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Sample records for energy line lme

  1. Liquid Motion in a Rotating Tank Experiment (LME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deffenbaugh, D. M.; Dodge, F. T.; Green, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), which flew on STS 84 in May 1997, was an investigation of liquid motions in spinning, nutating tanks. LME was designed to quantify the effects of such liquid motions on the stability of spinning spacecraft, which are known to be adversely affected by the energy dissipated by the liquid motions. The LME hardware was essentially a spin table which could be forced to nutate at specified frequencies at a constant cone angle, independently of the spin rate. Cylindrical and spherical test tanks, partially filled with liquids of different viscosities, were located at the periphery of the spin table to simulate a spacecraft with off-axis propellant tanks; one set of tanks contained generic propellant management devices (PMDs). The primary quantitative data from the flight tests were the liquid-induced torques exerted on the tanks about radial and tangential axes through the center of the tank. Visual recordings of the liquid oscillations also provided qualitative information. The flight program incorporated two types of tests: sine sweep tests, in which the spin rate was held constant and the nutation frequency varied over a wide range; and sine dwell test, in which both the spin rate and the nutation frequency were held constant. The sine sweep tests were meant to investigate all the prominent liquid resonant oscillations and the damping of the resonances, and the sine dwell tests were meant to quantify the viscous energy dissipation rate of the liquid oscillations for steady state conditions. The LME flight data were compared to analytical results obtained from two companion IR&D programs at Southwest Research Institute. The comparisons indicated that the models predicted the observed liquid resonances, damping, and energy dissipation rates for many test conditions but not for all. It was concluded that improved models and CFD simulations are needed to resolve the differences. This work is ongoing under a current IR&D program.

  2. Liquid Motion in a Rotating Tank Experiment (LME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.

    1992-01-01

    The Liquid Motion in Rotating Tank Experiment (LME) will investigate and quantify liquid motions occurring in spin-stabilized spacecraft; acquire representative data to validate ground-test scaling procedures; and obtain scientific understanding to formulate better analytical models. LME eliminates the limitations of ground testing. LME design is nearing the end of phase B: the breadboard hardware model has been completed; the load cells have been fabricated and tested; the experiment computer has been flight qualified; and other electronics have been breadboarded. Various aspects of this experiment are presented in viewgraph form.

  3. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  4. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or...

  5. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or...

  6. Energy harvesting from electric power lines employing the Halbach arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Zhang, Jitao; Lu, Caijiang; Yang, Aichao

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes non-invasive energy harvesters to scavenge alternating magnetic field energy from electric power lines. The core body of a non-invasive energy harvester is a linear Halbach array, which is mounted on the free end of a piezoelectric cantilever beam. The Halbach array augments the magnetic flux density on the side of the array where the power line is placed and significantly lowers the magnetic field on the other side. Consequently, the magnetic coupling strength is enhanced and more alternating magnetic field energy from the current-carrying power line is converted into electrical energy. An analytical model is developed and the theoretical results verify the experimental results. A power of 566 μW across a 196 kΩ resistor is generated from a single wire, and a power of 897 μW across a 212 kΩ resistor is produced from a two-wire power cord carrying opposite currents at 10 A. The harvesters employing Halbach arrays for a single wire and a two-wire power cord, respectively, exhibit 3.9 and 3.2 times higher power densities than those of the harvesters employing conventional layouts of magnets. The proposed devices with strong response to the alternating currents are promising to be applied to electricity end-use environment in electric power systems.

  7. High Energy Gamma Ray Lines from Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    A number of nuclear states have been identified as possible candidates for producing high-energy gamma-ray line emission in solar flares. For one high-energy line, resulting from the decay of C-12 (15.11 MeV), the excitation cross sections and branching radios have been studied extensively. In a solar flare, the ratio of the flux of 15. 11 -MeV gamma rays to the flux of 4.44-MeV gamma rays depends critically on the spectral index of the flare-accelerated protons. Prospects for being able to determine that spectral index using results from HESSI observations together with the analytic results of Crannell, Crannell, and Ramaty (1979) will be presented.

  8. 78 FR 26101 - Scoping Period Extended for the Proposed Enbridge Energy Partners, Line 67 Capacity Expansion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Period Extended for the Proposed Enbridge Energy Partners, Line 67 Capacity Expansion Project April 30... proposed Enbridge Energy Partners, Line 67 Capacity Expansion Project to May 13, 2013. SUMMARY: The... Statement for the proposed Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership (Enbridge), Line 67 Capacity...

  9. Energy Efficient Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Yu, Kun; Hull, John R.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Britcher, Colin P.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.

    2003-07-01

    An energy efficient, cost effective cryogenic distribution system (up to several miles) has been identified as important for spaceport and in-space cryogenic systems. The conduction heat loss from the supports that connect the lines cold mass to the warm support structure is ultimately the most serious heat leak after thermal radiation has been minimized. The use of magnetic levitation by permanent magnets and high temperature superconductors provides support without mechanical contact and thus, the conduction part of the heat leak can be reduced to zero. A stop structure is carefully designed to hold the center tube when the system is warm. The novel design will provide the potential of extending many missions by saving cryogens, or reducing the overall launch mass to accomplish a given mission.

  10. An Energy-Stabilized Varied-Line-Space-Monochromator UndulatorBeam Line for PEEM Illumination and Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; McKinney, Wayne; Domning, Ed; Doran, Andrew; Padmore, Howard

    2006-06-01

    A new undulator beam line has been built and commissioned at the Advanced Light Source for illumination of the PEEM3 microscope. The beam line delivers high flux beams over an energy range from C1s through the transition metals to include the M edges of the magnetic rare earth elements. We present details of the optical design, and data on the performance of the zero-order tracking of the photon energy.

  11. Hetero-metallic {3d-4f-5d} complexes: preparation and magnetic behavior of trinuclear [(L(Me2)Ni-Ln){W(CN)(8)}] compounds (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Y; L(Me2) = Schiff base) and variable SMM characteristics for the Tb derivative.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Dhers, Sébastien; Rajamani, Raghunathan; Ramasesha, S; Costes, Jean-Pierre; Duhayon, Carine; Vendier, Laure

    2009-07-06

    Assembling bimetallic {Ni-Ln}(3+) units and {W(CN)(8)}(3-) is shown to be an efficient route toward heteronuclear {3d-4f-5d} compounds. The reaction of either the binuclear [{L(Me2)Ni(H(2)O)(2)}{Ln(NO(3))(3)}] complexes or their mononuclear components [L(Me2)Ni] and Ln(NO(3))(3) with (HNBu(3))(3){W(CN)(8)} in dmf followed by diffusion of tetrahydrofuran yielded the trinuclear [{L(Me2)NiLn}{W(CN)(8)}] compounds 1 (Ln = Y), 2a,b (Gd), 3a,b (Tb), 4 (Dy), 5 (Ho), and 6 (Er) as crystalline materials. All of the derivatives possess the trinuclear core resulting from the linkage of the {W(CN)(8)} to the Ni center of the {Ni-Ln} unit. Differences are found in the solvent molecules acting as ligands and/or in the lattice depending on the crystallization conditions. For all the compounds ferromagnetic {Ni-W} and {Ni-Ln} (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er} interactions are operative resulting in high spin ground states. Parameterization of the magnetic behaviors for the Y and Gd derivatives confirmed the strong cyano-mediated {Ni-W} interaction (J(NiW) = 27.1 and 28.5 cm(-1)) compared to the {Ni-Gd} interaction (J(NiGd) = 2.17 cm(-1)). The characteristic features for slow relaxation of the magnetization are observed for two Tb derivatives, but these are modulated by the crystal phase. Analysis of the frequency dependence of the alternating current susceptibility data yielded U(eff)/k(B) = 15.3 K and tau(0) = 4.5 x 10(-7) s for one derivative whereas no maxima of chi(M)'' appear above 2 K for the second one.

