-acid (PbA) batteries, for light electric vehicles (LEV) that is both cost and performance competitive with single energy storage system (SESS) configurations. A modular HESS architecture with a dc-dc converter and controller is proposed. The power-mix algorithm that minimizes the Peukert effect, and increases the usable energy of the lead-acid battery is presented and verified experimentally. A novel DLL and PLL based off-time control scheme is demonstrated for inductor ripple current interleaving in the multi-phase dc-dc converter. The cost and performance of the HESS are assessed side-by-side with PbA and LI SESS configurations of comparable total energy. The experimental HESS has a total projected cost midway between the SESS PbA cost and the SESS Li cost, while providing 17% range and 23% efficiency increase over the SESS PbA vehicle.

  5. Mapping of light elements with the ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.

    2000-03-01

    7.62 MeV He was used to study the distribution of a wide range of elements in mineral sands. At this energy both He induced X-ray emission and a high energy resonance in oxygen can be applied simultaneously. The two techniques were used to study the distribution of elements ranging from sulfur to zirconium as well as oxygen.

  6. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  7. SU-E-T-334: Track Structure Simulations of Charged Particles at Low and Intermediate Energies: Cross Sections Needs for Light and Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Dingfelder, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) track structure simulations follow the primary as well as all produced secondary particles in an event-by-event manner, from starting or ejection energy down to total stopping. They provide useful information on physics and chemistry of the biological response to radiation. They depend on reliable interaction cross sections and transport models of the considered radiation quality with biologically relevant materials. Most transport models focus on sufficiently fast and bare (i.e., fully ionized) ions and cross sections calculated within the (relativistic) first Born or Bethe approximations. These theories consider the projectile as a point particle and rely on proton cross sections and simple charge-scaling methods; they neglect the atomic nature of the ion and break down at low and intermediate ion energies. Heavier ions are used in particle therapy and slow to intermediate and low energies in the biologically interesting Bragg peak. Lighter and slower fragment ions, including alpha particles, protons, and neutrons are also produced in nuclear and break up reactions of charged particles. Secondary neutrons also produce recoil protons and ions, mainly in the intermediate energy range. Results/Conclusion: This work reviews existing models for track structure simulations and cross section calculations for light and heavy ions focusing on the low and intermediate energy range. It also presents new and updated aspects on cross section calculations and simulation techniques for ions and discusses the need for new models, calculations, and experimental data.

  8. Energy-level matching of Fe(III) ions grafted at surface and doped in bulk for efficient visible-light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Qiu, Xiaoqing; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2013-07-10

    Photocatalytic reaction rate (R) is determined by the multiplication of light absorption capability (α) and quantum efficiency (QE); however, these two parameters generally have trade-off relations. Thus, increasing α without decreasing QE remains a challenging issue for developing efficient photocatalysts with high R. Herein, using Fe(III) ions grafted Fe(III) doped TiO2 as a model system, we present a novel method for developing visible-light photocatalysts with efficient R, utilizing the concept of energy level matching between surface-grafted Fe(III) ions as co-catalysts and bulk-doped Fe(III) ions as visible-light absorbers. Photogenerated electrons in the doped Fe(III) states under visible-light efficiently transfer to the surface grafted Fe(III) ions co-catalysts, as the doped Fe(III) ions in bulk produced energy levels below the conduction band of TiO2, which match well with the potential of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) redox couple in the surface grafted Fe(III) ions. Electrons in the surface grafted Fe(III) ions efficiently cause multielectron reduction of adsorbed oxygen molecules to achieve high QE value. Consequently, the present Fe(III)-FexTi1-xO2 nanocomposites exhibited the highest visible-light R among the previously reported photocatalysts for decomposition of gaseous organic compounds. The high R can proceed even under commercial white-light emission diode irradiation and is very stable for long-term use, making it practically useful. Further, this efficient method could be applied in other wide-band gap semiconductors, including ZnO or SrTiO3, and may be potentially applicable for other photocatalysis systems, such as water splitting, CO2 reduction, NOx removal, and dye decomposition. Thus, this method represents a strategic approach to develop new visible-light active photocatalysts for practical uses.

  9. Heavy ion physics in the intermediate energy range with light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larochelle, Yves

    1997-04-01

    Projectile fragmentation can be studied in a wide range of excitation energy despite the fact that the projectile cannot undergo violent collisions to avoid losing its identity. The quality of the source determination allows precise analysis of the decay modes of those hot nuclei formed mainly in peripheral collisions. Results from projectile fragmentation of various system will be presented. Binary processes are dominant in the most peripheral collisions. That dominance persists even for the whole domain of impact parameter and at increasing bombarding energies (Y. Larochelle et al., Phys. Lett. B 352 (1995) 8 and ref. therein). In such a study on the 35Cl - 12C system, for the first time (L. Beaulieu et al., Phys. Rev. Let. 77 (1996) 462) a careful selection of the binary events allowed a direct measurement of the total dissipated energy. Besides that strong binary character, experimental evidence has been presented for the formation of a neck-like structure responsible in part for IMF emission in the Fermi energy domain (Y. Larochelle et al., preprint TASCC-P-96-30, submitted to Phys. Rev. C), from reactions of the 35Cl projectile on two targets: 12C and 197Au. Various dynamical approaches will be discussed in that analysis (X. Qian et al., accepted in Nucl. Phys. A), leading to hypotheses to explain the origin of the neck-like structure.

  10. Modeling Proton- and Light Ion-Induced Reactions at Low Energies in the MARS15 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.

    2015-04-25

    An implementation of both ALICE code and TENDL evaluated nuclear data library in order to describe nuclear reactions induced by low-energy projectiles in the Monte Carlo code MARS15 is presented. Comparisons between results of modeling and experimental data on reaction cross sections and secondary particle distributions are shown.

  11. Secondary light-ion transport from intermediate-energy hadron experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikrishna, Ashwin P.; Castellanos, Luis A.; McGirl, Natalie A.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Tessas, Chiara La; Rusek, Adam; Sivertz, Michael; Blattnig, Steve; Clowdsley, Martha; Slaba, Tony; Zeitlin, Cary

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research is to produce double differential thick target yields, angular distributions and integrated yields for the inclusive production of neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He, and 4He from intermediate heavy-ion interactions on thick targets of aluminium, polyethylene and other targets of interest to the radiation shielding program as specified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In tandem with the experimental research, transport model calculations of these thick target yields were also performed. The first such experimental run was conducted in May 2015, with the expectation of improved experimental results at a following March 2016 run at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) on the campus of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The May 2015 commissioning run served to test the electronics of the experimental setup, as well as the various detectors and other equipment under the conditions in which the following measurements will be run. The series of future accelerator-based experiments will rely on the inclusion of two separate upstream and downstream targets. Analysis of the data from both sets of detectors - liquid scintillator and sodium iodide - using both pulse height and time-of-flight methods will allow NASA to perform uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis on their transport codes and future shielding studies.

  12. Transport of Light Ions in Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.; Chun, S. Y.; Tripathi, R. K.; Sihver, L.

    1998-01-01

    A recent set of light ion experiments are analyzed using the Green's function method of solving the Boltzmann equation for ions of high charge and energy (the GRNTRN transport code) and the NUCFRG2 fragmentation database generator code. Although the NUCFRG2 code reasonably represents the fragmentation of heavy ions, the effects of light ion fragmentation requires a more detailed nuclear model including shell structure and short range correlations appearing as tightly bound clusters in the light ion nucleus. The most recent NTJCFRG2 code is augmented with a quasielastic alpha knockout model and semiempirical adjustments (up to 30 percent in charge removal) in the fragmentation process allowing reasonable agreement with the experiments to be obtained. A final resolution of the appropriate cross sections must await the full development of a coupled channel reaction model in which shell structure and clustering can be accurately evaluated.

  13. Experimental Studies of Light-Ion Nuclear Reactions Using Low-Energy RI Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Abe, K.; Shimuzu, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Kubono, S.; Iwasa, N.; Teranishi, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Coc, A.; de Sereville, N.; Hammache, F.; Kiss, G.; Bishop, S.

    CRIB (CNS Radio-Isotope Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator of Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the RI beams at CRIB, forming international collaborations. A striking method to study astrophyiscal reactions involving radioactive nuclei is the thick-target method in inverse kinematics. Several astrophysical alpha-induced reactions have been be studied with that method at CRIB. A recent example is on the α resonant scattering with a radioactive 7Be beam. This study is related to the astrophysical 7Be(α , γ ) reactions, important at hot p-p chain and ν p-process in supernovae. There have been measurements based on several indirect methods, such as the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) and Trojan horse method (THM). The first THM measurement using an RI beam has been performed at CRIB, to study the 18F(p, α )15O reaction at astrophysical energies via the three body reaction 2H(18F, α 15O)n. The 18F(p, α )15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the 511-keV γ -ray production in nova explosion phenomena, and we successfully evaluated the reaction cross section at novae temperature and below experimentally for the first time.

  14. Comprehensive track-structure based evaluation of DNA damage by light ions from radiotherapy-relevant energies down to stopping

    PubMed Central

    Friedland, W.; Schmitt, E.; Kundrát, P.; Dingfelder, M.; Baiocco, G.; Barbieri, S.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Track structures and resulting DNA damage in human cells have been simulated for hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and neon ions with 0.25–256 MeV/u energy. The needed ion interaction cross sections have been scaled from those of hydrogen; Barkas scaling formula has been refined, extending its applicability down to about 10 keV/u, and validated against established stopping power data. Linear energy transfer (LET) has been scored from energy deposits in a cell nucleus; for very low-energy ions, it has been defined locally within thin slabs. The simulations show that protons and helium ions induce more DNA damage than heavier ions do at the same LET. With increasing LET, less DNA strand breaks are formed per unit dose, but due to their clustering the yields of double-strand breaks (DSB) increase, up to saturation around 300 keV/μm. Also individual DSB tend to cluster; DSB clusters peak around 500 keV/μm, while DSB multiplicities per cluster steadily increase with LET. Remarkably similar to patterns known from cell survival studies, LET-dependencies with pronounced maxima around 100–200 keV/μm occur on nanometre scale for sites that contain one or more DSB, and on micrometre scale for megabasepair-sized DNA fragments. PMID:28345622

  15. Controlled Energy Transfer from a Ligand to an Eu(III) Ion: A Unique Strategy To Obtain Bright-White-Light Emission and Its Versatile Applications.

    PubMed

    Boddula, Rajamouli; Singh, Kasturi; Giri, Santanab; Vaidyanathan, Sivakumar

    2017-09-05

    A new diphenylamine-functionalized ancillary-ligand-coordinated europium(III) β-diketonate complex showed incomplete photoexcitation energy transfer from a ligand to a Eu(III) ion. A solvatochromism study led to a balancing of the primary colors to obtain single-molecule white-light emission. Thermal-sensing analysis of the europium complex was executed. The europium complex, conjugated with a near-UV-light-emitting diode (395 nm), showed appropriate white-light-emission CIE color coordinates (x = 0.34 and y = 0.33) with a 5152 K correlated color temperature.

  16. Vibrational Energy Relaxation of Thiocyanate Ions in Liquid-to-Supercritical Light and Heavy Water. A Fermi's Golden Rule Analysis.

    PubMed

    Czurlok, Denis; Gleim, Jeannine; Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter

    2014-10-02

    The vibrational relaxation dynamics following an ultrafast nitrile stretching (ν3) excitation of thiocyanate anions dissolved in light and heavy water have been studied over a wide temperature and density range corresponding to the aqueous liquid up to the supercritical phase. In both solvents, the relaxation of the ν3 = 1 state of the anion leads to a direct recovery of the vibrational ground state and involves the resonant transfer of the excess vibrational energy onto the solvent. In light water, the energy-accepting states are provided by the bending-librational combination band (νb + νL), while in heavy water, the relaxation is thermally assisted by virtual acceptor states derived from the stretching-librational/restricted translational hot band (νS - νL,T). The relaxation rate is found to strictly obey Fermi's Golden Rule when the density of resonant solvent states is estimated from the linear infrared spectra of the solute and the pure solvents.

  17. Progress toward fusion with light ions

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    New results in target design, beam generation and transport, and pulse power technology have led to a program shift stressing light ion-driven inertial confinement fusion. According to present estimates, a gain ten fusion pellet will require at least one megajoule and approx. 100 TW power input. Progress in ion sources has resulted in beam power density of approx. 1 TW/cm/sup 2/, a factor of ten increase over the last year, and cylindrical implosion experiments have been performed. Other experiments have demonstrated the ability to transport ion and electron beams with high efficiency and have confirmed numerical predictions on the properties of beam transport channels converging at a target. These developments together with improvements in pulse power technology allow us to project that the 72 beam, 100 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator, PBFA-II will attain target output energy equal to stored energy in the accelerator.

  18. Light ion concentrations in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Shaw, R. R.; Bagenal, F.

    1982-01-01

    The light ion distribution in the inner Jovian magnetosphere is investigated using whistler dispersion measurements from the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument and heavy ion plasma concentrations from the plasma instrument. Two models are developed for the light ion concentration over 14 L shells between L = 5.2 and 6.2, one giving a constant concentration along the field line and the other corresponding to an exponential density distribution. Due to heavy ion concentrations near the equator that are typically an order of magnitude larger than the light ion concentration, results obtained are mainly relevant to the light ion concentration outside of the torus. Light ion concentration near the equator ranges from about 1-10% of the heavy ion concentration, while outside the torus the light ions are the dominant species.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of ion range profiles for heavy ions in light targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Chune; Xue, Jianming; Zhang, Yanwen; Morris, James R.; Zhu, Zihua; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yugang; Yan, Sha; Weber, William J.

    2012-09-01

    The determination of stopping powers for slow heavy ions in targets containing light elements is important to accurately describe ion-solid interactions, evaluate ion irradiation effects and predict ion ranges for device fabrication and nuclear applications. Recently, discrepancies of up to 40% between the experimental results and SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) predictions of ion ranges for heavy ions with medium and low energies (<25 keV/nucleon) in light elemental targets have been reported. The longer experimental ion ranges indicate that the stopping powers used in the SRIM code are overestimated. Here, a molecular dynamics simulation scheme is developed to calculate the ion ranges of heavy ions in light elemental targets. Electronic stopping powers generated from both a reciprocity approach and the SRIM code are used to investigate the influence of electronic stopping on ion range profiles. The ion range profiles for Au and Pb ions in SiC and Er ions in Si, with energies between 20 and 5250 keV, are simulated. The simulation results show that the depth profiles of implanted ions are deeper and in better agreement with the experiments when using the electronic stopping power values derived from the reciprocity approach. These results indicate that the origin of the discrepancy in ion ranges between experimental results and SRIM predictions in the low energy region may be an overestimation of the electronic stopping powers used in SRIM.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of ion range profiles for heavy ions in light targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Chune; Xue, Jianming; Zhang, Yanwen; Morris, James R; Zhu, Zihua; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yugang; Yan, Sha; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    The determination of stopping powers for slow heavy ions in targets containing light elements is important to accurately describe ion-solid interactions, evaluate ion irradiation effects and predict ion ranges for device fabrication and nuclear applications. Recently, discrepancies of up to 40% between the experimental results and SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) predictions of ion ranges for heavy ions with medium and low energies (< {approx} 25 keV/nucleon) in light elemental targets have been reported. The longer experimental ion ranges indicate that the stopping powers used in the SRIM code are overestimated. Here, a molecular dynamics simulation scheme is developed to calculate the ion ranges of heavy ions in light elemental targets. Electronic stopping powers generated from both a reciprocity approach and the SRIM code are used to investigate the influence of electronic stopping on ion range profiles. The ion range profiles for Au and Pb ions in SiC and Er ions in Si, with energies between 20 and 5250 keV, are simulated. The simulation results show that the depth profiles of implanted ions are deeper and in better agreement with the experiments when using the electronic stopping power values derived from the reciprocity approach. These results indicate that the origin of the discrepancy in ion ranges between experimental results and SRIM predictions in the low energy region may be an overestimation of the electronic stopping powers used in SRIM.

  1. A study of light ion accelerators for cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K.

    1997-07-01

    This review addresses several issues, such as possible advantages of light ion therapy compared to protons and conventional radiation, the complexity of such a system and its possible adaptation to a hospital environment, and the question of cost-effectiveness compared to other modalities for cancer treatment or to other life saving procedures. Characteristics and effects of different types of radiation on cells and organisms will be briefly described; this will include conventional radiation, protons and light ions. The status of proton and light ion cancer therapy will then be described, with more emphasis on the latter; on the basis of existing experience the criteria for the use of light ions will be listed and areas of possible medical applications suggested. Requirements and parameters of ion beams for cancer treatment will then be defined, including ion species, energy and intensity, as well as parameters of the beam when delivered to the target (scanning, time structure, energy spread). Possible accelerator designs for light ions will be considered, including linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons and their basic features given; this will be followed by a review of existing and planned facilities for light ions. On the basis of these considerations a tentative design for a dedicated light ion facility will be suggested, a facility that would be hospital based, satisfying the clinical requirements, simple to operate and reliable, concluding with its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other modalities for treatment of cancer.

  2. The light ion LMF and its relevance to IFE

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.E.; Allshouse, G.O.; Cook, D.L.; Lockner, T.R.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Olson, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for ICF defense and energy applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The relevance of LMF technology to eventual inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications is assessed via a comparison of LMF technologies with those projected in the Light Ion Beam Reactor Assessment (LIBRA) conceptual reactor design study.

  3. Principles of light energy management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, N.

    1994-03-01

    Six methods used to minimize excess energy effects associated with lighting systems for plant growth chambers are reviewed in this report. The energy associated with wall transmission and chamber operating equipment and the experimental requirements, such as fresh air and internal equipment, are not considered here. Only the energy associated with providing and removing the energy for lighting is considered.

  4. Principles of light energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, N.

    1994-01-01

    Six methods used to minimize excess energy effects associated with lighting systems for plant growth chambers are reviewed in this report. The energy associated with wall transmission and chamber operating equipment and the experimental requirements, such as fresh air and internal equipment, are not considered here. Only the energy associated with providing and removing the energy for lighting is considered.

  5. Tuning of the optical properties of In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N (x=0.82−0.49) alloys by light-ion irradiation at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    De Luca, Marta; Polimeni, Antonio; Capizzi, Mario; Pettinari, Giorgio; Ciatto, Gianluca; Fonda, Emiliano; Amidani, Lucia; Boscherini, Federico; Knübel, Andreas; Cimalla, Volker; Ambacher, Oliver; Giubertoni, Damiano; Bersani, Massimo

    2013-12-04

    The effects of low-energy irradiation by light ions (H and He) on the properties of In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloys are investigated by optical and structural techniques. H-irradiation gives rise to a remarkable blue-shift of light emission and absorption edge energies. X-ray absorption measurements and first-principle calculations address the microscopic origin of these effects.

  6. Two-gluon correlations in heavy-light ion collisions: Energy and geometry dependence, IR divergences, and kT-factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E.

    2014-05-01

    We study the properties of the cross section for two-gluon production in heavy-light ion collisions derived in our previous paper [1] in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework. Concentrating on the energy and geometry dependence of the corresponding correlation functions we find that the two-gluon correlator is a much slower function of the center-of-mass energy than the one- and two-gluon production cross sections. The geometry dependence of the correlation function leads to stronger azimuthal near- and away-side correlations in the tip-on-tip U+U collisions than in the side-on-side U+U collisions, an exactly opposite behavior from the correlations generated by the elliptic flow of the quark-gluon plasma: a study of azimuthal correlations in the U+U collisions may thus help to disentangle the two sources of correlations. We demonstrate that the cross section for two-gluon production in heavy-light ion collisions contains a power-law infrared (IR) divergence even for fixed produced gluon momenta: while saturation effects in the target regulate some of the power-law IR-divergent terms in the lowest-order expression for the two-gluon correlator, other power-law IR-divergent terms remain, possibly due to absence of saturation effects in the dilute projectile. Finally we rewrite our result for the two-gluon production cross-section in a kT-factorized form, obtaining a new factorized expression involving a convolution of one- and two-gluon Wigner distributions over both the transverse momenta and impact parameters. We show that the two-gluon production cross-section depends on two different types of unintegrated two-gluon Wigner distribution functions.

  7. A light-driven sodium ion pump in marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiichi; Ono, Hikaru; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Ito, Hiroyasu; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Kandori, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Light-driven proton-pumping rhodopsins are widely distributed in many microorganisms. They convert sunlight energy into proton gradients that serve as energy source of the cell. Here we report a new functional class of a microbial rhodopsin, a light-driven sodium ion pump. We discover that the marine flavobacterium Krokinobacter eikastus possesses two rhodopsins, the first, KR1, being a prototypical proton pump, while the second, KR2, pumps sodium ions outward. Rhodopsin KR2 can also pump lithium ions, but converts to a proton pump when presented with potassium chloride or salts of larger cations. These data indicate that KR2 is a compatible sodium ion-proton pump, and spectroscopic analysis showed it binds sodium ions in its extracellular domain. These findings suggest that light-driven sodium pumps may be as important in situ as their proton-pumping counterparts.

  8. Radio frequency sustained ion energy

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Hooke, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Electromagnetic (E.M.) energy injection method and apparatus for producing and sustaining suprathermal ordered ions in a neutral, two-ion-species, toroidal, bulk equilibrium plasma. More particularly, the ions are produced and sustained in an ordered suprathermal state of existence above the average energy and velocity of the bulk equilibrium plasma by resonant rf energy injection in resonance with the natural frequency of one of the ion species. In one embodiment, the electromagnetic energy is injected to clamp the energy and velocity of one of the ion species so that the ion energy is increased, sustained, prolonged and continued in a suprathermal ordered state of existence containing appreciable stored energy that counteracts the slowing down effects of the bulk equilibrium plasma drag. Thus, selective deuteron absorption may be used for ion-tail creation by radio-frequency excitation alone. Also, the rf can be used to increase the fusion output of a two-component neutral injected plasma by selective heating of the injected deuterons.

  9. Energy saver for industrial lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arline, J.; Lapalme, J.; Warren, C.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic controller switches lights on or off in response to amount of sunlight available. Is application in offices and industrial installations where electrical energy is wasted by using artificial light in sunlit areas. Device utilizes electronic monitor that varies artificial lighting according to amount of sunlight in given area.

  10. Bombardment-induced desorption of co adsorbed on 304 stainless steel by low energy (75?1000 eV) light active and inert gas ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, G.; Eghawary, B. D.

    1980-10-01

    Experiments are described in which the variations of the cross-sections for ion-induced desorption of CO, adsorbed on stainless steel at room temperature, with incident ion energy are determined for ions of hydrogen, deuterium, helium, neon, and argon, at energies between 75 eV and 1 keV. The technique consists of allowing CO from the residual gas in a UHV system at approximately 5 × 10 -9 Torr to adsorb on the target, which is then bombarded by the chosen ion species at the required incident energy. The change in partial pressure of CO when the beam is switched on (or off) is a measure of the desorption cross-section, gas coverage, and beam current density. Knowledge of the gas coverage and mass-spectrometer sensitivity are not necessary, because measurement of the area under the desorption transient obtained by heating the target to a sufficiently high temperature to desorb all the adsorbed CO allows elimination of these quantities from the expression for the gas sputtering cross-section. The cross-section vs. energy curves all show a minimum in the energy region 150-350 eV, and the shapes of the curves are explained in terms of the relative amounts of energy transferred (at different initial ion energies) from the incident ions directly to the adsorbed molecules, following back-scattering from target atoms, and indirectly via the target atoms as a result of collision cascades below the target surface. The magnitudes of the cross-sections obtained vary with ion energy and type in the range 10 -18 to 10 -16 cm 2.

  11. Data acquisition for the HILI (Heavy Ion Light Ion) detector

    SciTech Connect

    Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  13. Temperature response of several scintillator materials to light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, M.; Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; García-Muñoz, M.; García López, J.

    2017-07-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence has been used to study the response of scintillator screens of Y2O3:Eu3+ (P56) and SrGa2S4:Eu2+ (TG-Green) when irradiated with light ions (protons, deuterium and helium particles). The absolute efficiency of the samples has been studied as a function of the ion energy (with energies up to 3.5 MeV), the beam current and the operating temperature. The evolution of the scintillator yield with ion fluence has been carried out for all the scintillators to estimate radiation damage. Finally, measurements of the decay time of these materials using a system of pulsed beam accelerated particles have been done. Among the screens under study, the TG-Green is the best suited material, in terms of absolute efficiency, temporal response and degradation with ion dose, for fast-ion loss detectors in fusion devices.

  14. Emittance improvement of the electron cyclotron resonance high intensity light ion source proton beam by gas injection in the low energy beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, P.-Y.; Ferdinand, R.; Gobin, R.; Lagniel, J. M.; Leroy, P.-A.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Pottin, B.; Sherman, J.

    2000-03-01

    SILHI is the ECR high intensity light ion source studied in France at C.E.A. Saclay. This is the source for the injector of the high intensity proton injector prototype developed by a CNRS-IN2P3 collaboration. 80 mA at 95 keV beams with a rms normalized r-r' emittance lower than 0.3 π mm mrad and a proton fraction better than 85% are currently produced. Recently, it has been found that the injection in the low energy beam transport of a buffer gas had a strong effect on the emittance measured 1 m downstream of the focusing solenoid. By adding several gases (H2, N2, Ar, Kr), improvements as great as a factor of 3 have been observed. The emittance has been measured by means of an r-r' emittance measurement unit equipped with a sampling hole and a wire profile monitor, both moving across the beam. Simultaneously, the space charge compensation factor is measured using a four-grid analyzer unit. In this article all results of these experiments are presented and discussed. A first explanation of the emittance reduction phenomenon and possible consequences on the injector operation is given.

  15. Lighting and energy in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.S.

    1982-06-01

    Lighting has been used far too often as a symbol of energy use. As a result, much of the public is under the impression that lighting is one of the biggest energy users. In this paper the very opposite is proven. By pie diagrams it is seen that lighting uses only 5% of the nation's energy. Mandates to reduce lighting in the event of an oil emergency may be counterproductive as a result. Reductions would be better sought in transportation use (51%) and space heating. In a survey of Portland families, car use was 56%, lighting only 2%. It was also determined that ''Dad, Mom, and the kids'' use far more energy than all the stores, offices, schools, hotels, motels, and hospitals in the country.

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Lighting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories including ENERGY STAR Unique IDs, ENERGY STAR partners, model names and numbers, and brand names. Learn more about ENERGY STAR products at www.energystar.gov/products. A full list of ENERGY STAR specifications can be found at www.energystar.gov/specifications.

  17. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, William T.

    2006-03-16

    In 1930, Ernest Orlando Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley invented the cyclotron. One of his students, M. Stanley Livingston, constructed a 13-cm diameter model that had all the features of early cyclotrons, accelerating protons to 80 keV using less than 1 kV on a semi-circular accelerating electrode, now called the ''dee''. Soon after, Lawrence constructed the first two-dee 27-Inch (69-cm) Cyclotron, which produced protons and deuterons of 4.8 MeV. In 1939, Lawrence constructed the 60-Inch (150-cm) Cyclotron, which accelerated deuterons to 19 MeV. Just before WWII, Lawrence designed a 184-inch cyclotron, but the war prevented the building of this machine. Immediately after the war ended, the Veksler-McMillan principle of phase stability was put forward, which enabled the transformation of conventional cyclotrons to successful synchrocyclotrons. When completed, the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron produced 340-MeV protons. Following it, more modern synchrocyclotrons were built around the globe, and the synchrocyclotrons in Berkeley and Uppsala, together with the Harvard cyclotron, would perform pioneering work in treatment of human cancer using accelerated hadrons (protons and light ions). When the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron was built, Lawrence asked Robert Wilson, one of his former graduate students, to look into the shielding requirements for of the new accelerator. Wilson soon realized that the 184-Inch would produce a copious number of protons and other light ions that had enough energy to penetrate human body, and could be used for treatment of deep-seated diseases. Realizing the advantages of delivering a larger dose in the Bragg peak when placed inside deep-seated tumors, he published in a medical journal a seminal paper on the rationale to use accelerated protons and light ions for treatment of human cancer. The precise dose localization provided by protons and light ions means lower doses to normal tissues adjacent to the treatment volume

  18. Principles of light energy management

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, N.

    1994-12-31

    A review is presented on methods to minimize the effects of excess energy associated with lighting systems for plant growth. Information on lamp efficiencies and methods for separating and collecting unwanted heat is included.

  19. Bright, Light and Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new Sharon Elementary School in Newburgh (Indiana) has a three-fuel plan that will allow selection of the most economical energy source for each heating season with an energy-efficient lighting system that includes skylights. (Author/MLF)

  20. The new Sandia light ion microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizkelethy, G.; Doyle, B. L.; McDaniel, F. L.

    2012-02-01

    The Ion Beam Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was recently relocated into a brand new building. The 6 MV High Voltage Engineering (HVE) tandem accelerator (hosting the heavy ion microbeam and several analytical beam lines) and the 350 kV HVE implanter with a nanobeam were moved to the new building. There were several new pieces of equipment acquired associated with the move, among them a new high brightness 3 MV Pelletron accelerator, a high resolution light ion microbeam, a nanoimplanter, and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) connected to the tandem accelerator. In this paper this new facility will be described, and initial results of the new microbeam will be presented.

  1. Ion energy analyzer for measurement of ion turbulent transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V.; Sen, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    For local measurement of radial ion thermal transport, we developed a novel time-resolved gridded ion energy analyzer. The turbulent thermal flux is obtained by correlating fluctuations of ion temperature, plasma density and plasma velocity. The simultaneous measurement of the ion current fluctuations from an ion energy analyzer tilde I_{IEA} (t) and the fluctuation of ion saturation current from a conventional Langmuir probe tilde I_{LP} (t) allow us to determine local fluctuations of ion temperature tilde T_i (t). To reduce the effect of plasma potential fluctuations in the energy analyzer measurements, we use special a compensative circuit loop.

  2. Extension of the BRYNTRN code to monoenergetic light ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1994-01-01

    A monoenergetic version of the BRYNTRN transport code is extended to beam transport of light ions (H-2, H-3, He-3, and He-4) in shielding materials (thick targets). The redistribution of energy in nuclear reactions is included in transport solutions that use nuclear fragmentation models. We also consider an equilibrium target-fragment spectrum for nuclei with mass number greater than four to include target fragmentation effects in the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. Illustrative results for water and aluminum shielding, including energy and LET spectra, are discussed for high-energy beams of H-2 and He-4.

  3. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Berst, Kara; Howeth, Maria

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  4. Optical cavity integrated surface ion trap for enhanced light collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Francisco M.

    Ion trap systems allow the faithful storage and manipulation of qubits encoded in the energy levels of the ions, and can be interfaced with photonic qubits that can be transmitted to connect remote quantum systems. Single photons transmitted from two remote sites, each entangled with one quantum memory, can be used to entangle distant quantum memories by interfering on a beam splitter. Efficient remote entanglement generation relies upon efficient light collection from single ions into a single mode fiber. This can be realized by integrating an ion trap with an optical cavity and employing the Purcell effect for enhancing the light collection. Remote entanglement can be used as a resource for a quantum repeater for provably secure long-distance communication or as a method for communicating within a distributed quantum information processor. We present the integration of a 1 mm optical cavity with a micro-fabricated surface ion trap. The plano-concave cavity is oriented normal to the chip surface where the planar mirror is attached underneath the trap chip. The cavity is locked using a 780 nm laser which is stabilized to Rubidium and shifted to match the 369 nm Doppler transition in Ytterbium. The linear ion trap allows ions to be shuttled in and out of the cavity mode. The Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission into the cavity mode would then allow efficient collection of the emitted photons, enabling faster remote entanglement generation.

  5. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-09-30

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and results of Cycle Seven of PEARL program during the period of April 2006 to September 2006, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC continued receiving the CFL samples purchased by sponsors and finished performing the sphere testing for all CFL models at 100 hours of life. After that LRC aged the CFL samples to 1000 hours of life, and then performed sphere testing for all CFL models at 1000 hours of life. Then the CFLs were placed on the test rack to be aged to 40% of their rated life. Rapid Cycle Stress Test was also performed for all models using different sets of CFL samples.

  6. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2007-03-31

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and results of Cycle Seven and Cycle Eight of PEARL program during the period of October 2006 to March 2007, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC finished performing the sphere testing for all CFL models in Cycle Seven at 40% of their rated life. LRC also performed re-test of Rapid Cycle Stress Test, under the request of DOE, for five CFL models that failed the Rapid Cycle Stress Test in Cycle Seven. From January 2007 to March 2007, LRC coordinated the procuring efforts for the CFL models that were selected for Cycle Eight.

  7. Ultraviolet-light-emitting AlN:Gd thin-film electroluminescence device using an energy transfer from Gd3+ ions to N2 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, Toshihiko; Ota, Jun; Adachi, Daisuke; Niioka, Yasumasa; Lee, Dong-Hun; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2009-04-01

    An ultraviolet (UV)-light-emitting AlN:Gd thin-film electroluminescence device (TFELD) was demonstrated for application to flat-panel lighting. AlN:Gd thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at 200 °C and applied to an ac-voltage-driven TFELD with a double-insulating structure as an emission layer. UV-light emission was observed over a threshold voltage of 270 V for a 5 kHz sinusoidal ac voltage. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra were compared with photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectra of AlN:Gd originating from Gd3+ P6j→S87/2 transitions and with an emission spectrum of the second positive system (C3Πu→B3Πg) of N2 molecules. As a result, an energy transfer from Gd3+ P6j→S87/2 to N2 C3Πu→B3Πg is discussed as a likely mechanism for the UV EL. Finally, a preliminary result, associated with the conversion from UV light into blue-green light via a phosphor, is demonstrated for the color tunability of the TFELD.

  8. Ionization, excitation, and electron transfer in MeV-energy collisions between light nuclei and C{sup 5+}(1s) ions studied with a Sturmian basis

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Thomas G.

    2004-04-01

    Cross sections have been determined for direct excitation, ionization, and electron transfer in collisions between H, He, Li, and Be nuclei and C{sup 5+}(1s) target ions at nuclear energies 1-24 MeV/nucleon, extending earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 56, 2903 (1997)] to higher energies. Coupled Sturmian pseudostates of principal quantum number at least up to 30 have been included for each angular momentum s, p, d, and f centered on the C nucleus, as well as a 1s state centered on the projectile. Detailed basis-convergence studies have been carried out. Cross sections have been compared with the corresponding Born results, and scaling rules have also been examined.

  9. Role of Ions in the Regulation of Light-Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Kaňa, Radek; Govindjee

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting in the thylakoids is one of the major key factors affecting the efficiency of photosynthesis. Thylakoid membrane is negatively charged and influences both the structure and the function of the primarily photosynthetic reactions through its electrical double layer (EDL). Further, there is a heterogeneous organization of soluble ions (K+, Mg2+, Cl−) attached to the thylakoid membrane that, together with fixed charges (negatively charged amino acids, lipids), provides an electrical field. The EDL is affected by the valence of the ions and interferes with the regulation of “state transitions,” protein interactions, and excitation energy “spillover” from Photosystem II to Photosystem I. These effects are reflected in changes in the intensity of chlorophyll a fluorescence, which is also a measure of photoprotective non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of the excited state of chlorophyll a. A triggering of NPQ proceeds via lumen acidification that is coupled to the export of positive counter-ions (Mg2+, K+) to the stroma or/and negative ions (e.g., Cl−) into the lumen. The effect of protons and anions in the lumen and of the cations (Mg2+, K+) in the stroma are, thus, functionally tightly interconnected. In this review, we discuss the consequences of the model of EDL, proposed by Barber (1980b) Biochim Biophys Acta 594:253–308) in light of light-harvesting regulation. Further, we explain differences between electrostatic screening and neutralization, and we emphasize the opposite effect of monovalent (K+) and divalent (Mg2+) ions on light-harvesting and on “screening” of the negative charges on the thylakoid membrane; this effect needs to be incorporated in all future models of photosynthetic regulation by ion channels and transporters. PMID:28018387

  10. Light ion velocities in the polar ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. A.; Heelis, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    High-speed flow of light ions along magnetic field lines is not simply a consequence of those field lines having an open topology. It is pointed out that the magnitude of the H(+) flow velocity in the polar wind is not predicted by theoretical models, but rather is imposed as a boundary condition. Thermal diffusion, the electron temperature profile, and a diverging magnetic field can be shown to have important effects on the H(+) flow velocity, which need not be supersonic even when the pressure at large distances from the earth is low.

  11. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  12. Lighting Energy Management for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Lighting Bureau, Washington, DC.

    Colleges and universities probably rely on more types of lighting than do other facilities. This booklet is intended to help administrators achieve the goal of lighting energy management--gaining maximum benefit from illumination systems while minimizing energy waste. The development of a lighting energy management plan requires knowledge of the…

  13. Lighting Energy Management for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Lighting Bureau, Washington, DC.

    Colleges and universities probably rely on more types of lighting than do other facilities. This booklet is intended to help administrators achieve the goal of lighting energy management--gaining maximum benefit from illumination systems while minimizing energy waste. The development of a lighting energy management plan requires knowledge of the…

  14. The Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    LIBRA is a concept to place a light-ion, charged-particle facility in a hospital environment, and to dedicate it to applications in biology and medicine. There are two aspects of the program envisaged for LIBRA: a basic research effort coupled with a program in clinical applications of accelerated charged particles. The operational environment to be provided for LIBRA is one in which both of these components can coexist and flourish, and one that will promote the transfer of technology and knowledge from one to the other. In order to further investigate the prospects for a Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA), discussions are underway with the Merritt Peralta Medical Center (MPMC) in Oakland, California, and the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF). In this paper, a brief discussion of the technical requirements for such a facility is given, together with an outline of the accelerator technology required. While still in a preliminary stage, it is possible nevertheless to develop an adequate working description of the type, size, performance and cost of the accelerator facilities required to meet the preliminary goals for LIBRA.

  15. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  16. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  17. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  18. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  19. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, Carol J.; Taylor, J.; Edgecock, R.; Schulte, R.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, a joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.

  20. Intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, C.; Tamain, B.

    The intermediate energy heavy ion induced reactions are extensively studied for several years. In this paper, we try to summarize the present knowledge. The peripheral reactions appear to be intermediate between the fragmentation and the deep inelastic regimes. Many questions remain open concerning the energy relaxation mechanisms and an eventual participant zone creation. In the case of central collisions, it has been shown that very hot nuclei can be built. The fusion limits are discussed and the very hot nuclei properties are considered. In some cases, hot spot formation or compression effects could play a role. Multifragmentation is discussed as a possible decay channel. In all these aspects, a difficult question concerns the validity of the temperature concept and more generally of collective thermodynamical variables. Such collective effects have been investigated in pion production experiments. Les réactions induites par ions lourds d'énergie intermédiaire sont très étudiées depuis quelques années. Dans cet article, nous essayons de résumer l'état actuel des connaissances. Les mécanismes mis en jeu dans les collisions périphériques sont intermédiaires entre les collisions très inélastiques et la fragmentation. La cible joue clairement un rôle déterminant et des effets importants de champ moyen demeurent. De nombreuses questions restent sans réponse comme par exemple les mécanismes de relaxation d'énergie ou l'existence d'une éventuelle zone participante. Dans le cas des collisions centrales, il a pu être montré que des noyaux très chauds sont fabriqués. Les limites au processus de fusion et les propriétés des noyaux très chauds sont discutées. Dans certains cas, des effets de compression ou de points chauds peuvent être envisagés. La multifragmentation est une voie de désexcitation possible. Une importante question concerne la validité du concept de température et plus généralement la notion de variable collective

  1. LIGHT - from laser ion acceleration to future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Markus; Light Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Creation of high intensity multi-MeV ion bunches by high power lasers became a reliable tool during the last 15 years. The laser plasma source provides for TV/m accelerating field gradients and initially sub-ps bunch lengths. However, the large envelope divergence and the continuous exponential energy spectrum are substential drawbacks for many possible applications. To face this problem, the LIGHT collaboration was founded (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport). The collaboration consists of several university groups and research centers, namely TU Darmstadt, JWGU Frankfurt, HI Jena, HZDR Dresden and GSI Darmstadt. The central goal is building a test beamline for merging laser ion acceleration with conventional accelerator infrastructure at the GSI facility. In the latest experiments, low divergent proton bunches with a central energy of up to 10 MeV and containing >109 particles could be provided at up to 2.2 m behind the plasma source, using a pulsed solenoid. In a next step, a radiofrequency cavity will be added to the beamline for phase rotation of these bunches, giving access to sub-ns bunch lengths and reaching highest intensities. An overview of the LIGHT objectives and the recent experimental results will be given. This work was supported by HIC4FAIR.

  2. Two-gluon correlations in heavy-light ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertepny, Douglas E.

    2014-11-01

    We derive the cross-section for two-gluon production in heavy-light ion collisions in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework. This calculation includes saturation effects to all orders in one of the nuclei (heavy ion) along with a single saturation correction in the projectile (light ion). The calculation of the correlation function predicts (qualitatively) two identical ridge-like correlations, near- and away-side. This prediction was later supported by experimental findings in p + A collisions at the LHC. Concentrating on the energy and geometry dependence of the correlation functions we find that the correlation function is nearly center-of-mass energy independent. The geometry dependence of the correlation function leads to an enhancement of near- and away-side correlations for the tip-on-tip U + U collisions when compared with side-on-side U + U collisions, an exactly opposite behavior from the correlations generated by the elliptic flow of the quark-gluon plasma.

  3. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Batalin, V. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Litovko, I. V.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J; Storozhenko, P. A.

    2008-02-15

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P{sup 2+} [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+}Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  4. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  5. Light ion components of the galactic cosmic rays: Nuclear interactions and transport theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Dubey, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Light nuclei are present in the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and are produced in thick targets due to projectile or target fragmentation from both nucleon and heavy induced reactions. In the primary GCR, He-4 is the most abundant nucleus after H-1. However, there are also a substantial fluxes of H-2 and He-3. In this paper we describe theoretical models based on quantum multiple scattering theory for the description of light ion nuclear interactions. The energy dependence of the light ion fragmentation cross section is considered with comparisons of inclusive yields and secondary momentum distributions to experiments described. We also analyze the importance of a fast component of lights ions from proton and neutron induced target fragementation. These theoretical models have been incorporated into the cosmic ray transport code HZETRN and will be used to analyze the role of shielding materials in modulating the production and the energy spectrum of light ions.

  6. Light ion components of the galactic cosmic rays: Nuclear interactions and transport theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Dubey, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Light nuclei are present in the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and are produced in thick targets due to projectile or target fragmentation from both nucleon and heavy induced reactions. In the primary GCR, He-4 is the most abundant nucleus after H-1. However, there are also a substantial fluxes of H-2 and He-3. In this paper we describe theoretical models based on quantum multiple scattering theory for the description of light ion nuclear interactions. The energy dependence of the light ion fragmentation cross section is considered with comparisons of inclusive yields and secondary momentum distributions to experiments described. We also analyze the importance of a fast component of lights ions from proton and neutron induced target fragementation. These theoretical models have been incorporated into the cosmic ray transport code HZETRN and will be used to analyze the role of shielding materials in modulating the production and the energy spectrum of light ions.

  7. The LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) experiment at LNF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Anania, M. P.; Caresana, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; De Martinis, C.; Delle Side, D.; Fazzi, A.; Gatti, G.; Giove, D.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Labate, L.; Londrillo, P.; Maggiore, M.; Nassisi, V.; Sinigardi, S.; Tramontana, A.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Turchetti, G.; Varoli, V.; Velardi, L.

    2014-07-01

    Laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities opens up new research fields in the particle acceleration and related secondary sources, with immediate applications in medical diagnostics, biophysics, material science, inertial confinement fusion, up to laboratory astrophysics. In particular laser-driven ion acceleration is very promising for hadron therapy once the ion energy will attain a few hundred MeV. The limited value of the energy up to now obtained for the accelerated ions is the drawback of such innovative technique to the real applications. LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) is an experiment now running at LNF (Frascati) with the goal of producing a real proton beam able to be driven for significant distances (50-75 cm) away from the interaction point and which will act as a source for further accelerating structure. In this paper the description of the experimental setup, the preliminary results of solid target irradiation and start to end simulation for a post-accelerated beam up to 60 MeV are given.

  8. On final conditions in high energy heavy ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sinyukov, Yu.M.; Akkelin, S.V.; Xu, N.

    1998-06-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental observations, wediscuss the freeze-out properties of the fireball created in centralheavy ion collisions. We find that the freeze-out conditions, liketemperature, velocity gradient near center of the fireball, are similarfor different colliding systems and beam energies. This means that thetransverse flow is stronger in the collisions of heavy nuclei than thatof the light ones.

  9. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Phillip W. K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2017-03-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  10. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  11. Formation of amorphous silicon by light ion damage

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Y.C.

    1985-12-01

    Amorphization by implantation of boron ions (which is the lightest element generally used in I.C. fabrication processes) has been systematically studied for various temperatures, various voltages and various dose rates. Based on theoretical considerations and experimental results, a new amorphization model for light and intermediate mass ion damage is proposed consisting of two stages. The role of interstitial type point defects or clusters in amorphization is emphasized. Due to the higher mobility of interstitials out-diffusion to the surface particularly during amorphization with low energy can be significant. From a review of the idealized amorphous structure, diinterstitial-divacancy pairs are suggested to be the embryos of amorphous zones formed during room temperature implantation. The stacking fault loops found in specimens implanted with boron at room temperature are considered to be the origin of secondary defects formed during annealing.

  12. High-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple high-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: 1000 Watt to 750 Watt High-pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, 400 Watt to 360 Watt High Pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T5 lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T8 lighting retrofit, and Daylighting. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  13. Low-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple low-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Low-wattage T8 lighting retrofit, T12 to T8 lighting retrofit, LED Exit signs retrofit, Occupancy sensors, Screw-in lighting retrofit, and central lighting controls. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cooling load reduction, heating load increases, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: Simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  14. MCNPX Extension for Using Light Ion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library.

    SciTech Connect

    PATRICK,; SAUVAN,

    2013-05-23

    Version 00 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. MCUNED is an MCNPX extension that handles a light ion evaluated nuclear data library. Using MCUNED, all MCNPX simulations involving transport of light ion could be solved using evaluated libraries instead of MCNPX built-in models.

  15. Sputtering Threshold Energies of Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, Maris A.

    1999-01-01

    Sputter erosion in ion thrusters has been measured in lifetests at discharge voltages as low as 25 V. Thruster operation at this discharge voltage results in component erosion rates sufficiently low to satisfy most mission requirements. It has been recognized that most of the internal sputtering in ion thrusters is done by doubly charged ions. Knowledge of the sputtering threshold voltage of a xenon molybdenum system would be beneficial in understanding the sputtering process as well as making more accurate calculations of the sputtering rates of ion thruster components. Sputtering threshold energies calculated from various formulations found in the literature results in values ranging from 28 to 200 eV. It is evident that some of these formulations cannot be relied upon to provide sputtering thresholds with any degree of accuracy. This paper re-examines the threshold energies measurements made in the early sixties by Askerov and Sena, and Stuart and Wehner. The threshold voltages as derived by Askerov and au have been reevaluated by using a different extrapolation method of sputter yields at low ion energies. The resulting threshold energies are in general similar to those measured by Stuart and Wehner. An empirical relationship is derived,for mercury and xenon ions for the ratio of the sputtering threshold energy to the sublimation energy as a function of the ratio of target to ion atomic mass.

  16. Theory of laser acceleration of light-ion beams from interaction of ultrahigh-intensity lasers with layered targets.

    PubMed

    Albright, B J; Yin, L; Hegelich, B M; Bowers, Kevin J; Kwan, T J T; Fernández, J C

    2006-09-15

    Experiments at the LANL Trident facility demonstrated the production of monoenergetic ion beams from the interaction of an ultraintense laser with a target comprising a heavy ion substrate and thin layer of light ions. An analytic model is obtained that predicts how the mean energy and quality of monoenergetic ion beams and the energy of substrate ions vary with substrate material and light-ion layer composition and thickness. Dimensionless parameters controlling the dynamics are derived and the model is validated with particle-in-cell simulations and experimental data.

  17. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Malik

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  18. Time, Light Speed and Space Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Penglin

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a formula that describe the relation with time and the space energy which resolves the key of Lorentz transformation how the time changes in different frames of reference. As the result, it is natural that the light speed is not constant. However, from the formula, in the same space--same space energy, the light speeds in different frames of reference are same. From this, it is easy to explain some facts, for example, light defraction; black holes attract light (it is not attracting, it is defraction); light curving nearby the sun; the temperature of sun surface is higher than inside, etc.)

  19. Light ion mass spectrometer for space-plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Direct satellite measurements and ground-based techniques have given a comprehensive view of the density distribution of the cold plasma population in the earth's magnetosphere. There were, however, no direct measurements of the low-energy plasma mass composition, temperature, density, pitch-angle distribution, or plasma flow velocity. A description is presented of the evolution and development of an instrument, the Light Ion Mass Spectrometer (LIMS), designed to make these low-energy plasma measurements. The instrument was developed for flight on the spacecraft SCA-THA, a satellite to study satellite charging at high altitudes. This satellite, whose primary mission was to study spacecraft-plasma interactions and electrostatic charging, was launched into a near-geosynchronous orbit. The design requirements regarding the instrument are discussed, and attention is given to the calibration procedures, the flight configuration, and some examples of flight data.