  12. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design.

  13. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-05

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. Energy loss by resonance line photons in an absorbing medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Kunasz, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mean path length of photons undergoing repeated scatterings in media of large optical thickness is calculated from accurate numerical solutions of the transfer equation including the effect of frequency redistribution characteristic of combined Doppler and natural broadening. Energy loss by continuous absorption processes, such as ionization or dust absorption, is discussed, and asymptotic scaling laws for the energy loss, the mean path length, and the mean number of scatterings are inferred from the numerical data.

  15. Variations of cyclotron line energy with luminosity in accreting X-ray pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Osamu

    2014-01-20

    I develop a new model for changes of cyclotron line energy with luminosity based on changes in polar cap dimensions and the direction of photon propagation as well as a shock height. In X0115+63 and V0332+53, the fundamental cyclotron line energy has been observed to decrease with increasing luminosity. This phenomenon has been interpreted as a change of a shock height with luminosity. However, the rates of the observed changes are quite different, in which the line energy in V0332+53 varies slowly with luminosity compared with that in X0115+63. I demonstrate that a new model successfully reproduces the changes of the fundamental cyclotron line energies with luminosity in both X0115+63 and V0332+53. On the other hand, the cyclotron line energies in Her X–1, GX301–2, and GX304–1 were reported to increase with increasing luminosity. I discuss the positive correlation between the cyclotron line energy and luminosity based on changes in a beam pattern for Her X–1, GX301–2, and GX304–1. In addition, I discuss how a switch of the predominant, observed emission region from pole1 to pole2 influences cyclotron line energy for GX304–1 and A0535+26.

  16. Chandra Opens New Line of Investigation on Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    Astronomers have detected and probed dark energy by applying a powerful, new method that uses images of galaxy clusters made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The results trace the transition of the expansion of the Universe from a decelerating to an accelerating phase several billion years ago, and give intriguing clues about the nature of dark energy and the fate of the Universe. "Dark energy is perhaps the biggest mystery in physics," said Steve Allen of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) at the University of Cambridge in England, and leader of the study. "As such, it is extremely important to make an independent test of its existence and properties." Abell 2029 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 2029 Allen and his colleagues used Chandra to study 26 clusters of galaxies at distances corresponding to light travel times of between one and eight billion years. These data span the time when the Universe slowed from its original expansion, before speeding up again because of the repulsive effect of dark energy. "We're directly seeing that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating by measuring the distances to these galaxy clusters," said Andy Fabian also of the IoA, a co-author on the study. The new Chandra results suggest that the dark energy density does not change quickly with time and may even be constant, consistent with the "cosmological constant" concept first introduced by Albert Einstein. If so, the Universe is expected to continue expanding forever, so that in many billions of years only a tiny fraction of the known galaxies will be observable. More Animations Animation of the "Big Rip" If the dark energy density is constant, more dramatic fates for the Universe would be avoided. These include the "Big Rip," where dark energy increases until galaxies, stars, planets and eventually atoms are eventually torn apart. The "Big Crunch," where the Universe eventually collapses on itself, would also be ruled out. Chandra's probe of dark energy relies on the unique

  17. On the effects of magnetic field line topology on the energy propagation in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaresi, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Using the MHD approximation, we study the propagation of energy from photospheric footpoint motions into the corona. Our model consists of a magnetic carpet with closed and open magnetic field lines. Magnetic null points are present close at the surface. The applied photospheric driver twists the field into a topologically non-trivial configuration which leads to reconnection and a change in field line topology. Prior to this event, the energy propagation into the corona is largely inhibited due to closed field lines. After such events the energy is free to propagate into the corona.

  18. Energy Implications of In-Line Filtration in California

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Faulkner, David; Turner, William J.N.

    2013-02-01

    Occupant concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) issues has led to the increased use of more effective air filters in residential heating and cooling systems. This study performed measurements in ten California houses to determine the effects of changing filter performance and related characteristics on the energy use of the heating and cooling systems. Multiple filters were evaluated covering a wide range of filter effectiveness from simple low filtration fiberglass filters up to high efficiency filters that might be used by occupants concerned about IAQ. Sophisticated analysis and simulation tools used the field-testing results to determine filter impacts for a wide range of parameters and California climates. The results indicate that for MERV 10/11/13 filters the effects on energy use are moderate (<5%) over a wide range of performance conditions and climates. Using higher MERV 16 filters can lead to significantly increased energy use (>5%). The high airflow resistance of MERV 16 filters led to excess noise in some test houses from air bypassing the filter and the blower motor. Filter loading rates varied more from house to house than by MERV rating and overall were quite low in many of the homes. Filter related energy use does not need to be addressed for filters of MERV 10/11/13 and MERV 16 filters should only be used with low leakage tested ducts unless the filter is mounted at the blower compartment. MERV 16 filters should only be used if the filter area is sufficient to prevent noise issues and if the duct system has low air flow resistance and low leakage. Filters should be labeled for their air flow resistance, or static pressure at a particular flow rate, that would allow codes and standards to reference a particular performance specification and allow contractors and homeowners to make informed purchases.

  19. New Fe I Level Energies and Line Identifications from Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.; Kurucz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of the Fe I atom is critical to many areas of astrophysics and beyond. Measurements of the energies of its high-lying levels remain woefully incomplete, however, despite extensive laboratory and solar analysis. In this work, we use high-resolution archival absorption-line ultraviolet and optical spectra of stars whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe I excitation. We derive the energy for a particular upper level in Kurucz's semiempirical calculations by adopting a trial value that yields the same wavelength for a given line predicted to be about as strong as that of a strong unidentified spectral line observed in the stellar spectra, then checking the new wavelengths of other strong predicted transitions that share the same upper level for coincidence with other strong observed unidentified lines. To date, this analysis has provided the upper energies of 66 Fe I levels. Many new energy levels are higher than those accessible to laboratory experiments; several exceed the Fe I ionization energy. These levels provide new identifications for over 2000 potentially detectable lines. Almost all of the new levels of odd parity include UV lines that were detected but unclassified in laboratory Fe I absorption spectra, providing an external check on the energy values. We motivate and present the procedure, provide the resulting new energy levels and their uncertainties, list all the potentially detectable UV and optical new Fe I line identifications and their gf values, point out new lines of astrophysical interest, and discuss the prospects for additional Fe I energy level determinations.

  20. Random walk of magnetic field-lines for different values of the energy range spectral index

    SciTech Connect

    Shalchi, A.; Kourakis, I.

    2007-11-15

    An analytical nonlinear description of field-line wandering in partially statistically magnetic systems was proposed recently. In this article the influence of the wave spectrum in the energy range onto field-line random walk is investigated by applying this formulation. It is demonstrated that in all considered cases we clearly obtain a superdiffusive behavior of the field-lines. If the energy range spectral index exceeds unity a free-streaming behavior of the field-lines can be found for all relevant length-scales of turbulence. Since the superdiffusive results obtained for the slab model are exact, it seems that superdiffusion is the normal behavior of field-line wandering.

  1. Experimental study of compatibility of reduced metal oxides with thermal energy storage lining materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Danish, Syed Noman; Al-Ansary, Hany; Jeter, Sheldon; Al-Suhaibani, Zeyad

    2016-05-01

    Solid particles have been shown to be able to operate at temperatures higher than 1000 °C in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES). Thermochemical energy storage (TCES) using metal oxides have also found to be advantageous over sensible and latent heat storage concepts. This paper investigates the compatibility of the inner lining material of a TES tank with the reduced metal oxide. Two candidate metal oxides are investigated against six candidate lining materials. XRD results for both the materials are investigated and compared before and after the reduction of metal oxide at 1000°C in the presence of lining material. It is found that the lining material rich in zirconia is suitable for such application. Silicon Carbide is also found non-reacting with one of the metal oxides so it needs to be further investigated with other candidate metal oxides.

  2. Designing of the low energy beam lines with achromatic condition in the RAON accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2017-01-01

    The RAON accelerator has been built to create and accelerate stable heavy-ion beams and rare isotope beams. The stable heavy-ion beams are generated by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source and accelerated by the low energy superconducting linac SCL1. The beams accelerated by the SCL1 are re-accelerated by the high energy superconducting linac SCL2 for the generation of rare isotope beams by using the in-flight fragmentation system or are put to use in the low energy experimental halls, which include the neutron science facility and the KOrea Broad acceptance Recoil spectrometer and Apparatus after having passed through the low energy beam lines which have long deflecting sections. At the end of each beam line in the low energy experimental halls, the beams should meet the targets of the two facilities with the specific requirements satisfied. Namely, if the beam is to be sent safely and accurately to the targets and simultaneously, satisfy the requirements, an achromatic lattice design needs to be applied in each beam line. In this paper, we will present the lattice design of the low energy beam lines and describe the results of the beam dynamics simulations. In addition, the correction of the beam orbit, which is distorted by machine imperfections, will be discussed.

  3. Long integral temperature Brillouin sensor for off- shore wind energy power supply lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintela, M. A.; Ullán, A.; Quintela, A.; Galindez, C.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; López-Amo, M.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    A hybrid Erbium-Brillouin fiber laser sensor to measure the temperature along 22 km fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A multi-line laser oscillation is induced by the Brillouin gain of different concatenated transducer fiber sections placed in the ring cavity. Integral temperature measurements of each fiber section are obtained through each laser line. This sensor can be used to monitor the temperature of off-shore wind energy power cables.

  4. Derivation of a continuum model and the energy law for moving contact lines with insoluble surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen Xu, Shixin; Ren, Weiqing

    2014-06-15

    A continuous model is derived for the dynamics of two immiscible fluids with moving contact lines and insoluble surfactants based on thermodynamic principles. The continuum model consists of the Navier-Stokes equations for the dynamics of the two fluids and a convection-diffusion equation for the evolution of the surfactant on the fluid interface. The interface condition, the boundary condition for the slip velocity, and the condition for the dynamic contact angle are derived from the consideration of energy dissipations. Different types of energy dissipations, including the viscous dissipation, the dissipations on the solid wall and at the contact line, as well as the dissipation due to the diffusion of surfactant, are identified from the analysis. A finite element method is developed for the continuum model. Numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the influence of surfactant on the contact line dynamics. The different types of energy dissipations are compared numerically.

  5. Line-focus solar thermal energy technology development. FY 79 annual report for Department 4720

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, K D; Champion, R L; Hunke, R W

    1980-04-01

    The primary role of the Solar Energy Projects Department II (4720) is the development, evaluation, and testing of line-focus solar thermal technology. This report of FY 79 progress and accomplishments is divided into two parts: (1) Component and Subsystem Development including the design and analysis of collector modules, their components, and associated materials and processes, and (2) Systems and Applications Development, involving larger configurations of solar thermal line-focus systems. The emphasis is on parabolic troughs, but significant efforts on hemispherical bowls, compound parabolic collectors, and dishes for the Solar Total Energy Project are also described.

  6. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some

  7. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  8. Fission Product Gamma-Ray Line Pairs Sensitive to Fissile Material and Neutron Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E; Norman, E B; Burke, J T; Macri, R A; Shugart, H A; Browne, E; Smith, A R

    2007-11-15

    The beta-delayed gamma-ray spectra from the fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu by thermal and near-14-MeV neutrons have been measured for delay times ranging from 1 minute to 14 hours. Spectra at all delay times contain sets of prominent gamma-ray lines with intensity ratios that identify the fissile material and distinguish between fission induced by low-energy or high-energy neutrons.

  9. [Excitation energy and frequency of transition spectral line of electron in an asymmetry quantum dot].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing-Lin

    2009-03-01

    In an asymmetry quantum dot, the properties of the electron, which is strongly coupled with phonon, were investigated. The variational relations of the first internal excited state energy, the excitation energy and the frequency of transition spectral line between the first internal excited state and the ground state of the electron which is strongly coupled with phonon in an asymmetry quantum dot with the transverse and longituainal effective confinement length of quantum dot and the electron-phonon coupling strength were studied by using a linear combination operator and the unitary transformation methods. Numerical calculations for the variational relations of the first internal excited state energy, the excitation energy and the frequency of transition spectral line between the first internal excited state and the ground state of the electron which is strongly coupled with phonon in an asymmetry quantum dot with the transverse and longituainal effective confinement length of quantum dot and the electron-phonon coupling strength were performed and the results show that the first internal excited state energy, the excitation energy and the frequency of transition spectral line between the first internal excited state and the ground state of the electron which is strongly coupled with phonon in an asymmetry quantum dot will strongly increase with decreasing the transverse and longitudinal effective confinement length. The first internal excited state energy of the electron which is strongly coupled with phonon in an asymmetry quantum dot will decrease with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength. The excitation energy and the frequency of transition spectral line between the first internal excited state and the ground state of the electron which is strongly coupled with phonon in an asymmetry quantum dot will increase with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength.

  10. Ionization energy shift of characteristic K x-ray lines from high-Z materials for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Słabkowska, K.; Szymańska, E.; Polasik, M.; Pereira, N. R.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Seely, J. F.; Weber, B. V.; Schumer, J. W.

    2014-03-15

    The energy of the characteristic x-rays emitted by high atomic number atoms in a plasma that contains energetic electrons depends on the atom's ionization. For tungsten, the ionization energy shift of the L-lines has recently been used to diagnose the plasma's ionization; the change in energy of a K-line has been measured for iridium and observed for ytterbium. Here, we present detailed computations of the ionization energy shift to K-lines of these and an additional element, dysprosium; for these atoms, some K-lines nearly coincide in energy with K-edges of slightly lower Z atoms so that a change in transmission behind a K-edge filter betrays a change in energy. The ionization energy shift of such high-energy K-lines may enable a unique diagnostic when the plasma is inside an otherwise opaque enclosure such as hohlraums used on the National Ignition Facility.

  11. Potential Energy Curves and Associated Line Shape of Alkali-Metal and Noble-Gas Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-20

    xii I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Motivation...150 xii POTENTIAL ENERGY CURVES AND ASSOCIATED LINE SHAPE OF ALKALI-METAL AND NOBLE-GAS INTERACTIONS I. Introduction 1.1 Motivation...starting point for all modern developments of a quantum picture of pressure broadening, and show how this theory reduces to the classical theory under

  12. NuSTAR discovery of a luminosity dependent cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William

    2014-01-10

    We present NuSTAR observations of Vela X-1, a persistent, yet highly variable, neutron star high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB). Two observations were taken at similar orbital phases but separated by nearly a year. They show very different 3-79 keV flux levels as well as strong variability during each observation, covering almost one order of magnitude in flux. These observations allow, for the first time ever, investigations on kilo-second time-scales of how the centroid energies of cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) depend on flux for a persistent HMXB. We find that the line energy of the harmonic CRSF is correlated with flux, as expected in the sub-critical accretion regime. We argue that Vela X-1 has a very narrow accretion column with a radius of around 0.4 km that sustains a Coulomb interaction dominated shock at the observed luminosities of L {sub x} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}. Besides the prominent harmonic line at 55 keV the fundamental line around 25 keV is clearly detected. We find that the strengths of the two CRSFs are anti-correlated, which we explain by photon spawning. This anti-correlation is a possible explanation for the debate about the existence of the fundamental line. The ratio of the line energies is variable with time and deviates significantly from 2.0, also a possible consequence of photon spawning, which changes the shape of the line. During the second observation, Vela X-1 showed a short off-state in which the power-law softened and a cut-off was no longer measurable. It is likely that the source switched to a different accretion regime at these low mass accretion rates, explaining the drastic change in spectral shape.