  20. Light ion mass spectrometer for space-plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Direct satellite measurements and ground-based techniques have given a comprehensive view of the density distribution of the cold plasma population in the earth's magnetosphere. There were, however, no direct measurements of the low-energy plasma mass composition, temperature, density, pitch-angle distribution, or plasma flow velocity. A description is presented of the evolution and development of an instrument, the Light Ion Mass Spectrometer (LIMS), designed to make these low-energy plasma measurements. The instrument was developed for flight on the spacecraft SCA-THA, a satellite to study satellite charging at high altitudes. This satellite, whose primary mission was to study spacecraft-plasma interactions and electrostatic charging, was launched into a near-geosynchronous orbit. The design requirements regarding the instrument are discussed, and attention is given to the calibration procedures, the flight configuration, and some examples of flight data.

  1. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O.

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  2. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  3. Low energy ion distribution around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Tanaka, T.; Asamura, K.; Nishino, M. N.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2009-04-01

    More than a year has passed since MAP-PACE onboard KAGUYA (SELENE) started continuous observation of the low energy charged particles around the Moon from 100km-altitude polar orbit. MAP (MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment) was developed for the comprehensive measurement of the magnetic field and three-dimensional plasma around the Moon. MAP consists of MAP-LMAG (Lunar MAGnetometer) and MAP-PACE (Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment). MAP-PACE consists of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). Since each sensor has hemispherical field of view, two electron sensors and two ion sensors that are installed on the spacecraft panels opposite to each other can make full 3-dimensional measurements of low energy electrons and ions. One of the ion sensors IMA is an energy mass spectrometer. IMA measures mass identified ion energy spectra that have never been obtained at 100km altitude around the Moon. Low energy charged particles around the Moon were vigorously observed by Moon orbiting satellites and plasma instrumentation placed on the lunar surface in 1960s and 1970s. Though there were some satellites that explored the Moon afterwards, most of them were dedicated to the global mapping of the lunar surface. There has been almost no new information about the low energy charged particles around the Moon except the low energy electron measurement by Lunar Prospector, the lunar wake plasma data obtained by WIND during its Moon fly-by, and reports on remote detection of the lunar ions, lunar electrons and ULF waves generated by electron beams around the lunar wake. The newly observed data show characteristic ion distributions around the Moon. Besides the solar wind, MAP-PACE-IMA discovered four clearly distinguishable ion distributions: 1) Solar wind ions reflected/scattered at the lunar surface, 2) Solar wind ions reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, 3) Ions that are

  4. Measurements of low energy auroral ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, A.

    1981-12-01

    Ion measurements in the energy range 0.1-30 keV observed during the 'Substorm Phenomena' and 'Porcupine' campaigns are summarized. Acceleration of the ions by an electrostatic field aligned parallel to the magnetic field is identified and found to be accompanied by intense electron precipitation. On the other hand, deceleration of the ions is observed in other field-aligned current sheets which are indicated by the electron and magnetic field measurements. Temporal successive monoenergetic ion variations suggest energy dispersion and a location of the source region at 9 earth radii. What is more, ion fluxes higher than those of the electrons are measured at pitch angles parallel to the magnetic field. It is noted that each of the examples was observed during different flights.

  5. New Light on Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    observations show that the temperature changes with radius are much steeper than predicted by the currently favoured models, indicating that most of the near-infrared emission emerges from hot material located very close to the star, that is, within one or two times the Earth-Sun distance (1-2 AU). This also implies that dust cannot exist so close to the star, since the strong energy radiated by the star heats and ultimately destroys the dust grains. ESO PR Photo 03/08 ESO PR Photo 03b/08 The Region Around MWC 147 "We have performed detailed numerical simulations to understand these observations and reached the conclusion that we observe not only the outer dust disc, but also measure strong emission from a hot inner gaseous disc. This suggests that the disc is not a passive one, simply reprocessing the light from the star," explained Kraus. "Instead, the disc is active, and we see the material, which is just transported from the outer disc parts towards the forming star." ESO PR Photo 03/08 ESO PR Photo 03c/08 Close-up on MWC 147 The best-fit model is that of a disc extending out to 100 AU, with the star increasing in mass at a rate of seven millionths of a solar mass per year. "Our study demonstrates the power of ESO's VLTI to probe the inner structure of discs around young stars and to reveal how stars reach their final mass," said Stefan Kraus. More Information The authors report their results in a paper in the Astrophysical Journal ("Detection of an inner gaseous component in a Herbig Be star accretion disk: Near- and mid-infrared spectro-interferometry and radiative transfer modeling of MWC 147", by Stefan Kraus, Thomas Preibisch, Keichii Ohnaka").

  6. Light thoughts on dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2004-04-01

    The physical process leading to the acceleration of the expansion of the universe is unknown. It may involve new high energy physics or extensions to gravitation. Calling this generically dark energy, we examine the consistencies and relations between these two approaches, showing that an effective equation of state function w(z) is broadly useful in describing the properties of the dark energy. A variety of cosmological observations can provide important information on the dynamics of dark energy and the future looks bright for constraining dark energy, though both the measurements and the interpretation will be challenging. We also discuss a more direct relation between the spacetime geometry and acceleration, via ''geometric dark energy'' from the Ricci scalar, and superacceleration or phantom energy where the fate of the universe may be more gentle than the Big Rip.

  7. Energy efficient lighting and communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Kavehrad, M.; Deng, P.

    2012-01-01

    As Light-Emitting Diode (LED)'s increasingly displace incandescent lighting over the next few years, general applications of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology are expected to include wireless internet access, vehicle-to-vehicle communications, broadcast from LED signage, and machine-to-machine communications. An objective in this paper is to reveal the influence of system parameters on the power distribution and communication quality, in a general plural sources VLC system. It is demonstrated that sources' Half-Power Angles (HPA), receivers' Field-Of Views (FOV), sources layout and the power distribution among sources are significant impact factors. Based on our findings, we developed a method to adaptively change working status of each LED respectively according to users' locations. The program minimizes total power emitted while simultaneously ensuring sufficient light intensity and communication quality for each user. The paper also compares Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and On-Off Keying (OOK) signals performance in indoor optical wireless communications. The simulation is carried out for different locations where different impulse response distortions are experienced. OFDM seems a better choice than prevalent OOK for indoor VLC due to its high resistance to multi-path effect and delay spread. However, the peak-to-average power limitations of the method must be investigated for lighting LEDs.

  8. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Alstone, Peter; Mills, Evan; Jacobson, Arne

    2011-01-25

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuel-based lighting are substantial given the paltry levels of lighting service provided to users, leading to a great opportunity for GHG mitigation byencouraging the switch from fuel-based to rechargeable LED lighting. However, as with most new energy technology, switching to efficient lighting requires an up-front investment of energy(and GHGs) embedded in the manufacture of replacement components. We studied a population of off-grid lighting users in 2008-2009 in Kenya who were given the opportunity to adopt LEDlighting. Based on their use patterns with the LED lights and the levels of kerosene offset we observed, we found that the embodied energy of the LED lamp was"paid for" in only one month for grid charged products and two months for solar charged products. Furthermore, the energyreturn-on investment-ratio (energy produced or offset over the product's service life divided by energy embedded) for off-grid LED lighting ranges from 12 to 24, which is on par with on-gridsolar and large-scale wind energy. We also found that the energy embodied in the manufacture of a typical hurricane lantern is about one-half to one-sixth of that embodied in the particular LEDlights that we evaluated, indicating that the energy payback time would be moderately faster if LEDs ultimately displace the production of kerosene lanterns. As LED products improve, weanticipate longer service lives and more successful displacement of kerosene lighting, both of which will speed the already rapid recovery of embodied energy in these products. Our studyprovides a detailed appendix with embodied energy values for a variety of components used to construct off-grid LED lighting, which can be used to analyze other products.

  9. The light ion trough, the main trough, and the plasmapause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Walsh, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive observations of mid-latitude depletions in electron and total ion density by both direct and indirect techniques, have prompted numerous studies of the possible association between these troughs, observed in the F-region, the topside ionosphere, and the plasmapause. One basic problem arises, in that while the plasmapause was detected as a global phenomenon both by VLF and ion composition measurements, the electron and ion density troughs were identified primarily as nightside features. This problem, as well as the difficulty in explaining various inconsistencies in relating the position of the plasmapause and the ionization trough, is explained by a close examination of the ion composition. In particular, ion composition results from the polar orbiting OGO satellites identify the persistence of a pronounced light ion trough in H(+) and He(+) identified by order of magnitude decreases in the light ion concentrations.

  10. Shaping laser accelerated ions for future applications - The LIGHT collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, S.; Almomani, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Barth, W.; Bedacht, S.; Blažević, A.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Brabetz, C.; Burris-Mog, T.; Cowan, T. E.; Deppert, O.; Droba, M.; Eickhoff, H.; Eisenbarth, U.; Harres, K.; Hoffmeister, G.; Hofmann, I.; Jaeckel, O.; Jaeger, R.; Joost, M.; Kraft, S.; Kroll, F.; Kaluza, M.; Kester, O.; Lecz, Z.; Merz, T.; Nürnberg, F.; Al-Omari, H.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.; Paulus, G.; Polz, J.; Ratzinger, U.; Roth, M.; Schaumann, G.; Schmidt, P.; Schramm, U.; Schreiber, G.; Schumacher, D.; Stoehlker, T.; Tauschwitz, A.; Vinzenz, W.; Wagner, F.; Yaramyshev, S.; Zielbauer, B.

    2014-03-01

    The generation of intense ion beams from high-intensity laser-generated plasmas has been the focus of research for the last decade. In the LIGHT collaboration the expertise of heavy ion accelerator scientists and laser and plasma physicists has been combined to investigate the prospect of merging these ion beams with conventional accelerator technology and exploring the possibilities of future applications. We report about the goals and first results of the LIGHT collaboration to generate, handle and transport laser driven ion beams. This effort constitutes an important step in research for next generation accelerator technologies.

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Non-lighting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Non-lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories including ENERGY STAR Unique IDs, ENERGY STAR partners, model names and numbers, and brand names. Learn more about ENERGY STAR products at www.energystar.gov/products. A full list of ENERGY STAR specifications can be found at www.energystar.gov/specifications.

  12. Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, J.F.; Dussap, C.G.; Gros, J.B. . Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

    1994-06-01

    The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic organisms. The local volumetric rate of radiant light energy absorbed, which appears in the dissipation function as an irreversible term, is calculated for monodimensional approximations providing analytical solutions and for general tridimensional equations requiring the solution of a new numerical algorithm. Solutions for the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis cultivated in photoreactors with different geometries and light energy inputs are compared. Thermodynamic efficiency of the photosynthesis is calculated. The highest value of 15% found for low radiant energy absorption rates corresponds to a maximum quantum yield in the reactor.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Fixtures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Luminaires. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=LU#specs

  14. Beamed neutron emission driven by laser accelerated light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; McKenna, P.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-05-01

    Highly anisotropic, beam-like neutron emission with peak flux of the order of 109 n/sr was obtained from light nuclei reactions in a pitcher-catcher scenario, by employing MeV ions driven by a sub-petawatt laser. The spatial profile of the neutron beam, fully captured for the first time by employing a CR39 nuclear track detector, shows a FWHM divergence angle of ˜ 70^\\circ , with a peak flux nearly an order of magnitude higher than the isotropic component elsewhere. The observed beamed flux of neutrons is highly favourable for a wide range of applications, and indeed for further transport and moderation to thermal energies. A systematic study employing various combinations of pitcher-catcher materials indicates the dominant reactions being d(p, n+p)1H and d(d,n)3He. Albeit insufficient cross-section data are available for modelling, the observed anisotropy in the neutrons’ spatial and spectral profiles is most likely related to the directionality and high energy of the projectile ions.

  15. Throwing light on dark energy.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Robert P

    2003-06-20

    Supernova observations show that the expansion of the universe has been speeding up. This unexpected acceleration is ascribed to a dark energy that pervades space. Supernova data, combined with other observations, indicate that the universe is about 14 billion years old and is composed of about 30%matter and 70%dark energy. New observational programs can trace the history of cosmic expansion more precisely and over a larger span of time than has been done to date to learn whether the dark energy is a modern version of Einstein's cosmological constant or another form of dark energy that changes with time. Either conclusion is an enigma that points to gaps in our fundamental understanding of gravity.

  16. Energy-banded ions in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Badman, S. V.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kivelson, M. G.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-05-01

    Using data from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer ion mass spectrometer, we report the first observation of energy-banded ions at Saturn. Observed near midnight at relatively high magnetic latitudes, the banded ions are dominantly H+, and they occupy the range of energies typically associated with the thermal pickup distribution in the inner magnetosphere (L < 10), but their energies decline monotonically with increasing radial distance (or time or decreasing latitude). Their pitch angle distribution suggests a source at low (or slightly southern) latitudes. The band energies, including their pitch angle dependence, are consistent with a bounce-resonant interaction between thermal H+ ions and the standing wave structure of a field line resonance. There is additional evidence in the pitch angle dependence of the band energies that the particles in each band may have a common time of flight from their most recent interaction with the wave, which may have been at slightly southern latitudes. Thus, while the particles are basically bounce resonant, their energization may be dominated by their most recent encounter with the standing wave.Plain Language SummaryDuring an outbound passage by the Cassini spacecraft through Saturn's inner magnetosphere, <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions were observed that featured discrete flux peaks at regularly spaced <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The peaks persisted over several hours and several Saturn radii of distance away from the planet. We show that these "bands" of <span class="hlt">ions</span> are plausibly the result of an interaction between the Saturnian plasma and standing waves that form along the magnetospheric magnetic field lines. These observations are the first reported evidence that such standing waves may be present in the inner magnetosphere, where they could contribute to the radial transport of Saturn's radiation belt particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859413"><span>Procedure to Measure Indoor <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> performance of building interior <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building <span class="hlt">energy</span> analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building <span class="hlt">energy</span> performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual <span class="hlt">energy</span> used for <span class="hlt">lighting</span>, <span class="hlt">energy</span> savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building <span class="hlt">energy</span> use that is used by the <span class="hlt">lighting</span> system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/898567','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/898567"><span>Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> FacilityUpgrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Johnson, Michael B.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Gimpel, Thomas L.; Tiffany, William S.</p> <p>2006-07-07</p> <p>The BASE <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Facility upgrades have been completed. All proton beams are now delivered to Cave 4A. New control software, a larger diameter beam window, and improved quality assurance measures have been added.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPA.678...21A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPA.678...21A"><span>NUCFRG3: <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> improvements to the nuclear fragmentation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adamczyk, A. M.; Norman, R. B.; Sriprisan, S. I.; Townsend, L. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Blattnig, S. R.; Slaba, T. C.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> improvements to the nuclear fragmentation model, NUCFRG, are reported. Improvements include the replacement of the simple <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production model with a <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> coalescence model and an improved electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) formalism. Prior versions of the model provide reasonable overall agreement with measured data; however, those versions lack a physics-based description for coalescence and EMD. The version reported herein, NUCFRG3, has improved the theoretical descriptions of these mechanisms and offers additional benefits, such as the capability to calculate EMD cross-sections for single deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. NUCFRG3 model evaluation and validation show that the predictive capability has been improved and strengthened by the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> physics-based changes. Based on increased capability and better theoretical grounding, it is recommended that NUCFRG3 replace its predecessors for space radiation assessments and other applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DNP.NF002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DNP.NF002A"><span>NUCFRG3: <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> improvements to the nuclear fragmentation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adamczyk, Anne; Norman, Ryan; Sriprisan, Sirikul; Townsend, Lawrence; Norbury, John; Blattnig, Steve; Slaba, Tony</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> improvements to the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG are reported. Improvements include the replacement of the simple <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production model with a <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> coalescence model and an improved electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) formalism. Prior versions of the model provide reasonable overall agreement with measured data; however, those versions lack a physics-based description for coalescence and EMD. The NUCFRG3 model has improved theoretical descriptions of these mechanisms and offers additional benefits. Previous work established the improved EMD formalism to be more accurate than the predecessor. The predictive capability of NUCFRG has been improved and strengthened by the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> physics-based changes. Based on increased capability and better theoretical grounding of NUCFRG3, it is recommended that it replace NUCFRG2 for space radiation assessments and other applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820061321&hterms=conical+resonance&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dconical%2Bresonance','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820061321&hterms=conical+resonance&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dconical%2Bresonance"><span>Cyclotron resonance effects on stochastic acceleration of <span class="hlt">light</span> ionospheric <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The production of energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> with conical pitch angle distributions along the auroral field lines is a subject of considerable current interest. There are several theoretical treatments showing the acceleration (heating) of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> by <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron waves. The quasi-linear theory predicts no acceleration when the <span class="hlt">ions</span> are nonresonant. In the present investigation, it is demonstrated that the cyclotron resonances are not crucial for the transverse acceleration of <span class="hlt">ions</span> by <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron waves. It is found that transverse energization of ionospheric <span class="hlt">ions</span>, such as He(+), He(++), O(++), and O(+), is possible by an Electrostatic Hydrogen Cyclotron (EHC) wave even in the absence of cyclotron resonance. The mechanism of acceleration is the nonresonant stochastic heating. However, when there are resonant <span class="hlt">ions</span> both the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> gain and the number of accelerated <span class="hlt">ions</span> increase with increasing parallel wave number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5959938','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5959938"><span><span class="hlt">Lighting</span> system replacement brings <span class="hlt">energy</span> costs down, <span class="hlt">light</span> levels up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Radmer, D.J.</p> <p>1984-11-08</p> <p>The R.J. Frisby Mfg. Co. operates on three shifts and produces precision screw machine products for a variety of industries, including automotive, marine, machine tool, hydraulics and pneumatics, business machines, electrical and electronics, photography, and precision instruments. The required degree of manufacturing precision demands high <span class="hlt">light</span> levels in manufacturing areas. When the 100,000 sq ft plant was built in 1973, mercury vapor <span class="hlt">lighting</span> was installed consistent with the current state of the art for <span class="hlt">lighting</span> such facilities. In the ensuing years, it became apparent that the soaring electric bills that came in the wake of the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 would have to be controlled. Estimates by the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> indicated that electric <span class="hlt">energy</span> costs were likely to rise by 160 percent over the next 10 yr. Based on this estimate, and the fact that <span class="hlt">lighting</span> accounted for $70,000, or half of the annual electric bill, it was estimated that $900,000 to $1,000,000 would be spent for <span class="hlt">lighting</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> over the next decade. The concern over the probability of rapidly escalating electrical costs was soon justified when, in three steps over one 12 mo period, the electric <span class="hlt">energy</span> rate increased from $0.0305/kwh to $0.0416/kwh -more than a 36 percent increase. During that same period, the demand charge was raised in two steps from $3.75/kw to $4.85/kw --more than a 29 percent increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..210a2039G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..210a2039G"><span>Electrical <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Harvesting from Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> with Converged Infrared <span class="hlt">Light</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goh, S. Y.; Kok, S. L.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Photovoltaics (PV) cell is a common <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvester that had been used to harvest solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> and convert it into electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span>. However, the vast <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the spectrum of sunlight is not fully harvested. Therefore, thermoelectric (TE) module that harvest electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> from heat is being proposed in this paper. Generally, the part of the sunlight spectrum that induce heat is in the spectrum band of infrared (IR). For the experimental set-up in this paper, infrared (IR) <span class="hlt">light</span> bulb was being used to simulate the IR spectrum band of the sunlight. In order to maximize the heat <span class="hlt">energy</span> collection, a convex lens was being used to converge the IR <span class="hlt">light</span> and therefore focused the heat on an aluminium sheet and heat sink which was placed on top of the hot side of the TE module. The distance between convex lens and IR <span class="hlt">light</span> bulb is varying in between 10cm and 55cm and the reading was taken at an interval of 5cm. Firstly, the temperature of the IR <span class="hlt">light</span> and converged IR <span class="hlt">light</span> were recorded and plotted in graph. The graph showed that the temperature of the converged IR <span class="hlt">light</span> bulb is higher than the IR <span class="hlt">light</span> bulb. Lastly, the voltage and power output of the TE module with different heat source was compared. The output voltage and power of the TE module increased inverse proportional to the distance between IR <span class="hlt">light</span> bulb and TE module.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPGP1044Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPGP1044Y"><span>Development of a Fast <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, W. C.; Bellan, P. M.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>In an effort to measure the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra of short duration plasmas, two different analyzers are being compared for usability on short time scales. A traditional <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer, the retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer (RFEA), is being compared to a design using an electric field to deflect <span class="hlt">ions</span> onto multiple collectors. The use of multiple collectors allows for simultaneous measurement of several <span class="hlt">energies</span> overcoming the major limitation of the RFEA is measuring only a single <span class="hlt">energy</span> per plasma shot. The tradeoff is that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution of the new design is limited by the number of collectors. These methods are being tested on both a single <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron gun and also on a spheromak with a plasma duration of 20-30 μs and <span class="hlt">ion</span> temperature of 20 eV. Both designs have been demonstrated to work under simplified conditions using an electron gun. Currently the RFEA is being tested on the spheromak and efforts are being made to increase the resolution and lower the noise of the new analyzer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6287961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6287961"><span><span class="hlt">Ion-ion</span> interaction and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer of 4+ transuranium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in cerium tetrafluoride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, G.K.; Beitz, J.V.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Dynamics of excited 5f electron states of the transuranium <span class="hlt">ions</span> Cm{sup 4+} and Bk{sup 4+} in CeF{sub 4} are compared. Based on time- and wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence, excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer processes have been probed. Depending on concentration and electronic <span class="hlt">energy</span> level structure of the studied 4+ transuranium <span class="hlt">ion</span>, the dominant <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer mechanisms were identified as cross relaxation, exciton-exciton annihilation, and trapping. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> transfer rates derived from the fitting of the observed fluorescence decays to theoretical models, based on electric multipolar <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> interactions, are contrasted with prior studies of 4f states of 3+ lanthanide and 3d states of transition metal <span class="hlt">ions</span>. 16 refs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20643775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20643775"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> loss of helium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in zinc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lantschner, G.H.; Eckardt, J.C.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Arista, N.R.; Araujo, L.L.; Duarte, P.F.; Santos, J.H.R. dos; Behar, M.; Dias, J.F.; Grande, P.L.; Montanari, C.C.; Miraglia, J.E.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss of helium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in zinc has been measured in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range from 37.5 to 1750 keV/amu using the transmission technique and the Rutherford backscattering method. In addition, calculations using the extended Friedel sum rule, the unitary convolution approximation, and the local plasma approximation have been performed. The contributions of the inner-shell and valence electrons to the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss are separately evaluated. The measurements and calculations are in good agreement over an extended range of <span class="hlt">energies</span>, and both of them yield stopping values higher than those provided by SRIM 2003.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139870"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Farrar, J.M.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>This project is concerned with elucidating the dynamics of elementary <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule reactions at collision <span class="hlt">energies</span> near and below 1 eV. From measurements of the angular and <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of the reaction products, one can infer intimathe details about the nature of collisions leading to chemical reaction, the geometries and lifetimes of intermediate complexes that govern the reaction dynamics, and the collision <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependence of these dynamical features. The author employs crossed-beam low <span class="hlt">energy</span> mass spectrometry technology developed over the last several years, with the focus of current research on proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of te O{sup {minus}} <span class="hlt">ion</span> with species such as HF, H{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7BE4E16168-F197-4287-827D-C950EFC26917%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7BE4E16168-F197-4287-827D-C950EFC26917%7D"><span><span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> STAR Certified <span class="hlt">Light</span> Commercial HVAC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Certified models meet all <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> STAR Program Requirements for <span class="hlt">Light</span> Commercial HVAC that are effective as of January 1, 2011. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lchvac.pr_crit_lchvac</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhB..74..207S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApPhB..74..207S"><span>High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> generation in interaction. of short laser pulse with high-density plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sentoku, Y.; Bychenkov, V. Y.; Flippo, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Mima, K.; Mourou, G.; Sheng, Z. M.; Umstadter, D.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Multi-MeV <span class="hlt">ion</span> production from the interaction of a short laser pulse with a high-density plasma, accompanied by an underdense preplasma, has been studied with a particle-in-cell simulation and good agreement is found with experiment. The mechanism primarily responsible for the acceleration of <span class="hlt">ions</span> is identified. Comparison with experiments sheds <span class="hlt">light</span> on the <span class="hlt">ion-energy</span> dependence on laser intensity, preplasma scale length, and relative <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> for a multi-species plasma. Two regimes of maximum <span class="hlt">ion-energy</span> dependence on laser intensity, I, have been identified: subrelativistic, ∝I; and relativistic, ∝. Simulations show that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the accelerated <span class="hlt">ions</span> versus the preplasma scale length increases linearly and then saturates. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> decreases with the thickness of the solid-density plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316376"><span>Quantum <span class="hlt">energy</span> teleportation with trapped <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hotta, Masahiro</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p>We analyze a protocol of quantum <span class="hlt">energy</span> teleportation that transports <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the left edge of a linear <span class="hlt">ion</span> crystal to the right edge by local operations and classical communication at a speed considerably greater than the speed of a phonon in the crystal. A probe qubit is strongly coupled with phonon fluctuation in the ground state for a short time and it is projectively measured in order to obtain information about this phonon fluctuation. During the measurement process, phonons are excited by the time-dependent measurement interaction and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the excited phonons must be infused from outside the system. The obtained information is transferred to the right edge of the crystal through a classical channel. Even though the phonons excited at the left edge do not arrive at the right edge at the same time as when the information arrives at the right edge, we are able to soon extract <span class="hlt">energy</span> from the <span class="hlt">ions</span> at the right edge by using the transferred information. Because the intermediate <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the crystal are not excited during the execution of the protocol, <span class="hlt">energy</span> is transmitted in the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-transfer channel without heat generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25166488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25166488"><span>Spectroscopic study of a <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven chloride <span class="hlt">ion</span> pump from marine bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Inoue, Keiichi; Koua, Faisal Hammad Mekky; Kato, Yoshitaka; Abe-Yoshizumi, Rei; Kandori, Hideki</p> <p>2014-09-25</p> <p>Thousands of <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven proton-pumping rhodopsins have been found in marine microbes, and a <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven sodium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pumping rhodopsin was recently discovered, which utilizes sunlight for the <span class="hlt">energy</span> source of the cell. Similarly, a <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pump has been found from marine bacteria, and three eubacterial <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven pumps possess the DTE (proton pump), NDQ (sodium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pump), and NTQ (chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pump) motifs corresponding to the D85, T89, and D96 positions in bacteriorhodopsin (BR). The corresponding motif of the known haloarchaeal chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pump, halorhodopsin (HR), is TSA, which is entirely different from the NTQ motif of a eubacterial chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pump. It is thus intriguing to compare the molecular mechanism of these two chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pumps. Here we report the spectroscopic study of Fulvimarina rhodopsin (FR), a eubacterial <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pump from marine bacterium. FR binds a chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> near the retinal chromophore and chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> binding causes a spectral blue-shift. FR predominantly possesses an all-trans retinal, which is responsible for the <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pump. Upon <span class="hlt">light</span> absorption, the red-shifted K intermediate is formed, followed by the appearance of the L and O intermediates. When the M intermediate does not form, this indicates that the Schiff base remains in the protonated state during the photocycle. These molecular mechanisms are common in HR, and a common mechanism for chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> pumping by evolutionarily distant proteins suggests the importance of the electric quadrupole in the Schiff base region and their changes through hydrogen-bonding alterations. One noticeable difference between FR and HR is the uptake of chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> from the extracellular surface. While the uptake occurs upon decay of the O intermediate in HR, chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> uptake accompanies the rise of the O intermediate in FR. This suggests the presence of a second chloride-<span class="hlt">ion</span> binding site near the extracellular surface of FR, which is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4243252','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4243252"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> antiport accelerates photosynthetic acclimation in fluctuating <span class="hlt">light</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Armbruster, Ute; Carrillo, L. Ruby; Venema, Kees; Pavlovic, Lazar; Schmidtmann, Elisabeth; Kornfeld, Ari; Jahns, Peter; Berry, Joseph A.; Kramer, David M.; Jonikas, Martin C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many photosynthetic organisms globally, including crops, forests and algae, must grow in environments where the availability of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> fluctuates dramatically. How photosynthesis maintains high efficiency despite such fluctuations in its <span class="hlt">energy</span> source remains poorly understood. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana K+ efflux antiporter (KEA3) is critical for high photosynthetic efficiency under fluctuating <span class="hlt">light</span>. On a shift from dark to low <span class="hlt">light</span>, or high to low <span class="hlt">light</span>, kea3 mutants show prolonged dissipation of absorbed <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> as heat. KEA3 localizes to the thylakoid membrane, and allows proton efflux from the thylakoid lumen by proton/potassium antiport. KEA3’s activity accelerates the downregulation of pH-dependent <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation after transitions to low <span class="hlt">light</span>, leading to faster recovery of high photosystem II quantum efficiency and increased CO2 assimilation. Our results reveal a mechanism that increases the efficiency of photosynthesis under fluctuating <span class="hlt">light</span>. PMID:25451040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770056060&hterms=cellular+respiration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcellular%2Brespiration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770056060&hterms=cellular+respiration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcellular%2Brespiration"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation processes in Halobacterium halobium cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bogomolni, R. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Proton pumping driven by <span class="hlt">light</span> or by respiration generates an electrochemical potential difference across the membrane in Halobacterium halobium. The pH changes induced by <span class="hlt">light</span> or by respiration in cell suspensions are complicated by proton flows associated with the functioning of the cellular <span class="hlt">energy</span> transducers. A proton-per-ATP ratio of about 3 is calculated from simultaneous measurements of phosphorylation and the proton inflow. This value is compatible with the chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis. The time course of the <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced changes in membrane potential indicates that <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven pumping increases a dark pre-existing potential of about 130 mV only by a small amount (20 to 30 mV). The complex kinetic features of the membrane potential changes do not closely follow those of the pH changes, which suggests that flows of <span class="hlt">ions</span> other than protons are involved. A qualitative model consistent with the available data is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26929409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26929409"><span>Asymmetric Functional Conversion of Eubacterial <span class="hlt">Light</span>-driven <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Pumps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Inoue, Keiichi; Nomura, Yurika; Kandori, Hideki</p> <p>2016-05-06</p> <p>In addition to the well-known <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven outward proton pumps, novel <span class="hlt">ion</span>-pumping rhodopsins functioning as outward Na(+) and inward Cl(-) pumps have been recently found in eubacteria. They convert <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> into transmembrane electrochemical potential difference, similar to the prototypical archaeal H(+) pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and Cl(-) pump halorhodopsin (HR). The H(+), Na(+), and Cl(-) pumps possess the conserved respective DTE, NDQ, and NTQ motifs in the helix C, which likely serve as their functional determinants. To verify this hypothesis, we attempted functional interconversion between selected pumps from each category by mutagenesis. Introduction of the proton-pumping motif resulted in successful Na(+) → H(+) functional conversion. Introduction of the respective characteristic motifs with several additional mutations leads to successful Na(+) → Cl(-) and Cl(-) → H(+) functional conversions, whereas remaining conversions (H(+) → Na(+), H(+) → Cl(-), Cl(-) → Na(+)) were unsuccessful when mutagenesis of 4-6 residues was used. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that a H(+) pump is the common ancestor of all of these rhodopsins, from which Cl(-) pumps emerged followed by Na(+) pumps. We propose that successful functional conversions of these <span class="hlt">ion</span> pumps are achieved exclusively when mutagenesis reverses the evolutionary amino acid sequence changes. Dependence of the observed functional conversions on the direction of evolution strongly suggests that the essential structural mechanism of an ancestral function is retained even after the gain of a new function during natural evolution, which can be evoked by a few mutations. By contrast, the gain of a new function needs accumulation of multiple mutations, which may not be easily reproduced by limited mutagenesis in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858992','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858992"><span>Asymmetric Functional Conversion of Eubacterial <span class="hlt">Light</span>-driven <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Pumps*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Inoue, Keiichi; Nomura, Yurika; Kandori, Hideki</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In addition to the well-known <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven outward proton pumps, novel <span class="hlt">ion</span>-pumping rhodopsins functioning as outward Na+ and inward Cl− pumps have been recently found in eubacteria. They convert <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> into transmembrane electrochemical potential difference, similar to the prototypical archaeal H+ pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and Cl− pump halorhodopsin (HR). The H+, Na+, and Cl− pumps possess the conserved respective DTE, NDQ, and NTQ motifs in the helix C, which likely serve as their functional determinants. To verify this hypothesis, we attempted functional interconversion between selected pumps from each category by mutagenesis. Introduction of the proton-pumping motif resulted in successful Na+ → H+ functional conversion. Introduction of the respective characteristic motifs with several additional mutations leads to successful Na+ → Cl− and Cl− → H+ functional conversions, whereas remaining conversions (H+ → Na+, H+ → Cl−, Cl− → Na+) were unsuccessful when mutagenesis of 4–6 residues was used. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that a H+ pump is the common ancestor of all of these rhodopsins, from which Cl− pumps emerged followed by Na+ pumps. We propose that successful functional conversions of these <span class="hlt">ion</span> pumps are achieved exclusively when mutagenesis reverses the evolutionary amino acid sequence changes. Dependence of the observed functional conversions on the direction of evolution strongly suggests that the essential structural mechanism of an ancestral function is retained even after the gain of a new function during natural evolution, which can be evoked by a few mutations. By contrast, the gain of a new function needs accumulation of multiple mutations, which may not be easily reproduced by limited mutagenesis in vitro. PMID:26929409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22380154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22380154"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">ion</span> source geometry at Saclay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>One of the main goal of intense <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type <span class="hlt">ion</span> source based on the use of an additional low <span class="hlt">energy</span> beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams at <span class="hlt">energy</span> up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83bA307D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83bA307D"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">ion</span> source geometry at Saclaya)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>One of the main goal of intense <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type <span class="hlt">ion</span> source based on the use of an additional low <span class="hlt">energy</span> beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams at <span class="hlt">energy</span> up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7954E..02L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7954E..02L"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> efficient <span class="hlt">lighting</span> for the biological clock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, Dieter</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Unexpectedly the existence of a formerly unknown type of photoreceptor in the human eye has been proven about 10 years ago. Primarily sensitive in the blue spectral range it is responsible for transducing <span class="hlt">light</span> signals directly into the brain, controlling essential biological functions like setting of the circadian clock or daytime activation. Recent scientific research has enabled beneficial applications. The paradigms for good <span class="hlt">lighting</span> design are shifting and standardization activities have been started to build up a sound base for description and application of biologically effective <span class="hlt">lighting</span>. Latest improvements of LED technology are now allowing realizeation of advanced <span class="hlt">lighting</span> solutions based on SSL. Optimization of biological effects is possible while demands on good vision are maintained. As biologically effective <span class="hlt">lighting</span> is addressing a second system besides vision in the human body a measure beyond lumen per watt is required for a proper description of <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5840721','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5840721"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation under water stress conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. )</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic <span class="hlt">light</span> quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhR...434....1V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhR...434....1V"><span><span class="hlt">Light-ion</span>-induced multifragmentation: The ISiS project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viola, V. E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Beaulieu, L.; Bracken, D. S.; Breuer, H.; Brzychczyk, J.; de Souza, R. T.; Ginger, D. S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Lefort, T.; Lynch, W. G.; Morley, K. B.; Legrain, R.; Pienkowski, L.; Pollacco, E. C.; Renshaw, E.; Ruangma, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Volant, C.; Wang, G.; Yennello, S. J.; Yoder, N. R.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>An extensive study of GeV <span class="hlt">light-ion</span>-induced multifragmentation and its possible interpretation in terms of a nuclear liquid-gas phase transition has been performed with the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4π detector array. Measurements were performed with 5-15 GeV/ c p, pbar, and π- beams incident on 197Au and 2-5 GeV 3He incident on natAg and 197Au targets. Both the reaction dynamics and the subsequent decay of the heavy residues have been explored. The data provide evidence for a dramatic change in the reaction observables near an excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> of E*/A=4-5 MeV/residue nucleon. In this region, fragment multiplicities and <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra indicate emission from an expanded/dilute source on a very short time scale (20-50 fm/ c). These properties, along with caloric curve and scaling-law behavior, yield a pattern that is consistent with a nuclear liquid-gas phase transition.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1379314-radiation-pressure-acceleration-factors-limiting-maximum-attainable-ion-energy','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1379314-radiation-pressure-acceleration-factors-limiting-maximum-attainable-ion-energy"><span>Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; ...</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser <span class="hlt">energy</span> to the <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum <span class="hlt">light</span> speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case,more » finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1379314','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1379314"><span>Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser <span class="hlt">energy</span> to the <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum <span class="hlt">light</span> speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22600253','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22600253"><span>Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser <span class="hlt">energy</span> to the <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum <span class="hlt">light</span> speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712622"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span>-induced modification of plant plasma membrane <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light</span> is not only the driving force for electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport in various other membranes of plant cells. <span class="hlt">Light</span>-dependent changes in <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare <span class="hlt">light</span>-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. <span class="hlt">Light</span>-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general <span class="hlt">light</span>-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional <span class="hlt">light</span>-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these <span class="hlt">light</span>-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50K5601H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50K5601H"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> transformation over a few nanometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Hung Ji; Liu, Bo-Heng; Su, James; Chen, Po-Jui; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Kei, Chi-Chung; Hwang, Chi-Hung</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Continuous platinum (Pt) thin film was fabricated via the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition method for a study of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> transformation over a few nanometers. <span class="hlt">Light</span>-to-heat experiments were used to determine the oscillating size effects on electromagnetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> transformation in quantum wells of smooth and condensed Pt thin films. For Pt-film thicknesses of around 4 nm, 7 nm and 12 nm, electromagnetic heating presented unexpectedly high <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion efficiency. An empirical equation acquired from the fitting of the experimental data from various thicknesses of Pt thin films was suggested to describe the oscillating electromagnetic heating and quantized <span class="hlt">energy</span> transformation. The experimental results show that size control of the nanostructures is extremely important for future applications involving quantum effects in nano devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1119835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1119835"><span>Making More <span class="hlt">Light</span> with Less <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuritzky, Leah; Jewell, Jason</p> <p>2013-07-18</p> <p>Representing the Center for <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Efficient Materials (CEEM), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The mission of the CEEM is to discover and develop materials that control the interactions among <span class="hlt">light</span>, electricity, and heat at the nanoscale for improved solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion, solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span>, and conversion of heat into electricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088854&hterms=biological+signals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbiological%2Bsignals','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088854&hterms=biological+signals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbiological%2Bsignals"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> channels and the transduction of <span class="hlt">light</span> signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Studies of biological <span class="hlt">light</span>-sensing mechanisms are revealing important roles for <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels. Photosensory transduction in plants is no exception. In this article, the evidence that <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels perform such signal-transducing functions in the complex array of mechanisms that bring about plant photomorphogenesis will be reviewed and discussed. The examples selected for discussion range from <span class="hlt">light</span>-gradient detection in unicellular algae to the photocontrol of stem growth in Arabidopsis. Also included is some discussion of the technical aspects of studies that combine electrophysiology and photobiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088854&hterms=signal+transduction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsignal%2Btransduction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088854&hterms=signal+transduction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsignal%2Btransduction"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> channels and the transduction of <span class="hlt">light</span> signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Studies of biological <span class="hlt">light</span>-sensing mechanisms are revealing important roles for <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels. Photosensory transduction in plants is no exception. In this article, the evidence that <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels perform such signal-transducing functions in the complex array of mechanisms that bring about plant photomorphogenesis will be reviewed and discussed. The examples selected for discussion range from <span class="hlt">light</span>-gradient detection in unicellular algae to the photocontrol of stem growth in Arabidopsis. Also included is some discussion of the technical aspects of studies that combine electrophysiology and photobiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875518','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875518"><span>High <span class="hlt">energy</span> H- <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport and stripping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chou, W.; /Fermilab</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> H{sup -} <span class="hlt">ions</span> because the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/fgc/case-study-energy-reduction-through-lighting-improvement','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/fgc/case-study-energy-reduction-through-lighting-improvement"><span>Case Study: <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Reduction through <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced its <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption by 15 percent in one year.One key project was replacing fluorescent <span class="hlt">lighting</span> in many areas of campus with more efficient LED bulbs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhEn...7a6501C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhEn...7a6501C"><span>W <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation boosting visible-<span class="hlt">light</span> photoelectrochemical water splitting over ZnO nanorod arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Li; Zhou, Wu; Ren, Feng; Chen, Jie; Cai, Guangxu; Liu, Yichao; Guan, Xiangjiu; Shen, Shaohua</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>W <span class="hlt">ions</span> were doped into ZnO nanorod arrays hydrothermally grown on the F-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrates via an advanced <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation technique for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible <span class="hlt">light</span>. It was found that W incorporation could narrow the bandgap of ZnO and shift the optical absorption into visible <span class="hlt">light</span> regions obviously, with the one-dimensional nanorod structure maintained for superior charge transfer. As a result, the W-doped ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit considerable PEC performance relative to ZnO nanorod arrays under visible <span class="hlt">light</span> illumination (λ>420 nm), with photocurrent density achieved up to 15.2 μA/cm2 at 1.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The obtained PEC properties indicate that <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation can be an alternative approach to develop unique materials for efficient solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5631902','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5631902"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition physics for ICF targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mehlhorn, T.A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The target interaction physics of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams will be described. The phenomenon of range shortening with increasing material temperature will be corroborated, and the concomittant phenomenon of range relengthening due to <span class="hlt">ion</span>-electron decoupling will be introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254088','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254088"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Scrivens, Richard; Röhrich, Jörg</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>Recent medical applications of <span class="hlt">ions</span> such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an <span class="hlt">ion</span> source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different <span class="hlt">ion</span> types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und <span class="hlt">Energie</span>, Berlin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593502"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Recent medical applications of <span class="hlt">ions</span> such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an <span class="hlt">ion</span> source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different <span class="hlt">ion</span> types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und <span class="hlt">Energie</span>, Berlin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386621"><span>Desorption of cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> from solid Ne by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> impact.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tachibana, T; Fukai, K; Koizumi, T; Hirayama, T</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We investigated Ne(+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> and Ne(n)(+) (n = 2-20) cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> desorbed from the surface of solid Ne by 1.0 keV Ar(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> impact. Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> analysis shows a considerably narrower <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution for Ne(n)(+) (n ≥ 3) <span class="hlt">ions</span> than for Ne(n)(+) (n = 1, 2) <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The dependence of <span class="hlt">ion</span> yields on Ne film thickness indicates that cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> (n ≥ 3) are desorbed only from relatively thick films. We conclude that desorbed <span class="hlt">ions</span> grow into large cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> during the outflow of deep bulk atoms to the vacuum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27806608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27806608"><span>Beam monitor calibration in scanned <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> beams.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palmans, Hugo; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>To propose a formalism for the reference dosimetry of scanned <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> beams consistent with IAEA TRS-398 and Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)]. To identify machine-specific reference (msr) fields and plan-class specific reference (pcsr) fields consistent with the definitions given by Alfonso et al. To review the literature of beam monitor calibration in scanned beams using three different methods in terms of this common formalism. Four types of msr fields are identified as those that are meant to calibrate the beam monitor for scanned beams with particular <span class="hlt">energies</span>. Two types of pcsr fields are identified as those that are meant to apply one or more tuning factors to the entire delivery chain. The formalism establishes the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dependent relation between the number of particles incident on the phantom surface and the beam monitor reading and distinguishes three routes to determine the beam monitor calibration function: (i) the use of a calibrated reference ionization chamber in a single-layer scanned beam, (ii) the use of a cross-calibrated large-area parallel plate ionization chamber in a single-<span class="hlt">energy</span> beamlet, and (iii) the use of a calibrated reference ionization chamber in a box field to adjust a calibration curve obtained by a Faraday cup or an ionization chamber. Examples of all three methods and comparisons between them from the literature are analysed. The formalism can form the basis of future dosimetry recommendations for scanned particle beams and the analysis of the literature data in terms of this formalism can form the basis of data compilations for the application of the dosimetry procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823670','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823670"><span>Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Molecule Reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James M. Farrar</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>This objective of this project is to study the dynamics of the interactions of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> important in combustion with small molecules in the gas phase and with liquid hydrocarbon surfaces. The first of these topics is a long-standing project in our laboratory devoted to probing the key features of potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> surfaces that control chemical reactivity. The project provides detailed information on the utilization of specific forms of incident <span class="hlt">energy</span>, the role of preferred reagent geometries, and the disposal of total reaction <span class="hlt">energy</span> into product degrees of freedom. We employ crossed molecular beam methods under single collision conditions, at collision <span class="hlt">energies</span> from below one eV to several eV, to probe potential surfaces over a broad range of distances and interaction <span class="hlt">energies</span>. These studies allow us to test and validate dynamical models describing chemical reactivity. Measurements of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and angular distributions of the reaction products with vibrational state resolution provide the key data for these studies. We employ the crossed beam low <span class="hlt">energy</span> mass spectrometry methods that we have developed over the last several years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6512115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6512115"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span>-conservation opportunities in <span class="hlt">lighting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>Technologies and techniques which can be employed by your existing personnel - without the need for consultants - to reduce your <span class="hlt">lighting</span> costs by as much as 70% are discussed. Four basic steps to reduce <span class="hlt">energy</span> costs and improve the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">lighting</span> system discussed are: get acquainted with some of the basic terminology and <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficient lamps and fixtures which are on the market; conduct a survey of the building to determine where and how much <span class="hlt">energy</span> and money can be saved in the process; implement the simple, low-cost or no-cost measures immediately; and calculate the payback period for capital investment modifications, and implement those which make economic sense. Case studies are used to illustrate the recommendations. (MCW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhLB..694..310J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhLB..694..310J"><span>Pionic fusion in <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joulaeizadeh, L.; Gašparić, I.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J.; Čaplar, R.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Löhner, H.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The role of pions in the nuclear interaction has been studied in pionic fusion experiments using the AGOR accelerator facility at KVI. Pionic fusion is a highly coherent process in which two nuclei fuse to a united nucleus and the available centre-of-mass (C.M.) <span class="hlt">energy</span> is emitted through the pion channel. The examined reactions were 4He(3He, π0)7Be and 6Li(4He, π0)10B* and both reactions were performed at C.M. <span class="hlt">energies</span> about 10 MeV above the coherent pion production threshold. Here, the experimental results for the 6Li(4He, π0)10B* reaction will be presented and discussed. In order to provide sensitivity to the full dynamics and relevant processes involved in the pionic fusion reaction, almost the full angular distribution of neutral pions has been determined. In a phenomenological analysis, the contributions of Legendre polynomials to reproduce the behaviour of the angular distribution have been studied. The results of this analysis confirm the importance of the clustering correlations for the 6Li(4He, π0)10B* reaction. The mass dependence of the pionic fusion reaction is in agreement with the results of the existing models extrapolated to this reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DMP.K1006D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DMP.K1006D"><span>Towards Laser Cooling Trapped <span class="hlt">Ions</span> with Telecom <span class="hlt">Light</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dungan, Kristina; Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Quantum information has many potential applications in communication, atomic clocks, and the precision measurement of fundamental constants. Trapped <span class="hlt">ions</span> are excellent candidates for applications in quantum information because of their isolation from external perturbations, and the precise control afforded by laser cooling and manipulation of the quantum state. For many applications in quantum communication, it would be advantageous to interface <span class="hlt">ions</span> with telecom <span class="hlt">light</span>. We present progress towards laser cooling and trapping of doubly-ionized lanthanum, which should require only infrared, telecom-compatible <span class="hlt">light</span>. Additionally, we present progress on optimization of a second-harmonic generation cavity for laser cooling and trapping barium <span class="hlt">ions</span>, for future sympathetic cooling experiments. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PlST....1...79Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PlST....1...79Y"><span>Interaction between Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> and the Complicated Organism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Zeng-liang</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exist widely in natural world, but people pay a little attention on the interaction between low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and matter, it is even more out of the question of studying on the relation of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and the complicated organism. The discovery of bioeffect induced by <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation has, however, opened a new branch in the field of <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam application in life sciences. This paper reports recent advances in research on the role of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in chemical synthesis of the biomolecules and application in genetic modification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910070447&hterms=negative+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910070447&hterms=negative+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> acceleration to cosmic ray <span class="hlt">energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Martin A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The acceleration and transport environment of the outer heliosphere is described schematically. Acceleration occurs where the divergence of the solar-wind flow is negative, that is at shocks, and where second-order Fermi acceleration is possible in the solar-wind turbulence. Acceleration at the solar-wind termination shock is presented by reviewing the spherically-symmetric calculation of Webb et al. (1985). Reacceleration of galactic cosmic rays at the termination shock is not expected to be important in modifying the cosmic ray spectrum, but acceleration of <span class="hlt">ions</span> injected at the shock up to <span class="hlt">energies</span> not greater than 300 MeV/charge is expected to occur and to create the anomalous cosmic ray component. Acceleration of energetic particles by solar wind turbulence is expected to play almost no role in the outer heliosphere. The one exception is the energization of interstellar pickup <span class="hlt">ions</span> beyond the threshold for acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular termination shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23463191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23463191"><span>Near-infrared to near-infrared upconverting NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ nanoparticles-aptamer-Au nanorods <span class="hlt">light</span> resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer system for the detection of mercuric(II) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Hong-Qi; Yuan, Fei; Wang, Shao-Zhen; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Yi-Yan; Wang, Lun</p> <p>2013-04-21</p> <p>A new luminescence resonant <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (LRET) system has been designed that utilizes near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion lanthanide nanophosphors (UCNPs) as the donor, and Au nanorods (Au NRs) as the acceptor. The UCNPs were excited by a near-infrared (980 nm) wavelength and also emitted at a near-infrared wavelength (804 nm) using an inexpensive infrared continuous wave laser diode. The Au NRs showed a high absorption band around 806 nm, which provided large spectral overlap between the donor and the acceptor. Hg(2+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> were added to an aqueous solution containing the UCNPs and Au NRs that were modified with a Hg(2+) aptamer. Then, a sandwich-type LRET system was developed for the detection of Hg(2+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> that had high sensitivity and selectivity in the NIR region. The method was successfully applied to the sensing of Hg(2+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in water and human serum samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216905','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA216905"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> and Electron Interactions at Thermal and Suprathermal <span class="hlt">Energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-09-30</p> <p>has allowed the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> to be elevated above that appropriate to the carer -gas temperature by impressing an electric field along the axis of a...classified according to the observed products; when the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> products are the parent molecular negative tons (e.g., SF,- from SF and CF from CF... parent negative <span class="hlt">ion</span>. M -. or modify the product <span class="hlt">ion</span> distribution (i.e., as between parent <span class="hlt">ions</span> or fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span>, see below). For such reactions it is to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..GECHW1068L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..GECHW1068L"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Distribution in Magnetized ICP using Multi-channel <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Hyuk; Kim, Jiwon; Cheong, Hee Woon; Koo, Il Gyo; Lee, Soojin; Seong, Hyo-Seong; Whang, Ki-Woong</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>In plasma etch processes, the flux and <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">ions</span> incident on the substrate are the important parameters that control the etch profile and the etch rate. In this regard, retarding field <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Analyzer (IEA) has been developed and applied to plasma etch. As the size of wafer and etch chamber increase, simultaneous measurement at multi points in radial and poloidal direction becomes important. For this purpose, Plasma lab in Seoul National University and SEMES jointly developed an IEA that can measure the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions at five positions in 6-inch wafer at the same time. The IEA is composed of 4 mesh grids (floating, electron repelling, discriminator, secondary electron retarding) and one metal layer (<span class="hlt">Ion</span> collector). We used a remote controllable voltage source and DAC to supply the stepwise wave form to discriminator voltage source. We used the developed IEA to measure the radial and polodial uniformity of <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">ions</span> incident on the substrate with the change of bias power, gas pressure and bias power frequency. This was supported by SEMES cooperative research project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051390&hterms=light+reactions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlight%2Breactions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051390&hterms=light+reactions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlight%2Breactions"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> flow in the nightside ionosphere of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hartle, R. E.; Grebowsky, J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The flow characteristics of the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> H(+) and He(+) have been studied in the midnight region of the ionosphere of Venus. Measurements of <span class="hlt">ion</span> composition, electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> temperatures and magnetic fields by instruments onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter have been used in rite electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> equations of conservation of mass and momentum to derive the vertical flow velocities of H(+) and He(+). When average height profiles of the measured quantities were used, H(+) was found to flow upward, accelerating to speeds of almost 1 km/s at the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exobase. In a similar fashion, He(+) was found to flow downward into the neutral atmosphere where it is readily quenched by charge transfer reactions. The polarization electric field played an important role in forcing H(+) upward, but did not contribute enough to the He(+) force balance to produce upward flow. At the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exobase, the outward electric polarization force on H(+) was shown to be five times the gravitational force. Using an analogy with the terrestrial <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exosphere, H(+) was inferred to flow upward into the ionotail of Venus and accelerate to escape speeds. A planet averaged escape flux of 1.4 x 10 exp 7/sq cm/s was calculated, which is comparable to hydrogen loss rates estimated by other investigators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.7437H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.7437H"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> flow in the nightside ionosphere of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartle, R. E.; Grebowsky, J. M.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The flow characteristics of the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> H(+) and He(+) have been studied in the midnight region of the ionosphere of Venus. Measurements of <span class="hlt">ion</span> composition, electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> temperatures and magnetic fields by instruments onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter have been used in rite electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> equations of conservation of mass and momentum to derive the vertical flow velocities of H(+) and He(+). When average height profiles of the measured quantities were used, H(+) was found to flow upward, accelerating to speeds of almost 1 km/s at the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exobase. In a similar fashion, He(+) was found to flow downward into the neutral atmosphere where it is readily quenched by charge transfer reactions. The polarization electric field played an important role in forcing H(+) upward, but did not contribute enough to the He(+) force balance to produce upward flow. At the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exobase, the outward electric polarization force on H(+) was shown to be five times the gravitational force. Using an analogy with the terrestrial <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exosphere, H(+) was inferred to flow upward into the ionotail of Venus and accelerate to escape speeds. A planet averaged escape flux of 1.4 x 10 exp 7/sq cm/s was calculated, which is comparable to hydrogen loss rates estimated by other investigators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296683"><span>Investigations of biomimetic <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting pigments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Patten, P.G.; Donohoe, R.J.; Lindsey, J.S.; Bocian, D.F.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nature uses chlorophyll and other porphyrinic pigments to capture and transfer <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> as a preliminary step in photosynthesis. The design of synthetic assemblies of <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting and <span class="hlt">energy</span> directing pigments has been explored through synthesis and characterization of porphyrin oligomers. In this project, pigment electronic and vibrational structures have been explored by electrochemistry and dynamic and static optical measurements. Transient absorption data reveal <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between pigments with lifetimes on the order of 20--200 picoseconds, while Raman data reveal that the basic porphyrin core structure is unperturbed relative to the individual monomer units. These two findings, along with an extensive series of experiments on the oxidized oligomers, reveal that coupling between the pigments is fundamentally weak, but sufficient to allow facile <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer as the predominant excited state process. Modeling of the expected quantum yields for <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer within a variety of arrays was accomplished, thereby providing a tool to guide synthetic goals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18029977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18029977"><span>A semi-analytical radiobiological model may assist treatment planning in <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> radiotherapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kundrát, Pavel</p> <p>2007-12-07</p> <p>A semi-analytical model of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>' Bragg peaks is presented and used in conjunction with a detailed probabilistic radiobiological module to predict the biological effectiveness of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation for hadrontherapy applications. The physical Bragg peak model is based on <span class="hlt">energy</span>-loss calculations with the SRIM code and phenomenological formulae for the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-loss straggling. Effects of nuclear reactions are accounted for on the level of reducing the number of primary particles only. Reaction products are not followed at all and their contribution to dose deposition is neglected. Beam widening due to multiple scattering and calculations of spread-out Bragg peaks are briefly discussed. With this simple physical model, integral depth-dose distributions are calculated for protons, carbon, oxygen and neon <span class="hlt">ions</span>. A good agreement with published experimental data is observed for protons and lower <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> (with ranges in water up to approximately 15 cm), while less satisfactory results are obtained for higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> due to the increased role of nuclear reaction products, neglected in this model. A detailed probabilistic radiobiological module is used to complement the simple physical model and to estimate biological effectiveness along the penetration depth of Bragg peak irradiation. Excellent agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data for carbon beams, indicating potential applications of the present scheme in treatment planning in <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> hadrontherapy. Due to the semi-analytical character of the model, leading to high computational speed, applications are foreseen in particular in the fully biological optimization of multiple irradiation fields and intensity-modulated beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23861939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23861939"><span>Study on the growth and the photosynthetic characteristics of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> C(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation on peanut.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Yuguo; Xu, Lei; Yang, Peiling; Ren, Shumei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Employing the Nonghua 5 peanut as experimental material, the effects of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> C(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation on caulis height, root length, dry weight, photosynthetic characteristics and leaf water use efficiency (WUE) of Peanut Ml Generation were studied. Four fluences were observed in the experiment. The results showed that <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation harmed the peanut seeds because caulis height, root length and dry weight all were lower in the treatments than in CK, and the harm was aggravated with the increase of <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence. Both Pn and Tr show a saddle-shape curve due to midday depression of photosynthesis. Low fluence of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> C(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation could increase the diurnal average Pn of peanut. The diurnal variation of Tr did not change as significantly as Pn. The <span class="hlt">light</span> saturation point (LSP) was restrained by the <span class="hlt">ions</span>. After low <span class="hlt">energy</span> C(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation, WUE was enhanced. When the fluence increased to a certain level, the WUE began to decrease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21467014','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21467014"><span>Radiation-Pressure Acceleration of <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams from Nanofoil Targets: The Leaky <span class="hlt">Light</span>-Sail Regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qiao, B.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Dromey, B.; Geissler, M.; Karmakar, A.; Gibbon, P.</p> <p>2010-10-08</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">ion</span> radiation-pressure acceleration regime, the 'leaky <span class="hlt">light</span> sail', is proposed which uses sub-skin-depth nanometer foils irradiated by circularly polarized laser pulses. In the regime, the foil is partially transparent, continuously leaking electrons out along with the transmitted laser field. This feature can be exploited by a multispecies nanofoil configuration to stabilize the acceleration of the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> component, supplementing the latter with an excess of electrons leaked from those associated with the heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> to avoid Coulomb explosion. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that a monoenergetic proton beam with <span class="hlt">energy</span> 18 MeV is produced by circularly polarized lasers at intensities of just 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. 100 MeV proton beams are obtained by increasing the intensities to 2x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21230914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21230914"><span>Radiation-pressure acceleration of <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams from nanofoil targets: the leaky <span class="hlt">light</span>-sail regime.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qiao, B; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Dromey, B; Geissler, M; Karmakar, A; Gibbon, P</p> <p>2010-10-08</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">ion</span> radiation-pressure acceleration regime, the "leaky <span class="hlt">light</span> sail," is proposed which uses sub-skin-depth nanometer foils irradiated by circularly polarized laser pulses. In the regime, the foil is partially transparent, continuously leaking electrons out along with the transmitted laser field. This feature can be exploited by a multispecies nanofoil configuration to stabilize the acceleration of the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> component, supplementing the latter with an excess of electrons leaked from those associated with the heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> to avoid Coulomb explosion. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that a monoenergetic proton beam with <span class="hlt">energy</span> 18 MeV is produced by circularly polarized lasers at intensities of just 10¹⁹  W/cm². 100 MeV proton beams are obtained by increasing the intensities to 2 × 10²⁰  W/cm².</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184843"><span>Radiation damage by <span class="hlt">light</span>- and heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO₃</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; Dadap, Jerry I.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Kisslinger, Kim; Vemuri, Rama Sesha R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Bakhru, Hassaram; Osgood, Jr., Richard M.</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of <span class="hlt">light</span>- and heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO₃. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both <span class="hlt">ion</span> species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formation than for the case of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> irradiation. Such <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dependent critical fluence of heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation, while for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span>, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1352930-using-neutral-beams-light-ion-beam-probe-invited','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1352930-using-neutral-beams-light-ion-beam-probe-invited"><span>Using neutral beams as a <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam probe (invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, William W.; Van Zeeland, Michael A.; ...</p> <p>2014-08-05</p> <p>By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of 1) the in situ, known source of fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge, and 2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast <span class="hlt">ions</span>) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fieldsmore » appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> of various instabilities, e.g. Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally-imposed 3D fields, e.g. magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast <span class="hlt">ion</span> loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. Additionally, nonlinear interactions between fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1352930','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1352930"><span>Using neutral beams as a <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam probe (invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, William W.; Van Zeeland, Michael A.; Kramer, Gerrit J.; Pace, David C.; Petty, Craig C.; Austin, Max E.; Fisher, Raymond K.; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Nazikian, Raffi; Zeng, L.</p> <p>2014-08-05</p> <p>By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of 1) the <i>in situ</i>, known source of fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge, and 2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast <span class="hlt">ions</span>) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> of various instabilities, e.g. Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally-imposed 3D fields, e.g. magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast <span class="hlt">ion</span> loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. Additionally, nonlinear interactions between fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308653','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308653"><span>Using neutral beams as a <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam probe (invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Austin, M. E.; Hanson, J. M.; Zeng, L.</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast <span class="hlt">ions</span>) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast <span class="hlt">ion</span> loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScR..17...27R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScR..17...27R"><span>Measuring <span class="hlt">Light</span> Air <span class="hlt">Ions</span> in a Speleotherapeutic Cave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roubal, Z.; Bartušek, K.; Szabó, Z.; Drexler, P.; Überhuberová, J.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The paper deals with a methodology proposed for measuring the concentration of air <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the environment of speleotherapeutic caves, and with the implementation of the AK-UTEE-v2 ionmeter. Speleotherapy, in the context of its general definition, is the medical therapy that utilizes the climate of selected caves to treat patients with health problems such as asthma. These spaces are characterized by the presence of high air humidity and they make extreme demands on the execution of the measuring device, the Gerdien tube (GT in the following) in particular, and on the amplifier electronics. The result is an automated measuring system using a GT with low-volume air flow, enabling long-term measuring of air <span class="hlt">ion</span> concentration and determination of spectral <span class="hlt">ion</span> characteristics. Interesting from the instrumentation viewpoint are the GT design, active shielding, and execution of the electrometric amplifier. A specific method for the calculation of spectral <span class="hlt">ion</span> characteristics and the mode of automatic calibration were proposed and a procedure of automatic measurement in the absence of attendants was set up. The measuring system is designed for studying and long-term monitoring of the concentration of <span class="hlt">light</span> negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> in dependence on climatic conditions and on the mobility of <span class="hlt">ions</span> occurring in the cave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223381','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223381"><span>RF System Requirements for a Medium-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Electron-<span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collider (MEIC) at JLab</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, S</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>JLab is studying options for a medium <span class="hlt">energy</span> electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electron injector. A new <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the <span class="hlt">ions</span> and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, <span class="hlt">ion</span> booster ring and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate <span class="hlt">light</span> sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2140612','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2140612"><span>FURTHER EXPERIMENTS ON THE ABSORPTION OF <span class="hlt">IONS</span> BY PLANTS, INCLUDING OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF <span class="hlt">LIGHT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoagland, D. R.; Davis, A. R.</p> <p>1923-01-01</p> <p>1. The conditions of illumination were found to exert a very significant influence on absorption of <span class="hlt">ions</span> from dilute solution by Nitella. These conditions were also found to influence the penetration of Br and NO3 into the cell sap. 2. It is concluded that absorption of <span class="hlt">ions</span> by plants from dilute solutions involves <span class="hlt">energy</span> exchanges, with <span class="hlt">light</span> as the ultimate source of the <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is suggested that the absorption is intimately related to growth and metabolism. 3. One <span class="hlt">ion</span> may affect the removal from solution or penetration into the cell sap of another <span class="hlt">ion</span> present in the same solution, even in solutions of extremely low concentration. It is probable that all three types of relations may exist—anion to anion, cation to cation, and anion to cation. 4. The sulfate and phosphate <span class="hlt">ions</span> exerted far less influence on the absorption of nitrate than did chlorine and bromine <span class="hlt">ions</span>. It is suggested as a possibility that sulfate does not penetrate readily to those surfaces at which chlorine, bromine, nitrate, and other <span class="hlt">ions</span> may become effective. PMID:19872049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span>Production of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Near an <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Several researchers have measured <span class="hlt">ions</span> leaving <span class="hlt">ion</span> thruster discharge chambers with <span class="hlt">energies</span> far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and a comparison with measured <span class="hlt">ion</span> spectra. The source of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> has been a puzzle because they not only have <span class="hlt">energies</span> in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon <span class="hlt">ions</span> accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> enhancement.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060050282&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span>Production of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Near an <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Several researchers have measured <span class="hlt">ions</span> leaving <span class="hlt">ion</span> thruster discharge chambers with <span class="hlt">energies</span> far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> and a comparison with measured <span class="hlt">ion</span> spectra. The source of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> has been a puzzle because they not only have <span class="hlt">energies</span> in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon <span class="hlt">ions</span> accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DPPBP1014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DPPBP1014M"><span>Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field Geometry <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Helicon Plasma Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mori, Yoshitaka; Nakashima, Hideki; Goulding, R. H.; Carter Baity, M. D., Jr.; Sparks, D. O.; Barber, G. C.; White, K. F.; Jaeger, E. F.; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Helicon plasma source is a well-known high-density plasma source for many applications including plasma processing and fusion. However, most helicon research has been focused on a uniform static magnetic field and relatively heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>. <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> helicon operation is more sensitive to magnetic field strength and geometry than heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The axially inhomogeneous Mini-Radio Frequency Test Facility (Mini-RFTF) has a capability for controlling static magnetic fields then is applicative for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source plasma operation. Inhomogeneous static magnetic field geometry also can procedure a high velocity to plasma exhaust when combined with ICRF heating enabling the possibility of use in plasma propulsion. In this poster, we will show how the source has been optimized for a hydrogen operation and a specific plasma propulsion concept: The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). Measurements of the rf magnetic fields and profile of plasma parameters for several magnetic field strengths and geometries will be discussed. Comparisons with a RF modeling code EMIR3 also will be reported here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6309246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6309246"><span>Electron-temperature requirements for neutralized inertial-confinement-fusion <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lemons, D.S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Because of their large self-space-charge fields, <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam drivers of <span class="hlt">energy</span> and power sufficient to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot be focused on a small fuel pellet unless neutralized. Even if initially neutralized with comoving electrons, these beams will not stay neutralized and focus during propagation through a vacuum chamber unless the initial thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the neutralizing electrons is sufficiently small. In this paper we discuss the effects which contribute to the effective initial temperature of the neutralizing electrons, including compressional shock heating. We also employ a simple heuristic model to construct envelope equations which govern axial as well as radial beam compression and use them to predict the largest initial electron temperature consistent with the required beam compression. This temperature for typical <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam systems is about ten eV - a temperature which may be possible to achieve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341728"><span>Proposed mechanism to represent the suppression of dark current density by four orders with low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> (H{sup −}) implantation in quaternary alloy-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mandal, A.; Ghadi, H.; Mathur, K.L.; Basu, A.; Subrahmanyam, N.B.V.; Singh, P.; Chakrabarti, S.