  13. A micropump controlled by EWOD: wetting line energy and velocity effects.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Roxana; Cho, Hyoung Jin

    2011-10-21

    A Laplace pressure gradient between a droplet and a liquid meniscus was utilized to create an on-demand constant flow rate capillary pump. Electrowetting on dielectric was implemented to induce the pressure gradient in the microchannel. For an initial droplet volume of 0.3 μL and a power of 12 nW a constant flow rate of 0.02 μL s(-1) was demonstrated. The effects of the wetting line energy on the static contact angle and the wetting line velocity on the dynamic contact angle in the pump operation were studied. Sample loading on-demand could be achieved by regulating an electric potential.

  14. Anisotropic Dislocation Line Energy and Crack Tip Dislocation Nucleation in (alpha)RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    November 2013 Anisotropic Dislocation Line Energy and Crack Tip Dislocation Nucleation in αRDX Lynn B. Munday and Jaroslaw Knap Computational ...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This work reports on the algorithms used to determine the...anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties of dislocations and their nucleation from a crack tip. The appendix contains a numerical implementation of these

  15. Energy transport in plasmas produced by a high brightness krypton fluoride laser focused to a line

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hadithi, Y.; Tallents, G.J. ); Zhang, J. ); Key, M.H.; Norreys, P.A.; Kodama, R. )

    1994-05-01

    A high brightness krypton fluoride Raman laser (wavelength 0.268 [mu]m) generating 0.3 TW, 12 ps pulses with 20 [mu]rad beam divergence and a prepulse of less than 10[sup [minus]10] has been focused to produce a 10 [mu]m wide line focus (irradiances [similar to]0.8--4[times]10[sup 15] W cm[sup [minus]2]) on plastic targets with a diagnostic sodium fluoride (NaF) layer buried within the target. Axial and lateral transport of energy has been measured by analysis of x-ray images of the line focus and from x-ray spectra emitted by the layer of NaF with varying overlay thicknesses. It is shown that the ratio of the distance between the critical density surface and the ablation surface to the laser focal width controls lateral transport in a similar manner as for previous spot focus experiments. The measured axial energy transport is compared to MEDUSA [J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, Comput. Phys. Commun. [bold 7], 271 (1974)] one-dimensional hydrodynamic code simulations with an average atom post-processor for predicting spectral line intensities. An energy absorption of [similar to]10% in the code gives agreement with the experimental axial penetration. Various measured line ratios of hydrogen- and helium-like Na and F are investigated as temperature diagnostics in the NaF layer using the RATION [R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Strout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer [bold 32], 91 (1984)] code.

  16. Energy transport in plasmas produced by a high brightness krypton fluoride laser focused to a line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hadithi, Y.; Tallents, G. J.; Zhang, J.; Key, M. H.; Norreys, P. A.; Kodama, R.

    1994-05-01

    A high brightness krypton fluoride Raman laser (wavelength 0.268 μm) generating 0.3 TW, 12 ps pulses with 20 μrad beam divergence and a prepulse of less than 10-10 has been focused to produce a 10 μm wide line focus (irradiances ˜0.8-4×1015 W cm-2) on plastic targets with a diagnostic sodium fluoride (NaF) layer buried within the target. Axial and lateral transport of energy has been measured by analysis of x-ray images of the line focus and from x-ray spectra emitted by the layer of NaF with varying overlay thicknesses. It is shown that the ratio of the distance between the critical density surface and the ablation surface to the laser focal width controls lateral transport in a similar manner as for previous spot focus experiments. The measured axial energy transport is compared to medusa [J. P. Christiansen, D. E. T. F. Ashby, and K. V. Roberts, Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 271 (1974)] one-dimensional hydrodynamic code simulations with an average atom post-processor for predicting spectral line intensities. An energy absorption of ˜10% in the code gives agreement with the experimental axial penetration. Various measured line ratios of hydrogen- and helium-like Na and F are investigated as temperature diagnostics in the NaF layer using the ration [R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Strout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91 (1984)] code.

  17. Energy-efficient WDM-OFDM-PON employing shared OFDM modulation modules in optical line terminal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Kongtao; Su, Yikai

    2012-03-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to improve the energy efficiency of wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). By using an N × M opto-mechanic switch in optical line terminal (OLT), an OFDM modulation module is shared by several channels to deliver data to multiple users with low traffic demands during non-peak hours of the day, thus greatly reducing the number of operating devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. An experiment utilizing one OFDM modulation module to serve three optical network units (ONUs) in a WDM-OFDM-PON is performed to verify the feasibility of our proposal. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation show that the proposed scheme can achieve a saving of 23.6% in the energy consumption of the OFDM modulation modules compared to conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  18. 2.5 MHz Line-Width High-energy, 2 Micrometer Coherent Wind Lidar Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2007-01-01

    2 micron solid-state lasers are the primary choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. As wind lidars, they are used for wake vortex and clear air turbulence detection providing air transport safety. In addition, 2 micron lasers are one of the candidates for CO2 detection lidars. The rich CO2 absorption line around 2 micron, combined with the long upper state life of time, has made Ho based 2 micron lasers a viable candidate for CO2 sensing DIAL instrument. The design and fabrication of a compact coherent laser radar transmitter for Troposphere wind sensing is under way. This system is hardened for ground as well as airborne applications. As a transmitter for a coherent wind lidar, this laser has stringent spectral line width and beam quality requirements. Although the absolute wavelength does not have to be fixed for wind detection, to maximize return signal, the output wavelength should avoid atmospheric CO2 and H2O absorption lines. The base line laser material is Ho:Tm:LuLF which is an isomorph of Ho:Tm:YLF. LuLF produces 20% more output power than Ho:Tm:YLF. In these materials the Tm absorption cross-section, the Ho emission cross-section, the Tm to Ho energy transfer parameters and the Ho (sup 5) I (sub 7) radiative life time are all identical. However, the improved performance of the LuLF is attributed to the lower thermal population in the (sup 5) I (sub 8) manifold. It also provides higher normal mode to Q-switch conversion than YLF at high pump energy indicating a lower up-conversion. The laser architecture is composed of a seed laser, a ring oscillator, and a double pass amplifier. The seed laser is a single longitudinal mode with a line width of 13 KHz. The 100mJ class oscillator is stretched to 3 meters to accommodate the line-width requirement without compromising the range resolution of the instrument. The amplifier is double passed to produce greater than 300mJ energy.

  19. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-Infrared Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 microns/[Ne III], [Ne V]24.32 microns/[O IV]25.89 micron and [O IV] 25.89 microns/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, alpha(sub i), to be between 1.5 - 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha(sub i) approx. 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T(sub BB) = 10(exp 5.18) K to 10(exp 5.7) K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from approx. (Lambda)600 A to > (Lambda)1900 A. In this case, the best fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between approx. (Lambda)700-(Lambda)1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies > 4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of BAT AGN.

  20. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A. E-mail: ohad@unt.edu

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  1. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M. E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.n E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}> 10{sup 11} L {sub sun}), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L {sub IR}>10{sup 12} L {sub sun}), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C{sup +} line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these

  2. A systematic study on the interfacial energy of O-line interfaces in fcc/bcc systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fuzhi; Zhang, Wenzheng

    2013-10-01

    Habit planes between face-centered cubic (fcc)/body-centered cubic (bcc) phases usually exhibit irrational orientations, which often agree with the O-line criterion. Previously, energy calculation was made to test whether the habit planes were energetically favorable, but the values of the energy were found very sensitive to the initial atomic configuration in an irrationally orientated interface. In this paper, under the O-line condition, simple selection criteria are proposed to define and remove interfacial interstitials and vacancies in the initial atomic configuration. The criteria are proved to be effective in obtaining robust energy results. Interfacial energies of two types of O-line interfaces in fcc/bcc systems are calculated following the criteria. The observed transformation crystallography of precipitates in Ni-Cr and Cu-Cr systems can be explained consistently as the irrational habit plane in each system is associated with the lowest energy O-line interface.