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Here we propose a carrier transport mechanism for low <span class="hlt">energy</span> H{sup −} <span class="hlt">ions</span> implanted InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors supportive of the experimental results obtained. Dark current density suppression of up to four orders was observed in the implanted quantum dot infrared photodetectors, which further demonstrates that they are effectively operational. We concentrated on determining how defect-related material and structural changes attributed to implantation helped in dark current density reduction for InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors. This is the first study to report the electrical carrier transport mechanism of H{sup −} <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implanted InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7067698','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7067698"><span>Electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.</p> <p>1979-10-25</p> <p>An electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the <span class="hlt">ions</span> as they are extracted from the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source plasma generator and before the <span class="hlt">ions</span> are accelerated to their full <span class="hlt">energy</span>. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage <span class="hlt">energy</span> while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> from a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source beam at < 4% of full <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..328..577H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..328..577H"><span>Effective implantation of <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting centers by plasma immersion <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation and focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam methods into nanosized diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Koós, M.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation and focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, were used to introduce nitrogen <span class="hlt">ions</span> into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of <span class="hlt">light</span> emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon <span class="hlt">energies</span> was observed in the <span class="hlt">light</span> emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen <span class="hlt">ions</span> and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1338500','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1338500"><span>State-selective charge transfer cross sections for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> impact of atomic hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schultz, D. R.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Havener, C. C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged <span class="hlt">ions</span>, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact <span class="hlt">energy</span> regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003REDS..158..481U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003REDS..158..481U"><span>Ranges and profiles of distribution of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> channeling in metal and semiconductor single crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Umarov, F. F.; Rasulov, A. M.; Khaidarov, A. K.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>In the present work peculiarities of trajectories and <span class="hlt">energy</span> losses, ranges and profiles of distribution of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> different-mass <span class="hlt">ions</span> channeling in thin single crystals of metals and semiconductors have been thoroughly studied by computer simulation in binary collision approximation. The character of oscillations of channeled-<span class="hlt">ion</span> trajectories depending on their <span class="hlt">energies</span>, aiming points from the axis of a channel, kind of interaction potential, crystal lattice type and temperature has been determined. It has been found that, in the case of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> even at low <span class="hlt">energy</span>, the main contribution to <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss is made by inelastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> losses, whereas for heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>, already at E < 10 keV elastic <span class="hlt">energy</span> losses exceed inelastic ones. Profiles of the distribution of channeled <span class="hlt">ions</span> have been calculated depending on crystal lattice type, kind of <span class="hlt">ions</span> and their <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVSJ...51..158I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVSJ...51..158I"><span>SiO2 Etching Yield Measurements by CF3 <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beam Injections Superposed with <span class="hlt">Light</span> Irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikuse, Kazumasa; Yoshimura, Satoru; Takizawa, Toshifumi; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Kiuchi, Masato; Hamaguchi, Satoshi</p> <p></p> <p>Etching yields of SiO2 by CF3 <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam injections with or without simultaneous <span class="hlt">light</span> irradiation have been measured by a low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> mass-selected <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam system. A Xe Lamp, an L2D2 lamp, an Ar ICP (inductively coupled plasma) or a VUV (Vacuum Ultraviolet) Lamp was used separately as the <span class="hlt">light</span> source. The etching yield is the ratio of the number of incident <span class="hlt">ions</span> to that of removed atoms. The obtained SiO2 etching yields by simultaneous irradiation of CF3 <span class="hlt">ions</span> and photons from the <span class="hlt">light</span> source were smaller than those by <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation only. This difference in etching yields may be caused by modification of CFx polymer formation on the substrate surface during the beam etching process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770014074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770014074"><span>Analysis of the theory of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, J. W.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Procedures for the approximation of the transport of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are discussed on the basis of available data on <span class="hlt">ion</span> nuclear reactions. A straightahead approximation appears appropriate for space applications. The assumption that the secondary-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-fragment velocity is equal to that of the fragmenting nucleus is inferior to straightahead theory but is of sufficient accuracy if the primary <span class="hlt">ions</span> display a broad <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum. An iterative scheme for the solution of the inhomogenous integral transport equations holds promise for practical calculation. A model calculation shows that multiple charged <span class="hlt">ion</span> fragments penetrate to greater depths in comparison with the free path of a primary heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392493','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392493"><span>Magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer measuring the particle flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane; Dudin, Stanislav</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier allowing both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution below 5 eV. The effective <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is found that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution measurements in various experimental setups with <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> above 10 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026517"><span>Magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer measuring the particle flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Dudin, Stanislav; Aanesland, Ane</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier allowing both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution below 5 eV. The effective <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is found that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution measurements in various experimental setups with <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> above 10 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5109476','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5109476"><span>Critical Role of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer Between Terbium <span class="hlt">Ions</span> for Suppression of Back <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer in Nonanuclear Terbium Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Fushimi, Koji; Ito, Hajime; Meijerink, Andries; Hasegawa, Yasuchika</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Lanthanide (Ln(III)) complexes form an important class of highly efficient luminescent materials showing characteristic line emission after efficient <span class="hlt">light</span> absorption by the surrounding ligands. The efficiency is however lowered by back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from Ln(III) <span class="hlt">ion</span> to the ligands, especially at higher temperatures. Here we report a new strategy to reduce back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer losses. Nonanuclear lanthanide clusters containing terbium and gadolinium <span class="hlt">ions</span>, TbnGd9−n clusters ([TbnGd9−n(μ-OH)10(butylsalicylate)16]+NO3−, n = 0, 1, 2, 5, 8, 9), were synthesized to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> on back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. The photophysical properties of TbnGd9−n clusters were studied by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques and revealed a longer emission lifetime with increasing number of Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in TbnGd9−n clusters. A kinetic analysis of temperature dependence of the emission lifetime show that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> competes with back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. The experimental results are in agreement with a theoretical rate equation model that confirms the role of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in reducing back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer losses. The results provide a new strategy in molecular design for improving the luminescence efficiency in lanthanide complexes which is important for potential applications as luminescent materials. PMID:27845407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27845407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27845407"><span>Critical Role of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer Between Terbium <span class="hlt">Ions</span> for Suppression of Back <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer in Nonanuclear Terbium Clusters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Fushimi, Koji; Ito, Hajime; Meijerink, Andries; Hasegawa, Yasuchika</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>Lanthanide (Ln(III)) complexes form an important class of highly efficient luminescent materials showing characteristic line emission after efficient <span class="hlt">light</span> absorption by the surrounding ligands. The efficiency is however lowered by back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from Ln(III) <span class="hlt">ion</span> to the ligands, especially at higher temperatures. Here we report a new strategy to reduce back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer losses. Nonanuclear lanthanide clusters containing terbium and gadolinium <span class="hlt">ions</span>, TbnGd9-n clusters ([TbnGd9-n(μ-OH)10(butylsalicylate)16](+)NO3(-), n = 0, 1, 2, 5, 8, 9), were synthesized to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> on back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. The photophysical properties of TbnGd9-n clusters were studied by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques and revealed a longer emission lifetime with increasing number of Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in TbnGd9-n clusters. A kinetic analysis of temperature dependence of the emission lifetime show that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> competes with back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. The experimental results are in agreement with a theoretical rate equation model that confirms the role of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in reducing back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer losses. The results provide a new strategy in molecular design for improving the luminescence efficiency in lanthanide complexes which is important for potential applications as luminescent materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...637008O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...637008O"><span>Critical Role of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer Between Terbium <span class="hlt">Ions</span> for Suppression of Back <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer in Nonanuclear Terbium Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omagari, Shun; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Fushimi, Koji; Ito, Hajime; Meijerink, Andries; Hasegawa, Yasuchika</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Lanthanide (Ln(III)) complexes form an important class of highly efficient luminescent materials showing characteristic line emission after efficient <span class="hlt">light</span> absorption by the surrounding ligands. The efficiency is however lowered by back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from Ln(III) <span class="hlt">ion</span> to the ligands, especially at higher temperatures. Here we report a new strategy to reduce back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer losses. Nonanuclear lanthanide clusters containing terbium and gadolinium <span class="hlt">ions</span>, TbnGd9‑n clusters ([TbnGd9‑n(μ-OH)10(butylsalicylate)16]+NO3‑, n = 0, 1, 2, 5, 8, 9), were synthesized to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> on back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. The photophysical properties of TbnGd9‑n clusters were studied by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques and revealed a longer emission lifetime with increasing number of Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in TbnGd9‑n clusters. A kinetic analysis of temperature dependence of the emission lifetime show that the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> competes with back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. The experimental results are in agreement with a theoretical rate equation model that confirms the role of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between Tb(III) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in reducing back <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer losses. The results provide a new strategy in molecular design for improving the luminescence efficiency in lanthanide complexes which is important for potential applications as luminescent materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862996','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862996"><span>High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> accelerator for beams of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>An apparatus for accelerating heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> to high <span class="hlt">energies</span> and directing the accelerated <span class="hlt">ions</span> at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> and switching means for switching the heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span>, the <span class="hlt">ions</span> are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic <span class="hlt">ion</span> in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic <span class="hlt">ion</span> to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522012','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522012"><span><span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> SOURCES AND <span class="hlt">LIGHT</span> CURVES OF MACRONOVAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Takami, Hajime E-mail: takami@post.kek.jp</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A macronova (kilonova) was discovered with a short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B, which is widely believed to be powered by the radioactivity of r-process elements synthesized in the ejecta of a neutron star (NS)–binary merger. As an alternative, we propose that macronovae are energized by the central engine, i.e., a black hole or NS, and the injected <span class="hlt">energy</span> is emitted after the adiabatic expansion of ejecta. This engine model is motivated by extended emission of short GRBs. In order to compare the theoretical models with observations, we develop analytical formulae for the <span class="hlt">light</span> curves of macronovae. The engine model allows a wider parameter range, especially smaller ejecta mass, and a better fit to observations than the r-process model. Future observations of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves should distinguish <span class="hlt">energy</span> sources and constrain the activity of the central engine and the r-process nucleosynthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039901','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039901"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Recovery Linacs for <span class="hlt">Light</span> Source Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George Neil</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future <span class="hlt">light</span> sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low <span class="hlt">energy</span>, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.365..394T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.365..394T"><span>Measurement of ultra-low <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> of decelerated <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam using a deflecting electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In investigation on ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment effect on DNA, an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. Measurement of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> after deceleration was necessary to confirm the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. The beam bending distance depended on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...116q3507I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...116q3507I"><span>Fe <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implanted TiO2 thin film for efficient visible-<span class="hlt">light</span> photocatalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Impellizzeri, G.; Scuderi, V.; Romano, L.; Sberna, P. M.; Arcadipane, E.; Sanz, R.; Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G.; Bayle, M.; Carles, R.; Simone, F.; Privitera, V.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This work shows the application of metal <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implantation to realize an efficient second-generation TiO2 photocatalyst. High fluence Fe+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> were implanted into thin TiO2 films and subsequently annealed up to 550 °C. The <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implantation process modified the TiO2 pure film, locally lowering its band-gap <span class="hlt">energy</span> from 3.2 eV to 1.6-1.9 eV, making the material sensitive to visible <span class="hlt">light</span>. The measured optical band-gap of 1.6-1.9 eV was associated with the presence of effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> band structure of the titanium dioxide, due to implantation-induced defects. An accurate structural characterization was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The synthesized materials revealed a remarkable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds in water under visible <span class="hlt">light</span> irradiation, without the help of any thermal treatments. The photocatalytic activity has been correlated with the amount of defects induced by the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implantation process, clarifying the operative physical mechanism. These results can be fruitfully applied for environmental applications of TiO2.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15007598','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15007598"><span>California Says''Go'' to <span class="hlt">Energy</span>-Saving Traffic <span class="hlt">Lights</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>DOE's State <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Program published this case study in conjunction with the California <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Commission. It describes the growing use of traffic <span class="hlt">lights</span> employing the technology of <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting diodes, or LEDs. Such traffic <span class="hlt">lights</span> use less <span class="hlt">energy</span> and produce a brighter illumination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005500','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005500"><span>Surface modification using low <span class="hlt">energy</span> ground state <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A method of effecting modifications at the surfaces of materials using low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams of known quantum state, purity, flux, and <span class="hlt">energy</span> is presented. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam is obtained by bombarding <span class="hlt">ion</span>-generating molecules with electrons which are also at low <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The electrons used to bombard the <span class="hlt">ion</span> generating molecules are separated from the <span class="hlt">ions</span> thus obtained and the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam is directed at the material surface to be modified. Depending on the type of <span class="hlt">ion</span> generating molecules used, different <span class="hlt">ions</span> can be obtained for different types of surface modifications such as oxidation and diamond film formation. One area of application is in the manufacture of semiconductor devices from semiconductor wafers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5472371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5472371"><span>Neutral beamline with improved <span class="hlt">ion-energy</span> recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.</p> <p>1981-04-13</p> <p>A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery is provided which enhances the <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery of the full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The <span class="hlt">ions</span>, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exiting the cell with the full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> do not detract from the <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery efficiency of full <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......370S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......370S"><span>Fabrication and demonstration of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> microbatteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Ke</p> <p></p> <p> density on a limited footprint area. In chapter 4, Li-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries based on the LiMn2O4-TiP 2O7 couple are manufactured on flexible paper substrates; where the use of <span class="hlt">light</span>-weight paper substrates significantly increase the gravimetric <span class="hlt">energy</span> density of this electrode couple as compared to traditional metal current collectors. In chapter 5, a novel nanowire growth mechanism will be explored to grow interdigitated metal oxide nanowire micro battery electrodes. The growth kinetics of this mechanism is systematically studied to understand how to optimize the growth process to produce electrodes with improved electrochemical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.306..129L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.306..129L"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> and heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam analysis of thin biological sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Joonsup; Siegele, Rainer; Pastuovic, Zeljko; Hackett, Mark J.; Hunt, Nicholas H.; Grau, Georges E.; Cohen, David D.; Lay, Peter A.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p> increased <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam damage, the necessity of very high <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> resulting in higher neutron fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26467120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26467120"><span>Peptide fragmentation caused by Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ions</span> depending on primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aoyagi, Satoka; Kawashima, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Yuta</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>Time-of-flight secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) with an Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam as a primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> source provides useful information in terms of peptide analysis. It is, however, difficult to interpret the spectra. The ToF-SIMS peptide spectra obtained with Ar clusters having different <span class="hlt">energies</span> have been investigated in order to classify the secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span> into the peptide fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> and those related to contaminants or the substrate. Three peptides having different molecular weights from 600 to 1300 u were measured with Ar cluster beams having different <span class="hlt">energies</span> per atom from 4 to 40 eV/atom. In the spectra normalized to a geometric average of all the spectra, the amino acid fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> are distinguished from other secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span>. In the mass range above 600 u, the peptide fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> increase with mass while those not related to the peptide decrease with mass. <span class="hlt">Energy</span>-dependence fragmentation helps in understanding the peptide spectra. Specific peptide fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the larger peptides are likely to be detected under lower <span class="hlt">energy</span> than <span class="hlt">energy</span> higher than 10 eV/atom. Although it is difficult to interpret the TOF-SIMS spectra of a peptide obtained with an Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, the secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span> can be classified by comparing those obtained with different <span class="hlt">energy</span> Ar cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87k3301G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87k3301G"><span>Quantitative low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam characterization by beam profiling and imaging via scintillation screens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Germer, S.; Pietag, F.; Polak, J.; Arnold, T.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This study presents the imaging and characterization of low-current <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams in the neutralized state monitored via single crystal YAG:Ce (Y3Al5O12) scintillators. To validate the presented beam diagnostic tool, Faraday cup measurements and test etchings were performed. Argon <span class="hlt">ions</span> with a typical <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 1.0 keV were emitted from an inductively coupled radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam source with total currents of some mA. Different beam properties, such as, lateral <span class="hlt">ion</span> current density, beam divergence angle, and current density in pulsed <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams have been studied to obtain information about the spatial beam profile and the material removal rate distribution. We observed excellent imaging properties with the scintillation screen and achieved a detailed characterization of the neutralized <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. A strong correlation between the scintillator <span class="hlt">light</span> output, the <span class="hlt">ion</span> current density, and the material removal rate could be observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26740141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26740141"><span>Mutant of a <span class="hlt">Light</span>-Driven Sodium <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Pump Can Transport Cesium <span class="hlt">Ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konno, Masae; Kato, Yoshitaka; Kato, Hideaki E; Inoue, Keiichi; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki</p> <p>2016-01-07</p> <p>Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2) is a <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven Na(+) pump found in marine bacterium. KR2 pumps Li(+) and Na(+), but it becomes an H(+) pump in the presence of K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). Site-directed mutagenesis of the cytoplasmic surface successfully converted KR2 into a <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven K(+) pump, suggesting that <span class="hlt">ion</span> selectivity is determined at the cytoplasmic surface. Here we extended this research and successfully created a <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven Cs(+) pump. KR2 N61L/G263F pumps Cs(+) as well as other monovalent cations in the presence of a protonophore. <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-transport activities correlated with the additive volume of the residues at 61 and 263. The result suggests that an <span class="hlt">ion</span>-selectivity filter is affected by these two residues and functions by strict exclusion of K(+) and larger cations in the wild type (N61/G263). In contrast, introduction of large residues possibly destroys local structures of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-selectivity filter, leading to the permeation of K(+) (P61/W263) and Cs(+) (L61/F263).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26460012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26460012"><span>Temporal evolution of helix hydration in a <span class="hlt">light</span>-gated <span class="hlt">ion</span> channel correlates with <span class="hlt">ion</span> conductance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; Bamann, Christian; Resler, Tom; Schlesinger, Ramona; Bamberg, Ernst; Heberle, Joachim</p> <p>2015-10-27</p> <p>The discovery of channelrhodopsins introduced a new class of <span class="hlt">light</span>-gated <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels, which when genetically encoded in host cells resulted in the development of optogenetics. Channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrChR2, is the most widely used optogenetic tool in neuroscience. To explore the connection between the gating mechanism and the influx and efflux of water molecules in CrChR2, we have integrated <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and electrophysiology. Cross-correlation analysis revealed that <span class="hlt">ion</span> conductance tallies with peptide backbone amide I vibrational changes at 1,665(-) and 1,648(+) cm(-1). These two bands report on the hydration of transmembrane α-helices as concluded from vibrational coupling experiments. Lifetime distribution analysis shows that water influx proceeded in two temporally separated steps with time constants of 10 μs (30%) and 200 μs (70%), the latter phase concurrent with the start of <span class="hlt">ion</span> conductance. Water efflux and the cessation of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> conductance are synchronized as well, with a time constant of 10 ms. The temporal correlation between <span class="hlt">ion</span> conductance and hydration of helices holds for fast (E123T) and slow (D156E) variants of CrChR2, strengthening its functional significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824863','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824863"><span>NEXT GENERATION <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT <span class="hlt">LIGHTING</span> PRODUCT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Efficient Fluorescent <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Products program, Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering <span class="hlt">light</span> sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the <span class="hlt">Energy</span>Star requirement with color</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22116029','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22116029"><span>Low <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> RF reactor using an array of plasmas through a grounded grid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chesaux, Michaeel; Howling, Alan A.; Hollenstein, Christoph; Domine, Didier; Kroll, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-03-15</p> <p>A reactor using localized remote plasma in a grid electrode is presented in this study. The aim is to reduce the <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment <span class="hlt">energy</span> inherent in RF capacitively coupled parallel plate reactors used to deposit large area thin film silicon solar cells. High <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment <span class="hlt">energy</span> could cause defects in silicon layers and deteriorate electrical interfaces, therefore, by reducing the <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment <span class="hlt">energy</span>, lower defect density might be obtained. In this study, the low <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment <span class="hlt">energy</span> results from the reactor design. By inserting a grounded grid close to the RF electrode of a parallel plate reactor, the electrode area asymmetry is increased while retaining the lateral uniformity required for large area deposition. This asymmetry causes a strong negative self-bias voltage, which reduces the time-averaged plasma potential and thus lowers the <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment <span class="hlt">energy</span>. In addition to the self-bias, the time evolution of plasma <span class="hlt">light</span> emission and plasma potential RF waveform are also affected by the grid, thereby further reducing the time-averaged plasma potential and <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Finally, a good correlation between the measured time-averaged plasma potential and measured low <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment <span class="hlt">energy</span> is found in a broad range of RF voltages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990024989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990024989"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Sputtering Studies of Boron Nitride with Xenon <span class="hlt">Ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Sputtering of boron nitride with xenon <span class="hlt">ions</span> was investigated using secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> (SIMS) and secondary neutral (SNMS) mass spectrometry. The <span class="hlt">ions</span> generated from the <span class="hlt">ion</span> gun were incident on the target at an angle of 50' with respect to the surface'normal. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">ions</span> ranged from 100 eV to 3 keV. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge build-up on the target surface. The intensities of sputtered neutral and charged particles, including single atoms, molecules, and clusters, were measured as a function of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Positive SIMS spectra were dominated by the two boron isotopes whereas BN- and B- were the two major constituents of the negative SIMS spectra. Nitrogen could be detected only in the SNMS spectra. The intensity-<span class="hlt">energy</span> curves of the sputtered particles were similar in shape. The knees in P-SIMS and SNMS intensity-<span class="hlt">energy</span> curves appear at around I keV which is significantly higher that 100 to 200 eV <span class="hlt">energy</span> range at which knees appear in the sputtering of medium and heavy elements by <span class="hlt">ions</span> of argon and xenon. This difference in the position of the sputter yield knee between boron nitride and heavier targets is due to the reduced <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> differences. The isotopic composition of secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span> of boron were measured by bombarding boron nitride with xenon <span class="hlt">ions</span> at <span class="hlt">energies</span> ranging from 100 eV to 1.5 keV using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. An <span class="hlt">ion</span> gun was used to generate the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux was found to be enriched in heavy isotopes at lower incident <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The heavy isotope enrichment was observed to decrease with increasing primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Beyond 350 eV, <span class="hlt">light</span> isotopes were sputtered preferentially with the enrichment increasing to an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. The trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the same <span class="hlt">energy</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28767313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28767313"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Species-Dependent Induction of DNA Double-Strand Breaks: <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and Fluence Thresholds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thopan, Prutchayawoot; Yu, Liangdeng; Brown, Ian G; Tippawan, Udomrat</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to determine the critical <span class="hlt">ion</span>-radiation conditions under which heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams can induce DNA double-strand breaks. Helium, nitrogen and argon-<span class="hlt">ion</span> beams in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of 20 eV to 2 keV were used to irradiate naked DNA plasmid pGFP to fluences of 1, 2 and 4 × 10(15) <span class="hlt">ions</span>/cm(2). The topological forms of DNA were subsequently analyzed using gel electrophoresis. The DNA forms were changed from the original supercoiled to damaged relaxed and linear forms, depending on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass, <span class="hlt">energy</span>, fluence and inertia. We found <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> and fluence thresholds above which direct double-strand breaks can occur. The threshold is discussed in terms of the areal <span class="hlt">ion-energy</span> density and the cross-section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARW32003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARW32003R"><span>Free <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Wells and Barriers to <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Transport Across Membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rempe, Susan</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The flow of <span class="hlt">ions</span> across cellular membranes is essential to many biological processes. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> transport is also important in synthetic materials used as battery electrolytes. Transport often involves specific <span class="hlt">ions</span> and fast conduction. To achieve those properties, <span class="hlt">ion</span> conduction pathways must solvate specific <span class="hlt">ions</span> by just the ``right amount.'' The right amount of solvation avoids <span class="hlt">ion</span> traps due to deep free <span class="hlt">energy</span> wells, and avoids <span class="hlt">ion</span> block due to high free <span class="hlt">energy</span> barriers. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> channel proteins in cellular membranes demonstrate this subtle balance in solvation of specific <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Using ab initio molecular simulations, we have interrogated the link between binding site structure and <span class="hlt">ion</span> solvation free <span class="hlt">energies</span> in biological <span class="hlt">ion</span> binding sites. Our results emphasize the surprisingly important role of the environment that surrounds <span class="hlt">ion</span>-binding sites for fast transport of specific <span class="hlt">ions</span>. We acknowledge support from Sandia's LDRD program. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the US DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPYO8002R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPYO8002R"><span>Anomalous absorption of laser <span class="hlt">light</span> on <span class="hlt">ion</span> acoustic fluctuations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rozmus, Wojciech; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Theory of laser <span class="hlt">light</span> absorption due to <span class="hlt">ion</span> acoustic turbulence (IAT) is discussed in high Z plasmas where <span class="hlt">ion</span> acoustic waves are weakly damped. Our theory applies to the whole density range from underdense to critical density plasmas. It includes an absorption rate for the resonance anomalous absorption due to linear conversion of electromagnetic waves into electron plasma oscillations by the IAT near the critical density in addition to the absorption coefficient due to enhanced effective electron collisionality. IAT is driven by large electron heat flux through the return current instability. Stationary spectra of IAT are given by weak plasma turbulence theory and applied in description of the anomalous absorption in the inertial confinement fusion plasmas at the gold walls of a hohlraum. This absorption is anisotropic in nature due to IAT angular anisotropy and differs for p- and s-polarization of the laser radiation. Possible experiments which could identify the resonance anomalous absorption in a laser heated plasma are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28451179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28451179"><span>Luminescent <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs with tunable emission colors for <span class="hlt">light</span>-emitting devices and electrochromic switches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Song; Huang, Tianci; Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Yang, Huiran; Han, Jianmei; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Most recently, stimuli-responsive luminescent materials have attracted increasing interest because they can exhibit tunable emissive properties which are sensitive to external physical stimuli, such as <span class="hlt">light</span>, temperature, force, and electric field. Among these stimuli, electric field is an important external stimulus. However, examples of electrochromic luminescent materials that exhibit emission color change induced by an electric field are limited. Herein, we have proposed a new strategy to develop electrochromic luminescent materials based on luminescent <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs. Six tunable emissive <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs (IP1-IP6) based on iridium(iii) complexes have been designed and synthesized. The emission spectra of <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs (IPs) show concentration dependence and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer process is very efficient between positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Interestingly, IP6 displayed white emission at a certain concentration in solution or solid state. Thus, in this contribution, UV-chip (365 nm) excited <span class="hlt">light</span>-emitting diodes showing orange, <span class="hlt">light</span> yellow and white emission colors were successfully fabricated. Furthermore, IPs displayed tunable and reversible electrochromic luminescence. For example, upon applying a voltage of 3 V onto the electrodes, the emission color of the solution of IP1 near the anode or cathode changed from yellow to red or green, respectively. Color tunable electrochromic luminescence has also been realized by using other IPs. Finally, a solid-film electrochromic switch device with a sandwiched structure using IP1 has been fabricated successfully, which exhibited fast and reversible emission color change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7259588','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7259588"><span>Divergence measurement of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams using ultracompact <span class="hlt">ion</span> pinhole cameras on PBFA II (abstract)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haill, T.; Johnson, D.; Bailey, J.; Leeper, R.; Hebron, D.; Stygar, W. )</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ion</span> beam divergence reduction will increase the power density deliverable to an ICF target and is one step towards demonstrating a credible path to target ignition. Measurement of the divergence is made with an ultracompact <span class="hlt">ion</span> pinhole camera (UC-IPC). The UC-IPC is mounted in the PBFA II diode near the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source at a 10{degree} angle to compensate for beam bending in the diode's applied magnetic field. The beam is transported through an entrance pinhole and down an entrance tube to a gold scattering foil. The beam is scattered 90{degree} through a second pinhole to CR39 film where the <span class="hlt">ion</span> track count is recorded. This paper will describe the results of off-axis <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam divergence measurements using the UC-IPC. Together with other diagnostics, the UC-IPC provides information about beam species and charge state, about particle <span class="hlt">energy</span> and about divergence of the beam. This paper will also describe UC-IPC simulation using PICDIAG, a 2D code that models the <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport and diagnostic response of experiments on Sandia's PBFA II accelerator. This work supported by the U. S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1050030','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1050030"><span>Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Electron-<span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collider at Jlab</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Researchers have envisioned an electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collider with <span class="hlt">ion</span> species up to heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>, high polarization of electrons and <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and a well-matched center-of-mass <span class="hlt">energy</span> range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium <span class="hlt">energy</span> polarized electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> beams or unpolarized <span class="hlt">light</span>- to heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> beams from a new <span class="hlt">ion</span> accelerator and storage complex. Since the very</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764322"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions using a combined <span class="hlt">energy</span> and mass analyzer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walton, S G; Fernsler, R F; Leonhardt, D</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A method is described for measuring <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions using a commercially available, combined <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer/mass spectrometer. The distributions were measured at an electrode located adjacent to pulsed, electron beam-generated plasmas produced in argon. The method uses <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dependent tuning and was tested for various plasma conditions. The results indicate an improved collection efficiency of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> when compared to conventional approaches in measuring <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatPh..13..852A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatPh..13..852A"><span>Evidence for <span class="hlt">light-by-light</span> scattering in heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Abidi, S. H.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agheorghiesei, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akatsuka, S.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antrim, D. J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Araujo Ferraz, V.; Arce, A. T. H.; Ardell, R. E.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Baines, J. T.; Bajic, M.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beermann, T. A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bittrich, C.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Briglin, D. L.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, B. H.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burger, A. M.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carlson, B. T.; Carminati, L.; Carney, R. M. D.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Celebi, E.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, W. S.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chiu, Y. H.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. C.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, F.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Creager, R. A.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Amen, G.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Daubney, T.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Benedetti, A.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Maria, A.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vasconcelos Corga, K.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delporte, C.; Delsart, P. A.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Clemente, W. K.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Petrillo, K. F.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducourthial, A.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dumitriu, A. E.; Duncan, A. K.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; El Kosseifi, R.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. 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U.; Mlynarikova, M.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mogg, P.; Mohapatra, S.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Monden, R.; Mondragon, M. C.; Mönig, K.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montalbano, A.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morgenstern, S.; Mori, D.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Morvaj, L.; Moschovakos, P.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, H. J.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Muškinja, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Narrias Villar, D. I.; Naryshkin, I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, M. E.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Newman, P. R.; Ng, T. Y.; Nguyen Manh, T.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, J.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nishu, N.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nomura, M. A.; Nooney, T.; Nordberg, M.; Norjoharuddeen, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O’Neil, D. C.; O’Rourke, A. A.; O’Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero Y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Pacheco Rodriguez, L.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganini, M.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Palacino, G.; Palazzo, S.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V. R.; Pasner, J. M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, Fr.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Pluth, D.; Podberezko, P.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Ponomarenko, D.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proklova, N.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Puri, A.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauch, D. M.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Rawling, J. H.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reed, R. G.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reiss, A.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resseguie, E. D.; Rettie, S.; Reynolds, E.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Roberts, R. T.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Roloff, J.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosien, N.-A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sanchez Pineda, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, C. O.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, K.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schildgen, L. K.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciandra, A.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Shen, Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shirabe, S.; Shiyakova, M.; Shlomi, J.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shope, D. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sideras Haddad, E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Siral, I.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, J. W.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sopczak, A.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spieker, T. M.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Stark, S. H.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Suruliz, K.; Suster, C. J. E.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Swift, S. P.; Sydorenko, A.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Treado, C. J.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsang, K. W.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tulbure, T. T.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turgeman, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valéry, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallier, A.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varni, C.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viaux Maira, N.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vishwakarma, A.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W.; Wang, Z.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, A. F.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wobisch, M.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolff, R.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xi, Z.; Xia, L.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yigitbasi, E.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zacharis, G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zou, R.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light-by-light</span> scattering (γγ --> γγ) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Using 480 μb-1 of lead-lead collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass <span class="hlt">energy</span> per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, here we report evidence for <span class="hlt">light-by-light</span> scattering. A total of 13 candidate events were observed with an expected background of 2.6 +/- 0.7 events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross-section of the process Pb + Pb (γγ) --> Pb(*) + Pb(*)γγ, for photon transverse <span class="hlt">energy</span> ET > 3 GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity |η| < 2.4, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transverse momentum lower than 2 GeV and diphoton acoplanarity below 0.01, is measured to be 70 +/- 24 (stat.) +/- 17 (syst.) nb, which is in agreement with the standard model predictions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.325a2003A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.325a2003A"><span>ESS-Bilbao <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> linear accelerator and neutron source: design and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abad, E.; Arredondo, I.; Badillo, I.; Belver, D.; Bermejo, F. J.; Bustinduy, I.; Cano, D.; Cortazar, D.; de Cos, D.; Djekic, S.; Domingo, S.; Echevarria, P.; Eguiraun, M.; Etxebarria, V.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, F. J.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Garmendia, N.; Harper, G.; Hassanzadegan, H.; Jugo, J.; Legarda, F.; Magan, M.; Martinez, R.; Megia, A.; Muguira, L.; Mujika, G.; Muñoz, J. L.; Ortega, A.; Ortega, J.; Perlado, M.; Portilla, J.; Rueda, I.; Sordo, F.; Toyos, V.; Vizcaino, A.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The baseline design for the ESS-Bilbao <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> linear accelerator and neutron source has been completed and the normal conducting section of the linac is at present under construction. The machine has been designed to be compliant with ESS specifications following the international guidelines of such project as described in Ref. [1]. The new accelerator facility in Bilbao will serve as a base for support of activities on accelerator physics carried out in Spain and southern Europe in the frame of different ongoing international collaborations. Also, a number of applications have been envisaged in the new Bilbao facility for the outgoing <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams as well as from fast neutrons produced by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> neutron-capture targets, which are briefly described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740029720&hterms=Exchange+rate&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DExchange%2Brate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740029720&hterms=Exchange+rate&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DExchange%2Brate"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> momentum and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer rates for charge exchange collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The rates of momentum and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between <span class="hlt">ion</span> and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting <span class="hlt">ion</span> momentum and <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985DoSSR.283.1355N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985DoSSR.283.1355N"><span>Calculation of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels of lithium-like <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadykto, B. A.</p> <p></p> <p>An attempt is made to develop a straightforward and sufficiently accurate method for calculating the <span class="hlt">energies</span> of complex <span class="hlt">ion</span> states. The method is based on Bohr's computational model and Sommerfeld's model in relativistic form (for circular orbits only). The method proposed here makes it possible to calculate excited <span class="hlt">ion</span> states having different atomic and quantum numbers. A similar method can be used for calculating the <span class="hlt">energies</span> of <span class="hlt">ion</span> states with the number of electrons exceeding three.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.565a2003B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.565a2003B"><span>The Role of High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Atom/Molecule Collisions in Radiotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belkić, Dževad</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The need for <span class="hlt">ions</span> in radiotherapy stems from the most favorable localization of the largest <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition, precisely at the tumor site with small <span class="hlt">energy</span> losses away from the target. Such a dose conformity to the target is due to heavy masses of <span class="hlt">ions</span> that scatter predominantly in the forward direction and lose maximal <span class="hlt">energy</span> mainly near the end of their path in the vicinity of the Bragg peak. The heavy masses of nuclei preclude noticeable multiple scattering of the primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. This occurrence is responsible for only about 30% of <span class="hlt">ion</span> efficiency in killing tumor cells. However, ionization of targets by fast <span class="hlt">ions</span> yields electrons that might be of sufficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> to produce further radiation damage. These δ-electrons, alongside radicals produced by <span class="hlt">ion</span>-water collisions, can accomplish the remaining 70% of tumor cell eradication. Electrons achieve this chiefly through multiple scattering due to their small mass. Therefore, <span class="hlt">energy</span> depositions by both heavy (nuclei) and <span class="hlt">light</span> (electrons) particles as well as highly reactive radicals need to be simultaneously transported in Monte Carlo simulations. This threefold transport of particles is yet to be developed for the existing Monte Carlo codes. Critical to accomplishing this key goal is the availability of accurate cross section databases. To this end, the leading continuum distorted wave methodologies are poised to play a pivotal role in predicting <span class="hlt">energy</span> losses of <span class="hlt">ions</span> in tissue as discussed in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064555"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span>-controlled <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels formed by amphiphilic small molecules regulate <span class="hlt">ion</span> conduction via cis-trans photoisomerization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Tao; Bao, Chunyan; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Yao; Jia, Huijuan; Zhu, Linyong</p> <p>2013-11-11</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light</span>-regulated <span class="hlt">ion</span> channel-transport across lipid bilayers was realized using structurally simple azobenzene-based amphiphilic small molecules. UV or visible irradiation triggers molecular photoisomerization, which induces structural and membrane affinity changes in self-assembled channels, thus resulting in <span class="hlt">light</span>-regulated <span class="hlt">ion</span> transmembrane transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5394232','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5394232"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span>-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P.; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> materials to investigate <span class="hlt">light</span>-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron–hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries. PMID:28393912</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814643P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatCo...814643P"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span>-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P.; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> materials to investigate <span class="hlt">light</span>-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron-hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28393912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28393912"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span>-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim</p> <p>2017-04-10</p> <p>Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> materials to investigate <span class="hlt">light</span>-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron-hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RScI...88f3306G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RScI...88f3306G"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> mass and <span class="hlt">energy</span> selective hyperthermal <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam assisted deposition setup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerlach, J. W.; Schumacher, P.; Mensing, M.; Rauschenbach, S.; Cermak, I.; Rauschenbach, B.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>For the synthesis of high-quality thin films, <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a frequently used technique providing precise control over several substantial film properties. IBAD typically relies on the use of a broad-beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source. Such <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources suffer from the limitation that they deliver a blend of <span class="hlt">ions</span> with different <span class="hlt">ion</span> masses, each of them possessing a certain distribution of kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. In this paper, a compact experimental setup is presented that enables the separate control of <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass and <span class="hlt">ion</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the region of hyperthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> (few 1 eV - few 100 eV). This <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> region is of increasing interest not only for <span class="hlt">ion</span>-assisted film growth but also for the wide field of preparative mass spectrometry. The setup consists of a constricted glow-discharge plasma beam source and a tailor-made, compact quadrupole system equipped with entry and exit <span class="hlt">ion</span> optics. It is demonstrated that the separation of monoatomic and polyatomic nitrogen <span class="hlt">ions</span> (N+ and N2+) is accomplished. For both <span class="hlt">ion</span> species, the kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> is shown to be selectable in the region of hyperthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span>. At the sample position, <span class="hlt">ion</span> current densities are found to be in the order of 1 μA/cm2 and the full width at half maximum of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam profile is in the order of 10 mm. Thus, the requirements for homogeneous deposition processes in sufficiently short periods of time are fulfilled. Finally, employing the described setup, for the first time in practice epitaxial GaN films were deposited. This opens up the opportunity to fundamentally study the influence of the simultaneous irradiation with hyperthermal <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the thin film growth in IBAD processes and to increase the flexibility of the technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA627607','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA627607"><span>Interior LED <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Technology. Navy <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Technology Validation (Techval) Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Approved for public release: distribution unlimited TDS-NAVFAC EXWC-PW-1601 Sep 2015 Interior LED <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Technology Navy <span class="hlt">Energy</span>...NAVFAC EXWC) to determine the potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> savings for Interior LED <span class="hlt">lighting</span> technology in office environments. NAVAFAC EXWC concluded that...Interior LED <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Technology can save money in comparison to the conventional incandescent, halogen, and where cost-effective, compact fluorescent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C4008T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C4008T"><span>Resonant absorption effects induced by polarized laser <span class="hlt">light</span> irradiating thin foils in the TNSA regime of <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torrisi, L.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Pfeifer, M.; Torrisi, A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Thin foils were irradiated by short pulsed lasers at intensities of 1016-19W/cm2 in order to produce non-equilibrium plasmas and <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration from the target-normal-sheath-acceleration (TNSA) regime. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> acceleration in forward direction was measured by SiC detectors and <span class="hlt">ion</span> collectors used in the time-of-flight configuration. Laser irradiations were employed using p-polarized <span class="hlt">light</span> at different incidence angles with respect to the target surface and at different focal distances from the target surface. Measurements demonstrate that resonant absorption effects, due to the plasma wave excitations, enhance the plasma temperature and the <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration with respect to those performed without to use of p-polarized <span class="hlt">light</span>. Dependences of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux characteristics on the laser <span class="hlt">energy</span>, wavelength, focal distance and incidence angle will be reported and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.282a2018R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.282a2018R"><span>Symmetry <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Effects on Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Dissipative Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rizzo, C.; Baran, V.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Odsuren, M.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>We investigate the reaction path followed by Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collisions with exotic nuclear beams at low <span class="hlt">energies</span>. We focus on the interplay between reaction mechanisms, fusion vs. break-up (fast-fission, deep-inelastic), that in exotic systems is expected to be influenced by the symmetry <span class="hlt">energy</span> term at densities around the normal value. The method described here, based on the event by event evolution of phase space quadrupole collective modes, will nicely allow to extract the fusion probability at relatively early times, when the transport results are reliable. Fusion probabilities for reactions induced by 132Sn on 64,58Ni targets at 10 AMeV are evaluated. We obtain larger fusion cross sections for the more n-rich composite system, and, for a given reaction, with a soft symmetry term above saturation. A collective charge equilibration mechanism (the Dynamical Dipole Resonance, DDR) is revealed in both fusion and break-up events, depending on the stiffness of the symmetry term just below saturation. Finally we investigate the effect of the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel for systems with the same overall isospin content and similar initial charge asymmetry. As expected we find reduced fusion probabilities for the more mass symmetric case, while the DDR strength appears not much affected. This is a nice confirmation of the prompt nature of such collective isovector mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217915"><span>Nanostructured <span class="hlt">light</span>-absorbing crystalline CuIn{sub (1–x)}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin films grown through high flux, low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hall, Allen J.; Hebert, Damon; Rockett, Angus A.; Shah, Amish B.; Bettge, Martin</p> <p>2013-10-21</p> <p>A hybrid effusion/sputtering vacuum system was modified with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) coil enabling <span class="hlt">ion</span> assisted physical vapor deposition of CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin films on GaAs single crystals and stainless steel foils. With <80 W rf power to the ICP coil at 620–740 °C, film morphologies were unchanged compared to those grown without the ICP. At low temperature (600–670 °C) and high rf power (80–400 W), a <span class="hlt">light</span> absorbing nanostructured highly anisotropic platelet morphology was produced with surface planes dominated by (112){sub T} facets. At 80–400 W rf power and 640–740 °C, both interconnected void and small platelet morphologies were observed while at >270 W and above >715 °C nanostructured pillars with large inter-pillar voids were produced. The latter appeared black and exhibited a strong (112){sub T} texture with interpillar twist angles of ±8°. Application of a negative dc bias of 0–50 V to the film during growth was not found to alter the film morphology or stoichiometry. The results are interpreted as resulting from the plasma causing strong etching favoring formation of (112){sub T} planes and preferential nucleation of new grains, balanced against conventional thermal diffusion and normal growth mechanisms at higher temperatures. The absence of effects due to applied substrate bias suggests that physical sputtering or <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment effects were minimal. The nanostructured platelet and pillar films were found to exhibit less than one percent reflectivity at angles up to 75° from the surface normal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26996438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26996438"><span>Rechargeable dual-metal-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries for advanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo</p> <p>2016-04-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric <span class="hlt">energy</span>, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries (e.g. Li-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries, Na-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries and Mg-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries in which various metal <span class="hlt">ions</span> simultaneously engage to store <span class="hlt">energy</span> are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940032496','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940032496"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> stable isotope analysis of meteorites by <span class="hlt">ion</span> microprobe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The main goal was to develop the necessary secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectrometer (SIMS) techniques to use a Cameca ims-4f <span class="hlt">ion</span> microprobe to measure <span class="hlt">light</span> stable isotope ratios (H, C, O and S) in situ and in non-conducting mineral phases. The intended application of these techniques was the analysis of meteorite samples, although the techniques that have been developed are equally applicable to the investigation of terrestrial samples. The first year established techniques for the analysis of O isotope ratios (delta O-18 and delta O-17) in conducting mineral phases and the measurement of S isotope ratios (delta S-34) in a variety of sulphide phases. In addition, a technique was developed to measure delta S-34 values in sulphates, which are insulators. Other research undertaken in the first year resulted in SIMS techniques for the measurement of wide variety of trace elements in carbonate minerals, with the aim of understanding the nature of alteration fluids in carbonaceous chondrites. In the second year we developed techniques for analyzing O isotope ratios in nonconducting mineral phases. These methods are potentially applicable to the measurement of other <span class="hlt">light</span> stable isotopes such as H, C and S in insulators. Also, we have further explored the analytical techniques used for the analysis of S isotopes in sulphides by analyzing troilite in a number of L and H ordinary chondrites. This was done to see if there was any systematic differences with petrological type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6821505','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6821505"><span>LIBRA-A <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam fusion reactor conceptual design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Bruggink, D.; Engelstad, R.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Musicki, Z.; Peterson, R.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslavsky, I.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The LIBRA <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam fusion commercial reactor study is a self-consistent conceptual design of a 330 MWe power plant with an accompanying economic analysis. Fusion targets are imploded by 4-MJ-shaped pulses of 30 MeV Li <span class="hlt">ions</span> at a rate of 3 Hz. The target gain is 80, leading to a yield of 320 MJ. The high intensity part of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> pulse is delivered by 16 diodes through 16 separate z-pinch plasma channels formed in 100 torr of helium with trace amounts of lithium. The blanket is an array of porous flexible silicon carbide tubes with Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ flowing downward through them. These tubes (INPORT units) shield the target chamber wall from both neutron damage and the shock overpressure of the target explosion. The target chamber is a right circular cylinder, 8.7 meters in diameter. The target chamber is ''self-pumped'' by the target explosion generated overpressure into a surge tank partially filled with liquid that surrounds the target chamber. This scheme refreshes the chamber at the desired 3 Hz frequency without excessive pumping demands. The blanket multiplication is 1.2 and the tritium breeding ratio is 1.4. The direct capital cost of LIBRA is estimated to be $2200/kWe. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6244402','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6244402"><span>Overview of the LIBRA <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam fusion conceptual design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Bruggink, D.; Engelstad, R.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Musicki, Z.; Peterson, R.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslavsky, I.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>The LIBRA <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam fusion commercial reactor study is a self-consistent conceptual design of a 330 MWe power plant with an accompanying economic analysis. Fusion targets are imploded by 4 MJ shaped pulses of 30 MeV Li <span class="hlt">ions</span> at a rate of 3 Hz. The target gain is 80, leading to a yield of 320 MJ. The high intensity part of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> plate is delivered by 16 diodes through 16 separate z-pinch plasma channels formed in 100 torr of helium with trace amounts of lithium. The blanket is an array of porous flexible silicon carbide tubes with Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ flowing downward through them. These tubes (INPORT units) shield the target chamber wall from both neutron damage and the shock overpressure of the target explosion. The target chamber is self-pumped by the target explosion generated overpressure into a surge tank partially filled with Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ that surrounds the target chamber. This scheme refreshes the chamber at the desired 3 Hz frequency without excessive pumping demands. The blanket multiplication is 1.2 and the tritium breeding ratio is 1.4. The direct capital cost of LIBRA is estimated to be $2200/kWe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=electric+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectric%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=electric+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectric%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> partitioning of gaseous <span class="hlt">ions</span> in an electric field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, H.-S.; Mason, E. A.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The partitioning of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> among thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, drift <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and random-field <span class="hlt">energy</span> is studied by solution of the Boltzmann equation. An expansion in powers of the square of the electric field strength is obtained by Kihara's method. Numerical calculations for several <span class="hlt">ion</span>-neutral force laws show that Wannier's constant mean-free-time model gives a reasonable first approximation. The formal extension to multicomponent mixtures is also given. The matrix elements obtained are tabulated, and can be used to study the field dependence of other moments of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-distribution function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730045444&hterms=energy+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfields"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> partitioning of gaseous <span class="hlt">ions</span> in an electric field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, H.-S.; Mason, E. A.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The partitioning of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> among thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, drift <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and random-field <span class="hlt">energy</span> is studied by solution of the Boltzmann equation. An expansion in powers of the square of the electric field strength is obtained by Kihara's method. Numerical calculations for several <span class="hlt">ion</span>-neutral force laws show that Wannier's constant mean-free-time model gives a reasonable first approximation. The formal extension to multicomponent mixtures is also given. The matrix elements obtained are tabulated, and can be used to study the field dependence of other moments of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-distribution function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apra.prop...69M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apra.prop...69M"><span>HELIX: The High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Light</span> Isotope Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Musser, Jim</p> <p></p> <p>This is the lead proposal for a new suborbital program, HELIX (High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Light</span> Isotope eXperiment), designed to make measurements of the isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">light</span> cosmic-ray nuclei from ~200 MeV/nuc to ~10 GeV/nuc. Past measurements of this kind have provided profound insights into the nature and origin of cosmic rays, revealing, for instance, information on acceleration and confinement time scales, and exposing some conspicuous discrepancies between solar and cosmic-ray abundances. The most detailed information currently available comes from the ACE/CRIS mission, but is restricted to <span class="hlt">energies</span> below a few 100 MeV/nuc. HELIX aims at extending this <span class="hlt">energy</span> range by over an order of magnitude, where, in most cases, no measurements of any kind exist, and where relativistic time dilation affects the apparent lifetime of radioactive clock nuclei. The HELIX measurements will provide essential information for understanding the propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy. This is crucial for properly interpreting several intriguing anomalies reported in recent cosmic-ray measurements, pertaining to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei, and to the anomalous rise in the positron fraction at higher <span class="hlt">energy</span>. HELIX employs a high-precision magnet spectrometer to provide measurements which are not achievable by any current or planned instrument. The superconducting magnet originally used for the HEAT payload in five successful high-altitude flights will be combined with state-of-the-art detectors to measure the charge, time-of-flight, magnetic rigidity, and velocity of cosmic-ray particles with high precision. The instrumentation includes plastic scintillators, silicon-strip detectors repurposed from Fermilab's CDF detector, a high-performance gas drift chamber, and a ring-imaging Cherenkov counter employing aerogel radiators and silicon photomultipliers. To reduce cost and technical risk, the HELIX program will be structured in two stages. The first</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apra.prop..121W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apra.prop..121W"><span>HELIX: The High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Light</span> Isotope Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wakely, Scott</p> <p></p> <p>This is the lead proposal for a new suborbital program, HELIX (High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Light</span> Isotope eXperiment), designed to make measurements of the isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">light</span> cosmic-ray nuclei from ~200 MeV/nuc to ~10 GeV/nuc. Past measurements of this kind have provided profound insights into the nature and origin of cosmic rays, revealing, for instance, information on acceleration and confinement time scales, and exposing some conspicuous discrepancies between solar and cosmic-ray abundances. The most detailed information currently available comes from the ACE/CRIS mission, but is restricted to <span class="hlt">energies</span> below a few 100 MeV/nuc. HELIX aims at extending this <span class="hlt">energy</span> range by over an order of magnitude, where, in most cases, no measurements of any kind exist, and where relativistic time dilation affects the apparent lifetime of radioactive clock nuclei. The HELIX measurements will provide essential information for understanding the propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy. This is crucial for properly interpreting several intriguing anomalies reported in recent cosmic-ray measurements, pertaining to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei, and to the anomalous rise in the positron fraction at higher <span class="hlt">energy</span>. HELIX employs a high-precision magnet spectrometer to provide measurements which are not achievable by any current or planned instrument. The superconducting magnet originally used for the HEAT payload in five successful high-altitude flights will be combined with state-of-the-art detectors to measure the charge, time-of-flight, magnetic rigidity, and velocity of cosmic-ray particles with high precision. The instrumentation includes plastic scintillators, silicon-strip detectors repurposed from Fermilab's CDF detector, a high-performance gas drift chamber, and a ring-imaging Cherenkov counter employing aerogel radiators and silicon photomultipliers. To reduce cost and technical risk, the HELIX program will be structured in two stages. The first</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.332..326S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.332..326S"><span>Biomaterial imaging with MeV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seki, Toshio; Wakamatsu, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Shunichiro; Aoki, Takaaki; Ishihara, Akihiko; Matsuo, Jiro</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The spatial distribution of several chemical compounds in biological tissues and cells can be obtained with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In conventional secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectrometry (SIMS) with keV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams, elastic collisions occur between projectiles and atoms of constituent molecules. The collisions produce fragments, making the acquisition of molecular information difficult. In contrast, <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams with MeV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> excite near-surface electrons and enhance the ionization of high-mass molecules; hence, SIMS spectra of fragment-suppressed ionized molecules can be obtained with MeV-SIMS. To compare between MeV and conventional SIMS, we used the two methods based on MeV and Bi3-keV <span class="hlt">ions</span>, respectively, to obtain molecular images of rat cerebellum. Conventional SIMS images of m/z 184 were clearly observed, but with the Bi3 <span class="hlt">ion</span>, the distribution of the molecule with m/z 772.5 could be observed with much difficulty. This effect was attributed to the low secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> yields and we could not get many signal counts with keV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> beam. On the other hand, intact molecular <span class="hlt">ion</span> distributions of lipids were clearly observed with MeV-SIMS, although the mass of all lipid molecules was higher than 500 Da. The peaks of intact molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> in MeV-SIMS spectra allowed us to assign the mass. The high secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> sensitivity with MeV-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> is very useful in biomaterial analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.307..618T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.307..618T"><span>An <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment of naked DNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L. D.