  3. Line Integral Alternating Minimization Algorithm for Dual-Energy X-Ray CT Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaqi; O'Sullivan, Joseph A; Politte, David G; Evans, Joshua D; Han, Dong; Whiting, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new algorithm, called line integral alternating minimization (LIAM), for dual-energy X-ray CT image reconstruction. Instead of obtaining component images by minimizing the discrepancy between the data and the mean estimates, LIAM allows for a tunable discrepancy between the basis material projections and the basis sinograms. A parameter is introduced that controls the size of this discrepancy, and with this parameter the new algorithm can continuously go from a two-step approach to the joint estimation approach. LIAM alternates between iteratively updating the line integrals of the component images and reconstruction of the component images using an image iterative deblurring algorithm. An edge-preserving penalty function can be incorporated in the iterative deblurring step to decrease the roughness in component images. Images from both simulated and experimentally acquired sinograms from a clinical scanner were reconstructed by LIAM while varying the regularization parameters to identify good choices. The results from the dual-energy alternating minimization algorithm applied to the same data were used for comparison. Using a small fraction of the computation time of dual-energy alternating minimization, LIAM achieves better accuracy of the component images in the presence of Poisson noise for simulated data reconstruction and achieves the same level of accuracy for real data reconstruction.

  4. Long-term change in the cyclotron line energy in Her X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staubert, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution in the centroid energy of the Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1. After the discovery in 1976 by the MPE/AIT balloon telescope HEXE, the line feature was confirmed by several other instruments, establishing the centroid energy at around 35 keV, thereby providing the first direct measure of the B-filed strength of a neutron star at a few 10^12 Gauss. Between 1991 and 1993 an upward jump by ~7 keV occurred, first noted by BATSE and soon confirmed by RXTE and Beppo/SAX. Since then a systematic effort to monitor the cyclotron line energy E_cyc with all available instruments has led to two further discoveries: 1) E_cyc correlates positively with the X-ray luminosity (this feature is now found in four more binary X-ray pulsars). 2) Over the last 20 years the (flux normalized) E_cyc in Her X-1 has decayed by ~5 keV, down to 36.5 keV in August 2015. Her X-1 is the first and so far the only source showing such a variation. We will discuss possible physical scenarios relevant for accretion mounds/columns on highly magnetized neutron stars.

  5. Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian; Donakowski, Jough; Hays, David

    2012-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is

  6. Design of a large acceptance, high efficiency energy selection system for the ELIMAIA beam-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Andó, L.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Gallo, G.; Korn, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic chicane based on four electromagnetic dipoles is going to be realized by INFN-LNS to be used as an Energy Selection System (ESS) for laser driven proton beams up to 300 MeV and C6+ up to 70 MeV/u. The system will provide, as output, ion beams with a contrallable energy spread varying from 5% up to 20% according to the aperture slit size. Moreover, it has a very wide acceptance in order to ensure a very high transmission efficiency and, in principle, it has been designed to be used also as an active energy modulator. This system is the core element of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and Multidisciplinary applications) beam transport, dosimetry and irradiation line that will be developed by INFN-LNS (It) and installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (Cz). ELIMED will be the first user's open transport beam-line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary research. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performance and field quality, of the magnetic chicane is crucial for the system realization, for the accurate study of the beam dynamics and for the proper matching with the Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) used as a collection system already designed. Here, the design of the magnetic chicane is described in details together with the adopted solutions in order to realize a robust system form the magnetic point of view. Moreover, the first preliminary transport simulations are also described showing the good performance of the whole beam line (PMQs+ESS).

  7. Low-Energy Study of Gamma-Ray Bursts Having Spectral Line Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangia, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are energetic, short-duration emissions of gamma-rays. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) that was onboard NASA s Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has done much to advance our understanding of GRBs. Perhaps foremost is to establish that GRBs originate from astronomical sources that exist well beyond our galaxy. Another area in which BATSE has been instrumental is to provide high-resolution data that can be used in spectral studies. Before BATSE, there were many reports of GRB spectra containing what appeared to be spectral absorption lines, whereas Briggs, after an extensive computer search of 117 bright BATSE GRBs, reported finding only one case that might be an absorption line and ten cases that might be emission lines. None of the eleven BATSE cases were definitively identified as spectral lines, and Briggs indicated reasons as to why the pre-BATSE reports should not be taken as conclusive. It remains an open question as to what these spectral-like features are, or if they are even real. The purpose of this work is, for the subset of the eleven BATSE GRBs for which low-energy data are available from two BATSE's Spectroscopy Detectors (SDs), to include these data in the spectral analysis. Such a study will provide additional constraints on the model spectral functions to better ascertain the reality of the line features. The spectral analysis program used was RMFIT. Of the six GRBs that met the selection criteria, the analysis was performed on only three of them due to a lack of time.

  8. Ion source and low energy injection line for a central region model cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Tianjue; Li Zhenguo; Lu Yinlong; Wei Sumin; Cai Hongru; Ge Tao; Wu Longcheng; Pan Gaofeng; Yao Hongjuan; Kuo, T.; Yuan, D.

    2008-02-15

    At CIAE, a 100 MeV H{sup -} cyclotron (CYCIAE-100) is under design and construction. A central region model (CRM) cyclotron was built for various experimental verifications for the CYCIAE-100 project and for research and development of high current injection to accelerate milliampere H{sup -} beam. The H{sup -} multicusp source built in 2003 has been improved recently to make the source operation more stable. A new injection line for axial low energy high current injection has been designed and constructed for the CRM cyclotron.

  9. On-line economic optimization of energy systems using weather forecast information.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    We establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit weather forecast information in the operation of energy systems. We argue that anticipating the weather conditions can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The framework is based on the solution of a stochastic dynamic real-time optimization (D-RTO) problem incorporating forecasts generated from a state-of-the-art weather prediction model. The necessary uncertainty information is extracted from the weather model using an ensemble approach. The accuracy of the forecast trends and uncertainty bounds are validated using real meteorological data. We present a numerical simulation study in a building system to demonstrate the developments.

  10. On-line energy management for HEV based on particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, S.; Wanderley-Honda, D.; Hissel, D.; Fadel, M.

    2011-05-01

    This study considers a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle supplied by a Fuel Cell stack and supercapacitors used as Storage Element. In such an application, real time energy management is of paramount importance in order to increase autonomy and be able to deal on-line with perturbed power demand. Many offline power flow optimization principles are available but online algorithms are preferred and should be derived for optimal management of the instantaneous power splitting between the different available power sources. Based on particle swarm optimization algorithm, this study defines the parameters tuning of such algorithm. The final power splitting allows not only recovering energy braking but also is robust to some disturbances occurring during the trip. The solution provides good-quality and high-robustness results in a certain class of mission profile and power disturbance.

  11. Energy Conversion Process in Laser Supported Detonation Waves Induced by a Line-Focusing Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushio, Masato; Kawamura, Koichi; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Katsurayama, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2006-05-01

    Propagation of two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) waves driven by a line-focusing laser beam was investigated using the shadowgraph method. As a result, fractional laser absorption during the LSD regime for 2D and quasi-1D cases was 68% and 81%, respectively, which was lower than that of three-dimensional LSD wave driven by a point-focusing beam (typically 90%.) However, the blast wave energy efficiency was found proportional to the fractional absorption. Besides, the LSD threshold intensity was apparently lowered in the quasi-1D case due to the momentum confinement effect. Comparison with the quasi-1D simulation considering the real gas effects suggests that non-equilibrium effects and radiation loss should be playing an important role in the energy conversion process in the LSD regime.