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Study of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition in the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> range. To investigate effects from very-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment on biological materials, an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam line. The final decelerated-<span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment with <span class="hlt">energy</span> as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21103996','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21103996"><span>An electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">ion</span> source based low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> multiple charge state <span class="hlt">ion</span> incident experiments, a low <span class="hlt">energy</span> (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) <span class="hlt">ion</span> source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam transmission line. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both <span class="hlt">ions</span> slowing down and also <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPC12044C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPC12044C"><span>Recent <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Distribution Observations on MST RFP Plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A., III; Almagri, A. F.; Andeson, J. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution and temperature measurements have been made on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) using the Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The CNPA is a low <span class="hlt">energy</span> (0.34-5.2 keV), high <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer, with a radial view on MST. Recently, a retarding potential system was built to allow CNPA measurements to ensemble a complete <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution with high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution, providing insight into the dynamics of the bulk and fast <span class="hlt">ion</span> populations. Recent work has also been done to improve the analysis techniques used to infer the <span class="hlt">ion</span> temperature measurements, allowing us to understand temperature dynamics better during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported in part by grants to FAMU and to UW from NSF and from Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Sciences at DOE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPA.766..123Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPA.766..123Y"><span>Cherenkov <span class="hlt">light</span> detection as a velocity selector for uranium fission products at intermediate <span class="hlt">energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, T.; Enomoto, A.; Kouno, J.; Yamaki, S.; Matsunaga, S.; Suzaki, F.; Suzuki, T.; Abe, Y.; Nagae, D.; Okada, S.; Ozawa, A.; Saito, Y.; Sawahata, K.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The in-flight particle separation capability of intermediate-<span class="hlt">energy</span> radioactive <span class="hlt">ion</span> (RI) beams produced at a fragment separator can be improved with the Cherenkov <span class="hlt">light</span> detection technique. The cone angle of Cherenkov <span class="hlt">light</span> emission varies as a function of beam velocity. This can be exploited as a velocity selector for secondary beams. Using heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams available at the HIMAC synchrotron facility, the Cherenkov <span class="hlt">light</span> angular distribution was measured for several thin radiators with high refractive indices (n = 1.9 2.1). A velocity resolution of 10-3 was achieved for a 56Fe beam with an <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 500 MeV/nucleon. Combined with the conventional rigidity selection technique coupled with <span class="hlt">energy</span>-loss analysis, the present method will enable the efficient selection of an exotic species from huge amounts of various nuclides, such as uranium fission products at the BigRIPS fragment separator located at the RI Beam Factory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5959919','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5959919"><span>The measured <span class="hlt">energy</span> savings from two <span class="hlt">lighting</span> control strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rubinstein, F.M.; Karayel, M.</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span>-saving benefits of two <span class="hlt">lighting</span> control strategies--scheduling and daylighting--were investigated at demonstration sites in two large commercial buildings. A continuously dimmable <span class="hlt">lighting</span> control system was installed at the Pacific Gas and Electric Company Building in San Francisco, and an on/off switching system was installed at the World Trade Center in New York City. By automatically scheduling the operation of the <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems to conform with occupancy patterns, <span class="hlt">lighting</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption was reduced 10-40 percent. Several scheduling techniques were investigated, and the influence of switching the zone size on <span class="hlt">energy</span> savings was examined. Using photoelectrically controlled <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems, which switch or dim <span class="hlt">lighting</span> in accordance with available daylight, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumed for <span class="hlt">lighting</span> in daylit areas was reduced to 25-35 percent. The influence of clear and overcast conditions on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> savings associated with daylight-linked controls is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AdSpR..27..393B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AdSpR..27..393B"><span>DNA Fragmentation in mammalian cells exposed to various <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belli, M.; Cherubini, R.; Dalla Vecchia, M.; Dini, V.; Esposito, G.; Moschini, G.; Sapora, O.; Signoretti, C.; Simone, G.; Sorrentino, E.; Tabocchini, M. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Elucidation of how effects of densely ionizing radiation at cellular level are linked to DNA damage is fundamental for a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to genomic damage (especially chromosome aberrations) and developing biophysical models to predict space radiation effects. We have investigated the DNA fragmentation patterns induced in Chinese hamster V79 cells by 31 keV/μm protons, 123 keV/μm helium-4 <span class="hlt">ions</span> and γ-rays in the size range 0.023-5.7 Mbp, using calibrated Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). The frequency distributions of fragments induced by the charged particles were shifted towards smaller sizes with respct to that induced by comparable doses of γ-rays. The DSB yields, evaluated from the fragments induced in the size range studied, were higher for protons and helium <span class="hlt">ions</span> than for γ-rays by a factor of about 1.9 and 1.2, respectively. However, these ratios do not adequately reflect the RBE observed on the same cells for inactivation and mutation induced by these beams. This is a further indication for the lack of correlation between the effects exerted at cellular level and the initial yield of DSB. The dependence on radiation quality of the fragmentation pattern suggests that it may have a role in damage reparability. We have analyzed these patterns with a "random breakage" model generalized in order to consider the initial non-random distribution of the DNA molecules. Our results suggest that a random breakage mechanism can describe with a reasonable approximation the DNA fragmentation induced by γ-rays, while the approximation is not so good for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, likely due to the interplay between <span class="hlt">ion</span> tracks and chromatin organization at the loop level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5747581','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5747581"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of <span class="hlt">ions</span> after surface collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Short, R.T.; Todd, P.J.; Grimm, C.C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>As a part of the development of an organic <span class="hlt">ion</span> microprobe, to be used for imaging of particular organic compounds in biological tissue, various methods of quadrupole-based tandem mass spectroscopy (MS/MS) have been investigated. High transmission efficiency is essential for the success of the organic <span class="hlt">ion</span> microprobe, due to expected low analyte concentrations in biological tissue and the potential for sample damage from prolonged exposure to the primary <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. MS/MS is necessary for organic <span class="hlt">ion</span> imaging because of the complex nature of the biological matrices. The goal of these studies of was to optimize the efficiency of daughter <span class="hlt">ion</span> production and transmission by first determining daughter <span class="hlt">ion</span> properties and then designing <span class="hlt">ion</span> optics based on those properties. The properties of main interest are daughter <span class="hlt">ion</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> and angular distribution. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21356156','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21356156"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution near a plasma meniscus for multielement focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mathew, Jose V.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The axial <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread near a plasma meniscus for multielement focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams is investigated experimentally in atomic and molecular gaseous plasmas of krypton, argon, and hydrogen by tailoring the magnetic field in the region. In the case of magnetic end plugging, the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread reduces by approx50% near the meniscus as compared to the bulk plasma, thereby facilitating beam focusing. A quadrupole filter can be used to control the mean <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Comparison with standard Maxwellian and Druyvesteyn distributions with the same mean <span class="hlt">energy</span> indicates that the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution in the meniscus is deficient in the population of low and high <span class="hlt">energy</span> tail <span class="hlt">ions</span>, resulting in a Gaussian-like profile with a spread of approx4 and approx5 eV for krypton and argon <span class="hlt">ions</span>, respectively. By carefully tuning the wave power, plasma collisionality, and the magnetic field in the meniscus, the spread can be made lower than that of liquid metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources, for extracting focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams of other elements with adequate current density, for research and applications in nanosystems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866318','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866318"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span>-efficient <span class="hlt">lighting</span> system for television</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cawthorne, Duane C.</p> <p>1987-07-21</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">light</span> control system for a television camera comprises an artificial <span class="hlt">light</span> control system which is cooperative with an iris control system. This artificial <span class="hlt">light</span> control system adjusts the power to lamps illuminating the camera viewing area to provide only sufficient artificial illumination necessary to provide a sufficient video signal when the camera iris is substantially open.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482910"><span>Investigation on target normal sheath acceleration through measurements of <span class="hlt">ions</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tudisco, S. Cirrone, G. A. P.; Mascali, D.; Schillaci, F.; Altana, C.; Lanzalone, G.; Muoio, A.; Brandi, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; Ferrara, P.; Fulgentini, L.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Gizzi, L. A.; and others</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>An experimental campaign aiming at investigating the <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration mechanisms through laser-matter interaction in femtosecond domain has been carried out at the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory facility with a laser intensity of up to 2 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. A Thomson parabola spectrometer was used to obtain the spectra of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the different species accelerated. Here, we show the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra of <span class="hlt">light-ions</span> and we discuss their dependence on structural characteristics of the target and the role of surface and target bulk in the acceleration process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365600"><span>Secondary batteries with multivalent <span class="hlt">ions</span> for <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage by high-power and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation "beyond-lithium" battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new "multivalent <span class="hlt">ion</span>" battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent <span class="hlt">ions</span> (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), or La(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery, we further use multivalent Ni(2+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery for the first time. The nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni(2+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and Ni anode. The nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery delivers a high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density (340 Wh kg(-1), close to lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873116','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873116"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread <span class="hlt">ion</span> source with a coaxial magnetic filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Multicusp <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources are capable of producing <span class="hlt">ions</span> with low axial <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread which are necessary in applications such as <span class="hlt">ion</span> projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp <span class="hlt">ion</span> source designed to further reduce the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner <span class="hlt">ion</span> extraction region into which the <span class="hlt">ions</span> radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse <span class="hlt">ion</span> temperature (or beam emittance).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5024773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5024773"><span>High <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>: techniques and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alonso, J.R.</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 ..mu..sec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium <span class="hlt">ions</span>, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1029705','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1029705"><span>High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-03-14</p> <p>AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE...MM-YYYY)   14-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE  Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  01 May 2013 to 31 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> acceleration...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 3/15/2017https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll 1 HIGH <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> <span class="hlt">ION</span> ACCELERATION BY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985812"><span>A low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source for electron capture spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tusche, C; Kirschner, J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We report on the design of an <span class="hlt">ion</span> source for the production of single and double charged Helium <span class="hlt">ions</span> with kinetic <span class="hlt">energies</span> in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter <span class="hlt">ion</span> gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He(+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He(2 +) operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam <span class="hlt">energy</span>, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*(+) (2s) <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJTFM.130..331N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJTFM.130..331N"><span>Dependence of <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> on PTFE Surface Modification Effect by Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakayama, Akihiko; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige</p> <p></p> <p>PTFE (Poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene) has superior characteristic. But, it has low adhesion force. In order to improve adhesion force, we have studied on surface modification of PTFE by using discharge under high E/n (E:electric field, n:particle density) condition in nitrogen. From the results, it was deduced that <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> around 40 eV is effective for polar groups introduction. In addition, treated surface unevenness did not increase compared with the untreated one. Then, we performed nitrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation by changing <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. From the results, it is shown that low <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> is effective for polar groups introduction. It is also shown that high <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> suppresses surface roughness. Thus, we measured surface <span class="hlt">energy</span> and composition of samples irradiated by high and low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>. When <span class="hlt">ion</span> with 30 eV was irradiated for 5 minute and following it <span class="hlt">ion</span> with 1060 eV was irradiated for 10 second, many polar groups were introduced and surface unevenness was kept at the untreatment level. From the results by XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) analysis and FT-IR (Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis by using the ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) method, it was confirmed that polar groups of oxygen component and cross-linked structure via nitrogen or carbon was introduced at the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1184843-radiation-damage-light-heavy-ion-bombardment-single-crystal-linbo','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1184843-radiation-damage-light-heavy-ion-bombardment-single-crystal-linbo"><span>Radiation damage by <span class="hlt">light</span>- and heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO₃</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; ...</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of <span class="hlt">light</span>- and heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO₃. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both <span class="hlt">ion</span> species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmore » than for the case of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> irradiation. Such <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dependent critical fluence of heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation, while for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span>, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1222297-radiation-damage-light-heavy-ion-bombardment-single-crystal-linbo','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1222297-radiation-damage-light-heavy-ion-bombardment-single-crystal-linbo"><span>Radiation damage by <span class="hlt">light</span>- and heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO₃</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; ...</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of <span class="hlt">light</span>- and heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO₃. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span>, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both <span class="hlt">ion</span> species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmore » than for the case of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> irradiation. Such <span class="hlt">energy</span>-dependent critical fluence of heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation, while for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span>, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28636050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28636050"><span>Photoelectrochemical <span class="hlt">ion</span> concentration polarization: membraneless <span class="hlt">ion</span> filtration based on <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven electrochemical reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoon, Eunsoo; Davies, Collin D; Hooper, Tim A; Crooks, Richard M</p> <p>2017-07-11</p> <p>In this article we report a microelectrochemical system that is able to partially desalinate water. The underlying principles are similar to previous reports in which a local electric field resists passage of <span class="hlt">ions</span>. However, in the present case, no membrane is required and, most interestingly, much of the power for desalination originates from <span class="hlt">light</span> rather than electricity. This could greatly increase the power efficiency for desalination. The device is based on a TiO2 photoanode coupled to a Pt cathode. Illumination of the photoanode drives faradaic reactions at the cathode that lead to an <span class="hlt">ion</span> depletion zone. The resulting local electric field limits transport of charged species. In situ conductivity and fluorescence measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800064589&hterms=Atomic+Model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAtomic%2BModel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800064589&hterms=Atomic+Model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAtomic%2BModel"><span>Independent-particle models for <span class="hlt">light</span> negative atomic <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Results for total <span class="hlt">energies</span> and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800064589&hterms=atomic+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Datomic%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800064589&hterms=atomic+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Datomic%2Bmodel"><span>Independent-particle models for <span class="hlt">light</span> negative atomic <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Results for total <span class="hlt">energies</span> and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780052134&hterms=energy+clean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bclean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780052134&hterms=energy+clean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bclean"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> distributions of sputtered copper neutrals and <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lundquist, T. R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Direct quantitative analysis of surfaces by secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectrometry will depend on an understanding of the yield ratio of <span class="hlt">ions</span> to neutrals. This ratio as a function of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the sputtered particles has been obtained for a clean polycrystalline copper surface sputtered by 1000-3000 eV Ar(+). The <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of both neutral and ionized copper were measured with a retarding potential analyzer using potential modulation differentiation and signal averaging. The maximum for both distributions is identical and occurs near 2.5 eV. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of neutrals is more sharply peaked than that of the <span class="hlt">ions</span>, presumably as a consequence of more efficient nutralization of slow escaping <span class="hlt">ions</span> by the mobile electrons of copper. The <span class="hlt">ion</span>-neutral ratio is compared with results from various ionization models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/527672','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/527672"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions in silane-hydrogen plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamers, E.A.G.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Bezemer, J.; Weg, W.F. van der; Goedheer, W.J.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>For the first time <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions (IED) of different <span class="hlt">ions</span> from silane-hydrogen (SiH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}) RF plasmas are presented, i.e., the distributions of SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, SiH{sub 2}{sup +} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +}. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of SiH{sub 3}{sup +} and SiH{sub 2}{sup +} <span class="hlt">ions</span> show peaks, which are caused by a charge exchange process in the sheath. A method is presented by which the net charge density in the sheath is determined from the plasma potential and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> positions of the charge exchange peaks. Knowing the net charge density in the sheath and the plasma potential, the sheath thickness can be determined and an estimation of the absolute <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluxes can be made. The flux of <span class="hlt">ions</span> can, at maximum, account for 10% of the observed deposition rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000267&hterms=negative+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000267&hterms=negative+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Benergy"><span>Variable-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams For Modification Of Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chutjian, Ara; Hecht, Michael H.; Orient, Otto J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Beam of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> negative oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span> used to grow layer of silicon dioxide on silicon. Beam unique both in purity, contains no molecular oxygen or other charged species, and in low <span class="hlt">energy</span>, which is insufficient to damage silicon by physically displacing atoms. Low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> growth accomplished with help of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam apparatus. Directs electrons into crosswise stream of gas, generating stream of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Pair of charged plates separates <span class="hlt">ions</span> from accompanying electrons and diverts <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam to target - silicon substrate. Diameter of beam at target 0.5 to 0.75 cm. Promises useful device to study oxidation of semiconductors and, in certain applications, to replace conventional oxidation processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780052134&hterms=clean+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dclean%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780052134&hterms=clean+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dclean%2Benergy"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> distributions of sputtered copper neutrals and <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lundquist, T. R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Direct quantitative analysis of surfaces by secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectrometry will depend on an understanding of the yield ratio of <span class="hlt">ions</span> to neutrals. This ratio as a function of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the sputtered particles has been obtained for a clean polycrystalline copper surface sputtered by 1000-3000 eV Ar(+). The <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of both neutral and ionized copper were measured with a retarding potential analyzer using potential modulation differentiation and signal averaging. The maximum for both distributions is identical and occurs near 2.5 eV. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions of neutrals is more sharply peaked than that of the <span class="hlt">ions</span>, presumably as a consequence of more efficient nutralization of slow escaping <span class="hlt">ions</span> by the mobile electrons of copper. The <span class="hlt">ion</span>-neutral ratio is compared with results from various ionization models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070021573&hterms=human+impacts+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Bimpacts%2Benvironment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070021573&hterms=human+impacts+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Bimpacts%2Benvironment"><span>Distribution of Micronuclei in Human Fibroblasts across the Bragg Curve of <span class="hlt">Light</span> and Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hada, M.; Lacy, S.; Gridley, D. S.; Rusek, A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The space environment consists of energetic particles of varying mass and <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and understanding the :biological Bragg curve" is essential in optimizing shielding effectiveness against space radiation induced biological impacts. The "biological Bragg curve" is dependent on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. Previously, we studied the induction of micronuclei (MN) across the Bragg curve of energetic Fe and Si <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and observed no increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono- to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition of cell progression, was found higher at the Bragg peak location in comparison to the plateau region of the Bragg curve. Here, we report the induction of MN in normal human fibroblast cells across the Bragg curve of incident protons generated at Loma Linda University. Similar to Si and Fe <span class="hlt">ions</span>, the ratio of mono- to bi-nucleated cells showed a clear spike as the protons reached the Bragg peak. Unlike the two heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>, however, the MN yield also increased at the Bragg peak location. These results confirm the hypothesis that severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak of heavy, but not <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are more likely to go through reproductive death and not be evaluated for micronuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070021573&hterms=human+impact+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Bimpact%2Benvironment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070021573&hterms=human+impact+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Bimpact%2Benvironment"><span>Distribution of Micronuclei in Human Fibroblasts across the Bragg Curve of <span class="hlt">Light</span> and Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hada, M.; Lacy, S.; Gridley, D. S.; Rusek, A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The space environment consists of energetic particles of varying mass and <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and understanding the :biological Bragg curve" is essential in optimizing shielding effectiveness against space radiation induced biological impacts. The "biological Bragg curve" is dependent on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. Previously, we studied the induction of micronuclei (MN) across the Bragg curve of energetic Fe and Si <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and observed no increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono- to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition of cell progression, was found higher at the Bragg peak location in comparison to the plateau region of the Bragg curve. Here, we report the induction of MN in normal human fibroblast cells across the Bragg curve of incident protons generated at Loma Linda University. Similar to Si and Fe <span class="hlt">ions</span>, the ratio of mono- to bi-nucleated cells showed a clear spike as the protons reached the Bragg peak. Unlike the two heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>, however, the MN yield also increased at the Bragg peak location. These results confirm the hypothesis that severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak of heavy, but not <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> are more likely to go through reproductive death and not be evaluated for micronuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6752245','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6752245"><span>Negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> as a source of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fink, J.H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source technology on the design of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> neutral beam injectors. However, negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive <span class="hlt">ion</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999NIMPB.153..410Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999NIMPB.153..410Y"><span>Dynamic MC simulation of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamura, Y.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence effect in the depth profiles of the dynamic Monte Carlo code, ACAT-DIFFUSE, is applied to the calculation of depth profiles due to low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> B <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation, where 1 and 5 keV B <span class="hlt">ions</span> are implanted into an amorphized silicon target. As the <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence increases, the dopant B atoms are accumulated in solids and the target must be considered as a two-component material composed of the original target atoms and trapped implanted <span class="hlt">ions</span>. This results in the radiation-induced-diffusion and the self-sputtering of trapped implanted <span class="hlt">ions</span>. It is found that the peak locations of the dopant B depth profiles at 1 keV B <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment shifted to the surface due to radiation-induced diffusion as <span class="hlt">ion</span> increased and we observe the near-the-surface enhancement in the dopant B depth profiles due to 5 keV B <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment. The self-sputtering also becomes important with increasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence. The retention ratios of the implanted B atoms are about 0.89 and 0.94 for 1 and 5 keV B <span class="hlt">ions</span>, respectively, at 3.0 × 10 13 B <span class="hlt">ions</span>/cm 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...514120X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...514120X"><span>Secondary batteries with multivalent <span class="hlt">ions</span> for <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage by high-power and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation “beyond-lithium” battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new “multivalent ion” battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent <span class="hlt">ions</span> (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or La3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery, we further use multivalent Ni2+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery for the first time. The nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni2+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and Ni anode. The nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery delivers a high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density (340 Wh kg-1, close to lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568479','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568479"><span>Secondary batteries with multivalent <span class="hlt">ions</span> for <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage by high-power and high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation “beyond-lithium” battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new “multivalent ion” battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent <span class="hlt">ions</span> (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or La3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery, we further use multivalent Ni2+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery for the first time. The nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni2+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>, and Ni anode. The nickel <span class="hlt">ion</span> battery delivers a high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density (340 Wh kg−1, close to lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times). PMID:26365600</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075648"><span>Ab initio calculations of <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> fusion reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hupin, G.; Quaglioni, S.; Navratil, P.</p> <p>2012-10-20</p> <p>The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches. The ab initio No-Core Shell Model/Resonating-Group Method (NCSM/RGM) complements a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in <span class="hlt">light</span> nuclei. Recent applications to <span class="hlt">light</span> nuclei scattering and fusion reactions relevant to <span class="hlt">energy</span> production in stars and Earth based fusion facilities, such as the deuterium-{sup 3}He fusion, are presented. Progress toward the inclusion of the three nucleon force into the formalism is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2788493','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2788493"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span>-Activated <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Channels for Remote Control of Neural Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chambers, James J.; Kramer, Richard H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light</span>-activated <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels provide a new opportunity to precisely and remotely control neuronal activity for experimental applications in neurobiology. In the past few years, several strategies have arisen that allow <span class="hlt">light</span> to control <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels and therefore neuronal function. <span class="hlt">Light</span>-based triggers for <span class="hlt">ion</span> channel control include caged compounds, which release active neurotransmitters when photolyzed with <span class="hlt">light</span>, and natural photoreceptive proteins, which can be expressed exogenously in neurons. More recently, a third type of <span class="hlt">light</span> trigger has been introduced: a photoisomerizable tethered ligand that directly controls <span class="hlt">ion</span> channel activity in a <span class="hlt">light</span>-dependent manner. Beyond the experimental applications for <span class="hlt">light</span>-gated <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels, there may be clinical applications in which these <span class="hlt">light</span>-sensitive <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels could prove advantageous over traditional methods. Electrodes for neural stimulation to control disease symptoms are invasive and often difficult to reposition between cells in tissue. Stimulation by chemical agents is difficult to constrain to individual cells and has limited temporal accuracy in tissue due to diffusional limitations. In contrast, <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels that can be directly activated with <span class="hlt">light</span> allow control with unparalleled spatial and temporal precision. The goal of this chapter is to describe <span class="hlt">light</span>-regulated <span class="hlt">ion</span> channels and how they have been tailored to control different aspects of neural activity, and how to use these channels to manipulate and better understand development, function, and plasticity of neurons and neural circuits. PMID:19195553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NIMPA.451..449C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NIMPA.451..449C"><span>A planar avalanche counter with a thin resistive cathode for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chtchetkovski, A. I.; Kotov, A. A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Vznuzdaev, E. A.</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>A new planar avalanche counter to detect the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, such as α-particles and low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> nuclei of hydrogen isotopes has been constructed. With a thin resistive film as a cathode, the detector can operate safely even in the presence of single spark without serious breakdown consequences. Pure vaporous n-pentane and some freons were used as a working gas. Tests were performed with 5.5 MeV α-particles from the 238Pu source at various gas pressures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21289460','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21289460"><span>Narrow Resonances in <span class="hlt">Light</span> Heavy-<span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collisions: Formation and Decay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haas, F.; Courtin, S.; Lebhertz, D.; Salsac, M.-D.</p> <p>2009-03-04</p> <p>Resonances in <span class="hlt">light</span> heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions have been observed in systems with a small number of open channels. Very narrow resonances have been reported in the {sup 24}Mg+{sup 24}Mg and {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C cases for which the results of recent experiments on their decay modes will be presented. Special emphasis will be given to the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C reaction where weak absorption allows the observation of resonant and refractive effects over a large bombarding <span class="hlt">energy</span> range. The nature of recently observed sub-coulomb resonances will also be raised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1006387','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1006387"><span>Concepts for ELIC - A High Luminosity CEBAF Based Electron-<span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collider</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ya. Derbenev, A. Bogacz, G. Krafft, R. Li, L. Merminga, B. Yunn, Y. Zhang</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>A CEBAF accelerator based electron-<span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> collider (ELIC) of rest mass <span class="hlt">energy</span> from 20 to 65 GeV and luminosity from 10^33 to 10^35 cm6-2s^-1 with both beams polarized is envisioned as a future upgrade to CEBAF. A two step upgrade scenario is under study: CEBAF accelerator-ring-ring scheme (CRR) as the first step, and a multi-turn ERL-ring as the second step, to attain a better electron emittance and maximum luminosity. In this paper we report results of our studies of the CRR version of ELIC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513136"><span>Relativistic Tennis with Photons: Frequency Up-Shifting, <span class="hlt">Light</span> Intensification and <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Acceleration with Flying Mirrors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Rosanov, N. N.; Zhidkov, A. G.</p> <p>2011-01-04</p> <p>We formulate the Flying Mirror Concept for relativistic interaction of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves with plasmas, present its theoretical description and the results of computer simulations and laboratory experiments. In collisionless plasmas, the relativistic flying mirrors are thin and dense electron or electron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> layers accelerated by the high intensity electromagnetic waves up to velocity close to the speed of <span class="hlt">light</span> in vacuum; in nonlinear-media and in nonlinear vacuum they are the ionization fronts and the refraction index modulations induced by a strong electromagnetic wave. The reflection of the electromagnetic wave at the relativistic mirror results in its <span class="hlt">energy</span> and frequency change due to the double Doppler effect. In the co-propagating configuration, in the radiation pressure dominant regime, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the electromagnetic wave is transferred to the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> providing a highly efficient acceleration mechanism. In the counter-propagation configuration the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the gamma-factor squared. If the relativistic mirror performs an oscillatory motion as in the case of the electron motion at the plasma-vacuum interface, the reflected <span class="hlt">light</span> spectrum is enriched with high order harmonics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhRvA..46.5497P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhRvA..46.5497P"><span>Semiclassical <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels and the corresponding potentials in nonhydrogenic <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pankratov, P.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>A semiclassical expression is derived for the potential seen by an nl-shell electron in a nonhydrogenic <span class="hlt">ion</span>. Corresponding <span class="hlt">energies</span> Enl are compared with experimental values and with results of self-consistent-field calculations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012678','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012678"><span><span class="hlt">IONS</span> (ANURADHA): Ionization states of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> cosmic rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biswas, S.; Chakraborti, R.; Cowsik, R.; Durgaprasad, N.; Kajarekar, P. J.; Singh, R. K.; Vahia, M. N.; Yadav, J. S.; Dutt, N.; Goswami, J. N.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">IONS</span> (ANURADHA), the experimental payload designed specifically to determine the ionization states, flux, composition, <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra and arrival directions of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> (10 to 100 MeV/amu) anomalous cosmic ray <span class="hlt">ions</span> of helium to iron in near-Earth space, had a highly successful flight and operation Spacelab-3 mission. The experiment combines the accuracy of a highly sensitive CR-39 nuclear track detector with active components included in the payload to achieve the experimental objectives. Post-flight analysis of detector calibration pieces placed within the payload indicated no measurable changes in detector response due to its exposure in spacelab environment. Nuclear tracks produced by alpha-particles, oxygen group and Fe <span class="hlt">ions</span> in low <span class="hlt">energy</span> anomalous cosmic rays were identified. It is calculated that the main detector has recorded high quality events of about 10,000 alpha-particles and similar number of oxygen group and heavier <span class="hlt">ions</span> of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> cosmic rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA567657','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA567657"><span>Cutter <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Efficient <span class="hlt">Lighting</span>: Cost Study Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>when at port. These circumstances usually result when the facility does not have the capacity to deliver the amount of power needed by the Cutter...systems, information technologies, air conditioning and heating , galley appliances, and <span class="hlt">lighting</span> are heavy consumers of electrical power . Additionally...vibration, impact, electrical interference, illumination, and wet/ harsh environmental conditions . (2) Marine grade <span class="hlt">lighting</span> is corrosion resistant and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7273318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7273318"><span>BNL high <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miake, Yasuo.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the measurement of particle spectra and correlations with good particle identification and with various triggers, such as selection of charged multiplicity, neutral <span class="hlt">energy</span> and forward <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......249S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......249S"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> loss of <span class="hlt">ions</span> implanted in MOS dielectric films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shyam, Radhey</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> loss measurements of <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the low kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> regime have been made on as-grown SiO2(170-190nm) targets. Singly charged Na + <span class="hlt">ions</span> with kinetic <span class="hlt">energies</span> of 2-5 keV and highly charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> Ar +Q (Q=4, 8 and 11) with a kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 1 keV were used. Excitations produced by the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss in the oxides were captured by encapsulating the irradiated oxide under a top metallic contact. The resulting Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) devices were probed with Capacitance-Voltage (C V) measurements and extracted the flatband voltages from the C-V curves. The C-V results for singly charged <span class="hlt">ion</span> experiments reveal that the changes in the flatband voltage and slope for implanted devices relative to the pristine devices can be used to delineate effects due to implanted <span class="hlt">ions</span> only and <span class="hlt">ion</span> induced damage. The data shows that the flatband voltage shifts and C-V slope changes are <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependent. The observed changes in flatband voltage which are greater than those predicted by calculations scaled for the <span class="hlt">ion</span> dose and implantation range (SRIM). These results, however, are consistent with a columnar recombination model, where electron-hole pairs are created due to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposited by the implanted <span class="hlt">ions</span> within the oxide. The remaining holes left after recombination losses are diffused through the oxide at the room temperature and remain present as trapped charges. Comparison of the data with the total number of the holes generated gives a fractional yield of 0.0124 which is of the same order as prior published high <span class="hlt">energy</span> irradiation experiments. Additionally, the interface trap density, extracted from high and low frequency C-V measurements is observed to increase by one order of magnitude over our incident beam <span class="hlt">energy</span>. These results confirm that dose- and kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> -dependent effects can be recorded for singly charged <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation on oxides using this method. Highly charged <span class="hlt">ion</span> results also confirm that dose as well as and charge-dependent effects can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254148','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254148"><span>A compact, versatile low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zschornack, G.; König, J.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>A new compact Electron Beam <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Source, the Dresden EBIT-LE, is introduced as an <span class="hlt">ion</span> source working at low electron beam <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The EBIT-LE operates at an electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> ranging from 100 eV to some keV and can easily be modified to an EBIT also working at higher electron beam <span class="hlt">energies</span> of up to 15 keV. We show that, depending on the electron beam <span class="hlt">energy</span>, electron beam currents from a few mA in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> regime up to about 40 mA in the high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> regime are possible. Technical solutions as well as first experimental results of the EBIT-LE are presented. In <span class="hlt">ion</span> extraction experiments, a stable production of low and intermediate charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> at electron beam <span class="hlt">energies</span> below 2 keV is demonstrated. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the possibility of using the machine as a source of X-rays from <span class="hlt">ions</span> excited at low electron <span class="hlt">energies</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593602"><span>A compact, versatile low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zschornack, G; König, J; Schmidt, M; Thorn, A</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A new compact Electron Beam <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Source, the Dresden EBIT-LE, is introduced as an <span class="hlt">ion</span> source working at low electron beam <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The EBIT-LE operates at an electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> ranging from 100 eV to some keV and can easily be modified to an EBIT also working at higher electron beam <span class="hlt">energies</span> of up to 15 keV. We show that, depending on the electron beam <span class="hlt">energy</span>, electron beam currents from a few mA in the low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> regime up to about 40 mA in the high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> regime are possible. Technical solutions as well as first experimental results of the EBIT-LE are presented. In <span class="hlt">ion</span> extraction experiments, a stable production of low and intermediate charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> at electron beam <span class="hlt">energies</span> below 2 keV is demonstrated. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the possibility of using the machine as a source of X-rays from <span class="hlt">ions</span> excited at low electron <span class="hlt">energies</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6268436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6268436"><span>Measurement of parallel <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution function in PISCES plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tynan, G.R.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>The PISCES facility is used to conduct controlled plasma-surface interaction experiments. Plasma parameters typical of those found in the edge plasmas of major fusion confinement experiments are produced. In this work, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux incident on a material surface is measured using a gridded <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer in place of a material sample. The full width at half maximum <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux is found to vary from 10 eV to 30 eV both hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. Helium plasmas have a much lower FWHM <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread than hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. The FWHM <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread is found to be linearly related to the electron temperature. The most probable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> is found to be linearly related to the bias applied to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer. Other plasma parameters have a weak influence upon the <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux. Two possible physical mechanisms for producing the observed results are introduced and suggestions for further work are made. The impact of the reported measurements on the materials experiments conducted in the PISCES facility are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made. 11 refs., 13 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5390087','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5390087"><span>Super high <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Geist, W.M.</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>Basic theoretical ideas on a phase transition to a plasma of free quarks and gluons in heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions are outlined. First results from experiments with oxygen beams at 14.5 GeV/c/N (BNL), 60 and 200 GeV/c/N (CERN) are discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007711','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007711"><span>High latitude proton precipitation and <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> density profiles during the magnetic storm initial phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burch, J. L.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of precipitating protons and <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> densities by experiments on OGO-4 indicate that widespread proton precipitation occurs in predawn hours during the magnetic storm initial phase from the latitude of the high-latitude <span class="hlt">ion</span> trough, or plasmapause , up to Lambda 75 deg. A softening of the proton spectrum is apparent as the plasmapause is approached. The separation of the low-latitude precipitation boundaries for 7.3 kev and 23.8 kev protons is approximately 1 deg, compared with a 3.6 deg separation which has been computed using the formulas of Gendrin and Eather and Carovillano. Consideration of probable proton drift morphology leads to the conclusion that protons ase injected in predawn hours, with widespread precipitation occurring in the region outside the plasmapause. Protons less energetic than approximately 7 kev drift eastward, while the more energetic protons drift westward, producing the observed dawn-dusk asymmetry for the lower-<span class="hlt">energy</span> protons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864205','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864205"><span>Electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from <span class="hlt">ions</span> as they are extracted from a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source plasma generator and before the <span class="hlt">ions</span> are accelerated to their full kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam path in a precessing motion out of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the <span class="hlt">ion</span> generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910018810','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910018810"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> sputtering of cobalt by cesium <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Handoo, A.; Ray, Pradosh K.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An experimental facility to investigate low <span class="hlt">energy</span> (less than 500 eV) sputtering of metal surfaces with <span class="hlt">ions</span> produced by an <span class="hlt">ion</span> gun is described. Results are reported on the sputtering yield of cobalt by cesium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the 100 to 500 eV <span class="hlt">energy</span> range at a pressure of 1 times 10(exp -6) Torr. The target was electroplated on a copper substrate. The sputtered atoms were collected on a cobalt foil surrounding the target. Co-57 was used as a tracer to determine the sputtering yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041055"><span>Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and LET Spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> and lineary <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5011409','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5011409"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> efficient <span class="hlt">lighting</span> and security; Are they compatible</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, R.A. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports that properly applied, <span class="hlt">light</span> sources and <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems not only enhance a building's attractiveness and usability, they also create a secure environment. An effectively <span class="hlt">lighted</span> area can minimize pedestrian hazards and auto accidents. Good security <span class="hlt">lighting</span> also eliminates the darkness that vandals, thieves, and felons thrive on. Unfortunately, <span class="hlt">lighting</span> quality has sometimes been sacrificed for the sake of <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency, and resulting savings offset by poor aesthetics and user dissatisfaction. However, trade-offs in quality and efficiency are not necessary, thanks to recent developments in <span class="hlt">light</span> source technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28653242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28653242"><span>Variables Affecting the Internal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> of Peptide <span class="hlt">Ions</span> During Separation by Differential <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Mobility Spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santiago, Brandon G; Campbell, Matthew T; Glish, Gary L</p> <p>2017-06-26</p> <p>Differential <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility spectrometry (DIMS) devices separate <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the basis of differences in <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility in low and high electric fields, and can be used as a stand-alone analytical method or as a separation step before further analysis. As with other <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility separation techniques, the ability of DIMS separations to retain the structural characteristics of analytes has been of concern. For DIMS separations, this potential loss of <span class="hlt">ion</span> structure originates from the fact that the separations occur at atmospheric pressure and the <span class="hlt">ions</span>, during their transit through the device, undergo repeated collisions with the DIMS carrier gas while being accelerated by the electric field. These collisions have the ability to increase the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of the <span class="hlt">ions</span>, which can cause isomerization or fragmentation. The increase in internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> is based on a number of variables, including the dispersion field and characteristics of the carrier gas such as temperature and composition. The effects of these parameters on the intra-DIMS fragmentation of multiply charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the peptides bradykinin (RPPGFSPFR) and GLISH are discussed herein. Furthermore, similarities and differences in the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition that occur during collisional activation in tandem mass spectrometry experiments are discussed, as the fragmentation pathways accessed by both are similar. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASMS..28.2160S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASMS..28.2160S"><span>Variables Affecting the Internal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> of Peptide <span class="hlt">Ions</span> During Separation by Differential <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Mobility Spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santiago, Brandon G.; Campbell, Matthew T.; Glish, Gary L.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Differential <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility spectrometry (DIMS) devices separate <span class="hlt">ions</span> on the basis of differences in <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility in low and high electric fields, and can be used as a stand-alone analytical method or as a separation step before further analysis. As with other <span class="hlt">ion</span> mobility separation techniques, the ability of DIMS separations to retain the structural characteristics of analytes has been of concern. For DIMS separations, this potential loss of <span class="hlt">ion</span> structure originates from the fact that the separations occur at atmospheric pressure and the <span class="hlt">ions</span>, during their transit through the device, undergo repeated collisions with the DIMS carrier gas while being accelerated by the electric field. These collisions have the ability to increase the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of the <span class="hlt">ions</span>, which can cause isomerization or fragmentation. The increase in internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> is based on a number of variables, including the dispersion field and characteristics of the carrier gas such as temperature and composition. The effects of these parameters on the intra-DIMS fragmentation of multiply charged <span class="hlt">ions</span> of the peptides bradykinin (RPPGFSPFR) and GLISH are discussed herein. Furthermore, similarities and differences in the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition that occur during collisional activation in tandem mass spectrometry experiments are discussed, as the fragmentation pathways accessed by both are similar. [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990045892&hterms=springer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26Nf%3DPublication-Date%257CBTWN%2B19970101%2B20031231%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dspringer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990045892&hterms=springer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26Nf%3DPublication-Date%257CBTWN%2B19970101%2B20031231%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dspringer"><span>Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an <span class="hlt">ion</span>. We present calculations of these spectra for <span class="hlt">ions</span> of identical linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these <span class="hlt">ions</span>. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for <span class="hlt">ions</span>. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990045892&hterms=Electron+Transfer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DElectron%2BTransfer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990045892&hterms=Electron+Transfer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DElectron%2BTransfer"><span>Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an <span class="hlt">ion</span>. We present calculations of these spectra for <span class="hlt">ions</span> of identical linear <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these <span class="hlt">ions</span>. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for <span class="hlt">ions</span>. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhD...44g5205D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhD...44g5205D"><span>Retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyser <span class="hlt">ion</span> current calibration and transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denieffe, K.; Mahony, C. M. O.; Maguire, P. D.; Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Accurate measurement of <span class="hlt">ion</span> current density and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions (IEDs) is often critical for plasma processes in both industrial and research settings. Retarding field <span class="hlt">energy</span> analysers (RFEAs) have been used to measure IEDs because they are considered accurate, relatively simple and cost effective. However, their usage for critical measurement of <span class="hlt">ion</span> current density is less common due to difficulties in estimating the proportion of incident <span class="hlt">ion</span> current reaching the current collector through the RFEA retarding grids. In this paper an RFEA has been calibrated to measure <span class="hlt">ion</span> current density from an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam at pressures ranging from 0.5 to 50.0 mTorr. A unique method is presented where the currents generated at each of the retarding grids and the RFEA upper face are measured separately, allowing the reduction in <span class="hlt">ion</span> current to be monitored and accounted for at each stage of <span class="hlt">ion</span> transit to the collector. From these I-V measurements a physical model is described. Subsequently, a mathematical description is extracted which includes parameters to account for grid transmissions, upper face secondary electron emission and collisionality. Pressure-dependent calibration factors can be calculated from least mean square best fits of the collector current to the model allowing quantitative measurement of <span class="hlt">ion</span> current density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcSpA.174..236K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcSpA.174..236K"><span>Study on the interactional behaviour of transition metal <span class="hlt">ions</span> with myoglobin: A detailed calorimetric, spectroscopic and <span class="hlt">light</span> scattering analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaur, Amandeep; Banipal, Parampaul K.; Banipal, Tarlok S.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The energetics and the impact on the conformation of heme containing protein myoglobin (Mb) due to the binding of three transition metal <span class="hlt">ions</span> (Zn2 +, Ni2 +, and Mn2 +) have been investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), dynamic <span class="hlt">light</span> scattering (DLS), UV-vis, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under physiological conditions. The binding affinity of the order of 104 M- 1 has been observed for all metal <span class="hlt">ions</span> from calorimetry as well as from absorption spectroscopy. The binding of these metal <span class="hlt">ions</span> with Mb is a spontaneous process that exposes the hydrophobic groups away from the protein core as exhibited by the negative Gibbs free <span class="hlt">energy</span> change (ΔG) and positive heat capacity change (ΔCp) values. Both <span class="hlt">light</span> scattering and CD results demonstrates that the binding of Zn2 + and Mn2 + <span class="hlt">ions</span> with Mb results in the folding whereas Ni2 + <span class="hlt">ion</span> results in the unfolding of the protein. No direct interactions among the transition metal <span class="hlt">ions</span> and heme moiety of Mb has been observed from absorption study. The results of these studies reveals that Mn2 + <span class="hlt">ion</span> influences the biological functions of Mb to a larger extent in spite of its lowest affinity followed by Zn2 + and Ni2 + <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16853872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16853872"><span>Ultralow <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam surface modification of low density polyethylene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shenton, Martyn J; Bradley, James W; van den Berg, Jaap A; Armour, David G; Stevens, Gary C</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Ultralow <span class="hlt">energy</span> Ar+ and O+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation of low density polyethylene has been carried out under controlled dose and monoenergetic conditions. XPS of Ar+-treated surfaces exposed to ambient atmosphere show that the bombardment of 50 eV Ar+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> at a total dose of 10(16) cm(-2) gives rise to very reactive surfaces with oxygen incorporation at about 50% of the species present in the upper surface layer. Using pure O+ beam irradiation, comparatively low O incorporation is achieved without exposure to atmosphere (approximately 13% O in the upper surface). However, if the surface is activated by Ar+ pretreatment, then large oxygen contents can be achieved under subsequent O+ irradiation (up to 48% O). The results show that for very low <span class="hlt">energy</span> (20 eV) oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span> there is a dose threshold of about 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) before surface oxygen incorporation is observed. It appears that, for both Ar+ and O+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> in this regime, the degree of surface modification is only very weakly dependent on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The results suggest that in the nonequilibrium plasma treatment of polymers, where the <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux is typically 10(18) m(-2) s(-1), low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> (<50 eV) may be responsible for surface chemical modification.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhDT........82D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhDT........82D"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span>-Molecule Reaction Studies at Low <span class="hlt">Energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dheandhanoo, Seksan</p> <p></p> <p>A variable temperature drift tube-mass spectrometer apparatus has been used to determine the forward rate coefficients for the association reactions of NO('+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> with N(,2) and CO(,2), O(,2)('+) with N(,2), N('+) and N(,2)('+) with N(,2), and CH(,5)('+) and C(,2)H(,5)('+) with CH(,4) as a function of gas temperature. The measured rate coefficients were fitted to power laws of the form k(,+) = C(T/300)(' -x), where the exponents ranged from 2.0 to 4.3, i.e. a strong temperature dependence was observed in most of these three-body (clustering) reactions. The equilibrium constants K = k(,+)/k(,-) for the association reactions of CH(,5)('+) and C(,2)H(,5)('+) with CH(,4) were also measured as a function of gas temperature, allowing the reverse rate coefficients k(,-) for these two reactions to be determined. In a second set of measurements, rate coefficients for several two-body <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule reactions involving hydrocarbons have been determined at thermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> and above using a selected <span class="hlt">ion</span> drift tube-mass spectrometer apparatus. The results indicate that the product yields of several of the fast <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule reactions depend on <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> (temperature), even though the total rate coefficients are independent of <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The oxidation reaction of the metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> Zr('+) has been found to be a fast reaction and the rate coefficient has been found to be independent of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125858.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125858.pdf"><span>Living <span class="hlt">Lightly</span>: <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conservation in Housing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bender, Tom</p> <p></p> <p>This publication contains a series of papers which promote the concepts of <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation and offer safe and convenient ways of handling all aspects of our lives affected by <span class="hlt">energy</span> without having to depend in any way on fossil fuels or nuclear power. These changes, which can be brought about in homes and in <span class="hlt">energy</span> flows affected by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.15307029C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.15307029C"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Yields from Bombardment of Thick Targets by Protons, Helium-4 and Iron-56</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castellanos, Luis A.; McGirl, Natalie A.; Srikrishna, Ashwin P.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Tessa, Chiara La; Rusek, Adam; Sivertz, Michael; Blattnig, Steve; Clowdsley, Martha; Slaba, Tony; Zeitlin, Cary</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>In March 2016 accelerator-based experiments colliding protons (0.4 and 0.8 GeV), helium (0.4 AGeV) and iron (0.4 and 0.8 AGeV) on thick aluminum targets with surface densities of 20, 40, and 60 g/cm2 were performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Two targets were utilized in each experimental configuration. Hydrogen and helium <span class="hlt">ions</span> were detected using organic liquid scintillators in conjunction with thin plastic scintillators at 10°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, and 135° from beam axis. Time-of-flight techniques and pulse shape discrimination were used to identify <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> species in order to generate double differential <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra of the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> fragments. Comparisons of these measured yields were compared with Monte Carlo calculations generated by MCNP6. These yields will be used to quantify uncertainty in radiation transport codes utilized in risk assessment for spaceflight missions with prolonged exposures to galactic cosmic rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804213"><span>Degradation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Structures through <span class="hlt">Light</span> and Electron Beam Driven <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Migration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuan, Haifeng; Debroye, Elke; Janssen, Kris; Naiki, Hiroyuki; Steuwe, Christian; Lu, Gang; Moris, Michèle; Orgiu, Emanuele; Uji-I, Hiroshi; De Schryver, Frans; Samorì, Paolo; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten</p> <p>2016-02-04</p> <p>Organometal halide perovskites show promising features for cost-effective application in photovoltaics. The material instability remains a major obstacle to broad application because of the poorly understood degradation pathways. Here, we apply simultaneous luminescence and electron microscopy on perovskites for the first time, allowing us to monitor in situ morphology evolution and optical properties upon perovskite degradation. Interestingly, morphology, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence of perovskite samples evolve differently upon degradation driven by electron beam (e-beam) or by <span class="hlt">light</span>. A transversal electric current generated by a scanning electron beam leads to dramatic changes in PL and tunes the <span class="hlt">energy</span> band gaps continuously alongside film thinning. In contrast, <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced degradation results in material decomposition to scattered particles and shows little PL spectral shifts. The differences in degradation can be ascribed to different electric currents that drive <span class="hlt">ion</span> migration. Moreover, solution-processed perovskite cuboids show heterogeneity in stability which is likely related to crystallinity and morphology. Our results reveal the essential role of <span class="hlt">ion</span> migration in perovskite degradation and provide potential avenues to rationally enhance the stability of perovskite materials by reducing <span class="hlt">ion</span> migration while improving morphology and crystallinity. It is worth noting that even moderate e-beam currents (86 pA) and acceleration voltages (10 kV) readily induce significant perovskite degradation and alter their optical properties. Therefore, attention has to be paid while characterizing such materials using scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4745111','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4745111"><span>Degradation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Structures through <span class="hlt">Light</span> and Electron Beam Driven <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Organometal halide perovskites show promising features for cost-effective application in photovoltaics. The material instability remains a major obstacle to broad application because of the poorly understood degradation pathways. Here, we apply simultaneous luminescence and electron microscopy on perovskites for the first time, allowing us to monitor in situ morphology evolution and optical properties upon perovskite degradation. Interestingly, morphology, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence of perovskite samples evolve differently upon degradation driven by electron beam (e-beam) or by <span class="hlt">light</span>. A transversal electric current generated by a scanning electron beam leads to dramatic changes in PL and tunes the <span class="hlt">energy</span> band gaps continuously alongside film thinning. In contrast, <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced degradation results in material decomposition to scattered particles and shows little PL spectral shifts. The differences in degradation can be ascribed to different electric currents that drive <span class="hlt">ion</span> migration. Moreover, solution-processed perovskite cuboids show heterogeneity in stability which is likely related to crystallinity and morphology. Our results reveal the essential role of <span class="hlt">ion</span> migration in perovskite degradation and provide potential avenues to rationally enhance the stability of perovskite materials by reducing <span class="hlt">ion</span> migration while improving morphology and crystallinity. It is worth noting that even moderate e-beam currents (86 pA) and acceleration voltages (10 kV) readily induce significant perovskite degradation and alter their optical properties. Therefore, attention has to be paid while characterizing such materials using scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy techniques. PMID:26804213</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10129406','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10129406"><span><span class="hlt">Lighting</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>United States. Bonneville Power Administration.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>Since <span class="hlt">lighting</span> accounts for about one-third of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce <span class="hlt">lighting</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> use: modify <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the <span class="hlt">lights</span> are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing <span class="hlt">lighting</span> levels, reducing <span class="hlt">lighting</span> levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate <span class="hlt">lighting</span>, and taking advantage of daylight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27998103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27998103"><span>Nb2O5 Nanostructure Evolution on Nb Surfaces via Low-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> He(+) <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Irradiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Novakowski, Theodore Joseph; Tripathi, Jitendra Kumar; Hassanein, Ahmed</p> <p>2016-12-21</p> <p>We propose low-<span class="hlt">energy</span>, broad-beam He(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation as a novel processing technique for the generation of Nb2O5 surface nanostructures due to its relative simplicity and scalability in a commercial setting. Since there have been relatively few studies involving the interaction of high-fluence, low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> He(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation and Nb (or its oxidized states), this systematic study explores both effects of fluence and sample temperature during irradiation on resulting surface morphology. Detailed normal and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal subsurface He bubble formation and elucidate potential driving mechanisms for nanostructure evolution. A combination of specular optical reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is also used to gain additional information on roughness and stoichiometry of irradiated surfaces. Our investigations show significant surface modification for all tested irradiation conditions; the resulting surface structure size and geometry have a strong dependence on both sample temperature during irradiation and total <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence. Optical reflectivity measurements on irradiated surfaces demonstrate increased surface roughening with increasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence, and XPS shows higher oxidation levels for samples irradiated at lower temperatures, suggesting larger surface roughness and porosity. Overall, it was found that low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> He(+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation is an efficient processing technique for nanostructure formation, and surface structures are highly tunable by adjusting <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluence and Nb2O5 sample temperature during irradiation. These findings may have excellent potential applications for solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion through improved efficiency due to effective <span class="hlt">light</span> absorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920068569&hterms=Free+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFree%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920068569&hterms=Free+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFree%2Benergy"><span>Relationship between wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> and free <span class="hlt">energy</span> from pickup <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the Comet Halley environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huddleston, D. E.; Johnstone, A. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The free <span class="hlt">energy</span> available from the implanted heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> population at Comet Halley is calculated by assuming that the initial unstable velocity space ring distribution of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> evolves toward a bispherical shell. Ultimately this free <span class="hlt">energy</span> adds to the turbulence in the solar wind. Upstream and downstream free <span class="hlt">energies</span> are obtained separately for the conditions observed along the Giotto spacecraft trajectory. The results indicate that the waves are mostly upstream propagating in the solar wind frame. The total free <span class="hlt">energy</span> density always exceeds the measured wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> density because, as expected in the nonlinear process of <span class="hlt">ion</span> scattering, the available <span class="hlt">energy</span> is not all immediately released. An estimate of the amount which has been released can be obtained from the measured oxygen <span class="hlt">ion</span> distributions and again it exceeds that observed. The theoretical analysis is extended to calculate the k spectrum of the cometary-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-generated turbulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920068569&hterms=Johnstone&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DJohnstone','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920068569&hterms=Johnstone&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DJohnstone"><span>Relationship between wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> and free <span class="hlt">energy</span> from pickup <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the Comet Halley environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huddleston, D. E.; Johnstone, A. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The free <span class="hlt">energy</span> available from the implanted heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> population at Comet Halley is calculated by assuming that the initial unstable velocity space ring distribution of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> evolves toward a bispherical shell. Ultimately this free <span class="hlt">energy</span> adds to the turbulence in the solar wind. Upstream and downstream free <span class="hlt">energies</span> are obtained separately for the conditions observed along the Giotto spacecraft trajectory. The results indicate that the waves are mostly upstream propagating in the solar wind frame. The total free <span class="hlt">energy</span> density always exceeds the measured wave <span class="hlt">energy</span> density because, as expected in the nonlinear process of <span class="hlt">ion</span> scattering, the available <span class="hlt">energy</span> is not all immediately released. An estimate of the amount which has been released can be obtained from the measured oxygen <span class="hlt">ion</span> distributions and again it exceeds that observed. The theoretical analysis is extended to calculate the k spectrum of the cometary-<span class="hlt">ion</span>-generated turbulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6985952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6985952"><span>Thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule association reactions involving sodium <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Passarella, R.; Castleman, A.W. Jr. )</p> <p>1989-07-27</p> <p>Rate coefficients are reported for the association of HCl, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, ND{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH with Na{sup +}. At ambient temperature three-body rates in helium are found to range from 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}30} to 6.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}28} cm{sup 6}/s, increasing in magnitude in the order of the associated ligand listed above. Interestingly, deuterated ammonia associates more than twice as fast as <span class="hlt">light</span> ammonia. Experiments made in argon revealed the expected fact that Ar is always a more efficient quencher than He and thus gives a larger rate coefficient for these reactions. The reactions were also measured over a range of temperatures in helium, and the results were fitted to the usual form K = AT{sup {minus}n}. The values of n deduced from the measurements are not in very good accord with current theoretical models existing in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21476175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21476175"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution near a plasma meniscus with beam extraction for multi element focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mathew, Jose V.; Paul, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep</p> <p>2010-05-15</p> <p>An earlier study of the axial <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution in the extraction region (plasma meniscus) of a compact microwave plasma <span class="hlt">ion</span> source showed that the axial <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread near the meniscus is small ({approx}5 eV) and comparable to that of a liquid metal <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, making it a promising candidate for focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam (FIB) applications [J. V. Mathew and S. Bhattacharjee, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 96101 (2009)]. In the present work we have investigated the radial <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution (IED) under the influence of beam extraction. Initially a single Einzel lens system has been used for beam extraction with potentials up to -6 kV for obtaining parallel beams. In situ measurements of IED with extraction voltages upto -5 kV indicates that beam extraction has a weak influence on the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread ({+-}0.5 eV) which is of significance from the point of view of FIB applications. It is found that by reducing the geometrical acceptance angle at the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer probe, close to unidirectional distribution can be obtained with a spread that is smaller by at least 1 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB020187','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB020187"><span>Automatic <span class="hlt">Light</span> Sensing and Control of <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Systems for <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-06-01</p> <p>Electric, Westinghouse, Lutron , ATMOS Gorp., and Wide- Lite) manufacture manually controlled <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems that will conserve <span class="hlt">energy</span> if properly...Electric Company 8. Quality Outdoor <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> 9. American Electric (ITT) 10. World <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Products 11. Lutron Electronics Company, Inc. 12. Roxter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.317..223M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPB.317..223M"><span>Upgrade of the facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of <span class="hlt">light</span> Radioactive <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazzocco, M.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Costa, L.; Glodariu, T.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Stroe, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of <span class="hlt">light</span> weakly-bound Radioactive <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams (RIBs) has been operating at INFN-LNL since 2004. RIBs are produced via two-body reactions induced by high intensity heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> beams impinging on <span class="hlt">light</span> gas targets and selected by means of a 30°-dipole bending magnet and a 1-m long Wien filter. The facility has been recently upgraded (i) by developing a cryogenic gas target, (ii) by replacing the power supplies of the middle lenses of the two quadrupole triplets, (iii) by installing two y-steerers and (iv) by placing two Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters upstream the secondary target to provide an event-by-event reconstruction of the position hit on the target. So far, RIBs of 7Be, 8B and 17F in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range 3-5 MeV/u have been produced with intensities about 3 × 105, 1.6 × 103 and 105 pps, respectively. Possible <span class="hlt">light</span> RIBs (up to Z = 10) deliverable by the facility EXOTIC are also reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586602"><span>Cu <span class="hlt">ion</span> ink for a flexible substrate and highly conductive patterning by intensive pulsed <span class="hlt">light</span> sintering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Byung-Yong; Yoo, Tae-Hee; Song, Yong-Won; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Young-Jei</p> <p>2013-05-22</p> <p>Direct printing techniques that utilize nanoparticles to mitigate environmental pollution and reduce the processing time of the routing and formation of electrodes have received much attention lately. In particular, copper (Cu) nanoink using Cu nanoparticles offers high conductivity and can be prepared at low cost. However, it is difficult to produce homogeneous nanoparticles and ensure good dispersion within the ink. Moreover, Cu particles require a sintering process over an extended time at a high temperature due to high melting temperature of Cu. During this process, the nanoparticles oxidize quickly in air. To address these problems, the authors developed a Cu <span class="hlt">ion</span> ink that is free of Cu particles or any other impurities. It consequently does not require separate dispersion stability. In addition, the developed ink is environmentally friendly and can be sintered even at low temperatures. The Cu <span class="hlt">ion</span> ink was sintered on a flexible substrate using intense pulsed <span class="hlt">light</span> (IPL), which facilitates large-area, high-speed calcination at room temperature and at atmospheric pressures. As the applied <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> increases, the Cu2O phase diminishes, leaving only the Cu phase. This is attributed to the influence of formic acid (HCOOH) on the Cu <span class="hlt">ion</span> ink. Only the Cu phase was observed above 40 J cm(-2). The Cu-patterned film after sintering showed outstanding electrical resistivity in a range of 3.21-5.27 μΩ·cm at an IPL <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 40-60 J cm(-2). A spiral-type micropattern with a line width of 160 μm on a PI substrate was formed without line bulges or coffee ring effects. The electrical resistivity was 5.27 μΩ·cm at an <span class="hlt">energy</span> level of 40.6 J cm(-2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1473444','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1473444"><span>Electrostatic calculations for an <span class="hlt">ion</span> channel. I. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and potential profiles and interactions between <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Levitt, D G</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The electrostatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> profile of one, two, or three <span class="hlt">ions</span> in an aqueous channel through a lipid membrane is calculated. It is shown that the previous solution to this problem (based on the assumption that the channel is infinitely long) significantly overestimates the electrostatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> barrier. For example, for a 3-A radius pore, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> is 16 kT for the infinite channel and 6.7 kT for an <span class="hlt">ion</span> in the center of a channel 25 A long. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> as a function of the position of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> is also determined. With this <span class="hlt">energy</span> profile, the rate of crossing the membrane (using the Nernst-Planck equation) was estimated and found to be compatible with the maximum conductance observed for the gramicidin A channel. The total electrostatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> (as a function of position) required to place two or three <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the channel is also calculated. The electrostatic interaction is small for two <span class="hlt">ions</span> at opposite ends of the channel and large for any positioning of the three <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Finally, the gradient through the channel of an applied potential is calculated. The solution to these problems is based on solving an equivalent problem in which an appropriate surface charge is placed on the boundary between the lipid and aqueous regions. The magnitude of the surface charge is obtained from the numerical solution for a system of coupled integral equations. PMID:656542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26609550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26609550"><span>Visible <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced <span class="hlt">ion</span>-selective optodes based on a metastable photoacid for cation detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Parth K; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y</p> <p>2016-01-07</p> <p>A new platform of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-selective optodes is presented here to detect cations under thermodynamic equilibrium via ratiometric analysis. This novel platform utilizes a 'one of a kind' visible <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced metastable photoacid as a reference <span class="hlt">ion</span> indicator to achieve activatable and controllable sensors. These <span class="hlt">ion</span>-selective optodes were studied in terms of their stability, sensitivity, selectivity, and theoretical aspects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15043842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15043842"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> transport across model lipid membranes containing <span class="hlt">light</span>-harvesting complex II: an effect of <span class="hlt">light</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iwaszko, Ewa; Wardak, Anna; Krupa, Zbigniew; Gruszecki, Wiesław I</p> <p>2004-03-19</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">light</span> on proton transport across lipid membranes of small unilamellar liposomes containing incorporated major <span class="hlt">light</span>-harvesting pigment-protein complex of Photosystem II (LHCII) has been studied with the application of pH-sensitive dyes entrapped inside vesicles. Proton permeability coefficient for LHCII-modified membranes was found to be about twice as high as in the case of the control pure lipid vesicles. Illumination of the samples with <span class="hlt">light</span> absorbed by the LHCII-bound photosynthetic pigments considerably affects the kinetics of proton transport: it increases the rate and decreases the steady-state level of proton gradient across the membranes. The effect was interpreted in terms of heat-induced conformational changes of LHCII molecular structures that affect proton buffering capacity of this protein. Both the control and the LHCII-modified lipid membranes have been found to be practically impermeable to Ca(++) <span class="hlt">ions</span>, as demonstrated by fluorescence of liposome-entrapped calcium-sensitive probe calcium crimson. The slight differences in the proton transport across the LHCII-containing membranes under the presence of Ca(++) suggest calcium binding to this antenna protein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JPCM...11.8739L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JPCM...11.8739L"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> transfer between Eu3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> in calcium diborate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavín, V.; Martín, I. R.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Rodríguez, V. D.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>The evolution of the 5D0icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 7F0 emission of Eu3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> in calcium diborate glasses has been analysed using time resolved fluorescence line narrowing measurements in order to give a complete view of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer processes between these <span class="hlt">ions</span>. At low concentration (2.5 mol% of Eu2O3) and exciting within the high <span class="hlt">energy</span> side of the inhomogeneous 7F0icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 5D0 absorption band, the luminescence spectrum mainly consists of a narrow resonant peak that repeats the exciting profile, indicating that the migration processes between Eu3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> within the 5D0 level is not important. However, at higher concentrations (5 to 11.5 mol% of Eu2O3) the luminescence spectrum contains not only a narrow emission but also a broad band due to <span class="hlt">ions</span> excited by <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (background fluorescence), which for long times well reproduces the inhomogeneous profile. The temporal evolution of the narrow band fluorescence and the shape of the background fluorescence have been analysed using a previously proposed model. The purpose is to understand the dynamics involved in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer processes caused by the interaction between Eu3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> and the implications in their luminescence. A very good agreement with the experimental results is found taking into account an <span class="hlt">energy</span> dependent quadrupole-quadrupole (S = 10) non-radiative <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer process assisted by a phonon from Eu3+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> at high crystal field sites to <span class="hlt">ions</span> at low crystal field sites. The temperature dependence of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer processes is analysed in the range from 13 to 60 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014079','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1014079"><span>Non-contact pumping of <span class="hlt">light</span> emitters via non-radiative <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Klimov, Victor I.; Achermann, Marc</p> <p>2010-01-05</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting device is disclosed including a primary <span class="hlt">light</span> source having a defined emission photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> output, and, a <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting material situated near to said primary <span class="hlt">light</span> source, said <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting material having an absorption onset equal to or less in photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> than the emission photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> output of the primary <span class="hlt">light</span> source whereby non-radiative <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from said primary <span class="hlt">light</span> source to said <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting material can occur yielding <span class="hlt">light</span> emission from said <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15015150','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15015150"><span>New <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Fixtures: Combining Creativity and Style with <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gordon, Kelly L.; Foster, Rebecca; McGowan, Terry</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>This article for a building trade magazine describes a national design competition for <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficient <span class="hlt">lighting</span> sponsored by the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>, the American <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Association, and the Consortium for <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Efficiency, with winners announced at ALA's Annual Conference May 14, 2004, in Tucson. The <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> for Tomorrow competition was the first national <span class="hlt">lighting</span> fixture design competition focusing on <span class="hlt">energy</span>-efficient residential <span class="hlt">lighting</span>. The competition invited fixture manufacturers and designers to come up with beautiful, functional <span class="hlt">lighting</span> fixtures that also happen to be <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficient. Fixtures were required to use a ''dedicated'' <span class="hlt">energy</span>-efficient <span class="hlt">light</span> source, such as a pin-based fluorescent lamp that cannot be replaced with a screw-in incandescent bulb. Fixtures also had to meet a minimum <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency level that eliminated use of incandescent and halogen lamps, leaving the door open only to fluorescent sources and LEDs. More than 150 paper designs were submitted in the first phase of the competition, in 2003. Of those, 24 finalists were invited to submit working prototypes in 2004, and the winners were announced in May. The Grand Prize of $10,000 went to American Fluorescent of Waukegan, Illinois, for its ''Salem'' chandelier. Some winning fixtures are already available through Lowe's Home Improvement Centers.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15317019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15317019"><span>Internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> and fragmentation of <span class="hlt">ions</span> produced in electrospray sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gabelica, Valérie; De Pauw, Edwin</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This review addresses the determination of the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">ions</span> produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> on analyte fragmentation. A control of the analyte internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> is crucial for several applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, like structural studies, construction of reproducible and exportable spectral libraries, analysis of non-covalent complexes. Sections II and III summarize the Electrospray mechanisms and source design considerations which are relevant to the problem of internal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and Section IV gives an overview of the inter-relationships between <span class="hlt">ion</span> internal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, reaction time scale, and analyte fragmentation. In these three sections we tried to make the most important theoretical elements understandable by all ESI users, and their understanding requires a minimal background in physical chemistry. We then present the different approaches used to experimentally determine the <span class="hlt">ion</span> internal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, as well as various attempts in modeling the internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> uptake in electrospray sources. Finally, a tentative comparison between electrospray and other ionization sources is made. As the reader will see, although many reports appeared on the subject, the knowledge in the field of internal <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">ions</span> produced by soft ionization sources is still scarce, because of the complexity of the system, and this is what makes this area of research so interesting. The last section presents some perspectives for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996NIMPA.374....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996NIMPA.374....1Y"><span>Production of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams with multicusp sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Y., Lee; Perkins, L. T.; Gough, R. A.; Hoffmann, M.; Kunkel, W. B.; N. Leung, K.; Sarstedt, M.; Vujic, J.; Weber, M.; Williams, M. D.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>The use of multicusp sources to generate <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams with narrow <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread has been investigated. It is found that the presence of a magnetic filter can reduce the longitudinal <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread significantly. This is achieved by creating a uniform plasma potential distribution in the discharge chamber region, eliminating <span class="hlt">ion</span> production in the extraction chamber and in the sheath of the exit aperture and by minimizing the probability of charge exchange processes in the extraction chamber. An <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread as low as 1 eV has been measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7044959','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7044959"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linstadt, D.; Castro, J.R.; Phillips, T.L.; Petti, P.L.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.; Schoethaler, R.; Rayner, A.</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>Between 1978 and 1989, 32 patients with unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma underwent <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> (helium, neon) irradiation with curative intent at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The tumors were located in the trunk in 22 patients and head and neck in 10. Macroscopic tumor was present in 22 at the time of irradiation. Two patients had tumors apparently induced by previous therapeutic irradiation. Follow-up times for surviving patients ranged from 4 to 121 months (median 27 months). The overall 3-year actuarial local control rate was 62%; the corresponding survival rate was 50%. The 3-year actuarial control rate for patients irradiated with macroscopic tumors was 48%, while none of the patients with microscopic disease developed local recurrence (100%). The corresponding 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40% (macroscopic) and 78% (microscopic). Patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma did notably well; the local control rate and survival rate were 64% and 62%, respectively. Complications were acceptable; there were no radiation related deaths, while two patients (6%) required operations to correct significant radiation-related injuries. These results appear promising compared to those achieved by low -LET irradiation, and suggest that this technique merits further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075634"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> transfer reactions with the HELIOS spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Back, B. B.; Collaboration: HELIOS Collaboration</p> <p>2012-10-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light-ion</span> induced transfer and inelastic scattering reactions on stable or long-lived targets have been used extensively to study the structure of nuclei near the line of {beta}-stability, and much of the detailed information on the single-particle structure of nuclei has been derived from such studies. Recently, however, a substantial expansion of the range of isotopes, for which this nuclear structure information can be obtained, has presented itself by using radioactive beams in inverse kinematics reactions. Such beams are now available at a number of facilities around the world, including the in-flight production method and CARIBU facility at ATLAS. The HELIOS spectrometer, which has been used since August 2008 at ATLAS, circumvents many of the problems associated with inverse kinematics. In this talk I will discuss the principle of the spectrometer as well as some of main physics results that have been obtained to date in nuclei ranging from {sup 13}B to {sup 137}Xe using both stable and radioactive beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050174"><span>White <span class="hlt">light</span> interferometry for quantitative surface characterization in <span class="hlt">ion</span> sputtering experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baryshev, S. V.; Zinovev, A. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Erck, R. A.; Veryovkin, I. V.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>White <span class="hlt">light</span> interferometry (WLI) can be used to obtain surface morphology information on dimensional scale of millimeters with lateral resolution as good as {approx}1 {micro}m and depth resolution down to 1 nm. By performing true three-dimensional imaging of sample surfaces, the WLI technique enables accurate quantitative characterization of the geometry of surface features and compares favorably to scanning electron and atomic force microscopies by avoiding some of their drawbacks. In this paper, results of using the WLI imaging technique to characterize the products of <span class="hlt">ion</span> sputtering experiments are reported. With a few figures, several example applications of the WLI method are illustrated when used for (i) sputtering yield measurements and time-to-depth conversion, (ii) optimizing <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current density profiles, the shapes of sputtered craters, and multiple <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam superposition and (iii) quantitative characterization of surfaces processed with <span class="hlt">ions</span>. In particular, for sputter depth profiling experiments of {sup 25}Mg, {sup 44}Ca and {sup 53}Cr <span class="hlt">ion</span> implants in Si (implantation <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 1 keV per nucleon), the depth calibration of the measured depth profile curves determined by the WLI method appeared to be self-consistent with TRIM simulations for such projectile-matrix systems. In addition, high depth resolution of the WLI method is demonstrated for a case of a Genesis solar wind Si collector surface processed by gas cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam: a 12.5 nm layer was removed from the processed surface, while the transition length between the processed and untreated areas was 150 {micro}m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.362..172D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.362..172D"><span>Electronic stopping power data of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> in polymeric foils in the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> domain of LSS theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dib, A.; Ammi, H.; Hedibel, M.; Guesmia, A.; Mammeri, S.; Msimanga, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A continuous <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss measurements of 63Cu, 28Si, 27Al, 24Mg, 19F, 16O and 12C <span class="hlt">ions</span> over an <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of (0.06-0.65) MeV/nucleon through thin polymeric foils (Mylar, Polypropylene and Formvar) were carried out by time of flight spectrometry. The deduced experimental stopping data have been used in order to assess our proposed semi empirical formula. The proposed approach based on the Firsov and Lindhard-Scharff stopping power models is provided for well describing-the electronic stopping power of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> (3 ⩽ Z < 100) in various solids targets at low <span class="hlt">energy</span> range. The ζe factor, which was approximated to be ∼Z11/6 , involved in Lindhard, Scharff and Schiott (LSS) formula has been suitably modified in the <span class="hlt">light</span> of the available experimental stopping power data. The calculated stopping power values after incorporating, effective charge Z1∗ of moving heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> with low velocities (v ⩽v0Z12/3) and modified ζe in LSS formula, have been found to be in close agreement with measured values in various solids targets. A reason of <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss measurements is to obtain data that help to assess our understanding of the stopping power theories. For this, the obtained results are compared with, LSS calculations, MSTAR and SRIM-2013 predictions code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6902624','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6902624"><span>Software to evaluate <span class="hlt">lighting</span> maintenance: Other ways to save <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, R.A. )</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The most aesthetic, sophisticated, <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficient <span class="hlt">lighting</span> system a designer can devise cannot perform as intended if post occupancy maintenance is poor. Designers can ensure the upkeep of their <span class="hlt">energy</span> saving designs by considering what happens to lamps and luminaires as they age and by recommending to new building owners various options for lamp and luminaire maintenance. The accumulation of dirt, lumen depreciation, and discoloration of lenses, for example, can decrease <span class="hlt">light</span> levels and the overall effectiveness of an <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficient <span class="hlt">lighting</span> system. Planned maintenance is the only way to ensure the upkeep of <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems so as to continue to save <span class="hlt">energy</span>. It is important, therefore, to recognize factors that contribute to the overall loss of illumination, thereby increasing <span class="hlt">energy</span> cost. Some of these factors are lamp burnout, lumen depreciation, luminaire dirt, and future selection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ashrae&pg=2&id=ED029468','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ashrae&pg=2&id=ED029468"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Integrated <span class="hlt">Lighting</span>-Heating-Cooling System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meckler, Gershon; And Others</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of <span class="hlt">energy</span>, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+heating&pg=4&id=ED029468','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+heating&pg=4&id=ED029468"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> Integrated <span class="hlt">Lighting</span>-Heating-Cooling System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meckler, Gershon; And Others</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of <span class="hlt">energy</span>, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy&pg=5&id=EJ981972','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy&pg=5&id=EJ981972"><span>Basic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at <span class="hlt">Lighting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krueger, Glenn</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Reducing school district <span class="hlt">energy</span> expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve <span class="hlt">energy</span>. School <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the <span class="hlt">lights</span> and turn down the heat in the winter and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy&pg=6&id=EJ981972','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Energy&pg=6&id=EJ981972"><span>Basic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at <span class="hlt">Lighting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krueger, Glenn</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Reducing school district <span class="hlt">energy</span> expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve <span class="hlt">energy</span>. School <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the <span class="hlt">lights</span> and turn down the heat in the winter and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP.GB099W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP.GB099W"><span>Effects of Photon Absorption in High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winchell, Joshua; Somanathan, Sidharth; Fries, Ranier</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Photons are an important probe of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> collisions of nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since the mean free path of photons is larger than the size of the fireball of nuclear matter, final state interactions of photons are usually neglected. In <span class="hlt">light</span> of recent tension between theoretical calculations and data from RHIC and LHC, we study the effect of reabsorption of photons on elliptic flow v2 and on the nuclear modification factor RAA. We consider photons emitted in primary hard collisions and thermal photons from quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas. We use the jet-quenching code PPM to simulate the propagation of those photons in a fireball of quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas created by collisions of heavy nuclei. For the absorption cross-sections we consider three different approaches: (a) Compton and pair production processes calculated by us in a static approximation, (b) the photon damping rates calculated by Thoma (1995), and (c) absorption rates derived from a recent photon calculation by van Hees et al.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28863693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28863693"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> offsets for multicharged <span class="hlt">ions</span> from an electron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, D D; Ahl, C D; Shore, A M; Miller, A J; Harriss, J E; Sosolik, C E; Marler, J P</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Using a retarding field analyzer, we have measured offsets between the nominal and measured kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of multicharged <span class="hlt">ions</span> extracted from an electron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source (EBIS). By varying source parameters, a shift in <span class="hlt">ion</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> was attributed to the trapping potential produced by the space charge of the electron beam within the EBIS. The space charge of the electron beam depends on its charge density, which in turn depends on the amount of negative charge (electron beam current) and its velocity (electron beam <span class="hlt">energy</span>). The electron beam current and electron beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> were both varied to obtain electron beams of varying space charge and these were related to the observed kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> offsets for Ar(4+) and Ar(8+) <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams. Knowledge of these offsets is important for studies that seek to utilize slow, i.e., low kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>, multicharged <span class="hlt">ions</span> to exploit their high potential <span class="hlt">energies</span> for processes such as surface modification. In addition, we show that these offsets can be utilized to estimate the effective radius of the electron beam inside the trap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RScI...88h3306K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RScI...88h3306K"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> offsets for multicharged <span class="hlt">ions</span> from an electron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, D. D.; Ahl, C. D.; Shore, A. M.; Miller, A. J.; Harriss, J. E.; Sosolik, C. E.; Marler, J. P.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Using a retarding field analyzer, we have measured offsets between the nominal and measured kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> of multicharged <span class="hlt">ions</span> extracted from an electron beam <span class="hlt">ion</span> source (EBIS). By varying source parameters, a shift in <span class="hlt">ion</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> was attributed to the trapping potential produced by the space charge of the electron beam within the EBIS. The space charge of the electron beam depends on its charge density, which in turn depends on the amount of negative charge (electron beam current) and its velocity (electron beam <span class="hlt">energy</span>). The electron beam current and electron beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> were both varied to obtain electron beams of varying space charge and these were related to the observed kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> offsets for Ar4+ and Ar8+ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams. Knowledge of these offsets is important for studies that seek to utilize slow, i.e., low kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span>, multicharged <span class="hlt">ions</span> to exploit their high potential <span class="hlt">energies</span> for processes such as surface modification. In addition, we show that these offsets can be utilized to estimate the effective radius of the electron beam inside the trap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMSH33B1495O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMSH33B1495O"><span>A thin dead-layer avalanche photodiode enables low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> measurement for space plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogasawara, K.; Livi, S. A.; Grotheer, E. B.; McComas, D. J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We report on the performance of a thin dead-layer Avalanche Photodiode (APD) targeting medium-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>. This <span class="hlt">light</span> and low-power device provides high-resolution, proportional measurements even at room temperature, with reliable and stable efficiency in the medium-<span class="hlt">energy</span> range (from 1 keV to 100 keV in the total <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the particle) where there is a gap in the coverage of existing devices. We characterized the device response against 7 different <span class="hlt">ion</span> species of H+, He+, N+, He+, He2+, Ar+, and Ar2+. The pulse height distribution of the APD signals shows a significant peak with <span class="hlt">energies</span> >2.5 keV/q for H+, and >3.4 keV/q for He+. The measured noise level is 1.1 keV in silicon. The response linearity was notably excellent for H+ and He+ with an <span class="hlt">energy</span> resolution of ~15% at 55 keV/q. The dead-layer thickness was measured to be as thin as 340Å by scanning the incidence angle of the 58-keV H+ beam. Considering the whole active layer thickness of ~150μm, the maximum detectable <span class="hlt">energy</span> was calculated to be 4 MeV/q (H+) or higher depending on <span class="hlt">ion</span> species. This device is appropriate for many <span class="hlt">ion</span> measurements in the field of space plasma physics such as in detectors in high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> telescopes, medium-<span class="hlt">energy</span> detectors with electrostatic analyzers or magnetic deflectors, and/or measurements of <span class="hlt">ions</span> using time of flight. Thus, thin dead-layer APDs are useful in measuring a variety of scientific targets including the solar wind, CME's, IP shocks, and interplanetary space phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26384315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26384315"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> emission of a polyfluorene derivative containing complexed europium <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turchetti, Denis Augusto; Nolasco, Mariela Martins; Szczerbowski, Daiane; Carlos, Luís Dias; Akcelrud, Leni Campos</p> <p>2015-10-21</p> <p>The photophysical properties of a new alternating copolymer containing fluorene, terpyridine, and complexed sites with trivalent europium (Eu(3+)) <span class="hlt">ions</span> (LaPPS66Eu) were investigated, using the non-complexed backbone (LaPPS66) and a low molecular weight compound of similar chemical structure of the ligand/Eu(3+) site (LaPPS66M) as a model compound. The analogous gadolinium complex (LaPPS66Gd) was also synthesized to determine the triplet state of the complex. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), elemental analyses, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) characterized the chemical structure and thermal properties of the synthesized materials. A level of Eu(3+) insertion of 37% (molar basis) in the polymer backbone was achieved. The photoluminescence studies were performed in the solid state showing the occurrence of polymer-to-Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer brought about by the spectral overlap between the absorption spectra of the Eu(3+) complex and the emission of the polymer backbone. A detailed theoretical photoluminescence study performed using time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations and the recently developed LUMPAC luminescence package is also presented. The high accuracy of the theoretical calculations was achieved on comparison with the experimental values. Aiming at a deeper level of understanding of the photoluminescence process, the ligand-to-Eu(3+) intramolecular <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer and back-transfer rates were predicted. The complexed materials showed a dominant pathway involving the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer between the triplet of the dbm (dibenzoylmethane) ligand and the (5)D1 and (5)D0 Eu(3+) levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JVSJ...48..339K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JVSJ...48..339K"><span>Estimation of Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> in Sterilization Technology by Plasma Based <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Implantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondou, Youhei; Nakashima, Takeru; Tanaka, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshinori; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ohkura, Kensaku; Shibahara, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Shin</p> <p></p> <p>Plasma based <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation (PBII) with negative voltage pulses to the test specimen has been applied to the sterilization process as a technique suitable for three-dimensional work pieces. Pulsed high negative voltage (5 μs pulse width, 300 pulses/s, -800 V to -15 kV) was applied to the electrode in this process at a gas pressure of 2.4 Pa of N2. We found that the PBII process, in which N2 gas self-ignitted plasma generated by only pulsed voltages is used, reduces the number of active Bacillus pumilus cell. The number of bacteria survivors was reduced by 10-5 x with 5 min exposure. Since the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> is the most important processing parameter, a simple method to estimate the nitrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> from distribution of nitrogen atoms in Si implanted by PBII was developed. The implanted <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> is discussed from the SIMS in depth profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075726','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075726"><span>Comparison between single- and dual-electrode <span class="hlt">ion</span> source systems for low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vasquez, M. Jr.; Tokumura, S.; Kasuya, T.; Maeno, S.; Wada, M.</p> <p>2012-11-06</p> <p>Extraction of <span class="hlt">ions</span> with <span class="hlt">energies</span> below 100 eV has been demonstrated using a hot-cathode multi-cusp <span class="hlt">ion</span> source equipped with extraction electrodes made of thin wires. Two electrode geometries, a single-electrode system, and a dual-electrode system were built and tested. The single-electrode configuration showed high <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current densities at shorter distances from the electrode but exhibited rapid attenuation as the distance from the electrode increased. Beam angular spread measurements showed similar beam divergence for both electrode configurations at low plasma densities. At high plasma densities and low extraction potentials, the single-electrode system showed the angular spread twice as large as that of the dual-electrode system. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> distribution analyses showed a broader <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread for <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams extracted from a single-electrode set-up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......119W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......119W"><span>Control of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> at the substrates during plasma processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Shiang-Bau</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ion</span> bombardment plays a significant role in many aspects of plasma processing in integrated circuit manufacturing, including etch rate, etch selectivity, etched feature profiles, differential charging, deposited film quality, damage, etc. Some of these have emerged as new challenges as device sizes continue shrinking. Since those challenges are somewhat related to the <span class="hlt">ion</span> trajectory (or <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span>), more precise control of <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombarding <span class="hlt">energy</span> is critical and necessary. This study combined plasma model simulation and experimental implementation to develop an <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution function (IEDF) control technique by carefully tailoring the bias voltage waveform applied to the substrate. A time-dependent, spherical-shell, whole-region plasma fluid model was constructed first to investigate the factors that affect the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution. The simulation results show that a greatly narrowed IEDF can be obtained by applying a specially tailored bias voltage waveform composed of a series of pulses and a slow negative linear slope between pulses. The simulation also demonstrates that the IEDF produced with this technique is independent of <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass, the technique does not induce a non-uniform substrate potential, and does produce a more precisely controllable <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> compared to the conventional sinusoidal bias voltage power supply design. Experiments in a helicon argon plasma show good agreement with simulation results. Not limited to electropositive plasmas, this technique also demonstrates similar performance in an electronegative SF6 plasma. Experiments related to the applications of this technique in a real-time non-intrusive <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombarding flux measurement as well as to SiO2/Si etching selectivity improvement have also been performed. The real-time non-intrusive <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombarding flux measurements show more accurate results than are obtainable with Langmuir probes and the output can serve as a meaningful control variable for etching processes. This technique</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6908342','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6908342"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> and environment; The <span class="hlt">light</span> path</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ausubel, J.H. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports that for 200 years, the world has progressively lightened its <span class="hlt">energy</span> diet by favoring hydrogen atoms over carbon in our hydrocarbon stew. The successful decarbonization of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> system, the key to the alleviation of numerous environmental problems, will ultimately depend on the use of pure hydrogen fuel produced form sources and processes that are carbon-free. The outlook for aggregate reductions in the materials that an individual consumes, dematerialization, is less certain. Rapid evolution of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> system along its current trajectory, combined with cultural change, can avert the environmental danger.danger.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861022','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861022"><span>Highly Compressed <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beam for High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Density Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Caporaso, G.J.; Celata, C.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich I.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Nelson, S.D.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.; Reginato,L.R.; Renk, T.; Rose, D.; Seessler, A.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Thoma,C.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.; Yu, S.S.</p> <p>2005-05-16</p> <p>The Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is developing the intense <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams needed to drive matter to the High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Density regimes required for Inertial Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span> and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach they are pursuing, low to medium mass <span class="hlt">ions</span> with <span class="hlt">energies</span> just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target ''foils,'' which may in fact be foams with mean densities 1% to 10% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI Darmstadt, wherein high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams deposit a small fraction of their <span class="hlt">energy</span> in a cylindrically target. They present the beam requirements for Warm Dense Matter experiments. The authors discuss neutralized drift compression and final focus experiments and modeling. They describe suitable accelerator architectures based on Drift-Tube Linac, RF, single-gap, Ionization-Front Accelerator, and Pulse-Line <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Accelerator concepts. The last of these is being pursued experimentally. Finally, they discuss plans toward a user facility for target experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003087&hterms=Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DEnergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003087&hterms=Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DEnergy"><span>Inverse <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Dispersion of Energetic <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Observed in the Magnetosheath</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hwang, K.-J.; Wang, Y.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Fok, M.-C.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Kitamura, N.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Lester, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a case study of energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> observed by the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft in the magnetosheath just outside the subsolar magnetopause that occurred at 1000 UT on 8 December 2015. As the magnetopause receded inward, the EPD observed a burst of energetic (approximately 50-1000 keV) proton, helium, and oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span> that exhibited an inverse dispersion, with the lowest <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> appearing first. The prolonged interval of fast antisunward flow observed in the magnetosheath and transient increases in the H components of global ground magnetograms demonstrate that the burst appeared at a time when the magnetosphere was rapidly compressed. We attribute the inverse <span class="hlt">energy</span> dispersion to the leakage along reconnected magnetic field lines of betatron-accelerated energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the magnetosheath, and a burst of reconnection has an extent of about 1.5 R(sub E) using combined Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar and EPD observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM12A..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM12A..04L"><span>Inverse <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Dispersion of Energetic <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Observed in the Magnetosheath</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hwang, K. J.; Wang, Y.; Silveira, M. D.; Fok, M. C. H.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Kitamura, N.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Lester, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present a case study of energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> observed by the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft in the magnetosheath just outside the subsolar magnetopause that occurred at 1000 UT on December 8, 2015. As the magnetopause receded inward, the EPD observed a burst of energetic ( 50-1000 keV) proton, helium, and oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span> that exhibited an inverse dispersion, with the lowest <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> appearing first. The prolonged interval of fast antisunward flow observed in the magnetosheath and transient increases in the H components of global ground magnetograms demonstrate that the burst appeared at a time when the magnetosphere was rapidly compressed. We attribute the inverse <span class="hlt">energy</span> dispersion to the leakage along reconnected magnetic field lines of betatron-accelerated energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the magnetosheath and a burst of reconnection has an extent of about 1.5 RE using combined Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar and EPD observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3064342','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3064342"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> clustering in aqueous solutions probed with vibrational <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bian, Hongtao; Wen, Xiewen; Li, Jiebo; Chen, Hailong; Han, Suzee; Sun, Xiuquan; Song, Jian; Zhuang, Wei; Zheng, Junrong</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Despite prolonged scientific efforts to unravel the hydration structures of <span class="hlt">ions</span> in water, many open questions remain, in particular concerning the existences and structures of <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters in 1∶1 strong electrolyte aqueous solutions. A combined ultrafast 2D IR and pump/probe study through vibrational <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfers directly observes <span class="hlt">ion</span> clustering in aqueous solutions of LiSCN, NaSCN, KSCN and CsSCN. In a near saturated KSCN aqueous solution (water/KSCN molar ratio = 2.4/1), 95% of the anions form <span class="hlt">ion</span> clusters. Diluting the solution results in fewer, smaller, and tighter clusters. Cations have significant effects on cluster formation. A small cation results in smaller and fewer clusters. The vibrational <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer method holds promise for studying a wide variety of other fast short-range molecular interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003087&hterms=Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DEnergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003087&hterms=Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DEnergy"><span>Inverse <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Dispersion of Energetic <span class="hlt">Ions</span> Observed in the Magnetosheath</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hwang, K.-J.; Wang, Y.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Fok, M.-C.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Kitamura, N.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170003087'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003087_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003087_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003087_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003087_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a case study of energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> observed by the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft in the magnetosheath just outside the subsolar magnetopause that occurred at 1000 UT on 8 December 2015. As the magnetopause receded inward, the EPD observed a burst of energetic (approximately 50-1000 keV) proton, helium, and oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span> that exhibited an inverse dispersion, with the lowest <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> appearing first. The prolonged interval of fast antisunward flow observed in the magnetosheath and transient increases in the H components of global ground magnetograms demonstrate that the burst appeared at a time when the magnetosphere was rapidly compressed. We attribute the inverse <span class="hlt">energy</span> dispersion to the leakage along reconnected magnetic field lines of betatron-accelerated energetic <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the magnetosheath, and a burst of reconnection has an extent of about 1.5 R(sub E) using combined Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar and EPD observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1119848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1119848"><span>Building a Road from <span class="hlt">Light</span> to <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Anton; Bilby, David; Barito, Adam; Vyletel, Brenda</p> <p>2013-07-18</p> <p>Representing the Center for Solar and Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conversion (CSTEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The mission of the Center for Solar and Thermal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conversion (CSTEC) is to design and to synthesize new materials for high efficiency photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices, predicated on new fundamental insights into equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes, including quantum phenomena, that occur in materials over various spatial and temporal scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9927E..0CS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9927E..0CS"><span>Conversion of infrared <span class="hlt">light</span> into usable <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>St. John, Thomas C.; Marinelli, Zachary J.; Kaczmar, Justin M.; Given, Robert P.; Wenger, Kyle S.; Utter, Brian C.; Scarel, Giovanna</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light</span>-matter interaction involving photons with large period τ of 3 fs (10-15 s) and above, i.e. infrared (IR) to microand radio-waves, displays interesting properties so far mostly unexplored. These photons indeed can produce voltages after activating charges or currents. For example, in the literature it is demonstrated that animals and plants neural system (which is similar to a system consisting of capacitors in series) can be stimulated by IR photons. Additionally, radio waves can activate currents in antennas. However, a systematic investigation of the voltages and currents produced, of the charge density changes, and of the number of photons involved is missing. Here we initiate the investigation of the voltages produced by a capacitor-type device. We shine broadband IR <span class="hlt">light</span> in the middle IR region (MIR) at a power of 25 mW onto capacitors with capacitance C from 30 to 300 pF. We observe that the voltage produced increases with decreasing C while developing negligible temperature changes. Further increases can be obtained by increasing τ and, modestly, by deviating from normal incidence the angle of incidence θ between the IR <span class="hlt">light</span> and the illuminated plate of the capacitor. Specifically, here we compare τ in the MIR and far IR (FIR) regions, and θ from 0° (normal incidence) to 45°. The effects of the power of the <span class="hlt">light</span> will be explored in the near future. These results suggest that it is possible to harvest and transform IR, micro- and radio-waves into usable and sustainable electricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998RScI...69.1138R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998RScI...69.1138R"><span>An improved extraction for the multicusp-type <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> source apparatus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reijonen, J.; Heikkinen, P.; Liukkonen, E.; ńrje, J.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">ion</span> extraction system has been developed for use with the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source apparatus (LIISA) of the Accelerator Laboratory. The aim of the new extraction system is to have a more intense and better quality beam. For simulation of the beam behavior at the extraction region a computer code IGUNe has been used. The simulation shows that a simple triode extraction would be efficient enough to extract total beam intensities of around 5 mA at an extraction voltage of 10-15 kV. At the same time, with the carefully designed plasma electrode, the emittance could be decreased significantly from the original design. The new extraction was installed in May 1997 and the results have been encouraging. The transport efficiency of the extracted beam to the first Faraday cup (at a distance of 1.2 m) was 100% and the maximum proton current obtained was 2.0 mA. The maximum proton current in the cyclotron inflector is 1.0 mA, which is eight times larger than the previous record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214734','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214734"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> composition and <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution during 10 magnetic storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lennartsson, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Shelley, E.G.; Johnson, R.G.; Balsiger, H.</p> <p>1981-06-01</p> <p>Data from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 were used to investigate the relative quantities and <span class="hlt">energy</span> characteristics of H/sup +/, He/sup + +/, and O/sup +/ in the near-equatorial magnetosphere at R< or =15 R/sub E/ during magnetic storms, principally during the early main phase. The <span class="hlt">ions</span> included in this study had <span class="hlt">energies</span> in the range of 0.1< or =E/Q< or =17 keV/e. The number densities were characterized by a large to dominant fraction of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ions</span> through this <span class="hlt">energy</span> window. Terrestrial O/sup +/ <span class="hlt">ions</span> were most clearly identified, but strong evidence for a significant contribution of terrestrial H/sup +/ <span class="hlt">ions</span> was also found. On occasions, the O/sup +/ alone contributed 50% or more of the integral number density, as well as the <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, over distances of several earth radii along the orbit. The largest fractions of O/sup +/ (< or approx. =75%) and He/sup +/ (< or =25%) were found at R<3 R/sub E/(L<5). In general, the He/sup +/ only represented a few percent, however. Small fractions of O/sup +/ (<10%) and He/sup +/ (<1%) were mostly found in the 0100--0600 LT sector, at R> or approx. = 7 R/sub E/. The He/sup + +/ was often obscured by background and rarely exceeded 2%, except in the 0100--0600 LT sector, at R> or approx. =7 R/sub E/, where it reached several percent relatively frequently, suggesting a larger solar wind component here. It is argued, based on certain signatures in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra, that solar wind <span class="hlt">ions</span> may enter the inner magnetosphere through this region and thereby contribute a larger portion of the high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> ring current population (50--100 keV). The data do not suggest, however, that the solar wind is always the dominant source of <span class="hlt">ions</span> for the high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> ring current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657025','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657025"><span>Conversion of a <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven proton pump into a <span class="hlt">light</span>-gated <span class="hlt">ion</span> channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vogt, A.; Guo, Y.; Tsunoda, S. P.; Kateriya, S.; Elstner, M.; Hegemann, P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Interest in microbial rhodopsins with <span class="hlt">ion</span> pumping activity has been revitalized in the context of optogenetics, where <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven <span class="hlt">ion</span> pumps are used for cell hyperpolarization and voltage sensing. We identified an opsin-encoding gene (CsR) in the genome of the arctic alga Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C-169 that can produce large photocurrents in Xenopus oocytes. We used this property to analyze the function of individual residues in proton pumping. Modification of the highly conserved proton shuttling residue R83 or its interaction partner Y57 strongly reduced pumping power. Moreover, this mutation converted CsR at moderate electrochemical load into an operational proton channel with inward or outward rectification depending on the amino acid substitution. Together with molecular dynamics simulations, these data demonstrate that CsR-R83 and its interacting partner Y57 in conjunction with water molecules forms a proton shuttle that blocks passive proton flux during the dark-state but promotes proton movement uphill upon illumination. PMID:26597707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6838622','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6838622"><span>Electron capture in <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule collisions at intermediate <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kumura, M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Recent progress of theoretical charge transfer study in <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule collisions at the intermediate <span class="hlt">energy</span> is reviewed. Concept of close and distant collisions obtained from extensive <span class="hlt">ion</span>-atom collision studies is identified so that it can be utilized to model two distinct collision processes. For a close collision, explicit representation of the whole collision complex is necessary to describe collision dynamics correctly, while a model potential approach for molecule is appropriate for a distant collision. It is shown that these two distinct models are indeed capable of reproducing experimental charge transfer cross sections. Some remarks for further theoretical study of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule collisions are also given. 21 refs., 8 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28368640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28368640"><span>Collisional Cooling of <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">Ions</span> by Cotrapped Heavy Atoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dutta, Sourav; Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A</p> <p>2017-03-17</p> <p>We experimentally demonstrate cooling of trapped <span class="hlt">ions</span> by collisions with cotrapped, higher-mass neutral atoms. It is shown that the lighter ^{39}K^{+} <span class="hlt">ions</span>, created by ionizing ^{39}K atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), when trapped in an <span class="hlt">ion</span> trap and subsequently allowed to cool by collisions with ultracold, heavier ^{85}Rb atoms in a MOT, exhibit a longer trap lifetime than without the localized ^{85}Rb MOT atoms. A similar cooling of trapped ^{85}Rb^{+} <span class="hlt">ions</span> by ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms in a MOT is also demonstrated in a different experimental configuration to validate this mechanism of <span class="hlt">ion</span> cooling by localized and centered ultracold neutral atoms. Our results suggest that the cooling of <span class="hlt">ions</span> by localized cold atoms holds for any mass ratio, thereby enabling studies on a wider class of atom-<span class="hlt">ion</span> systems irrespective of their masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21251677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21251677"><span>Sources for Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Extreme of <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Implantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Batalin, V. A.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Pershin, V. I.; Petrenko, S. V.; Rudskoy, I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J.; Storozhenko, P. A.; Svarovski, A. Ya.</p> <p>2008-11-03</p> <p>A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense <span class="hlt">ion</span> sources has been in progress for the past four and a half years. The ultimate goal is to meet the two, <span class="hlt">energy</span> extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt <span class="hlt">ion</span> implanters. This endeavor has resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state Antimony and Phosphorous <span class="hlt">ions</span>: P{sup 2+}(8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+}(1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+}(0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. During the past year the effort was channeled towards low <span class="hlt">energy</span> implantation, for which the effort involved molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 3 emA of positive Decaborane <span class="hlt">ions</span> were extracted at 14 keV and a smaller current of negative Decaborane <span class="hlt">ions</span> were also extracted. Additionally, a Boron fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron <span class="hlt">ion</span> source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/933067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/933067"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> loss of coasting gold <span class="hlt">ions</span> and deuterons in RHIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abreu,N.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Butler, J.J.; FischW; Harvey, M.; Tepikian, S.</p> <p>2008-06-23</p> <p>The total <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss of coasting gold <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams was measured at RHIC at two <span class="hlt">energies</span>, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2 and 107.4. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured <span class="hlt">energy</span> losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032536','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000032536"><span>Range and <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Straggling in <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beam Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, John W.; Tai, Hsiang</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A first-order approximation to the range and <span class="hlt">energy</span> straggling of <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams is given as a normal distribution for which the standard deviation is estimated from the fluctuations in <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss events. The standard deviation is calculated by assuming scattering from free electrons with a long range cutoff parameter that depends on the mean excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the medium. The present formalism is derived by extrapolating Payne's formalism to low <span class="hlt">energy</span> by systematic <span class="hlt">energy</span> scaling and to greater depths of penetration by a second-order perturbation. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209119"><span>Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Electron <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collider at JLAB</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M</p> <p>2015-07-14</p> <p>The Medium-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Electron <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 10<sup>33</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>s<sup>-1</sup> in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) <span class="hlt">energy</span> and maximum luminosity above 10<sup>34</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>s<sup>-1</sup>, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electron cooling of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> species (p, d, <sup>3</sup>He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870008','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870008"><span>Controlled removal of ceramic surfaces with combination of <span class="hlt">ions</span> implantation and ultrasonic <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Boatner, Lynn A.; Rankin, Janet; Thevenard, Paul; Romana, Laurence J.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A method for tailoring or patterning the surface of ceramic articles is provided by implanting <span class="hlt">ions</span> to predetermined depth into the ceramic material at a selected surface location with the <span class="hlt">ions</span> being implanted at a fluence and <span class="hlt">energy</span> adequate to damage the lattice structure of the ceramic material for bi-axially straining near-surface regions of the ceramic material to the predetermined depth. The resulting metastable near-surface regions of the ceramic material are then contacted with <span class="hlt">energy</span> pulses from collapsing, ultrasonically-generated cavitation bubbles in a liquid medium for removing to a selected depth the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-damaged near-surface regions containing the bi-axially strained lattice structure from the ceramic body. Additional patterning of the selected surface location on the ceramic body is provided by implanting a high fluence of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span>, relatively-<span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> at selected surface sites for relaxing the bi-axial strain in the near-surface regions defined by these sites and thereby preventing the removal of such <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implanted sites by the <span class="hlt">energy</span> pulses from the collapsing ultrasonic cavitation bubbles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740011664','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740011664"><span>The photodetachment cross-section and threshold <span class="hlt">energy</span> of negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> in carbon dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Helmy, E. M.; Woo, S. B.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Threshold <span class="hlt">energy</span> and sunlight photodetachment measurements on negative carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">ions</span>, using a 2.5 kw <span class="hlt">light</span> pressure xenon lamp, show that: (1) Electron affinity of CO3(+) is larger than 2.7 e.V. and that an isomeric form of CO3(+) is likely an error; (2) The photodetachment cross section of CO3(-) will roughly be like a step function across the range of 4250 to 2500A, having its threshold <span class="hlt">energy</span> at 4250A; (3) Sunlight photodetachment rate for CO3(-) is probably much smaller than elsewhere reported; and (4) The probability of having photodetached electrons re-attach to form negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> is less than 1%. Mass identifying drift tube tests confirm that the slower <span class="hlt">ion</span> is CO3(-), formed through the O(-) + 2CO2 yields CO3(-) + CO2 reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19630000041','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19630000041"><span>Fresnel cup reflector directs maximum <span class="hlt">energy</span> from <span class="hlt">light</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Laue, E. G.; Youngberg, C. L.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>To minimize shielding and overheating, a composite Fresnel cup reflector design directs the maximum <span class="hlt">energy</span> from a <span class="hlt">light</span> source. It consists of a uniformly ellipsoidal end surface and an extension comprising a series of confocal ellipsoidal and concentric spherical surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JPhB...32.4261A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JPhB...32.4261A"><span>Bremsstrahlung spectra from atoms and <span class="hlt">ions</span> at low relativistic <span class="hlt">energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avdonina, N. B.; Pratt, R. H.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>Analytic expressions for bremsstrahlung spectra from neutral atoms and <span class="hlt">ions</span>, including the polarizational bremsstrahlung contribution in a stripped atom approximation, are developed for electron scattering at <span class="hlt">energies</span> of 10-2000 keV. A modified Elwert factor and a simple higher Born correction are used for the Coulomb spectrum, with ordinary bremsstrahlung screening effects in <span class="hlt">ions</span> and atoms adequately characterized in the non-relativistic Born approximation. In parallel with the development of this analytic description, new numerical results are obtained for ordinary bremsstrahlung from <span class="hlt">ions</span> and from bare nuclei, appreciably extending the available data set which can be used to study dependences on element, ionicity, <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the fraction of incident <span class="hlt">energy</span> radiated. The accuracy of predictions with the analytic expressions is then determined by comparison with the full numerical relativistic partial-wave results for ordinary bremsstrahlung and with non-relativistic numerical results in the Born approximation or in partial waves for the polarizational amplitude.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20481616','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20481616"><span>Dissociation of <span class="hlt">energy</span>-selected 1,1-dimethylhydrazine <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Borkar, Sampada N; Sztáray, Bálint</p> <p>2010-05-27</p> <p>The unimolecular dissociation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine <span class="hlt">ions</span> was studied by threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (TPEPICO). Time-of-flight distributions and breakdown curves were recorded in the photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> range of 9.5-10.4 eV. The 0 K appearance <span class="hlt">energies</span> of the fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> were extracted by modeling the experimental data with rigid activated complex (RAC-) RRKM theory. It was found that the data could be well-reproduced with a single TS for each dissociation channel if two different H-loss channels were assumed, one corresponding to a C-H and the other to a N-H bond dissociation. Once the appearance <span class="hlt">energies</span> were established, heats of formation of the fragment <span class="hlt">ions</span> could be derived. The heat of formation of the neutral molecule was computed by applying composite ab initio methods (G3, CBS-APNO, W1U) on a series of isodesmic reactions between methyl hydrazines and methyl amines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21470175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21470175"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> drift in a magnetic field under the combined action of LID and <span class="hlt">light</span> pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parkhomenko, A I</p> <p>2002-06-30</p> <p>The effect of magnetic field on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> drift in a weakly ionised gas under the combined action of <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced drift (LID) and <span class="hlt">light</span> pressure is theoretically investigated. It is shown that the imposition of an external magnetic field may give rise to a velocity component of <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced <span class="hlt">ion</span> drift orthogonal to the direction of radiation propagation. The effect of <span class="hlt">light</span> pressure in sufficiently strong magnetic fields is found to prevail over the LID effect, while the reverse is true for weak magnetic fields. The dependence of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> drift velocity on the frequency detuning drastically changes in the magnetic field when <span class="hlt">ions</span> experience the Lorenz force. It is predicted that the projection of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> drift velocity on the direction of radiation propagation should change its sign with increasing magnetic field, and an anomalous LID can be observed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhB...50m2001K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhB...50m2001K"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">energy</span> losses in photosynthetic <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">light</span> into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting. Thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation of <span class="hlt">light</span>-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting and <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the <span class="hlt">light</span>-harvesting antennae between effective <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesters and efficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPBP1077B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPBP1077B"><span>Stimulated Scattering of <span class="hlt">Light</span> from <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Acoustic Waves in Collisional Multi-species Plasma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Richard; Valeo, Ernest</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The dispersion properties of <span class="hlt">ion</span> acoustic waves (IAW) are sensitive to the strength of <span class="hlt">ion-ion</span> collisions,especially in multi-species plasma in which the different species have differing charge-to-mass ratios(Bychenkov et al., PRE 51, 1400 (1995)). Here, we consider the modification of the frequency and damping of the fast and slow acoustic modes in a plasma composed of <span class="hlt">light</span> (low Z) and heavy (high Z) <span class="hlt">ions</span>. In the fluid limit, kλ_lh <<1, the friction between the two species causes the damping whereas, in the collisionless limit, Landau damping of the <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> provides the dissipation. Collisions between <span class="hlt">light</span> and heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> also affect the nonlinear response(P. W. Rambo, S. C. Wilks, and W. L. Kruer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 83 (1997).. We examine the effects of collisions on the linear evolution of <span class="hlt">ion</span> waves driven by the ponderomotive force of two <span class="hlt">light</span> waves within the context of linear parametric instability theory. The simulation of the nonlinear evolution is done with a δ f model that evolves the background(E. J. Valeo and S. Brunner, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46), QP1.137 (2001)., and includes the effects of collisions of <span class="hlt">light</span> on heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> within the Lorentz model. The calculated effect of a small number of high Z <span class="hlt">ions</span> on SBS in low Z plasmas will be compared with recent experimental results(Suter et al.,private communication). l</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22483036"><span>Effects of a dielectric material in an <span class="hlt">ion</span> source on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current density and <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fujiwara, Y. Sakakita, H.; Nakamiya, A.; Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S.