  12. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions in Galactic Sources: Empirical Interpretation of Extragalactic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriolo, Nick; Bergin, E. A.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Gerin, M.; Gusdorf, A.; Lis, D. C.; Schilke, P.

    2017-02-01

    The relative populations in rotational transitions of CO can be useful for inferring gas conditions and excitation mechanisms at work in the interstellar medium. We present CO emission lines from rotational transitions observed with Herschel/HIFI in the star-forming cores Orion S, Orion KL, Sgr B2(M), and W49N. Integrated line fluxes from these observations are combined with those from Herschel/PACS observations of the same sources to construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) from 5 ≤ J u ≤ 48. These CO SLEDs are compared to those reported in other galaxies, with the intention of empirically determining which mechanisms dominate excitation in such systems. We find that CO SLEDs in Galactic star-forming cores cannot be used to reproduce those observed in other galaxies, although the discrepancies arise primarily as a result of beam filling factors. The much larger regions sampled by the Herschel beams at distances of several megaparsecs contain significant amounts of cooler gas, which dominate the extragalactic CO SLEDs, in contrast to observations of Galactic star-forming regions, which are focused specifically on cores containing primarily hot molecular gas. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, T. R.; Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M.; Weiß, A.; Henkel, C.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aalto, S.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Fischer, J.; Gao, Y.; González-Alfonso, E.; Harris, A.; Naylor, D. A.; Smith, H. A.; Spaans, M.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  14. Identifying energy and carbon footprint optimization potentials of a sludge treatment line with Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Lesjean, B; Waschnewski, J

    2013-01-01

    This study exemplifies the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to quantify the environmental impacts of processes for wastewater treatment. In a case study, the sludge treatment line of a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is analysed in terms of cumulative energy demand and the emission of greenhouse gases (carbon footprint). Sludge treatment consists of anaerobic digestion, dewatering, drying, and disposal of stabilized sludge in mono- or co-incineration in power plants or cement kilns. All relevant forms of energy demand (electricity, heat, chemicals, fossil fuels, transport) and greenhouse gas emissions (fossil CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) are accounted in the assessment, including the treatment of return liquor from dewatering in the WWTP. Results show that the existing process is positive in energy balance (-162 MJ/PE(COD) * a) and carbon footprint (-11.6 kg CO(2)-eq/PE(COD) * a) by supplying secondary products such as electricity from biogas production or mono-incineration and substituting fossil fuels in co-incineration. However, disposal routes for stabilized sludge differ considerably in their energy and greenhouse gas profiles. In total, LCA proves to be a suitable tool to support future investment decisions with information of environmental relevance on the impact of wastewater treatment, but also urban water systems in general.

  15. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  16. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1995-05-05

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  17. Orbit error correction on the high energy beam transport line at the KHIMA accelerator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chawon; Yim, Heejoong; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun

    2016-09-01

    For the purpose of treatment of various cancers and medical research, a synchrotron based medical machine has been developed under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and is scheduled for use to treat patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract carbon ion (proton) beams with various energies from 110 to 430 MeV/u (60 to 230 MeV). Studies on the lattice design and beam optics for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out using the WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because magnetic field errors and misalignments introduce deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly, and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to different individual error sources should be considered. Various types of errors, both static and dynamic, have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X program. Based on the error analysis, the optimized correction setup is decided, and the specifications for the correcting magnets of the HEBT lines are determined.

  18. Single molecule studies of a ladder type conjugated polymer: vibronic spectra, line widths, and energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zickler, Martin F; Feist, Florian A; Jacob, Josemon; Müllen, Klaus; Basché, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy are employed to investigate single poly(ladder-type pentaphenylene) (LPPentP) molecules dispersed in thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films at 1.2 K. Emission spectra of single chains show single as well as multi-chromophore emission indicating variegated communication along the chains. The vibronic structure in the emission spectra resembles the one found for other ladder-type polymers. Purely electronic zero-phonon lines in emission are substantially broadened, most probably due to fast spectral diffusion. By surmounting the limitations of emission spectroscopy, nonemitting donor chromophores, which transfer their excitation energy in a radiationless manner to emitting chromophores, are accessed by excitation spectroscopy. Remarkably, by comparing the data of emitting and nonemitting chromophores a contribution to the zero-phonon excitation line width has to be considered which places a lower limit on the estimated energy transfer time of several picoseconds between adjacent chromophores. Finally, the data indicate qualitatively a restricted flexibility of LPPentP compared to poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV).

  19. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  20. Kinetic Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms From Analysis of the D Lyman-a Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, Marco; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The absolute cross sections of the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coeffiecients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  1. Kinetic-Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms from Analysis of the D Lyman-Alpha Line Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciocca, M.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D(2p) atoms resulting from electron-impact dissociation of D2 has been measured. A high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer was employed for the first measurement of the D Lyman-alpha (D L(alpha)) emission line profiles at 20- and 100-eV excitation energies. Analysis of the deconvoluted line profile of D L(alpha) at 100 eV reveals the existence of a narrow line central peak of 29+/-2 mA full width at half maximum and a broad pedestal wing structure about 190 mA wide. The wings of the line can be used to determine the fast atom distribution. The wings of D L(alpha) arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited states that cross the Franck-Condon region between 23 and 40 eV. The fast atom distribution at 100-eV electron impact energy spans the energy range from 1 to 10 eV with a peak value near 6 eV. Slow D(2p) atoms characterized by a distribution function with peak energy near 100 meV produce the central peak profile, which is nearly independent of the impact energy. The deconvoluted line profiles of the central peak at 20 eV for dissociative excitation of D2 and H2 are fitted with an analytical function for use in calibration of space flight instrumentation equipped with a D/H absorption cell. The kinetic-energy and line profile results are compared to similar measurements for H2. The absolute cross sections for the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coefficients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  2. RAPD and SSR Polymorphisms in Mutant Lines of Transgenic Wheat Mediated by Low Energy Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiegu; Huang, Qunce; Feng, Weisen

    2007-10-01

    Two types of markers-random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat DNA (SSR)-have been used to characterize the genetic diversity among nine mutant lines of transgenic wheat intermediated by low energy ion beam and their four receptor cultivars. The objectives of this study were to analyze RAPD-based and SSR-based genetic variance among transgenic wheat lines and with their receptors, and to find specific genetic markers of special traits of transgenic wheat lines. 170 RAPD primers were amplified to 733 fragments in all the experimental materials. There were 121 polymorphic fragments out of the 733 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 16.5%. 29 SSR primer pairs were amplified to 83 fragments in all the experiment materials. There were 57 polymorphic fragments out of the 83 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 68.7%. The dendrograms were prepared based on a genetic distance matrix using the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic averaging) algorithm, which corresponded well to the results of the wheat pedigree analysis and separated the 13 genotypes into four groups. Association analysis between RAPD and SSR markers with the special traits of transgenic wheat mutant lines discovered that three RAPD markers, s1, opt-16, and f14, were significantly associated with the muticate trait, while three SSR markers, Rht8 (Xgwm261), Rht-B1b, and Rht-D1b, highly associated with the dwarf trait. These markers will be useful for marker-assistant breeding and can be used as candidate markers for further gene mapping and cloning.

  3. Prominent Soft X-ray Lines of Sr-like Au41+ in Low-energy EBIT Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference M{o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory has been employed to calculate with high accuracy the energy levels and transition probabilities of Cu- to Sr-like gold ions. The many-body calculations were carried out to identify the unassigned blended lines in the 35-40 angstroms region of the low-energy EBIT spectrum of the gold ions. Most of the prominent lines in the 35-40 angstroms region were identified as the emission lines in Sr-like gold.