</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>To understand a strong focusing phenomenon that occurs in a low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> hydrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam, the electron temperature, the electron density, and the space potential in an <span class="hlt">ion</span> source with cusped magnetic fields are measured before and after the transition to the focusing state using an electrostatic probe. The experimental results show that no significant changes are observed before or after the transition. However, we found unique phenomena that are characterized by the position of the electrostatic probe in the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source chamber. Specifically, the extracted <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current density and <span class="hlt">energy</span> are obviously enhanced in the case where the electrostatic probe, which is covered by a dielectric material, is placed close to an acceleration electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23034114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23034114"><span>Implications of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> on food quality and packaging selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duncan, Susan E; Chang, Hao-Hsun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in the ultraviolet and visible <span class="hlt">light</span> regions plays a critical role in overall food quality, leading to various degradation and oxidation reactions. Food degradation and oxidation result in the destruction of nutrients and bioactive compounds, the formation of off odors and flavors, the loss of food color, and the formation of toxic substances. Food compounds are sensitive to various <span class="hlt">light</span> wavelengths. Understanding the effect that specific <span class="hlt">light</span> wavelengths have on food compounds will allow the development of novel food packaging materials that block the most damaging <span class="hlt">light</span> wavelengths to photostability of specific food compounds. Future research should focus more specifically on the effect of specific <span class="hlt">light</span> wavelengths on the quality of specific food products, as there is limited published information on this particular topic. This information also can be directly related to the selection of food packaging materials to retain both high quality and visual clarity of food products exposed to <span class="hlt">light</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20858921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20858921"><span>Theoretical predictions for ionization cross sections of DNA nucleobases impacted by <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Champion, C; Lekadir, H; Galassi, M E; Fojón, O; Rivarola, R D; Hanssen, J</p> <p>2010-10-21</p> <p>Induction of DNA double strand breaks after irradiation is considered of prime importance for producing radio-induced cellular death or injury. However, up to now <span class="hlt">ion</span>-induced collisions on DNA bases remain essentially experimentally approached and a theoretical model for cross section calculation is still lacking. Under these conditions, we here propose a quantum mechanical description of the ionization process induced by <span class="hlt">light</span> bare <span class="hlt">ions</span> on DNA bases. Theoretical predictions in terms of differential and total cross sections for proton, α-particle and bare <span class="hlt">ion</span> carbon beams impacting on adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine bases are then reported in the 10 keV amu(-1)-10 MeV amu(-1) <span class="hlt">energy</span> range. The calculations are performed within the first-order Born approximation (FBA) with biological targets described at the restricted Hartree-Fock level with geometry optimization. Comparisons to recent theoretical data for collisions between protons and cytosine point out huge discrepancies in terms of differential as well as total cross sections whereas very good agreement is shown with our previous classical predictions, especially at high impact <span class="hlt">energies</span> (E(i) ≥ 100 keV amu(-1)). Finally, in comparison to the rare existing experimental data a systematic underestimation is observed in particular for adenine and thymine whereas a good agreement is reported for cytosine. Thus, further improvements appear as necessary, in particular by using higher order theories like the continuum-distorted-wave one in order to obtain a better understanding of the underlying physics involved in such <span class="hlt">ion</span>-DNA reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412343"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> increases <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiency in a boreal stream.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lesutienė, Jūratė; Gorokhova, Elena; Stankevičienė, Daiva; Bergman, Eva; Greenberg, Larry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Periphyton communities of a boreal stream were exposed to different <span class="hlt">light</span> and nutrient levels to estimate <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiency from primary to secondary producers using labeling with inorganic (13)C. In a one-day field experiment, periphyton grown in fast-flow conditions and dominated by opportunistic green algae were exposed to <span class="hlt">light</span> levels corresponding to sub-saturating (forest shade) and saturating (open stream section) irradiances, and to N and P nutrient additions. In a two-week laboratory experiment, periphyton grown in low-flow conditions and dominated by slowly growing diatoms were incubated under two sub-saturating <span class="hlt">light</span> and nutrient enrichment levels as well as grazed and non-grazed conditions. <span class="hlt">Light</span> had significant positive effect on (13)C uptake by periphyton. In the field experiment, P addition had a positive effect on (13)C uptake but only at sub-saturating <span class="hlt">light</span> levels, whereas in the laboratory experiment nutrient additions had no effect on the periphyton biomass, (13)C uptake, biovolume and community composition. In the laboratory experiment, the grazer (caddisfly) effect on periphyton biomass specific (13)C uptake and nutrient content was much stronger than the effects of <span class="hlt">light</span> and nutrients. In particular, grazers significantly reduced periphyton biomass and increased biomass specific (13)C uptake and C:nutrient ratios. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiency, estimated as a ratio between (13)C uptake by caddisfly and periphyton, was positively affected by <span class="hlt">light</span> conditions, whereas the nutrient effect was not significant. We suggest that the observed effects on <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer were related to the increased diet contribution of highly palatable green algae, stimulated by higher <span class="hlt">light</span> levels. Also, high heterotrophic microbial activity under low <span class="hlt">light</span> levels would facilitate <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss through respiration and decrease overall trophic transfer efficiency. These findings suggest that even a small increase in <span class="hlt">light</span> intensity could result in community</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4239105','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4239105"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> Increases <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer Efficiency in a Boreal Stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lesutienė, Jūratė; Gorokhova, Elena; Stankevičienė, Daiva; Bergman, Eva; Greenberg, Larry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Periphyton communities of a boreal stream were exposed to different <span class="hlt">light</span> and nutrient levels to estimate <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiency from primary to secondary producers using labeling with inorganic 13C. In a one-day field experiment, periphyton grown in fast-flow conditions and dominated by opportunistic green algae were exposed to <span class="hlt">light</span> levels corresponding to sub-saturating (forest shade) and saturating (open stream section) irradiances, and to N and P nutrient additions. In a two-week laboratory experiment, periphyton grown in low-flow conditions and dominated by slowly growing diatoms were incubated under two sub-saturating <span class="hlt">light</span> and nutrient enrichment levels as well as grazed and non-grazed conditions. <span class="hlt">Light</span> had significant positive effect on 13C uptake by periphyton. In the field experiment, P addition had a positive effect on 13C uptake but only at sub-saturating <span class="hlt">light</span> levels, whereas in the laboratory experiment nutrient additions had no effect on the periphyton biomass, 13C uptake, biovolume and community composition. In the laboratory experiment, the grazer (caddisfly) effect on periphyton biomass specific 13C uptake and nutrient content was much stronger than the effects of <span class="hlt">light</span> and nutrients. In particular, grazers significantly reduced periphyton biomass and increased biomass specific 13C uptake and C:nutrient ratios. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiency, estimated as a ratio between 13C uptake by caddisfly and periphyton, was positively affected by <span class="hlt">light</span> conditions, whereas the nutrient effect was not significant. We suggest that the observed effects on <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer were related to the increased diet contribution of highly palatable green algae, stimulated by higher <span class="hlt">light</span> levels. Also, high heterotrophic microbial activity under low <span class="hlt">light</span> levels would facilitate <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss through respiration and decrease overall trophic transfer efficiency. These findings suggest that even a small increase in <span class="hlt">light</span> intensity could result in community-wide effects on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790064331&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790064331&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span>Heating of <span class="hlt">ions</span> to superthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> in the topside ionosphere by electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ungstrup, E.; Klumpar, D. M.; Heikkila, W. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The soft particle spectrometer on the Isis 2 spacecraft occasionally observes fluxes of <span class="hlt">ions</span> moving upward out of the ionosphere in the vicinity of the auroral oval. These <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluxes are characterized by a sharp pitch angle distribution usually peaked at an angle somewhat greater than 90 deg, indicative of particles heated to a large transverse temperature in a narrow range below the spacecraft. The observations are interpreted in terms of electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron waves, which heat the <span class="hlt">ions</span> to superthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> transverse to the earth's magnetic field. When the transverse <span class="hlt">energy</span> increases, the repulsive force of the earth's magnetic field, proportional to the particle magnetic moment, repels the particles away from the earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790064331&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790064331&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span>Heating of <span class="hlt">ions</span> to superthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> in the topside ionosphere by electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ungstrup, E.; Klumpar, D. M.; Heikkila, W. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The soft particle spectrometer on the Isis 2 spacecraft occasionally observes fluxes of <span class="hlt">ions</span> moving upward out of the ionosphere in the vicinity of the auroral oval. These <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluxes are characterized by a sharp pitch angle distribution usually peaked at an angle somewhat greater than 90 deg, indicative of particles heated to a large transverse temperature in a narrow range below the spacecraft. The observations are interpreted in terms of electrostatic <span class="hlt">ion</span> cyclotron waves, which heat the <span class="hlt">ions</span> to superthermal <span class="hlt">energies</span> transverse to the earth's magnetic field. When the transverse <span class="hlt">energy</span> increases, the repulsive force of the earth's magnetic field, proportional to the particle magnetic moment, repels the particles away from the earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.........5Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.........5Q"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam assisted growth of metal multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quan, Junjie</p> <p></p> <p>Vapor deposited metal multilayers have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years because they offer extraordinary strength, hardness, heat resistance, and unexpected new properties like high reflectivity and spin-dependent conductivity. The giant magnetoresistance effects discovered in Fe/Cr artificial superstructures in 1988 stimulated a large number of studies on the electronic transport properties of spintronic materials because of their important applications in highly sensitive magnetic sensors, nonvolatile random access memories, and the data storage industry in general. Magnetic multilayers allow exploitation of unique micromagnetic, magnetooptic, and magnetoelectronic phenomena that cannot be realized using conventional materials. For example, if ferromagnetic layers (such as CoFe) with a thicknesses of 5-7 nm are separated by a non-magnetic spacer (such as Cu or AlOx) of an appropriate thickness (1-3 nm), they can exhibit large changes in their electrical resistance when a magnetic field is applied. These changes are caused mainly by spin-dependent conduction electron scattering at magnetic multilayer interfaces. Many experimental and theoretical works have sought to promote a basic understanding of the effect of atomic structure in thin film multilayers upon spin dependent transport. It has been found that interfacial imperfections, such as interfacial roughness and interlayer mixing, dramatically reduce the properties exploited for spintronic applications. A combination of computer modeling and experiments has been used to discover more effective ways to control the interfacial structures of metal multilayers. Earlier atomic simulations had indicated that it is very important to control adatom <span class="hlt">energy</span> during deposition in order to improve interface properties. Based on these ideas, this dissertation has investigated the effects of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> assistance during metal multilayer deposition. Using molecular dynamics modeling, the effects of <span class="hlt">ion</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JSSCh.181.2763C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JSSCh.181.2763C"><span>Novel rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span>-doped oxyfluoride nano-composite with efficient upconversion white-<span class="hlt">light</span> emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng; Yu, Yunlong; Huang, Ping; Weng, Fangyi</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Transparent SiO 2-Al 2O 3-NaF-YF 3 bulk nano-composites triply doped with Ho 3+, Tm 3+ and Yb 3+ were fabricated by melt-quenching and subsequent heating. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the homogeneous precipitation of the β-YF 3 crystals with mean size of 20 nm among the glass matrix, and rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span> were found to partition into these nano-crystals. Under single 976 nm laser excitation, intense red, green and blue upconversion emissions were simultaneously observed owing to the successive <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from Yb 3+ to Ho 3+ or Tm 3+. Various colors of luminescence, including bright perfect white <span class="hlt">light</span>, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of the rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the material. The overall <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency of the white-<span class="hlt">light</span> upconversion was estimated to be about 0.2%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10166816','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10166816"><span>A microsecond-pulsewidth, intense, <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> beam accelerator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Waganaar, W.J.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>A relatively long-pulsewidth (0.1-1 {mu}s) intense <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied-B{sub r}, magnetically-insulated extraction <span class="hlt">ion</span> diode with dielectric flashover <span class="hlt">ion</span> source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2-MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse-shaping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030731&hterms=explaining+density&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dexplaining%2Bdensity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030731&hterms=explaining+density&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dexplaining%2Bdensity"><span>The <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> trough, the main trough, and the plasmapause.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Walsh, W. J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Although the plasmapause has been detected as a global phenomenon by both VLF and <span class="hlt">ion</span> composition measurements, the electron and <span class="hlt">ion</span> density troughs have been identified primarily as nightside features. This problem, as well as the difficulty in explaining various inconsistencies in relating the position of the plasmapause and the ionization trough, is explained by a close examination of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> composition, generally unavailable in previous trough studies. In particular, <span class="hlt">ion</span> composition results from the polar-orbiting Ogo satellites identify the persistence of a pronounced <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> trough (LIT) in H(+) and He(+), often identified by order-of-magnitude decreases in the <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> concentrations, that occurs within a few degrees of latitude and reaches residual concentration levels of 100 to 1000 <span class="hlt">ions</span>/cu cm near 60 deg dipole latitude. The LIT, observed both within the thermosphere and at high latitudes in the magnetosphere, has been correlated directly with the VLF whistler identification of the plasmapause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24313558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24313558"><span>UV emissions from low <span class="hlt">energy</span> artificial <span class="hlt">light</span> sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> efficient <span class="hlt">light</span> sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. <span class="hlt">Light</span> Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficient <span class="hlt">light</span> sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AIPC..475..583B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AIPC..475..583B"><span>Influence of planar oscillations on scattered <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions in transmission <span class="hlt">ion</span> channeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bailes, A. A.; Seiberling, L. E.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>Utilizing the transmission <span class="hlt">ion</span> channeling technique and a Monte Carlo simulation of the channeling of He <span class="hlt">ions</span> in Si, we have been able to determine surface structure by comparing experimental to simulated scattered <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions. In analyzing data for {110} beam incidence, we have found that planar oscillations persist well past 2000 Å in our Monte Carlo simulations. These oscillations yield no benefit to this method of data analysis but can make analysis more difficult by the requirement for more accurate Si thickness determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1170347','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1170347"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span>-induced folding of the hammerhead ribozyme: a fluorescence resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bassi, G S; Murchie, A I; Walter, F; Clegg, R M; Lilley, D M</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ion</span>-induced folding transitions of the hammerhead ribozyme have been analysed by fluorescence resonance <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer. The hammerhead ribozyme may be regarded as a special example of a three-way RNA junction, the global structure of which has been studied by comparing the distances (as <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiencies) between the ends of pairs of labelled arms for the three possible end-to-end vectors as a function of magnesium <span class="hlt">ion</span> concentration. The data support two sequential <span class="hlt">ion</span>-dependent transitions, which can be interpreted in the <span class="hlt">light</span> of the crystal structures of the hammerhead ribozyme. The first transition corresponds to the formation of a coaxial stacking between helices II and III; the data can be fully explained by a model in which the transition is induced by a single magnesium <span class="hlt">ion</span> which binds with an apparent association constant of 8000-10 000 M-1. The second structural transition corresponds to the formation of the catalytic domain of the ribozyme, induced by a single magnesium <span class="hlt">ion</span> with an apparent association constant of approximately 1100 M-1. The hammerhead ribozyme provides a well-defined example of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-dependent folding in RNA. PMID:9405376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20982337','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20982337"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">ions</span> by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> photons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drukarev, E. G.; Mikhailov, A. I.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Rakhimov, Kh. Yu.; Scheid, W.</p> <p>2007-03-15</p> <p>We calculate the electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum of ionization by a high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> photon, accompanied by creation of an e{sup -}e{sup +} pair. The total cross section of the process is also obtained. The asymptotics of the cross section does not depend on the photon <span class="hlt">energy</span>. At the photon <span class="hlt">energies</span> exceeding a certain value {omega}{sub 0} this appears to be the dominant mechanism of formation of the <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The dependence of {omega}{sub 0} on the value of nuclear charge is obtained. Our results are consistent with experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1021059','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1021059"><span>Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Inertial Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span>: Summaries of Program Elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G</p> <p>2011-02-28</p> <p>The goal of the Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhLA..256..205X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhLA..256..205X"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> spectra of He + <span class="hlt">ions</span> penetrating thick biological targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xia, Yueyuan; Tan, Chunyu; Mu, Yuguang; Wang, Ruijin; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Xiangdong; Liu, Jitian; Yu, Zhengliang</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> spectra of 500 keV-1MeV He + <span class="hlt">ion</span> penetrating 50 μ m- 100 μ m thick seed coat of maize, fruit peel of grape and of tomato, are measured. The results indicate that these thick biological targets, as seen by the penetrating <span class="hlt">ions</span>, are inhomogeneous, and there are open paths, along which the incident <span class="hlt">ions</span> can penetrate the targets easily. While most of the incident <span class="hlt">ions</span> are stopped in the targets, some of the penetrating <span class="hlt">ions</span> only lose a small fraction of their initial incident <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The penetration <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra show a pure electronic stopping feature. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs taken from these samples with thickness of 30 μ m indicate that 150 keV electron beam from the TEM can penetrate the thick samples to give very good images with clear contrast. The electronic structures of β-1,4 glucosan molecular chains, which is deemed as the most important constituent of the cell walls of seed coats and peels of fruits, are calculated to show the possible open-path directions which exist in biological samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/970064','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/970064"><span>Modeling heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> ionization <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss at low and intermediate <span class="hlt">energies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rakhno, I.L.; /Fermilab</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The needs of contemporary accelerator and space projects led to significant efforts made to include description of heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> interactions with matter in general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. This paper deals with an updated model of heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> ionization <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss developed previously for the MARS code. The model agrees well with experimental data for various projectiles and targets including super-heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> in low-Z media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=lighting+AND+public&pg=7&id=EJ441592','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=lighting+AND+public&pg=7&id=EJ441592"><span>Green <span class="hlt">Lights</span> Project Results in Lower <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berridge, Robert; Kwartin, Bruce</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An Environmental Protection Agency program encourages <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation on campuses by consulting with colleges and universities willing to reduce <span class="hlt">energy</span> used in <span class="hlt">lighting</span>. Full program implementation in these and other organizations can create significant savings in demand for electricity and help fight global warming and acid rain. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981525"><span>ULTRA-LOW-<span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> HIGH-CURRENT <span class="hlt">ION</span> SOURCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Baldwin, David A.</p> <p>2009-11-20</p> <p>The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span>, high-intensity <span class="hlt">ion</span> source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this <span class="hlt">ion</span> source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of <span class="hlt">ions</span>, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTFM.129..281W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTFM.129..281W"><span>Structure Change of PTFE by Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watari, Kunio; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige</p> <p></p> <p>The authors irradiate low <span class="hlt">energy</span> nitrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> (100eV) on PTFE (poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene) for surface modification. However, PTFE cannot anticipate adhesive strength improvement because it is collapse type polymer and weariness of surface occurs by <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation. We paid attention to cross-linked structure to solve this problem. By this study introduce below, PTFE was changed collapse type polymer into cross-linked type polymer by rising temperature above the glass transition in the case of <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation. As a result, the formation of the CF3 combination was restrained and collapse phenomenon was prevented by <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation above the glass transition. In addition, it was suggested that cross-linked structure is effective for adhesive strength improvement by convolution of C1s spectrum and density profile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482970','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482970"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> collector design for an <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery test proposal with the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source NIO1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D{sup −} beam from a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in residual beams (D{sup −} and D{sup +}), so that an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H{sup −} each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam collector with simulations of beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26932033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26932033"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> collector design for an <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery test proposal with the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source NIO1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Variale, V; Cavenago, M; Agostinetti, P; Sonato, P; Zanotto, L</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D(-) beam from a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in residual beams (D(-) and D(+)), so that an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H(-) each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam collector with simulations of beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87bB305V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87bB305V"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> collector design for an <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery test proposal with the negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source NIO1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D- beam from a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in residual beams (D- and D+), so that an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H- each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam collector with simulations of beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> recovery is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402583','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402583"><span>Fe <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implanted TiO{sub 2} thin film for efficient visible-<span class="hlt">light</span> photocatalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Impellizzeri, G. Scuderi, V.; Sanz, R.; Privitera, V.; Romano, L.; Sberna, P. M.; Arcadipane, E.; Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G.; Bayle, M.; Carles, R.; Simone, F.</p> <p>2014-11-07</p> <p>This work shows the application of metal <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implantation to realize an efficient second-generation TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. High fluence Fe{sup +} <span class="hlt">ions</span> were implanted into thin TiO{sub 2} films and subsequently annealed up to 550 °C. The <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implantation process modified the TiO{sub 2} pure film, locally lowering its band-gap <span class="hlt">energy</span> from 3.2 eV to 1.6–1.9 eV, making the material sensitive to visible <span class="hlt">light</span>. The measured optical band-gap of 1.6–1.9 eV was associated with the presence of effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> band structure of the titanium dioxide, due to implantation-induced defects. An accurate structural characterization was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The synthesized materials revealed a remarkable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds in water under visible <span class="hlt">light</span> irradiation, without the help of any thermal treatments. The photocatalytic activity has been correlated with the amount of defects induced by the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-implantation process, clarifying the operative physical mechanism. These results can be fruitfully applied for environmental applications of TiO{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212062','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212062"><span>Novel rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span>-doped oxyfluoride nano-composite with efficient upconversion white-<span class="hlt">light</span> emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen Daqin; Wang Yuansheng Yu Yunlong; Huang Ping; Weng Fangyi</p> <p>2008-10-15</p> <p>Transparent SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NaF-YF{sub 3} bulk nano-composites triply doped with Ho{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} were fabricated by melt-quenching and subsequent heating. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the homogeneous precipitation of the {beta}-YF{sub 3} crystals with mean size of 20 nm among the glass matrix, and rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span> were found to partition into these nano-crystals. Under single 976 nm laser excitation, intense red, green and blue upconversion emissions were simultaneously observed owing to the successive <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from Yb{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}. Various colors of luminescence, including bright perfect white <span class="hlt">light</span>, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of the rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the material. The overall <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency of the white-<span class="hlt">light</span> upconversion was estimated to be about 0.2%. - Graphical abstract: Under single 976 nm laser excitation, intense red, green and blue upconversion emissions were simultaneously observed owing to the successive <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from Yb{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}. Various colors of luminescence, including bright perfect white <span class="hlt">light</span> with CIE-X=0.351 and CIE-Y=0.306, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of the rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ZPhyD..16..229D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990ZPhyD..16..229D"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> loss of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a dense hydrogen plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dietrich, K.-G.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Wahl, H.; Haas, C. R.; Kunze, H.; Brandenburg, W.; Noll, R.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> with an <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 1.4 MeV/u in a hydrogen plasma has been measured. A 20 cm long z-pinch has been used as plasma target. Our data show a strong enhancement of the stopping power of the plasma compared to that of a cold gas with equal density. The results completely confirm the predictions of the standard stopping power model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053305&hterms=High+Altitude+Plasma+Instrument&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHigh%2BAltitude%2BPlasma%2BInstrument','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053305&hterms=High+Altitude+Plasma+Instrument&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHigh%2BAltitude%2BPlasma%2BInstrument"><span>Intense low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> populations at low equatorial altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The ISEE 1 satellite trajectory often passed through the magnetospheric region during the time from November 1977 to April 1978. On every occasion, the medium <span class="hlt">energy</span> particles instrument (MEPI) of the satellite recorded an intense <span class="hlt">ion</span> population in a region corresponding to low equatorial altitudes. An intensity peak was observed in the lowest MEPI <span class="hlt">energy</span> channel. A comparison of high bit rate MEPI data with simultaneous data from the LEPEDEA plasma instrument on Nov. 29, 1977 1930-2000 UT shows additional peaks in the <span class="hlt">ion</span> population existing in the L of 2 to at least 4. In the present report, data characterizing these <span class="hlt">ion</span> populations are presented, and implications are discussed in terms of source and loss mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL47004R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL47004R"><span>Inferring mixture Gibbs free <span class="hlt">energies</span> from static <span class="hlt">light</span> scattering data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ross, David; Wahle, Christopher; Thurston, George</p> <p></p> <p>We describe a <span class="hlt">light</span> scattering partial differential equation for the free <span class="hlt">energy</span> of mixing that applies to connected, isotropic ternary and quaternary liquid composition domains, including restricted domains which may not touch all binary axes. For restricted domains, contrasting <span class="hlt">light</span> scattering efficiency patterns obtained at different wavelengths can correspond to the same underlying free <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and supplement the available information. We discuss well-posed problems for this fully nonlinear, degenerate elliptic partial differential equation. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free <span class="hlt">energy</span> to a desired degree of accuracy, and indicate how measurement time depends on instrument throughput. These methods provide a way to use static <span class="hlt">light</span> scattering to measure, directly, mixing free <span class="hlt">energies</span> of many systems that contain liquid domains. Supported by NIH EY018249.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PPCF...53a4011W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PPCF...53a4011W"><span>Front versus rear side <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> acceleration from high-intensity laser-solid interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willingale, L.; Petrov, G. M.; Maksimchuk, A.; Davis, J.; Freeman, R. R.; Matsuoka, T.; Murphy, C. D.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Van Woerkom, L.; Krushelnick, K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The source of <span class="hlt">ions</span> accelerated from high-intensity laser interactions with thin foil targets is investigated by coating a deuterated plastic layer either on the front, rear or both surfaces of thin foil targets. The originating surface of the deuterons is therefore known and this method is used to assess the relative source contributions and maximum <span class="hlt">energies</span> using a Thomson parabola spectrometer to obtain high-resolution <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> spectra. Under these experimental conditions, laser intensity of (0.5-2.5) × 1019 W cm-2, pulse duration of 400 fs and target thickness of 6-13 µm, deuterons originating from the front surface can gain comparable maximum <span class="hlt">energies</span> as those from the rear surface and spectra from either side can deviate from Maxwellian. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations model the acceleration and show that any presence of a proton rich contamination layer over the surface is detrimental to the deuteron acceleration from the rear surface, whereas it is likely to be less influential on the front side acceleration mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213383-photon-dilepton-production-high-energy-heavy-ion-collisions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213383-photon-dilepton-production-high-energy-heavy-ion-collisions"><span>Photon and dilepton production in high <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Sakaguchi, Takao</p> <p>2015-05-07</p> <p>The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213383"><span>Photon and dilepton production in high <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sakaguchi, Takao</p> <p>2015-05-07</p> <p>The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111w2301E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111w2301E"><span>Pressure Isotropization in High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Epelbaum, Thomas; Gelis, François</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The early stages of high <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions are studied in the color glass condensate framework, with a real-time classical lattice simulation. When increasing the coupling constant, we observe a rapid increase of the ratio of longitudinal to transverse pressure. The transient regime that precedes this behavior is of the order of 1fm/c.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.390a2004T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.390a2004T"><span>ECR Based Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beam Facility at VECC, Kolkata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taki, G. S.; Chakraborty, D. K.; Ghosh, Subhash; Majhi, S.; Pal, Gautam; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.; Krishna, J. B. M.; Dey, K.; Sinha, A. K.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>A low <span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> irradiation/implantation facility has been developed at VECC, Kolkata for materials science and atomic physics research, utilizing indigenously developed 6.4 GHz ECR <span class="hlt">ion</span> source. The facility provides high charge state <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams of N, O, Ne, Ar, S, Kr, Xe, Fe, Ti, Hf etc. up to a few micro amperes to an <span class="hlt">energy</span> of 10 keV per charge state.The beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> can be further enhanced by floating the target at a negative potential (up to 25 kV). The <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam is focused to a spot of about 2 mm diameter on the target using a set of glaser lenses. A x-y scanner is used to scan the beam over a target area of 10 mm x 10 mm to obtain uniform implantation. The recently commissioned multi facility sample chamber has provision for mounting multiple samples on indigenously developed disposable beam viewers for insitu beam viewing during implantation. The ionization chamber of ECR source is mainly pumped by ECR plasma. An additional pumping speed has been provided through extraction hole and pumping slots to obtain low base pressure. In the <span class="hlt">ion</span> source, base pressure of 1x10-7 Torr in injector stage and ~5x10-8 Torr in extraction chamber have been routinely obtained. The ultra-high vacuum multi facility experimental chamber is generally kept at ~ 1x10-7 Torr during implantation on the targets. This facility is a unique tool for studying fundamental and technologically important problems of materials science and atomic physics research. High <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux available from this machine is suitable for generating high defect densities i.e. high value of displacement-per-atom (dpa). Recently this facility has been used for studies like "Tunability of dielectric constant of conducting polymer Polyaniline (PANI) by low <span class="hlt">energy</span> Ar9+ irradiation" and "Fe10+ implantation in ZnO for synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductor".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28251710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28251710"><span>Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-<span class="hlt">Energy</span> Lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> and Beyond-Lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> Batteries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping</p> <p>2017-03-02</p> <p>Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> and beyond-lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries for high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) <span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed <span class="hlt">light</span> on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-<span class="hlt">ion</span> cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved <span class="hlt">energy</span>-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1390418-real-single-ion-solvation-free-energies-quantum-mechanical-simulation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1390418-real-single-ion-solvation-free-energies-quantum-mechanical-simulation"><span>Real single <span class="hlt">ion</span> solvation free <span class="hlt">energies</span> with quantum mechanical simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Duignan, Timothy TS; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; ...</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Single <span class="hlt">ion</span> solvation free <span class="hlt">energies</span> are one of the most important properties of electrolyte solution and yet there is ongoing debate about what these values are. Experimental methods can only determine the values for neutral <span class="hlt">ion</span> pairs. Here, we use DFT interaction potentials with molecular dynamics simulation (DFT-MD) combined with a modified version of the quasi chemical theory (QCT) to calculate these <span class="hlt">energies</span> for the lithium and fluoride <span class="hlt">ions</span>. A new method to rigorously correct for the error in the DFT functional is developed and very good agreement with the experimental value for the lithium fluoride pair is obtained. Moreover,more » this method partitions the <span class="hlt">energies</span> into physically intuitive terms such as surface potential, cavity and charging <span class="hlt">energies</span> which are amenable to descriptions with reduced models. Our research suggests that lithium’s solvation <span class="hlt">energy</span> is dominated by the free energetics of a charged hard sphere, whereas fluoride exhibits significant quantum mechanical behavior that cannot be simply described with a reduced model. We would like to thank Thomas Beck, Shawn Kathmann and Sotiris Xantheas for helpful discussions. Computing resources were generously allocated by PNNLs Institutional Computing program. This research also used resources of the National <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span> under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. TTD, GKS and CJM were supported by the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>, Office of Science, Office of Basic <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. MDB was supported by MS3 (Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales) Initiative, a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858155"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer mechanism from ZnO nanocrystals to Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mangalam, Vivek; Pita, Kantisara; Couteau, Christophe</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this work, we investigate the efficient <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer occurring between ZnO nanocrystals (ZnO-nc) and europium (Eu(3+)) <span class="hlt">ions</span> embedded in a SiO2 matrix prepared using the sol-gel technique. We show that a strong red emission was observed at 614 nm when the ZnO-nc were excited using a continuous optical excitation at 325 nm. This emission is due to the radiative (5)D0 → (7)F2 de-excitation of the Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> and has been conclusively shown to be due to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from the excited ZnO-nc to the Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The photoluminescence excitation spectra are also examined in this work to confirm the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer from ZnO-nc to the Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Furthermore, we study various de-excitation processes from the excited ZnO-nc and their contribution to the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer to Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>. We also report the optimum fabrication process for maximum red emission at 614 nm from the samples where we show a strong dependence on the annealing temperature and the Eu(3+) concentration in the sample. The maximum red emission is observed with 12 mol% Eu(3+) annealed at 450 °C. This work provides a better understanding of the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer mechanism from ZnO-nc to Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> and is important for applications in photonics, especially for <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhD...43I4001T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhD...43I4001T"><span>Solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span>: an <span class="hlt">energy</span>-economics perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsao, J. Y.; Saunders, H. D.; Creighton, J. R.; Coltrin, M. E.; Simmons, J. A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Artificial <span class="hlt">light</span> has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of <span class="hlt">energy</span> to produce it. Solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span> (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial <span class="hlt">lighting</span>, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of <span class="hlt">light</span>, (b) the human productivity and <span class="hlt">energy</span> use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple <span class="hlt">energy</span>-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for <span class="hlt">light</span>; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of <span class="hlt">light</span> and associated <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1065188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1065188"><span>Solid-State <span class="hlt">Lighting</span>: An <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Economics Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Saunders, Harry D.; Creighton, J. Randall; Coltrin, Michael E.; Simmons, Jerry A.</p> <p>2010-08-19</p> <p>Artificial <span class="hlt">light</span> has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of <span class="hlt">energy</span> to produce it. Solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span> (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial <span class="hlt">lighting</span>, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of <span class="hlt">light</span>, (b) the human productivity and <span class="hlt">energy</span> use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple <span class="hlt">energy</span>-economics framework (a Cobb–Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for <span class="hlt">light</span>; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of <span class="hlt">light</span> and associated <span class="hlt">energy</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993RScI...64.2753R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993RScI...64.2753R"><span>Microsecond pulse width, intense, <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> beam accelerator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rej, D. J.; Bartsch, R. R.; Davis, H. A.; Faehl, R. J.; Greenly, J. B.; Waganaar, W. J.</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>A relatively long-pulse width (0.1-1 μs) intense <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam accelerator has been built for materials processing applications. An applied Br, magnetically insulated extraction <span class="hlt">ion</span> diode with dielectric flashover <span class="hlt">ion</span> source is installed directly onto the output of a 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Marx generator. The diode is designed with the aid of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Initial operation of the accelerator at 0.4 MV indicates satisfactory performance without the need for additional pulse shaping. The effect of a plasma opening switch on diode behavior is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1169...38S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1169...38S"><span>Development of Lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> Battery as <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage for Mobile Power Sources Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sulaiman, Mohd Ali; Hasan, Hasimah</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>In view of the need to protect the global environment and save <span class="hlt">energy</span>, there has been strong demand for the development of lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> battery technology as a <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage system, especially for <span class="hlt">Light</span> Electric Vehicle (LEV) and electric vehicles (EV) applications. The R&D trend in the lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> battery development is toward the high power and <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, cheaper in price and high safety standard. In our laboratory, the research and development of lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> battery technology was mainly focus to develop high power density performance of cathode material, which is focusing to the Li-metal-oxide system, LiMO2, where M=Co, Ni, Mn and its combination. The nano particle size material, which has irregular particle shape and high specific surface area was successfully synthesized by self propagating combustion technique. As a result the <span class="hlt">energy</span> density and power density of the synthesized materials are significantly improved. In addition, we also developed variety of sizes of lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> battery prototype, including (i) small size for electronic gadgets such as mobile phone and PDA applications, (ii) medium size for remote control toys and power tools applications and (iii) battery module for high power application such as electric bicycle and electric scooter applications. The detail performance of R&D in advanced materials and prototype development in AMREC, SIRIM Berhad will be discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRA..11112215Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRA..11112215Z"><span>Simulation of the POLAR-observed Geomagnetic <span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeng, W.; Horwitz, J. L.; Elliott, H. A.; Moore, T. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Observations by polar-orbiting spacecraft of outward streaming ionospheric O+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the polar cap magnetosphere often show decreasing field-aligned streaming <span class="hlt">energy</span> with antisunward distance from their apparent dayside source, the Cleft <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Fountain (CIF). In this paper we use the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid-Kinetic (DyFK) ionospheric plasma transport model to simulate the transport of CIF generated <span class="hlt">ions</span> along convecting magnetic flux tubes. We compare these simulations to observations by the Thermal <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Dynamics Experiments (TIDE) on board the Polar spacecraft, for periods when the Polar orbit was aligned parallel to the noon-midnight direction. When the Polar spacecraft traversed from high altitudes on the dayside to lower altitudes on the nightside, the peak O+ streaming <span class="hlt">energy</span> decreased from above 100 eV to below 5 eV. For the case in which the Polar satellite traveled from the nightside higher altitude to the dayside lower altitude, the O+ <span class="hlt">energy</span> remained relatively stable, ranging between 20 eV and about 50 eV. Using the DyFK model, we simulate the ionospheric plasma transport and, in particular, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrometer effects under the geophysical circumstances of the observations, and compare the simulated and observed streaming <span class="hlt">energies</span>. The results show that the simulated O+-streaming <span class="hlt">energy</span> variations in the noon-midnight direction were in reasonable agreement with those of the Polar/TIDE observations, independent of whether Polar was moving sunward or antisunward, for realistic choices of geophysical parameters. The altitude and the distance to the CIF are the two primary O+ parameters influencing the O+ <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrometer variations, with the antisunward distance from the CIF being the principal controlling parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990014464&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dram','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990014464&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dram"><span>Observations of Reflected <span class="hlt">Ions</span> and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater than the <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Ram <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential of the satellite was changed from below to above 5 V. The ram <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the ambient atomic oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span> is approximately 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no <span class="hlt">ions</span> were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised greater than 5 V, <span class="hlt">ions</span> were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux was a few percent of the ambient with <span class="hlt">energies</span> of approximately 5 eV. The temperature of the out-flowing <span class="hlt">ions</span> was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials greater than 5 V as compared with satellite potentials less than 5 V, indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990080070&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dram','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990080070&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dram"><span>Observations of Reflected <span class="hlt">Ions</span> and Plasma Turbulence for Satellite Potentials Greater Than the <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Ram <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Sorensen, J.; Winningham, J. D.; Gurgiolo, C.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>During the TSS-1R mission, the behavior of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> flowing from the forward hemisphere of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) satellite was examined as the potential on the satellite was changed from below to above 5 Volts. The ram <span class="hlt">energy</span> of the ambient atomic oxygen <span class="hlt">ions</span> is about 5 eV. For satellite potentials less than 5 V, no <span class="hlt">ions</span> were observed on the ram side of the satellite. When the satellite potential was raised above 5 V, <span class="hlt">ions</span> were observed to be flowing from the forward region of the satellite. In the region sampled, the <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux was a few percent of the ambient with <span class="hlt">energies</span> of about 5 eV. The temperature of the outflowing <span class="hlt">ions</span> was observed to be enhanced, relative to the ambient ionosphere, and had a maximum in a plane containing the center of the satellite and normal to the geomagnetic field. The net current to the probe package became much more noisy for satellite potentials above 5 V as compared with satellite potentials below 5 V indicating a more disturbed plasma environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..96c3412P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..96c3412P"><span>Relativistic <span class="hlt">light</span>-shift theory of few-electron systems: Heliumlike highly charged <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Postavaru, O.; Scafes, A. C.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">light</span>-shift theory of many-electron systems in a laser field is described using the projection operators technique. In heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>, the electrons are tightly bound by the Coulomb potential of the nucleus, which prohibits ionization even by strong lasers. However, interaction with the monofrequent laser field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic <span class="hlt">energy</span> levels, and the process is treated by second-order time-dependent perturbation theory. In order to treat heliumlike systems, one decomposes the corresponding matrix elements into hydrogenlike matrix elements using the independent particle model. We are applying a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the Stark long-wavelength dipole approximation and takes into account nondipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4763136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4763136"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">light</span> bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue <span class="hlt">light</span> hazard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M; Price, L L A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The introduction of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">lighting</span> and the widespread use of computer and mobile technologies have changed the exposure of human eyes to <span class="hlt">light</span>. Occasional claims that the <span class="hlt">light</span> sources with emissions containing blue <span class="hlt">light</span> may cause eye damage raise concerns in the media. The aim of the study was to determine if it was appropriate to issue advice on the public health concerns. A number of sources were assessed and the exposure conditions were compared with international exposure limits, and the exposure likely to be received from staring at a blue sky. None of the sources assessed approached the exposure limits, even for extended viewing times. PMID:26768920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26768920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26768920"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">light</span> bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue <span class="hlt">light</span> hazard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M; Price, L L A</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The introduction of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">lighting</span> and the widespread use of computer and mobile technologies have changed the exposure of human eyes to <span class="hlt">light</span>. Occasional claims that the <span class="hlt">light</span> sources with emissions containing blue <span class="hlt">light</span> may cause eye damage raise concerns in the media. The aim of the study was to determine if it was appropriate to issue advice on the public health concerns. A number of sources were assessed and the exposure conditions were compared with international exposure limits, and the exposure likely to be received from staring at a blue sky. None of the sources assessed approached the exposure limits, even for extended viewing times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861165','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861165"><span>Development of a low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> source for ROSINA <span class="hlt">ion</span> mode calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rubin, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Jaeckel, Annette; Balsiger, Hans</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>The European Rosetta mission on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will remain for more than a year in the close vicinity (1 km) of the comet. The two ROSINA mass spectrometers on board Rosetta are designed to analyze the neutral and ionized volatile components of the cometary coma. However, the relative velocity between the comet and the spacecraft will be minimal and also the velocity of the outgassing particles is below 1 km/s. This combination leads to very low <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energies</span> in the surrounding plasma of the comet, typically below 20 eV. Additionally, the spacecraft may charge up to a few volts in this environment. In order to simulate such plasma and to calibrate the mass spectrometers, a source for <span class="hlt">ions</span> with very low <span class="hlt">energies</span> had to be developed for the use in the laboratory together with the different gases expected at the comet. In this paper we present the design of this <span class="hlt">ion</span> source and we discuss the physical parameters of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam like sensitivity, <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution, and beam shape. Finally, we show the first <span class="hlt">ion</span> measurements that have been performed together with one of the two mass spectrometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075892','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075892"><span>Stimulation of Growth and <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Uptake in Bean Leaves by Red and Blue <span class="hlt">Light</span> 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blum, Dale E.; Elzenga, J. Theo M.; Linnemeyer, Paul A.; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Red and blue <span class="hlt">light</span> both stimulate growth and <span class="hlt">ion</span> accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves, and previous studies showed that the growth response is mediated by phytochrome and a blue-<span class="hlt">light</span> receptor. Results of this study confirm that there is an additional photosynthetic contribution from the growing cells that supports <span class="hlt">ion</span> uptake and growth. Disc expansion in the <span class="hlt">light</span> was enhanced by exogenous K+ and Rb+, but was not specific for anions. <span class="hlt">Light</span> increased K+ accumulation and the rate of 86Rb+ uptake by discs, over darkness, with no effect of <span class="hlt">light</span> quality. The photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, inhibited <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven 86Rb+ uptake by 75%. <span class="hlt">Light</span> quality caused differences in short-term kinetics of growth and acidification of the leaf surface. At comparable fluence rates (50 μmol m−2 s−1), continuous exposure to blue <span class="hlt">light</span> increased the growth rate 3-fold after a 2-min lag, whereas red <span class="hlt">light</span> caused a smaller growth response after a lag of 12 min. In contrast, the acidification of the leaf surface normally associated with growth was stimulated 3-fold by red <span class="hlt">light</span> but only slightly (1.3-fold) by blue <span class="hlt">light</span>. This result shows that, in addition to acidification caused by red <span class="hlt">light</span>, a second mechanism specifically stimulated by blue <span class="hlt">light</span> is normally functioning in <span class="hlt">light</span>-driven leaf growth. PMID:16653225</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPl...19i2707D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPl...19i2707D"><span>Transition <span class="hlt">energies</span> and polarizabilities of hydrogen like <span class="hlt">ions</span> in plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, Madhusmita</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Effect of plasma screening on various properties like transition <span class="hlt">energy</span>, polarizability (dipole and quadrupole), etc. of hydrogen like <span class="hlt">ions</span> is studied. The bound and free state wave functions and transition matrix elements are obtained by numerically integrating the radial Schrodinger equation for appropriate plasma potential. We have used adaptive step size controlled Runge-Kutta method to perform the numerical integration. Debye-Huckel potential is used to investigate the variation in transition lines and polarizabilities (dipole and quadrupole) with increasing plasma screening. For a strongly coupled plasma, <span class="hlt">ion</span> sphere potential is used to show the variation in excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> with decreasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> sphere radius. It is observed that plasma screening sets in phenomena like continuum lowering and pressure ionization, which are unique to <span class="hlt">ions</span> in plasma. Of particular interest is the blue (red) shift in transitions conserving (non-conserving) principal quantum number. The plasma environment also affects the dipole and quadrupole polarizability of <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a significant manner. The bound state contribution to polarizabilities decreases with increase in plasma density whereas the continuum contribution is significantly enhanced. This is a result of variation in the behavior of bound and continuum state wave functions in the presence of plasma. We have compared the results with existing theoretical and experimental data wherever present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NIMPB.266.4488P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NIMPB.266.4488P"><span>Cryogenic helium as stopping medium for high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Purushothaman, S.; Dendooven, P.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Äystö, J.; Peräjärvi, K.; Takahashi, N.; Gloos, K.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>We have investigated the survival and transport efficiency of 219Rn <span class="hlt">ions</span> emitted by a 223Ra source in high-density cryogenic helium gas, with ionisation of the gas induced by a proton beam. The combined efficiency of <span class="hlt">ion</span> survival and transport by an applied electric field was measured as a function of ionisation rate density for electric fields up to 160 V/cm and for three temperature and density combinations: 77 K, 0.18 mg/cm3, 10 K, 0.18 mg/cm3 and 10 K, 0.54 mg/cm3. At low beam intensity or high electric field, an efficiency of 30 % is obtained, confirming earlier results. A sharp drop in efficiency is observed at a "threshold" ionisation rate density which increases with the square of the applied electric field. At 160 V/cm, the efficiency stays above 10% up to an ionisation rate density of 1012 <span class="hlt">ion</span>-electron pairs/cm3/s. The observed behaviour is understood as the result of shielding of the applied field by the weak plasma created by the proton beam: it counteracts the effective transport of <span class="hlt">ions</span> and electrons, leading to recombination between the two. We conclude that cryogenic helium gas at high-density and high electric field is a promising medium for the transformation of very high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> into low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086151','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086151"><span>Transition <span class="hlt">energies</span> and polarizabilities of hydrogen like <span class="hlt">ions</span> in plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Das, Madhusmita</p> <p>2012-09-15</p> <p>Effect of plasma screening on various properties like transition <span class="hlt">energy</span>, polarizability (dipole and quadrupole), etc. of hydrogen like <span class="hlt">ions</span> is studied. The bound and free state wave functions and transition matrix elements are obtained by numerically integrating the radial Schrodinger equation for appropriate plasma potential. We have used adaptive step size controlled Runge-Kutta method to perform the numerical integration. Debye-Huckel potential is used to investigate the variation in transition lines and polarizabilities (dipole and quadrupole) with increasing plasma screening. For a strongly coupled plasma, <span class="hlt">ion</span> sphere potential is used to show the variation in excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> with decreasing <span class="hlt">ion</span> sphere radius. It is observed that plasma screening sets in phenomena like continuum lowering and pressure ionization, which are unique to <span class="hlt">ions</span> in plasma. Of particular interest is the blue (red) shift in transitions conserving (non-conserving) principal quantum number. The plasma environment also affects the dipole and quadrupole polarizability of <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a significant manner. The bound state contribution to polarizabilities decreases with increase in plasma density whereas the continuum contribution is significantly enhanced. This is a result of variation in the behavior of bound and continuum state wave functions in the presence of plasma. We have compared the results with existing theoretical and experimental data wherever present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930790','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930790"><span>Secondary Electron Generation by Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Joy, David Charles; Lin, Yinghong; Meyer III, Harry M; Demers, Hendrix; Newbury, Dale</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams are being increasingly viewed as an alternative to, or even as areplacement for, low voltage SEMs. The beam interaction volumes in both cases are comparable in their size and their proximity to the sample surface, and both can produce high quality secondary electron images. However, although a cursory comparison of <span class="hlt">ion</span> generated SE (iSE) and electron generated SE (eSE) images of the same area of a sample shows micrographs that can look very similar this is misleading because the nature of the iSE and eSE images are quite distinct. More experimental data and additional analysis of the beam interactions is therefore required if images are to be properly nterpreted.The yield de of eSE, rises rapidly with incident beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> E reaching a maximum value which is typically in the range 1.5-2 and occurs at an <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a few hundred eV before then falling away as about 1/E.. In the case of <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam irradiation the kinetic production of iSE commences at a particle velocity of about 107cm/sec 30eV for He, (3keV for Ar) producing a yield di of iSE which rises almost linearly with the accelerating voltage and reaches typical values of 1.5 - 2.5 for <span class="hlt">energies</span> of the order of 20- 30kV. Thus while at low <span class="hlt">energies</span> the eSE and iSE yields are comparable in magnitude, at higher <span class="hlt">energies</span> the iSE yield is an order of magnitude or more larger. The iSE yield will eventually each a maximum value and then begin to fall when once the interaction volume lies mostly below the escape depth of the SE. Both eSE and iSE yields also display a marked - although apparently chaotic - dependence on the atomic number of the target (Z2) and, in the <span class="hlt">ion</span> case, on the atomic number of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> (Z1) itself. In the electron case the minima in the SE yield versus Z2 plot correspond to shell filling but there is presently insufficient evidence to confirm if the same is true for the <span class="hlt">ion</span> SE case. Because the stopping powers of <span class="hlt">ion</span> and electrons, and hence their range in a given material, are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvC..31..152C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvC..31..152C"><span>Particle emission in the <span class="hlt">light</span> heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> fusion reactions: 14N, 16,18O+ 12C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carlin Filho, N.; Coimbra, M. M.; Acquadro, J. C.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto, E. M.; Farrelly-Pessoa, E.; Szanto de Toledo, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>From the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra of <span class="hlt">light</span> particles produced in <span class="hlt">light-heavy-ion</span>-induced reactions, level densities of the final nuclei as well as the critical angular momenta for fusion may be obtained. The 14N, 16,18O+ 12C reactions were investigated in the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range 30 MeV<Elab<60 MeV. Detailed angular distributions of the <span class="hlt">light</span> particles (p,d,t,3He,α) emitted in the process were obtained. Fits of the magnitude and shape of the spectra by means of statistical model calculations were used to extract final nuclei level densities. The shape of the spectra and the ratio σ(α)/σ(p) are shown to be sensitive to the fusion critical angular momentum (Jcr), offering an alternative method for the total fusion cross-section determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22326475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22326475"><span>Modeling the dynamic modulation of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> in photosynthetic algae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papadakis, Ioannis A; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos; Lika, Konstadia</p> <p>2012-05-07</p> <p>An integrated cell-based dynamic mathematical model that take into account the role of the photon absorbing process, the partition of excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and the photoinactivation and repair of photosynthetic units, under variable <span class="hlt">light</span> and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability is proposed. The modeling of the photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorption and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation is based on the photoadaptive changes of the underlying mechanisms. The partition of the excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> is based on the relative availability of <span class="hlt">light</span> and DIC to the cell. The modeling of the photoinactivation process is based on the common aspect that it occurs under any <span class="hlt">light</span> intensity and the modeling of the repair process is based on the evidence that it is controlled by chloroplast and nuclear-encoded enzymes. The present model links the absorption of photons and the partitioning of excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> to the linear electron flow and other quenchers with chlorophyll fluorescence emission parameters, and the number of the functional photosynthetic units with the photosynthetic oxygen production rate. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> allocation to the LEF increases as DIC availability increases and/or <span class="hlt">light</span> intensity decreases. The rate of rejected <span class="hlt">energy</span> increases with <span class="hlt">light</span> intensity and with DIC availability. The resulting rate coefficient of photoinactivation increases as <span class="hlt">light</span> intensity and/or as DIC concentration increases. We test the model against chlorophyll fluorescence induction and photosynthetic oxygen production rate measurements, obtained from cultures of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, and find a very close quantitative and qualitative correspondence between predictions and data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NJPh...19f3041L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NJPh...19f3041L"><span>Cooling atomic <span class="hlt">ions</span> with visible and infra-red <span class="hlt">light</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindenfelser, F.; Marinelli, M.; Negnevitsky, V.; Ragg, S.; Home, J. P.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We demonstrate the ability to load, cool and detect singly charged calcium <span class="hlt">ions</span> in a surface electrode trap using only visible and infrared lasers for the trapped-<span class="hlt">ion</span> control. As opposed to the standard methods of cooling using dipole-allowed transitions, we combine power broadening of a quadrupole transition at 729 nm with quenching of the upper level using a dipole allowed transition at 854 nm. By observing the resulting 393 nm fluorescence we are able to perform background-free detection of the <span class="hlt">ion</span>. We show that this system can be used to smoothly transition between the Doppler cooling and sideband cooling regimes, and verify theoretical predictions throughout this range. We achieve scattering rates which reliably allow recooling after collision events and allow <span class="hlt">ions</span> to be loaded from a thermal atomic beam. This work is compatible with recent advances in optical waveguides, and thus opens a path in current technologies for large-scale quantum information processing. In situations where dielectric materials are placed close to trapped <span class="hlt">ions</span>, it carries the additional advantage of using wavelengths which do not lead to significant charging, which should facilitate high rate optical interfaces between remotely held <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..MAR.I1608K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..MAR.I1608K"><span>Large scale self <span class="hlt">energy</span> calculations for <span class="hlt">ion</span>-surface interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kürpick, P.; Thumm, U.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>We present large scale non-perturbative self <span class="hlt">energy</span> calculations for the interaction of an <span class="hlt">ion</span> with a metal surface. Using both the simple jellium potential and more sophisticated ab initio potentials(P. J. Jennings, R. O. Jones and M. Weinert, Phys. Rev. B, 37), 6113 (1988)., we study the complex self <span class="hlt">energy</span> matrix for various n-manifolds allowing for the calculation of diabatic and adiabatic non-perturbative level shifts and widths, and hybrid orbitals(P. Kürpick and U.Thumm, to be published.). Besides this self <span class="hlt">energy</span> calculations a new adiabatic close--coupling calculation is being developed that will be applied to the interaction of <span class="hlt">ions</span> in various charge states with metal surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311001"><span>High <span class="hlt">energy</span> gain in three-dimensional simulations of <span class="hlt">light</span> sail acceleration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sgattoni, A.; Sinigardi, S.; Macchi, A.</p> <p>2014-08-25</p> <p>The dynamics of radiation pressure acceleration in the relativistic <span class="hlt">light</span> sail regime are analysed by means of large scale, three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Differently to other mechanisms, the 3D dynamics leads to faster and higher <span class="hlt">energy</span> gain than in 1D or 2D geometry. This effect is caused by the local decrease of the target density due to transverse expansion leading to a “lighter sail.” However, the rarefaction of the target leads to an earlier transition to transparency limiting the <span class="hlt">energy</span> gain. A transverse instability leads to a structured and inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">ion</span> distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20484144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20484144"><span>Fabrication of a TEM sample of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-irradiated material using focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam microprocessing and low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Ar <span class="hlt">ion</span> milling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Hyung-Ha; Shin, Chansun; Kwon, Junhyun</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Cross-section-view TEM samples of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-irradiated material are successfully fabricated using a focused <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam (FIB) system and low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Ar <span class="hlt">ion</span> milling. Ga <span class="hlt">ion</span>-induced damages in FIB processing are reduced remarkably by the means of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Ar <span class="hlt">ion</span> milling. There are optimized <span class="hlt">ion</span> milling conditions for the reduction and removal of the secondary artifacts such as defects and ripples. Incident angles and accelerated voltages are especially more important factors on the preservation of a clean surface far from secondary defects and surface roughing due to Ga and Ar <span class="hlt">ion</span> bombardment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24624829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24624829"><span>[<span class="hlt">Energy</span> saving and LED lamp <span class="hlt">lighting</span> and human health].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deĭnego, V N; Kaptsov, V A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The appearance of new sources of high-intensity with large proportion of blue <span class="hlt">light</span> in the spectrum revealed new risks of their influence on the function of the eye and human health, especially for children and teenagers. There is an urgent need to reconsider the research methods of vision hygiene in conditions of <span class="hlt">energy</span>-saving and LED bulbs <span class="hlt">lighting</span>. On the basis of a systematic approach and knowledge of the newly discovered photosensitive receptors there was built hierarchical model of the interaction of "<span class="hlt">light</span> environment - the eye - the system of formation of visual images - the hormonal system of the person - his psycho-physiological state." This approach allowed us to develop a range of risk for the negative impact of spectrum on the functions of the eye and human health, as well as to formulate the hygiene requirements for <span class="hlt">energy</span>-efficient high-intensity <span class="hlt">light</span> sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..MAR.S1805U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..MAR.S1805U"><span>Local correlation <span class="hlt">energies</span> of atoms, <span class="hlt">ions</span> and model systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Umrigar, Cyrus; Huang, Chien-Jung</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>We present nearly local definitions of the correlation <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, and its potential and kinetic components, and evaluate them for several atoms, <span class="hlt">ions</span> and model systems. This information provides valuable guidance in constructing better correlation functionals than those in common use, such as the local density approximation (LDA) and the various generalized gradient approximations (GGAs). The true local correlation <span class="hlt">energy</span> per electron has oscillations, reflecting the shell-structure, whereas the LDA approximation to it is monotonic. In addition we demonstrate that, for two-electron systems, the quantum chemistry and the density functional definitions of the correlation <span class="hlt">energy</span> approach each other with increasing atomic number as 1/Z^3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997RScI...68.1398L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997RScI...68.1398L"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread and current measurements of the rf-driven multicusp <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Pickard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>Axial <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread and useful beam current of positive <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams have been carried out using a radio frequency (rf)-driven multicusp <span class="hlt">ion</span> source. Operating the source with a 13.56 MHz induction discharge, the axial <span class="hlt">energy</span> spread is found to be approximately 3.2 eV. The extractable beam current of the rf-driven source is found to be comparable to that of filament-discharge sources. With a 0.6 mm diameter extraction aperture, a positive hydrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam current density of 80 mA/cm2 can be obtained at a rf input power of 2.5 kW. The expected source lifetime is much longer than that of filament discharges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..130...60S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..130...60S"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions and densities in the plume of Enceladus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakai, Shotaro; Cravens, Thomas E.; Omidi, Nojan; Perry, Mark E.; Waite, J. Hunter</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Enceladus has a dynamic plume that is emitting gas, including water vapor, and dust. The gas is ionized by solar EUV radiation, charge exchange, and electron impact and extends throughout the inner magnetosphere of Saturn. The charge exchange collisions alter the plasma composition. Ice grains (dust) escape from the vicinity of Enceladus and form the E ring, including a portion that is negatively charged by the local plasma. The inner magnetosphere within 10 RS (Saturn radii) contains a complex mixture of plasma, neutral gas, and dust that links back to Enceladus. In this paper we investigate the <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions, <span class="hlt">ion</span> species and densities of water group <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the plume of Enceladus using test particle and Monte Carlo methods that include collisional processes such as charge exchange and <span class="hlt">ion</span>-neutral chemical reactions. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> observations from the Cassini <span class="hlt">Ion</span> and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) for E07 are presented for the first time. We use the modeling results to interpret observations made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the INMS. The low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, as observed by CAPS, appear to be affected by a vertical electric field (EZ=-10 μV/m) in the plume. The EZ field may be associated with the charged dust and/or the pressure gradient of plasma. The model results, along with the results of earlier models, show that H3O+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> created by chemistry are predominant in the plume, which agrees with INMS and CAPS data, but the INMS count rate in the plume for the model is several times greater than the data, which we do not fully understand. This composition and the total <span class="hlt">ion</span> count found in the plume agree with INMS and CAPS data. On the other hand, the Cassini Langmuir Probe measured a maximum plume <span class="hlt">ion</span> density more than 30,000 cm-3, which is far larger than the maximum <span class="hlt">ion</span> density from our model, 900 cm-3. The model results also demonstrate that most of the <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the plume are from the external magnetospheric flow and are not generated by local</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....86.4628L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....86.4628L"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> composition and <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution during 10 magnetic storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lennartsson, W.; Sharp, R. D.; Shelley, E. G.; Johnson, R. G.; Balsiger, H.</p> <p>1981-06-01</p> <p>Data from the plasma composition experiment of ISEE 1 are used to investigate the relative quantities and <span class="hlt">energy</span> characteristics of H(+), He(++), He(+), and O(+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the near-equatorial magnetosphere during magnetic storm conditions. The <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the study had <span class="hlt">energies</span> between 0.1 and 17 keV/e and pitch angles between 45 and 135 deg. The data were obtained during 10 storms, for the most part at or immediately following the peak Dst, covering all major local time sectors and geocentric distances between 2 and 15 earth radii. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluxes are averaged over the spacecraft spin angle and over time for periods ranging from about 20 min close to the earth to more than an hour in most distant regions. The inferred 'isotropic' number densities are characterized by a large to dominant fraction of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ions</span> throughout the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range covered. The data are found to be consistent with a terrestrial origin for all of the O(+), most of the He(+), and a large but varying fraction of the H(+), whereas the He(++) and part of the H(+) appear to be of solar wind origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054551&hterms=balsiger&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbalsiger','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054551&hterms=balsiger&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbalsiger"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> composition and <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution during 10 magnetic storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lennartsson, W.; Sharp, R. D.; Shelley, E. G.; Johnson, R. G.; Balsiger, H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Data from the plasma composition experiment of ISEE 1 are used to investigate the relative quantities and <span class="hlt">energy</span> characteristics of H(+), He(++), He(+), and O(+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the near-equatorial magnetosphere during magnetic storm conditions. The <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the study had <span class="hlt">energies</span> between 0.1 and 17 keV/e and pitch angles between 45 and 135 deg. The data were obtained during 10 storms, for the most part at or immediately following the peak Dst, covering all major local time sectors and geocentric distances between 2 and 15 earth radii. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> fluxes are averaged over the spacecraft spin angle and over time for periods ranging from about 20 min close to the earth to more than an hour in most distant regions. The inferred 'isotropic' number densities are characterized by a large to dominant fraction of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ions</span> throughout the <span class="hlt">energy</span> range covered. The data are found to be consistent with a terrestrial origin for all of the O(+), most of the He(+), and a large but varying fraction of the H(+), whereas the He(++) and part of the H(+) appear to be of solar wind origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912011P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912011P"><span>Structure of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span>, Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span> in Venus' Upper Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Persson, Moa; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Hamrin, Maria; Fedorov, Andrei; Barabash, Stas</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The solar wind interacts with the atmosphere of Venus, and can reach directly down to the ionosphere. The interaction has previously been studied using the Pioneer Venus mission (PVO) and is now known to cause variations in the density in the ionosphere [Taylor et al., 1980], a transport of <span class="hlt">ions</span> towards the night side [Knudsen et al., 1980], and an outflow of <span class="hlt">ions</span> from the atmosphere [Barabash et al., 2007]. Measurements made by PVO showed that the main constituents of Venus ionosphere in the altitude range 150-400 km is the O+ and O2+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>, where the former dominates from 180 km and higher, and the latter dominates from 180 km down to 150 km [Taylor et al., 1980]. New measurements, made by the <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard the Venus Express spacecraft, reveal the high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (10 eV to 15 keV) plasma characteristics in the ionosphere of Venus. Using the data collected during the low altitude (down to 130 km) pericentre passages during the aerobraking time period, we are able to extract the height profile of the total heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> content (O+ and O2+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>) of Venus ionosphere. The results show two scale heights separated at 200 km; 10 km for <200 km and 100 km for >200 km. We interpret the results as two heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> components, namely, the O+ <span class="hlt">ions</span> are dominant for >200 km, while the O2+ is dominant for <200 km. This is consistent with previous results from PVO. Furthermore, we attempt several methods of mass separation, to extract the two <span class="hlt">ion</span> components of the scale height profiles, (O+ and O2+). First method is to use the moderate mass separation capabilities of the IMA instrument. The individual mass spectra are fitted by two Gaussian curves, representing O+ and O2+, derived from ground calibration information. The second method uses the <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrum, which sometimes has two discrete peaks. By assuming the same velocity for different components in the spacecraft reference frame (resulting in different <span class="hlt">energy</span> for different masses), we can separate the composition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100253','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100253"><span>High-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> processing of materials for improved hardcoatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, J.M.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Rhoades, R.L.; Oliver, W.C.; Riester, L.; Tsui, T.Y.</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>Research has been directed toward use of economically viable <span class="hlt">ion</span> processing strategies for production and improvement of hardcoatings. Processing techniques were high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation and electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma processing. Subject materials were boron suboxides, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, CoCrMo alloy (a Stellite{trademark}), and electroplated Cr. These materials may be regarded either as coatings themselves (which might be deposited by thermal spraying, plasma processing, etc.) or in some cases, as substrates whose surfaces can be improved. hardness and other properties in relation to process variables are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79373"><span>Fluorescent <span class="hlt">light</span> bulbs - <span class="hlt">energy</span> saver or environmental hazard?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christenson, S.M.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Businesses and homeowners have installed millions of fluorescent <span class="hlt">light</span> bulbs in buildings around the country in the last few decades. Because fluorescent <span class="hlt">light</span> bulbs are <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficient and save electricity, environmentalists and governmental officials - including U.S. EPA - have promoted their use. Yet, fluorescent bulbs raise environmental concerns of their own. When these bulbs burn out, environmental and facility managers face complex issues about whether the old bulbs are regulated as hazardous waste.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/432927','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/432927"><span><span class="hlt">Lighting</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency opportunities at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Molburg, J.C.; Rozo, A.J.; Sarles, J.K.; Haffenden, R.A.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Cavallo, J.D.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>CMAS is an intensive user of electricity for <span class="hlt">lighting</span> because of its size, lack of daylight, and 24-hour operating schedule. Argonne National Laboratory recently conducted a <span class="hlt">lighting</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> conservation evaluation at CMAS. The evaluation included inspection and characterization of existing <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems, analysis of <span class="hlt">energy</span>-efficient retrofit options, and investigation of the environmental effects that these <span class="hlt">lighting</span> system retrofits could have when they are ready to be disposed of as waste. Argonne devised three retrofit options for the existing <span class="hlt">lighting</span> systems at various buildings: (1) minimal retrofit--limited fixture replacement; (2) moderate retrofit--more extensive fixture replacement and limited application of motion detectors; and (3) advanced retrofit--fixture replacement, reduction in the number of lamps, expansion of task <span class="hlt">lighting</span>, and more extensive application of motion detectors. Argonne used data on electricity consumption to analyze the economic and <span class="hlt">energy</span> effects of these three retrofit options. It performed a cost analysis for each retrofit option in terms of payback. The analysis showed that <span class="hlt">lighting</span> retrofits result in savings because they reduce electricity consumption, cooling load, and maintenance costs. The payback period for all retrofit options was found to be less than 2 years, with the payback period decreasing for more aggressive retrofits. These short payback periods derived largely from the intensive (24-hours-per-day) use of electric <span class="hlt">lighting</span> at the facility. Maintenance savings accounted for more than half of the annual <span class="hlt">energy</span>-related savings under the minimal and moderate retrofit options and slightly less than half of these savings under the advanced retrofit option. Even if maintenance savings were excluded, the payback periods would still be impressive: about 4.4 years for the minimal retrofit option and 2 years for the advanced option. The local and regional environmental impacts of the three retrofit options were minimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11676456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11676456"><span>Intracanopy <span class="hlt">lighting</span> reduces electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> utilization by closed cowpea stands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frantz, J M; Joly, R J; Mitchell, C A</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The high planting densities needed to grow edible biomass in sustainable space life support systems will create problems for planophile crops that form closed, self-shading canopies. The use of traditional overhead-<span class="hlt">lighting</span> configurations will reduce the penetration of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) into such canopies and will result in substantial shading of understory leaves. Intracanopy <span class="hlt">lighting</span>, an irradiation approach that allows plants to grow around fixed arrays of low-intensity lamps, reduces overall <span class="hlt">energy</span> expenditure for crop production by improving <span class="hlt">light</span> distribution and interception throughout the canopy. Comparing different fluorescent lamp geometries within vegetative canopies of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) revealed great plasticity of leaf orientation to maximize absorption of PAR from lamps arrayed at various nontraditional angles. Varying the amount of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">energy</span> available within canopies creates considerable potential to manipulate canopy productivity. Increasing lamp number 38% within cowpea canopies raised stand productivity 45%, reflecting the highly efficient interception and absorption of intracanopy PAR. However, combined above/within-canopy <span class="hlt">lighting</span> did not increase overall PAR interception and vegetative yield, and productivity did not improve relative to the same input wattage of intracanopy <span class="hlt">lighting</span> alone. Optimization of intracanopy <span class="hlt">lighting</span> for crops to be used in future space life support systems will substantially reduce power and <span class="hlt">energy</span> burdens for food-crop production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392358"><span>Feasibility of a 90° electric sector <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer for low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahinay, C. L. S. Ramos, H. J.; Wada, M.</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° <span class="hlt">ion</span> deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution functions of an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam with the <span class="hlt">energy</span> as low as 600 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86b3306M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86b3306M"><span>Feasibility of a 90° electric sector <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer for low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahinay, C. L. S.; Wada, M.; Ramos, H. J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° <span class="hlt">ion</span> deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution functions of an <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam with the <span class="hlt">energy</span> as low as 600 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25447561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25447561"><span>Hydroxyl radicals cause fluctuation in intracellular ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span> levels upon <span class="hlt">light</span> exposure during photoreceptor cell death.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Imamura, Tomoyo; Hirayama, Tasuku; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hara, Hideaki</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Iron accumulation is a potential pathogenic event often seen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. In this study, we focused on the relationship between AMD pathology and concentrations of ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span>, which is a highly reactive oxygen generator in biological systems. Murine cone-cells-derived 661 W cells were exposed to white fluorescence <span class="hlt">light</span> at 2500 lx for 1, 3, 6, or 12 h. Levels of ferrous <span class="hlt">ions</span>, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hydroxyl radicals were detected by RhoNox-1, a novel fluorescent probe for the selective detection of ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span>, 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), and 3'-p-(aminophenyl) fluorescein, respectively. Reduced glutathione, total iron levels and photoreceptor cell death were also measured. Two genes related to iron metabolism, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and H ferritin (HFt), were quantified by RT-PCR. The effects of ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span> on cell death and hydroxyl radical production were determined by treatment with a ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span> chelating agent, 2,2'-bipyridyl. We found that the ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span> level decreased with <span class="hlt">light</span> exposure in the short time frame, whereas it was upregulated during a 6-h <span class="hlt">light</span> exposure. Total iron, ROS, cell death rate, and expression of TfR and HFt genes were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner in 661 W cells exposed to <span class="hlt">light</span>. Chelation with 2,2'-bipyridyl reduced the level of hydroxyl radicals and protected against <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced cell death. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">light</span> exposure decreases ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span> levels and enhances iron uptake in photoreceptor cells. Ferrous <span class="hlt">ion</span> may be involved in <span class="hlt">light</span>-induced photoreceptor cell death through production of hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12194359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12194359"><span>Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toburen, L H; Shinpaugh, J L; Justiniano, E L B</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes that can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET <span class="hlt">ions</span>. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare <span class="hlt">ions</span> has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low <span class="hlt">energy</span> dressed <span class="hlt">ions</span> in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured ejected electron <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26883532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26883532"><span>Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Cesium <span class="hlt">Ions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam etching, but this requires <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low <span class="hlt">energy</span> Cs(+) beams (<500 eV) allow organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs(+) <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASMS..27..908N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASMS..27..908N"><span>Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Cesium <span class="hlt">Ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic <span class="hlt">light</span> emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam etching, but this requires <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low <span class="hlt">energy</span> Cs+ beams (<500 eV) allow organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ <span class="hlt">ions</span>. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular <span class="hlt">ions</span> and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21033977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21033977"><span>Diagnostics for <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam driven high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density physics experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Intense beams of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013148','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013148"><span>Simulating Intense <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams for Inertial Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Friedman, A</p> <p>2001-02-20</p> <p>The Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams that will drive HIF targets are nonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> beams have a ''long memory'', and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/798779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/798779"><span>Simulating Intense <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Beams for Inertial Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Friedman, A.</p> <p>2001-02-20</p> <p>The Heavy <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams that will drive HIF targets are rzonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. <span class="hlt">Ion</span> beams have a ''long memory,'' and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991030','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991030"><span>DIAGNOSTICS FOR <span class="hlt">ION</span> BEAM DRIVEN HIGH <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.</p> <p>2010-01-04</p> <p>Intense beams of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RScI...81jE112B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RScI...81jE112B"><span>Diagnostics for <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam driven high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density physics experimentsa)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P. A.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Intense beams of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K+ beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089400','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22089400"><span>Highly efficient generation of ultraintense high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams using laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Raczka, P.</p> <p>2012-08-20</p> <p>Results of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of fast <span class="hlt">ion</span> generation in the recently proposed laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) scheme in which a picosecond circularly polarized laser pulse of intensity {approx}10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} irradiates a carbon target placed in a cavity are presented. It is shown that due to circulation of the laser pulse in the cavity, the laser-<span class="hlt">ions</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion efficiency in the LICPA scheme is more than twice as high as that for the conventional (without a cavity) radiation pressure acceleration scheme and a quasi-monoenergetic carbon <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam of the mean <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> {approx}0.5 GeV and the <span class="hlt">energy</span> fluence {approx}0.5 GJ/cm{sup 2} is produced with the efficiency {approx}40%. The results of PIC simulations are found to be in fairly good agreement with the predictions of the generalized <span class="hlt">light</span>-sail model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83k3303V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83k3303V"><span>Improved charge breeding efficiency of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> with an electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vondrasek, R.; Delahaye, P.; Kutsaev, Sergey; Maunoury, L.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a 252Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">ion</span> source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species 143Ba27+. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+ and 17.9% for 39K10+ were obtained injecting stable Na+ and K+ beams from a surface ionization source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093976','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093976"><span>Improved charge breeding efficiency of <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> with an electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">ion</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.</p> <p>2012-11-15</p> <p>The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance <span class="hlt">ion</span> source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110003627','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110003627"><span>Performance Characterization of High <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Commercial Lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schneidegger, Brianne T.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific <span class="hlt">energy</span> of lithium-<span class="hlt">ion</span> technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high <span class="hlt">energy</span> cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high <span class="hlt">energy</span> cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific <span class="hlt">energy</span> of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high <span class="hlt">energy</span> cells. The cell-level specific <span class="hlt">energy</span> goal for high <span class="hlt">energy</span> technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific <span class="hlt">energy</span> goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific <span class="hlt">energy</span>, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017387','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017387"><span>Characteristics of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span> In Space (HIIS) experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kleis, Thomas; Tylka, Allan J.; Boberg, Paul R.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We present preliminary data on heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> (Z greater than or equal to 10) detected in the topmost Lexan sheets of the track detector stacks of the Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span> in space (HIIS) experiment (M0001) on LDEF. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> interval covered by these observations varies with the element, with (for example) Ne observable at 18-100 MeV nuc and Fe at 45-200 MeV/nuc. All of the observed <span class="hlt">ions</span> are at <span class="hlt">energies</span> far below the geomagnetic cutoff for fully-ionized particles at the LDEF orbit. Above 50 MeV/nuc (where most of our observed particles are Fe), the <span class="hlt">ions</span> arrive primarily from the direction of lowest geomagnetic cutoff. This suggests that these particles originate outside the magnetosphere from a source with a steeply-falling spectrum and may therefore be associated with solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Below 50 MeV/nuc, the distribution of arrival directions suggests that most of the observed heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> are trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Preliminary analysis, however, shows that these trapped heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> have a very surprising composition: they include not only Ne and Ar, which are expected from the trapping of anomalous cosmic rays (ACR's), but also Mg and Si, which are not part of the anomalous component. Our preliminary analysis shows that trapped heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> at 12 less than or equal to Zeta less than or equal to 14 have a steeply-falling spectrum, similar to that reported by the Kiel experiment (exp 1,2,3) on LDEF (M0002) for trapped Ar and Fe at E less than 50 MeV/nuc. The trapped Mg, Si, and Fe may also be associated with SEP events, but the mechanism by which they have appeared to deep in the inner magnetosphere requires further theoretical investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ldef.symp..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ldef.symp..101K"><span>Characteristics of low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> in the Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span> In Space (HIIS) experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kleis, Thomas; Tylka, Allan J.; Boberg, Paul R.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>We present preliminary data on heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> (Z greater than or equal to 10) detected in the topmost Lexan sheets of the track detector stacks of the Heavy <span class="hlt">Ions</span> in space (HIIS) experiment (M0001) on LDEF. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> interval covered by these observations varies with the element, with (for example) Ne observable at 18-100 MeV nuc and Fe at 45-200 MeV/nuc. All of the observed <span class="hlt">ions</span> are at <span class="hlt">energies</span> far below the geomagnetic cutoff for fully-ionized particles at the LDEF orbit. Above 50 MeV/nuc (where most of our observed particles are Fe), the <span class="hlt">ions</span> arrive primarily from the direction of lowest geomagnetic cutoff. This suggests that these particles originate outside the magnetosphere from a source with a steeply-falling spectrum and may therefore be associated with solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Below 50 MeV/nuc, the distribution of arrival directions suggests that most of the observed heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> are trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Preliminary analysis, however, shows that these trapped heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> have a very surprising composition: they include not only Ne and Ar, which are expected from the trapping of anomalous cosmic rays (ACR's), but also Mg and Si, which are not part of the anomalous component. Our preliminary analysis shows that trapped heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> at 12 less than or equal to Zeta less than or equal to 14 have a steeply-falling spectrum, similar to that reported by the Kiel experiment (exp 1,2,3) on LDEF (M0002) for trapped Ar and Fe at E less than 50 MeV/nuc. The trapped Mg, Si, and Fe may also be associated with SEP events, but the mechanism by which they have appeared to deep in the inner magnetosphere requires further theoretical investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1164839','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1164839"><span>Clean <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State <span class="hlt">Lighting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies, such as solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span> (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the <span class="hlt">lighting</span> market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1247468','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1247468"><span>Clean <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Video</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies, such as solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span> (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the <span class="hlt">lighting</span> market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1164839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1164839"><span>Clean <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State <span class="hlt">Lighting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar</p> <p>2014-09-23</p> <p>The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies, such as solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span> (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the <span class="hlt">lighting</span> market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1247468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1247468"><span>Clean <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Video</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar</p> <p>2014-09-23</p> <p>The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies, such as solid-state <span class="hlt">lighting</span> (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the <span class="hlt">lighting</span> market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean <span class="hlt">energy</span> technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of <span class="hlt">Energy</span>'s Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1119855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1119855"><span>Controlling <span class="hlt">Light</span> to Make the Most <span class="hlt">Energy</span> From the Sun</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Callahan, Dennis; Corcoran, Chris; Eisler, Carissa; Flowers, Cris; Goodman, Matt; Hofmann, Carrie; Sadtler, Bryce</p> <p>2013-07-18</p> <p>Representing the <span class="hlt">Light</span>-Material Interactions in <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Conversion (LMI), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE <span class="hlt">energy</span>. The mission of LMI to tailor the morphology, complex dielectric structure, and electronic properties of matter so as to sculpt the flow of sunlight and heat, enabling <span class="hlt">light</span> conversion to electrical and chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> with unprecedented efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12240732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12240732"><span>Measurement of alpha particle <span class="hlt">energy</span> using windowless electret <span class="hlt">ion</span> chambers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dua, S K; Kotrappa, P; Srivastava, R; Ebadian, M A; Stieff, L R</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Electret <span class="hlt">ion</span> chambers are inexpensive, lightweight, robust, commercially available, passive, charge-integrating devices for accurate measurement of different ionizing radiations. In an earlier work a chamber of dimensions larger than the range of alpha particles having aluminized Mylar windows of different thickness was used for measurement of alpha radiation. Correlation between electret mid-point voltage, alpha particle <span class="hlt">energy</span>, and response was developed and it was shown that this chamber could be used for estimating the effective <span class="hlt">energy</span> of an unknown alpha source. In the present study, the electret <span class="hlt">ion</span> chamber is used in the windowless mode so that the alpha particles dissipate their entire <span class="hlt">energy</span> inside the volume, and the alpha particle <span class="hlt">energy</span> is determined from the first principles. This requires that alpha disintegration rate be accurately known or measured by an alternate method. The measured <span class="hlt">energies</span> were within 1 to 4% of the true values for different sources (230Th, 237Np, 239Pu, 241Am, and 224Cm). This method finds application in quantitative determination of alpha <span class="hlt">energy</span> absorbed in thin membrane and, hence, the absorbed dose.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..769.1592T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..769.1592T"><span><span class="hlt">Light-Ion</span> Production in the Interaction of 96 MeV Neutrons with Silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tippawan, U.; Pomp, S.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Dangtip, S.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Nilsson, L.; Österlund, M.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Corcalciuc, V.; Watanabe, Y.; Koning, A. J.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Radiation effects induced by terrestrial cosmic rays in microelectronics, on board aircrafts as well as at sea level, have recently attracted much attention. The most important particle radiation is due to spallation neutrons, created in the atmosphere by cosmic-ray protons. When, e.g., an electronic memory circuit is exposed to neutron radiation, charged particles can be produced in a nuclear reaction. The charge released by ionization can cause a flip of the memory content in a bit, which is called a single-event upset (SEU). This induces no hardware damage to the circuit, but unwanted re-programming of memories, CPUs, etc., can have consequences for the reliability, and ultimately also for the safety of the system. Data on <span class="hlt">energy</span> and angular distributions of the secondary particles produced by neutrons in silicon nuclei are essential input for analyses and calculation of SEU rate. In this work, double-differential cross sections of inclusive <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> (p, d, t, 3He and α) production in silicon, induced by 96 MeV neutrons, are presented. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> distributions are measured at eight laboratory angles from 20° to 160° in steps of 20°. Deduced <span class="hlt">energy</span>-differential and production cross sections are reported as well. Experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical reaction model calculations and existing experimental data in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25098728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25098728"><span>Biological characterization of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> with high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition on human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (<10 MeV/n) secondary particles of high-LET that contribute significantly to overall radiation exposures. Track structure theories suggest that high charge and <span class="hlt">energy</span> (HZE) particles and low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> secondary <span class="hlt">ions</span> of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span> caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron <span class="hlt">ions</span> to Fe particles, showed that boron-<span class="hlt">ion</span> radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron <span class="hlt">ions</span> also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> radiation deposition by low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236244','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236244"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons and swift <span class="hlt">ion</span> track structure in PADC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fromm, Michel; Quinto, Michele A.; Weck, Philippe F.; Champion, Christophe</p> <p>2015-05-27</p> <p>The current work aims at providing an accurate description of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> track-structure in poly-allyl dyglycol carbonate (PADC) by using an up-to-date Monte-Carlo code-called TILDA-V (a French acronym for Transport d’<span class="hlt">Ions</span> Lourds Dans l’Aqua & Vivo). In this simulation the <span class="hlt">ion</span> track-structure in PADC is mainly described in terms of ejected electrons with a particular attention done to the Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Electrons (LEEs). After a brief reminder of the most important channels through which LEEs are prone to break a chemical bond, we will report on the simulated energetic distributions of LEEs along an <span class="hlt">ion</span> track in PADC for particular incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> located on both sides of the Bragg-peak position. Lastly, based on the rare data dealing with LEEs interaction with polymers or organic molecules, we will emphasise the role played by the LEEs in the formation of a latent track in PADC, and more particularly the one played by the sub-ionization electrons.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1236244-low-energy-electrons-swift-ion-track-structure-padc','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1236244-low-energy-electrons-swift-ion-track-structure-padc"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons and swift <span class="hlt">ion</span> track structure in PADC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Fromm, Michel; Quinto, Michele A.; Weck, Philippe F.; ...</p> <p>2015-05-27</p> <p>The current work aims at providing an accurate description of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> track-structure in poly-allyl dyglycol carbonate (PADC) by using an up-to-date Monte-Carlo code-called TILDA-V (a French acronym for Transport d’<span class="hlt">Ions</span> Lourds Dans l’Aqua & Vivo). In this simulation the <span class="hlt">ion</span> track-structure in PADC is mainly described in terms of ejected electrons with a particular attention done to the Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Electrons (LEEs). After a brief reminder of the most important channels through which LEEs are prone to break a chemical bond, we will report on the simulated energetic distributions of LEEs along an <span class="hlt">ion</span> track in PADC for particularmore » incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> located on both sides of the Bragg-peak position. Lastly, based on the rare data dealing with LEEs interaction with polymers or organic molecules, we will emphasise the role played by the LEEs in the formation of a latent track in PADC, and more particularly the one played by the sub-ionization electrons.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RaPC..115...36F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RaPC..115...36F"><span>Low <span class="hlt">energy</span> electrons and swift <span class="hlt">ion</span> track structure in PADC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fromm, Michel; Quinto, Michele A.; Weck, Philippe F.; Champion, Christophe</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The current work aims at providing an accurate description of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> track-structure in poly-allyl dyglycol carbonate (PADC) by using an up-to-date Monte-Carlo code-called TILDA-V (a French acronym for Transport d'<span class="hlt">Ions</span> Lourds Dans l'Aqua & Vivo). In this simulation the <span class="hlt">ion</span> track-structure in PADC is mainly described in terms of ejected electrons with a particular attention done to the Low <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Electrons (LEEs). After a brief reminder of the most important channels through which LEEs are prone to break a chemical bond, we will report on the simulated energetic distributions of LEEs along an <span class="hlt">ion</span> track in PADC for particular incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> located on both sides of the Bragg-peak position. Finally, based on the rare data dealing with LEEs interaction with polymers or organic molecules, we will emphasise the role played by the LEEs in the formation of a latent track in PADC, and more particularly the one played by the sub-ionization electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872698','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872698"><span>Sharpening of field emitter tips using high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Musket, Ronald G.</p> <p>1999-11-30</p> <p>A process for sharpening arrays of field emitter tips of field emission cathodes, such as found in field-emission, flat-panel video displays. The process uses sputtering by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> (more than 30 keV) <span class="hlt">ions</span> incident along or near the longitudinal axis of the field emitter to sharpen the emitter with a taper from the tip or top of the emitter down to the shank of the emitter. The process is particularly applicable to sharpening tips of emitters having cylindrical or similar (e.g., pyramidal) symmetry. The process will sharpen tips down to radii of less than 12 nm with an included angle of about 20 degrees. Because the <span class="hlt">ions</span> are incident along or near the longitudinal axis of each emitter, the tips of gated arrays can be sharpened by high-<span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> beams rastered over the arrays using standard <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation equipment. While the process is particularly applicable for sharpening of arrays of field emitters in field-emission flat-panel displays, it can be effectively utilized in the fabrication of other vacuum microelectronic devices that rely on field emission of electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1015144','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1015144"><span>New <span class="hlt">Light</span> on Dark <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (LBNL Science at the Theater)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Linder, Eric; Ho, Shirly; Aldering, Greg; Fraiknoi, Andrew</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>A panel of Lab scientists — including Eric Linder, Shirly Ho, and Greg Aldering — along with Andrew Fraiknoi, the Bay Area's most popular astronomy explainer, gathered at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre on Monday, April 25, 2011, for a discussion about "New <span class="hlt">Light</span> on Dark <span class="hlt">Energy</span>." Topics will include hunting down Type 1a supernovae, measuring the universe using baryon oscillation, and whether dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> is the true driver of the universe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015144','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015144"><span>New <span class="hlt">Light</span> on Dark <span class="hlt">Energy</span> (LBNL Science at the Theater)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linder, Eric; Ho, Shirly; Aldering, Greg; Fraiknoi, Andrew</p> <p>2011-04-25</p> <p>A panel of Lab scientists — including Eric Linder, Shirly Ho, and Greg Aldering — along with Andrew Fraiknoi, the Bay Area's most popular astronomy explainer, gathered at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre on Monday, April 25, 2011, for a discussion about "New <span class="hlt">Light</span> on Dark <span class="hlt">Energy</span>." Topics will include hunting down Type 1a supernovae, measuring the universe using baryon oscillation, and whether dark <span class="hlt">energy</span> is the true driver of the universe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECGT1063H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..GECGT1063H"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions in dual frequency RF plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatton, Peter; Rees, John; Bort, Sam; Seymour, Dave</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>For many surface-processing applications involving plasmas operated at RF frequencies it has been found helpful to combine two sources of power operating at different frequencies. By choosing suitable input powers at the two frequencies and varying the phase relationship set between the two inputs, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> distributions (IEDs) for the <span class="hlt">ions</span> arriving at the target surface can be optimised. There have been, however, only a limited number of published reports of measured or modelled distributions. In the present work IEDs for both positive and negative <span class="hlt">ions</span> formed in plasmas in argon and nitrous oxide have been measured for mass-identified <span class="hlt">ions</span> in two different reactors, one of which is a parallel-plate, capacitatively-coupled, system and the other is an inductively-coupled system. Typical data for 13.56 and 27.1 MHz inputs are presented for a range of phase relationships. The IEDs show clearly significant differences between the data for different species of <span class="hlt">ions</span> which result in part from the <span class="hlt">ion</span>-molecule collisions occurring, particularly in the plasma/surface sheath regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068207&hterms=energy+Solar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2BSolar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068207&hterms=energy+Solar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Denergy%2BSolar"><span>LEICA - A low <span class="hlt">energy</span> <span class="hlt">ion</span> composition analyzer for the study of solar and magnetospheric heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, Glenn M.; Hamilton, Douglas C.; Walpole, Peter H.; Heuerman, Karl F.; James, Tommy L.; Lennard, Michael H.; Mazur, Joseph E.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The SAMPEX LEICA instrument is designed to measure about 0.5-5 MeV/nucleon solar and magnetospheric <span class="hlt">ions</span> over the range from He to Ni. The instrument is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer which measures particle time-of-flight over an about 0.5 m path, and the residual <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposited in an array of Si solid state detectors. Large area microchannel plates are used, resulting in a large geometrical factor for the instrument (0.6 sq cm sr) which is essential for accurate compositional measurements in small solar flares, and in studies of precipitating magnetospheric heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...7.2633H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...7.2633H"><span>Full solar spectrum <span class="hlt">light</span> driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G. Neville; Zhao, Xiujian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The nanostructured Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> to thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared <span class="hlt">light</span> driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared <span class="hlt">light</span>, the Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar <span class="hlt">light</span> driven thermocatalysis for the Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.The nanostructured Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar <span class="hlt">energy</span> to thermal <span class="hlt">energy</span>, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared <span class="hlt">light</span> driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared <span class="hlt">light</span>, the Ce <span class="hlt">ion</span> substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApSS..203..323L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApSS..203..323L"><span>Characteristics of ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Cs + <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam bombardments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhanping; Hoshi, Takahiro; Oiwa, Retsu</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Shallow arsenic implants and extra-thin film (SiON) are routinely analyzed by modern SIMS under ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Cs + <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam bombardment, either at oblique (<60°) or glancing (˜80°) incident angle [J. Surf. Anal. 6 (3) (1999) A-3; in: A. Benninghoven, et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the SIMS XII, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999, p. 549]. This article investigates the basic aspects of ultra-low-<span class="hlt">energy</span> Cs + <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam bombardment using a delta-doped boron sample (four layers, 5.3 nm per cycle), such as useful yield, depth resolution and changes in sputter rate in the near surface region. Our results indicated that there is a magic incidence angle (˜70°) at which the depth resolution is very poor, and at glancing (˜80°) incident angle the best depth resolution is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.802a2009M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.802a2009M"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> density of <span class="hlt">light</span> quark jet using AdS/CFT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morad, R.; Horowitz, W. A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss rate of <span class="hlt">light</span> quarks via the AdS/CFT correspondence in both a static and an expanding plasma. Unlike heavy quarks, <span class="hlt">light</span> quark <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss in AdS/CFT is surprisingly dependent on both the string initial conditions and the very definition of the jet itself in the gravity theory. We aim to more closely match the string initial conditions to those expected from perturbative quantum chromodyanics (pQCD)-the theory known to describe the physics of high-momentum particles at early times in heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions-by computing the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-momentum tensor associated with the propagation of the classical string solution. The jet <span class="hlt">energy</span>-momentum tensor in a strongly-coupled calculation can be found by a superposition of contributions from a collection of point particles whose paths approximate the evolution of the string world-sheet. My results show that some times after creation the pair of quark-anti quark, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> density is not time dependent. This means that the corresponding jet does not lose <span class="hlt">energy</span> and the associated nuclear modification factor would be one as expected. Also, the results reveal the virtuality dependency of <span class="hlt">energy</span> density distribution over space. As expected, the <span class="hlt">energy</span> of a more virtual jet is spread over wider angles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8123E..1HV','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8123E..1HV"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span>-saving approaches to solid state street <span class="hlt">lighting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>We consider the <span class="hlt">energy</span>-saving potential of solid-state street <span class="hlt">lighting</span> due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state <span class="hlt">light</span> sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted <span class="hlt">light</span>-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state <span class="hlt">light</span> sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of <span class="hlt">energy</span> in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated <span class="hlt">energy</span> savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street <span class="hlt">lighting</span> system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499508','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499508"><span>Multifragmentation around the transition <span class="hlt">energy</span> in intermediate-<span class="hlt">energy</span> heavy-<span class="hlt">ion</span> collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vinayak, Karan Singh; Kumar, Suneel</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Fragmentation of <span class="hlt">light</span> charged particles is studied for various systems at different incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> between 50 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. We analyze fragment production at the incident <span class="hlt">energies</span> below, at, and above the transition <span class="hlt">energies</span> using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The trends observed for the fragment production and rapidity distributions depend upon the incident <span class="hlt">energy</span>, size of the fragments, and composite mass of the reacting system, as well as on the impact parameter of the reaction. The free nucleons and <span class="hlt">light</span> charged particles show continuous homogeneous changes, irrespective of the transition <span class="hlt">energies</span>, indicating that there is no relation between the transition <span class="hlt">energy</span> and production of the free as well as <span class="hlt">light</span> charged particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1840i0006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1840i0006K"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">ion</span>-exchange membrane in <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khoiruddin, Aryanti, Putu T. P.; Hakim, Ahmad N.; Wenten, I. Gede</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ion</span>-exchange membrane (IEM) may play an important role in the future of electrical <span class="hlt">energy</span> generation which is considered as renewable and clean <span class="hlt">energy</span>. Fell cell (FC) is one of the promising technologies for solving <span class="hlt">energy</span> issues in the future owing to the interesting features such as high electrical efficiency, low emissions, low noise level, and modularity. IEM-based processes, such as microbial fuel cell (MFC) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) may be combined with water or wastewater treatment into an integrated system. By using the integrated system, water and <span class="hlt">energy</span> could be produced simultaneously. The IEM-based processes can be used for direct electricity generation or long term <span class="hlt">energy</span> storage such as by harnessing surplus electricity from an existing renewable <span class="hlt">energy</span> system to be converted into hydrogen gas via electrolysis or stored into chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span> via redox flow battery (RFB). In this paper, recent development and applications of IEM-based processes in <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion are reviewed. In addition, perspective and challenges of IEM-based processes in <span class="hlt">energy</span> conversion are pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1239743"><span>Leveraging <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> for <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Savings: GSA Northwest/Artic Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and <span class="hlt">energy</span> efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with 220 <span class="hlt">light</span>-emitting diode fixtures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/25688','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/25688"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> efficiency in <span class="hlt">light</span>-frame wood construction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Gerald E. Sherwood; Gunard Hans</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This report presents information needed for design and construction of <span class="hlt">energy</span>-efficient <span class="hlt">light</span>-frame wood structures. The opening section discusses improving the thermal performance of a house by careful planning and design. A second section of the report provides technical information on the thermal properties of construction materials, and on the basic engineering...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JAP....61..907G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JAP....61..907G"><span>Mean excitation <span class="hlt">energies</span> for <span class="hlt">ions</span> in gases and plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garbet, Xavier; Deutsch, Claude; Maynard, Gilles</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>A variational approach yields accurate upper and lower bounds for mean excitation <span class="hlt">energies</span> and other related parameters describing the stopping of nonrelativistic point charges by isolated species and <span class="hlt">ions</span> embedded in dense and hot matter of relevance to particle-driven inertial fusion. The resulting I compares nicely with previous ones by Hartree-Fock-Slater and with experimental data when available. An efficient pseudo-analytic formula based on the Thomas-Fermi method is obtained, together with a cubic spline interpolation variationally improved. It is shown that in high temperature plasmas (kBT≥10 eV) mean excitation <span class="hlt">energies</span> are significantly smaller than their cold homologue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948132"><span>Low <span class="hlt">light</span> adaptation: <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer processes in different types of <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moulisová, Vladimíra; Luer, Larry; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Collins, Aaron M; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Blankenship, Robert E; Cogdell, Richard J</p> <p>2009-12-02</p> <p><span class="hlt">Energy</span> transfer processes in photosynthetic <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes isolated from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown at different <span class="hlt">light</span> intensities were studied by ground state and transient absorption spectroscopy. The decomposition of ground state absorption spectra shows contributions from B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a rings, the latter component splitting into a low <span class="hlt">energy</span> and a high <span class="hlt">energy</span> band in samples grown under low <span class="hlt">light</span> (LL) conditions. A spectral analysis reveals strong inhomogeneity of the B850 excitons in the LL samples that is well reproduced by an exponential-type distribution. Transient spectra show a bleach of both the low <span class="hlt">energy</span> and high <span class="hlt">energy</span> bands, together with the respective blue-shifted exciton-to-biexciton transitions. The different spectral evolutions were analyzed by a global fitting procedure. <span class="hlt">Energy</span> transfer from B800 to B850 occurs in a mono-exponential process and the rate of this process is only slightly reduced in LL compared to high <span class="hlt">light</span> samples. In LL samples, spectral relaxation of the B850 exciton follows strongly nonexponential kinetics that can be described by a reduction of the bleach of the high <span class="hlt">energy</span> excitonic component and a red-shift of the low energetic one. We explain these spectral changes by picosecond exciton relaxation caused by a small coupling parameter of the excitonic splitting of the BChl a molecules to the surrounding bath. The splitting of exciton <span class="hlt">energy</span> into two excitonic bands in LL complex is most probably caused by heterogenous composition of LH2 apoproteins that gives some of the BChls in the B850 ring B820-like site <span class="hlt">energies</span>, and causes a disorder in LH2 structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/991661','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/991661"><span>Hybrid Solar <span class="hlt">Lighting</span> Provides <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Savings and Reduces Waste Heat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Maxey, L Curt; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Beshears, David L; Ward, Christina D; Parks, James Edgar</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Artificial <span class="hlt">lighting</span> is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar <span class="hlt">lighting</span> (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing <span class="hlt">energy</span> consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural <span class="hlt">lighting</span> in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of greater than 4 kWh/m2/day) and as more than half of all square footage available in federal buildings is also in the Sunbelt, HSL is an excellent technology fit for federal facilities. The HSL technology uses a rooftop, 4-ft-wide dish and secondary mirror that track the sun throughout the day (Fig. 1). The collector system focuses the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers. The fibers serve as flexible <span class="hlt">light</span> pipes and are connected to hybrid <span class="hlt">light</span> fixtures that have special diffusion rods that spread out the <span class="hlt">light</span> in all directions. One collector powers about eight hybrid <span class="hlt">light</span> fixtures-which can illuminate about 1,000 square feet. The system tracks at 0.1 accuracy, required by the two-mirror geometry to keep the focused beam on the fiber bundle. When sunlight is plentiful, the optical fibers in the luminaires provide all or most of the <span class="hlt">light</span> needed in an area. During times of little or no sunlight, a sensor controls the intensity of the artificial lamps to maintain a desired illumination level. Unlike conventional electric lamps, the natural <span class="hlt">light</span> produces little to no waste heat and is cool to the touch. This is because the system's solar collector removes the infrared <span class="hlt">light</span>-the part of the spectrum that generates a lot of the heat in conventional bulbs-from the sunlight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JVST...23.1018T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JVST...23.1018T"><span>Plasma-based <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation sterilization technique and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, S.; Shibahara, K.; Yokoyama, S.; Takagi, T.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Plasma-based <span class="hlt">ion</span> implantation (PBII) is applied as a sterilization technique for three-dimensional work pieces. In the sterilization process, a pulsed negative high voltage (5 μs pulse width, 300 pulses/s,-800 V to -13 kV) is applied to the electrode (workpiece) under N2 at a gas pressure of 2.4 Pa. The resultant self-ignited plasma is shown to successfully reduce the number of active Bacillus pumilus cells by 105 times after 5 min of processing. The nitrogen <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> is estimated using a simple method based on secondary <span class="hlt">ion</span> mass spectroscopy analysis of the vertical distribution of nitrogen in PBII-treated Si.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726274"><span><span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> allocation at PSII under field <span class="hlt">light</span> conditions: how much <span class="hlt">energy</span> is lost in NPQ-associated dissipation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Endo, Tsuyoshi; Uebayashi, Nozomu; Ishida, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Masahiro; Sato, Fumihiko</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In the field, plants are exposed to fluctuating <span class="hlt">light</span>, where photosynthesis occurs under conditions far from a steady state. Excess <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation associated with <span class="hlt">energy</span> quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (qE) functions as an efficient photo-protection mechanism in photosystem II. PsbS is an important regulator of qE, especially for the induction phase of qE. Beside the regulatory <span class="hlt">energy</span> dissipation, some part of <span class="hlt">energy</span> is lost through relaxation of excited chlorophyll molecules. To date, several models to quantify <span class="hlt">energy</span> loss through these dissipative pathways in PSII have been proposed. In this short review, we compare and evaluate these models for PSII <span class="hlt">energy</span> allocation when they are applied to non-steady state photosynthesis. As a case study, an investigation on <span class="hlt">energy</span> allocation to qE-associated dissipation at PSII under non-steady state photosynthesis using PsbS-deficient rice transformants is introduced. Diurnal and seasonal changes in PSII <span class="hlt">energy</span> allocation in rice under natural <span class="hlt">light</span> are also presented. Future perspective of studies on PSII <span class="hlt">energy</span> allocation is discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28012391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28012391"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> transfer and colour tunability in UV <span class="hlt">light</span> induced Tm(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(3+): ZnB glasses generating white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naresh, V; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C; Ham, Byoung S</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>A promising <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (Tm(3+)→Tb(3+)→Eu(3+)) approach is brought forward to generate white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission under ultraviolet (UV) <span class="hlt">light</span> excitation for solid state lightening. Tm(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) <span class="hlt">ions</span> are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer process resulting in white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II)x-[O(-II)]y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(3+): ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454nm: (1)D2→(3)F4), green (547nm: (5)D4→(7)F5) and red (616nm: (5)D0→(7)F2) regions. In triple <span class="hlt">ions</span> doped glasses, <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial <span class="hlt">energy</span> level diagram of three <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The role of Tb(3+) in ET from Tm(3+)→Eu(3+) was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb(3+), Eu(3+)) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span> could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcSpA.175...43N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AcSpA.175...43N"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</span> transfer and colour tunability in UV <span class="hlt">light</span> induced Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 +: ZnB glasses generating white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naresh, V.; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C.; Ham, Byoung S.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>A promising <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer (Tm3 + → Tb3 + → Eu3 +) approach is brought forward to generate white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission under ultraviolet (UV) <span class="hlt">light</span> excitation for solid state lightening. Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 + <span class="hlt">ions</span> are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer process resulting in white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II)x-[O(- II)]y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360 nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm3 +/Tb3 +/Eu3 +: ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454 nm: 1D2 → 3F4), green (547 nm: 5D4 → 7F5) and red (616 nm: 5D0 → 7F2) regions. In triple <span class="hlt">ions</span> doped glasses, <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial <span class="hlt">energy</span> level diagram of three <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The role of Tb3 + in ET from Tm3 + → Eu3 + was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb3 +, Eu3 +) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth <span class="hlt">ions</span> could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white <span class="hlt">light</span> emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3656437','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3656437"><span>Visible <span class="hlt">Light</span> Photocatalysis: The Development of Photocatalytic Radical <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Cycloadditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yoon, Tehshik P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Photochemistry has the potential to significantly impact multiple aspects of chemical synthesis, in part because photoinduced reactions can be used to construct molecular architectures that would otherwise be difficult to produce. Nevertheless, organic chemists have been slow to embrace photochemical synthesis because of technical complications associated with the use of ultraviolet <span class="hlt">light</span>. Our laboratory has been part of an effort to design synthetically useful reactions that utilize visible <span class="hlt">light</span>. This strategy enables the synthesis of a diverse range of organic structures by generation of a variety of reactive intermediates under exceptionally mild conditions. This Perspective article describes the reasoning that led to the conception of our first experiments in this area, the features of our reaction design that have been most powerful in the discovery of new processes, and a few of the possible future areas in which visible <span class="hlt">light</span> photocatalysis might have a large impact. PMID:23691491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691491"><span>Visible <span class="hlt">Light</span> Photocatalysis: The Development of Photocatalytic Radical <span class="hlt">Ion</span> Cycloadditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoon, Tehshik P</p> <p>2013-05-03</p> <p>Photochemistry has the potential to significantly impact multiple aspects of chemical synthesis, in part because photoinduced reactions can be used to construct molecular architectures that would otherwise be difficult to produce. Nevertheless, organic chemists have been slow to embrace photochemical synthesis because of technical complications associated with the use of ultraviolet <span class="hlt">light</span>. Our laboratory has been part of an effort to design synthetically useful reactions that utilize visible <span class="hlt">light</span>. This strategy enables the synthesis of a diverse range of organic structures by generation of a variety of reactive intermediates under exceptionally mild conditions. This Perspective article describes the reasoning that led to the conception of our first experiments in this area, the features of our reaction design that have been most powerful in the discovery of new processes, and a few of the possible future areas in which visible <span class="hlt">light</span> photocatalysis might have a large impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26697774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26697774"><span>Photochromic Electret: A New Tool for <span class="hlt">Light</span> <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Harvesting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castagna, Rossella; Garbugli, Michele; Bianco, Andrea; Perissinotto, Stefano; Pariani, Giorgio; Bertarelli, Chiara; Lanzani, Guglielmo</p> <p>2012-01-05</p> <p>In this paper, a photochromic electret for <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> harvesting is proposed and discussed. Such electret directly converts the photon <span class="hlt">energy</span> into electric <span class="hlt">energy</span> thanks to a polarization modulation caused by the photochromic reaction, which leads to a change in dipole moment. Theoretical concepts on which the photochromic electret is based are considered with an estimation of the effectiveness as a function of material properties. Finally, an electret based on a photochromic diarylethene is shown with the photoelectric characterization as a proof of concept device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1051661','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1051661"><span>HIGH <span class="hlt">ENERGY</span> DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY <span class="hlt">ION</span> BEAMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.</p> <p>2010-03-16</p> <p>The US heavy <span class="hlt">ion</span> fusion science program has developed techniques for heating <span class="hlt">ion</span>-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high <span class="hlt">energy</span> density, intense beams of heavy <span class="hlt">ions</span> are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam <span class="hlt">energy</span> deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium <span class="hlt">ion</span> beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JASTP..63.1285L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JASTP..63.1285L"><span>The formation of the <span class="hlt">light-ion</span> trough and peeling off the plasmasphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lemaire, J. F.</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The plasma density gradients in the outer drift shells of the plasmasphere are generally stable with respect to convective instability during quiet geomagnetic-geoelectric conditions. When the IMF turns southward before the onset of a magnetic substorm, this situation gradually changes: the magnetospheric convection electric field is then enhanced and penetrates deeper in the nightside plasmasphere. The sunward and eastward magnetospheric convection velocity is enhanced in the post-midnight local time sector at /L>4, and occasionally down to /L=2.5. As a result of this enhancement of the azimuthal component of the convection velocity, centrifugal effects are augmented in the distant region of the magnetosphere; the field-aligned potential <span class="hlt">energy</span> of <span class="hlt">ions</span> and electrons is reduced along the equatorial portion of magnetic field lines; the field-aligned plasma density distribution, initially in mechanical equilibrium, is accelerated and becomes convectively unstable. As a consequence, a field-aligned polar-wind-like flow of H+-<span class="hlt">ions</span> (and He+-<span class="hlt">ions</span>) is driven upward and the mid-latitude ionosphere gets depleted of its <span class="hlt">light</span> <span class="hlt">ions</span>. The plasma density at high altitudes diminishes in all flux tubes whose angular speed has been enhanced. It does not change significantly, however, on lower L-shells where the convection velocity has not changed. As a result of the shear in the upward ionization flow, a ``knee'' develops in the cross-L plasma density distribution along the drift shell which is tangent to a surface which has been called the Roche limit surface or zero-parallel-force surface. As a result of Coulomb collisions and wave-particle interaction, the upflowing particles that are able to overcome the reduced potential barrier may become trapped, and will tend to accumulate in the equatorial potential well beyond this zero-parallel-force surface. But, quasi-interchange - a type of ballooning instability driven by gravitational force or centrifugal effects - prevents this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307957"><span>Optimal <span class="hlt">Energy</span> Transfer in <span class="hlt">Light</span>-Harvesting Systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Lipeng; Shenai, Prathamesh; Zheng, Fulu; Somoza, Alejandro; Zhao, Yang</p> <p>2015-08-20</p> <p>Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical <span class="hlt">energy</span>. In this work, we review the principles of optimal <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer in various natural and artificial <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation <span class="hlt">energy</span> transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial <span class="hlt">light</span> harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956035"><span>Interaction of (12)C <span class="hlt">ions</span> with the mouse retinal response to <span class="hlt">light</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carozzo, Simone; Ball, Sherry L; Narici, Livio; Schardt, Dieter; Sannita, Walter G</p> <p>2015-06-26</p> <p>Astronauts in orbit reported phosphenes varying in shape and orientation across the visual field; incidence was correlated with the radiation flux. Patients with skull tumors treated by (12)C <span class="hlt">ions</span> and volunteers whose posterior portion of the eye was exposed to highly ionizing particles in early studies reported comparable percepts. An origin in radiation activating the visual system is suggested. Bursts (∼ 4 ms) of (12)C <span class="hlt">ions</span> evoked electrophysiological mass responses comparable to those to <span class="hlt">light</span> in the retina of anesthetized wild-type mice at threshold flux intensities consistent with the incidence observed in humans. The retinal response amplitude increased in mice with <span class="hlt">ion</span> intensity to a maximum at ∼ 2000 <span class="hlt">ions</span>/burst, to decline at higher intensities; the inverted-U relationship suggests complex effects on retinal structures. Here, we show that bursts of (12)C <span class="hlt">ions</span> presented simultaneously to white <span class="hlt">light</span> stimuli reduced the presynaptic mass response to <span class="hlt">light</span> in the mouse retina, while increasing the postsynaptic retinal and cortical responses amplitude and the phase-locking to stimulus of cortical low frequency and gamma (∼ 25-45 Hz) responses. These findings suggest (12)C <span class="hlt">ions</span> to interfere with, rather than mimicking the <span class="hlt">light</span> action on photoreceptors; a parallel action on other retinal structures/mechanisms resulting in cortical activation is conceivable. Electrophysiological visual testing appears applicable to monitor the radiation effects and in designing countermeasures to prevent functional visual impairment during operations in space. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597413"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> range estimation by using dual <span class="hlt">energy</span> computed tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hünemohr, Nora; Krauss, Bernhard; Dinkel, Julien; Gillmann, Clarissa; Ackermann, Benjamin; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Inaccurate conversion of CT data to water-equivalent path length (WEPL) is one of the most important uncertainty sources in <span class="hlt">ion</span> treatment planning. Dual <span class="hlt">energy</span> CT (DECT) imaging might help to reduce CT number ambiguities with the additional information. In our study we scanned a series of materials (tissue substitutes, aluminum, PMMA, and other polymers) in the dual source scanner (Siemens Somatom Definition Flash). Based on the 80kVp/140SnkVp dual <span class="hlt">energy</span> images, the electron densities ϱe and effective atomic numbers Zeff were calculated. We introduced a new lookup table that translates the ϱe to the WEPL. The WEPL residuals from the calibration were significantly reduced for the investigated tissue surrogates compared to the empirical Hounsfield-look-up table (single <span class="hlt">energy</span> CT imaging) from (-1.0±1.8)% to (0.1±0.7)% and for non-tissue equivalent PMMA from -7.8% to -1.0%. To assess the benefit of the new DECT calibration, we conducted a treatment planning study for three different idealized cases based on tissue surrogates and PMMA. The DECT calibration yielded a significantly higher target coverage in tissue surrogates and phantom material (i.e. PMMA cylinder, mean target coverage improved from 62% to 98%). To verify the DECT calibration for real tissue, <span class="hlt">ion</span> ranges through a frozen pig head were measured and compared to predictions calculated by the standard single <span class="hlt">energy</span> CT calibration and the novel DECT calibration. By using this method, an improvement of <span class="hlt">ion</span> range estimation from -2.1% water-equivalent thickness deviation (single <span class="hlt">energy</span> CT) to 0.3% (DECT) was achieved. If one excludes raypaths located on the edge of the sample accompanied with high uncertainties, no significant difference could be observed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PSST....9..568C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PSST....9..568C"><span><span class="hlt">Ion</span> flux, <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution and neutral density in an inductively coupled argon discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chevolleau, T.; Fukarek, W.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The dependence of <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux, <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution and neutral density of a planar radiofrequency (RF) driven inductively coupled plasma source on pressure and power is analysed using a plasma monitor and a Faraday cup. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> flux is about 7 mA cm-2 at 5 Pa and 300 W and increases as RF power and argon pressure increase. The <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution consists of a single peak with a full width at half maximum of 3 eV for a discharge power in the range from 50 to 300 W and for a pressure in the range from 0.5 to 5 Pa. This indicates that inductive coupling mainly drives the discharge while capacitive coupling between coil and plasma is weak. A significant decrease in Ar neutral density is observed when the plasma is ignited. The Ar depletion increases with increasing RF power and increasing Ar base pressure and reaches 30% at 5 Pa and 300 W. The contributions of the different mechanisms resulting in an Ar depletion are estimated and compared. The decrease in neutral density cannot be explained by the ionization of Ar atoms only but is significantly attributed to the heating of Ar atoms by collisions with energetic particles. The increase in neutral gas temperature is estimated and found to be in reasonable agreement with measurements of the gas temperature reported previously by other groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479663','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479663"><span>Temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution functions and <span class="hlt">ion</span> charge states of Cr and Cr-Al pulsed arc plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Koichi; Anders, André</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>To study the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution functions, charge-state-resolved <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution functions of pulsed arc plasmas from Cr and Cr-Al cathodes were recorded with high time resolution by using direct data acquisition from a combined <span class="hlt">energy</span> and mass analyzer. The authors find increases in intensities of singly charged <span class="hlt">ions</span>, which is evidence that charge exchange reactions took place in both Cr and Cr-Al systems. In Cr-Al plasmas, the distributions of high-charge-state <span class="hlt">ions</span> exhibit high <span class="hlt">energy</span> tails 50 μs after discharge ignition, but no such tails were observed at 500 μs. The <span class="hlt">energy</span> ratios of <span class="hlt">ions</span> of different charge states at the beginning of the pulse, when less neutral atoms were in the space in front of the cathode, suggest that <span class="hlt">ions</span> are accelerated by an electric field. The situation is not so clear after 50 μs due to particle collisions. The initial mean <span class="hlt">ion</span> charge state of Cr was about the same in Cr and in Cr-Al plasmas, but it decreased more rapidly in Cr-Al plasmas compared to the decay in Cr plasma. The faster decay of the mean <span class="hlt">ion</span> charge state and <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> caused by the addition of Al into a pure Cr cathode suggests that the mean <span class="hlt">ion</span> charge state is determined not only by ionization processes at the cathode spot but also by inelastic collision between different elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093803','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093803"><span>Investigating the performance of an <span class="hlt">ion</span> luminescence probe as a multichannel fast-<span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> spectrometer using pulse height analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Jimenez-Rey, D.; Rodriguez-Barquero, L.; Crespo, M. T.</p> <p>2012-10-15</p> <p>We investigate the capability of a fast-<span class="hlt">ion</span> luminescent probe to operate as a pulse height <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> analyzer. An existing high sensitivity system has been reconfigured as a single channel <span class="hlt">ion</span> detector with an amplifier to give a bandwidth comparable to the phosphor response time. A digital pulse processing method has been developed to determine pulse heights from the detector signal so as to obtain time-resolved information on the <span class="hlt">ion</span> <span class="hlt">energy</span> distribution of the plasma <span class="hlt">ions</span> lost to the wall of the TJ-II stellarator. Finally, the potential of this approach for magnetic confined fusion plasmas is evaluated by studying representative TJ-II discharges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED028631.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED028631.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Energy</sp