  4. Power lines: Urban space, energy development and the making of the modern Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Todd Andrew

    "Power Lines: Urban Space, Energy Development, and the Making of the Modern Southwest" explores the social and environmental transformation of the postwar Southwest and the resulting disputes between urban boosters, federal officials, Native Americans, and environmental activists. The dissertation focuses on the infrastructure built to provide the burgeoning populations of Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other Southwestern cities with electricity. This infrastructure allowed metropolitan boosters in the Southwest to attract Cold War defense manufacturing and to build a new suburban landscape even as industrialization on Indian lands provided electricity for those landscapes. Tracing the transition of electrical generation from a dispersed geography relying on local resources to a centralized geography utilizing primarily coal from Navajo land, "Power Lines" demonstrates the increasing centrality of Indian lands and labor to the metropolitan Southwest. Paying close attention to these networks reveals the far-reaching changes caused by postwar metropolitan growth. "Power Lines" challenges understandings of urban space that neglect the material resources that allow cities to "live." As the nation's cities and suburbs became increasingly energy-intensive, electrical utilities reached deep into the metropolitan periphery, transforming landscapes hundreds of miles from city centers into urban space. The construction of the new "geography of power" in the Southwest also reflects the impact of growth liberalism on postwar growth, as federal money funded suburban, manufacturing, and infrastructure developments. This pursuit of growth produced new political struggles, both as the development of energy resources conflicted with emerging environmentalist sensibilities and as American Indians increasingly resented the industrialization of their land for the benefit of others. By the 1970s, the simultaneous pursuit and criticism of growth came to define the modern Southwest. The

  5. Characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Yan, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype was developed and characterized through quantitative investigations and phantom studies. Methods: The prototype system consists of an x-ray source, a motorized rotation stage, and a CMOS detector with a pixel pitch of 0.05 mm. The x-ray source was operated at 120 kVp for this study, and the objects were mounted on the rotation stage 76.2 cm (R1) from the source and 114.3 cm (R2) from the detector. The large air gap between the object and detector guarantees sufficient phase-shift effects. The quantitative evaluation of this prototype included modulation transfer function and noise power spectrum measurements conducted under both projection mode and tomosynthesis mode. Phantom studies were performed including three custom designed phantoms with complex structures: a five-layer bubble wrap phantom, a fishbone phantom, and a chicken breast phantom with embedded fibrils and mass structures extracted from an ACR phantom. In-plane images of the phantoms were acquired to investigate their image qualities through observation, intensity profile plots, edge enhancement evaluations, and/or contrast-to-noise ratio calculations. In addition, the robust phase-attenuation duality (PAD)-based phase retrieval method was applied to tomosynthesis for the first time in this research. It was utilized as a preprocessing method to fully exhibit phase contrast on the angular projection before reconstruction. Results: The resolution and noise characteristics of this high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype were successfully investigated and demonstrated. The phantom studies demonstrated that this imaging prototype can successfully remove the structure overlapping in phantom projections, obtain delineate interfaces, and achieve better contrast-to-noise ratio after applying phase retrieval to the angular projections. Conclusions: This research successfully demonstrated a high-energy in-line

  6. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  7. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  8. Superconducting qubit in a nonstationary transmission line cavity: Parametric excitation, periodic pumping, and energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Remizov, S. V.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2017-02-01

    We consider a superconducting qubit coupled to the nonstationary transmission line cavity with modulated frequency taking into account energy dissipation. Previously, it was demonstrated that in the case of a single nonadiabatical modulation of a cavity frequency there are two channels of a two-level system excitation which are due to the absorption of Casimir photons and due to the counterrotating wave processes responsible for the dynamical Lamb effect. We show that the parametric periodical modulation of the resonator frequency can increase dramatically the excitation probability. Remarkably, counterrotating wave processes under such a modulation start to play an important role even in the resonant regime. Our predictions can be used to control qubit-resonator quantum states as well as to study experimentally different channels of a parametric qubit excitation.

  9. Limits of the energy-spin phase space beyond the proton drip line : entry distributions fo Pt and Au isobars.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Abu Saleem, K.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Danchev, M.; Davids, C. N.; Hartley, D. J.; Heinz, A.; Lister, C. J.; Ma, W. C.; Poli, G. L.; Ressler, J. J.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Rutgers univ.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Tennessee; Univ. of Maryland; Washington Univ.

    2003-01-09

    Entry distributions in angular momentum and excitation energy have been measured for several very proton-rich isotopes of Pt and Au. This is the first systematic study of the energy-spin phase space for nuclei near and beyond the proton drip line. Comparisons are made between the distributions associated with proton-unbound Au nuclei and more stable Pt isobars. In {sup 173}Au the first evidence is seen for the limits of excitation energy and angular momentum which a nucleus beyond the proton drip line can sustain.

  10. Low Energy Plasma Measurements of the Van Allen Probes Crossing Open Field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, B.; MacDonald, E.; Skoug, R. M.; Dixon, P.; Henderson, M. G.; Chaston, C. C.; Grande, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Thomsen, M.; Wygant, J. R.; Reeves, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes encountered unusual low-latitude flank-side open field lines during the Nov. 14 2012 geomagnetic storm. Both spacecraft entered the lobes five times over several hours in the main phase of the storm. Four of the ~ five minute events were seen by both probes nearly simultaneously despite being 45 minutes apart in orbit (less than one L shell). The more tailward satellite always saw the boundary crossing first. We present the HOPE low energy plasma observations during these encounters. Adjacent to the lobe intervals, HOPE observed a hot electron plasma sheet leading to significant spacecraft charging. The electron and ion fluxes were significantly diminished during the lobe crossings coincident with a stronger, more highly stretched magnetic field. Significant accelerated field aligned oxygen signatures were measured on both closed and apparently open field lines, along with strong Alfvenic waves. Using the multipoint measurements we will examine the source of this acceleration and its role in inner magnetosphere ion dynamics. This event also represents the chance to constrain and assess magnetic field models and we will examine the topological location of the field lobes relative to the spacecraft for multiple models.

  11. Determining energy balance in the flaring chromosphere from oxygen V line ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. R.; Fletcher, L.; Labrosse, N.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The impulsive phase of solar flares is a time of rapid energy deposition and heating in the lower solar atmosphere, leading to changes in the temperature and density structure of the region. Aims: We use an O v density diagnostic formed from the λ192 /λ248 line ratio, provided by the Hinode/EIS instrument, to determine the density of flare footpoint plasma at O v formation temperatures of ~2.5 × 105 K, giving a constraint on the properties of the heated transition region. Methods: Hinode/EIS rasters from 2 small flare events in December 2007 were used. Raster images were co-aligned to identify and establish the footpoint pixels, multiple-component Gaussian line fitting of the spectra was carried out to isolate the density diagnostic pair, and the density was calculated for several footpoint areas. The assumptions of equilibrium ionisation and optically-thin radiation for the O v lines used were assessed and found to be acceptable. For one of the events, properties of the electron distribution were deduced from earlier RHESSI hard X-ray observations. These were used to calculate the plasma heating rate delivered by an electron beam for 2 semi-empirical atmospheres under collisional thick-target assumptions. The radiative loss rate for this plasma was also calculated for comparison with possible energy input mechanisms. Results: Electron number densities of up to 1011.9 cm-3 were measured during the flare impulsive phase using the O v λ192 /λ248 diagnostic ratio. The heating rate delivered by an electron beam was found to exceed the radiative losses at this density, corresponding to a height of 450 km, and when assuming a completely ionised target atmosphere far exceed the losses but at a height of 1450-1600 km. A chromospheric thickness of 70-700 km was found to be required to balance a conductive input to the O v-emitting region with radiative losses. Conclusions: Electron densities have been observed in footpoint sources at transition region

  12. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Synn, Joong-Ho; Song, Won-Kyong

    2012-06-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  13. Iron K shell line, a probe of low energy cosmic rays in SNRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Katsuji; Sato, Tamotsu

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of non thermal power-law X-rays at the rim of SN1006 by Koyama et al. (1995), this feature has been established to be evidence of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs). The HECRs are created by a diffuse shock acceleration process. Accordingly low energy cosmic rays (LECRS) must be presented as the injector of this acceleration process. We found for the first time that the K-shell line from neutral iron at 6.4 keV is good tracer of LECRs in SNRs. This paper present the observational facts for LECRs from intermediate aged SNRs, 3C391, Kes79, Kes 78 and W44 in the Scutum Arm region (see figure, Sato et al. 2014, 2015). Two SNRs, 3C391 and W44, exhibit recombining plasma (RP), an unusual structure in the frame work of the standard SNR evolution scenario. Together with the RP, we discuss the origin of LECRs in the SNRs.

  14. Near-coincident K-line and K-edge energies as ionization diagnostics for some high atomic number plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Weber, B. V.; Phipps, D. G.; Schumer, J. W.; Seely, J. F.; Carroll, J. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Slabkowska, K.; Polasik, M.

    2012-10-15

    For some high atomic number atoms, the energy of the K-edge is tens of eVs higher than the K-line energy of another atom, so that a few eV increase in the line's energy results in a decreasing transmission of the x-ray through a filter of the matching material. The transmission of cold iridium's Asymptotically-Equal-To 63.287 keV K{alpha}{sub 2} line through a lutetium filter is 7% lower when emitted by ionized iridium, consistent with an energy increase of {Delta}{epsilon} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10{+-}1 eV associated with the ionization. Likewise, the transmission of the K{beta}{sub 1} line of ytterbium through a near-coincident K-edge filter changes depending on plasma parameters that should affect the ionization. Systematic exploration of filter-line pairs like these could become a unique tool for diagnostics of suitable high energy density plasmas.

  15. Highly accurate potential energy surface, dipole moment surface, rovibrational energy levels, and infrared line list for 32S16O2 up to 8000 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2014-03-01

    A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected 32S16O2 HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (σRMS) for all J = 0-80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm-1. Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296 K and covers up to 8000 cm-1. Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85%-90%. Our predictions for 34S16O2 band origins, higher energy 32S16O2 band origins and missing 32S16O2 IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict 32/34S16O2 band origins below 5500 cm-1 with 0.01-0.03 cm-1 uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The Ka-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO2 IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO2 lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.

  16. Highly Accurate Potential Energy Surface, Dipole Moment Surface, Rovibrational Energy Levels, and Infrared Line List for (32)S(16)O2 up to 8000 cm(exp -1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected (32)S(16)O2 HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (RMS) error for all J=0-80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm(exp -1). Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296K and covers up to 8,000 cm(exp -1). Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85-90%. Our predictions for (34)S(16)O2 band origins, higher energy (32)S(16)O2 band origins and missing (32)S(16)O2 IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict (32/34)S(16)O2 band origins below 5500 cm(exp -1) with 0.01-0.03 cm(exp -1) uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The Ka-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO2 IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO2 lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.

  17. Free energy of formation of small ice nuclei near the Widom line in simulations of supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Buhariwalla, Connor R C; Bowles, Richard K; Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Sciortino, Francesco; Poole, Peter H

    2015-05-01

    The ST2 interaction potential has been used in a large number of simulation studies to explore the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in supercooled water. Using umbrella sampling Monte Carlo simulations of ST2 water, we evaluate the free energy of formation of small ice nuclei in the supercooled liquid in the vicinity of the Widom line, the region above the critical temperature of the LLPT where a number of thermodynamic anomalies occur. Our results show that in this region there is a substantial free-energy cost for the formation of small ice nuclei, demonstrating that the thermodynamic anomalies associated with the Widom line in ST2 water occur in a well-defined metastable liquid phase. On passing through the Widom line, we identify changes in the free energy to form small ice nuclei that illustrate how the thermodynamic anomalies associated with the LLPT may influence the ice nucleation process.

  18. Outburst of GX304-1 Monitored with INTEGRAL: Positive Correlation Between the Cyclotron Line Energy and Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klochkov, D.; Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Pottschmidt, I.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pilhlhofer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Context. X-ray spectra of many accreting pulsars exhibit significant variations as a function of flux and thus of mass accretion rate. In some of these pulsars, the centroid energy of the cyclotron line(s), which characterizes the magnetic field strength at the site of the X-ray emission, has been found to vary systematically with flux. Aims. GX304-1 is a recently established cyclotron line source with a line energy around 50 keV. Since 2009, the pulsar shows regular outbursts with the peak flux exceeding one Crab. We analyze the INTEGRAL observations of the source during its outburst in January-February 2012. Methods. The observations covered almost the entire outburst, allowing us to measure the source's broad-band X-my spectrum at different flux levels. We report on the variations in the spectral parameters with luminosity and focus on the variations in the cyclotron line. Results. The centroid energy of the line is found to be positively correlated with the luminosity. We interpret this result as a manifestation of the local sub-Eddington (sub-critical) accretion regime operating in the source.

  19. A Variable Energy, Redshifted, Iron Absorption Line in a recoiling Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca

    The aim of this proposal is to maximize the scientific return of a medium deep (123 ksec) XMM-Newton observation, awarded during the AO10 call for proposal, to obtain a high quality X-ray spectrum of CID-42, a very peculiar source discovered in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 is exceptional in many respects showing a redshifted, variable energy absorption line plus an emission line at ~ 6 keV forming an inverted P-Cygni profile. These features were never observed before in the X-rays. The peculiar nature of CID-42 extends well beyond the X-ray spectrum. First, two optical sources in a common envelope are clearly seen in the HST data. They are separated by about 2.45 kpc. Thanks to the unrivaled Chandra HRC resolution it was possible to unambiguously associate the X-ray emission to only one of the two optical sources. Second, a high velocity (1100 km/s) offset, between the broad and narrow component of the H-beta line is measured in the VLT/Magellan/Keck optical spectra. The velocity offset observed is unlikely to be due to a ongoing merger because too high. Third, the above mentioned inverted P-Cygni profile in the hard X-ray spectrum would be naturally explained by an high velocity (v~0.02-0.14c) gas infall in the innermost region of the accreting Black Hole. All together the observed properties support the interpretation of a Black Hole kicked from the center of the galaxy by asymmetric emission of gravitational waves produced during a major merger. The Black Hole is caught while still active, at ~10^6 yrs after the kick and at a substantial distance from the center of the galaxy. The theoretical expectations suggest that they are extremely rare and just 1 or 2 gravitational wave recoiling Black Holes are expected in a survey like COSMOS. CID- 42 thus represents a ``Rosetta stone'' for the study of SMBH mergers that are believed to occur during galaxy-galaxy mergers, and their fate after the merging. The detailed study of the hard X-ray XMM-Newton spectrum, in the

  20. Synchrotron radiation beam line for photons in the 700 eV - 7000 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, P.J.; Anderson, C.J.

    1985-04-01

    The design of a beam line for synchrotron radiation research is described. The 700 to 7000 eV energy range to be covered is determined at low energy by the 2d spacing of easily obtainable diffraction crystals and at high energy by the cutoff of specular reflection of a Pt mirror. Two mirrors are used, the first to collimate the x-ray beam through a double crystal monochromator and the second to focus the collimated monochromatic beam on target. In this way, high monochromatic x-ray throughput is achieved with energy resolution limited by crystal diffraction properties.

  1. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  2. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  3. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×10{sup 5} as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  4. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  5. Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL).

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, H.J.

    1998-11-11

    The Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is a facility that uses the existing APS linac to accelerate electrons up to an energy of 700 MeV. These electrons are transported through the Pm into a portion of the booster synchrotrons and on into the LEUTL main enclosure (MIL 97). Figure 1 shows the layout of the LEUTL building, which consists of an earth-benned concrete enclosure and an end-station building. The concrete enclosure houses the electron beamline, test undulator, and beam dump. This facility is about 51 m long and 3.66 m wide. Technical components and diagnostics for characterizing the undulator light are found in the end station. This building has about 111 m{sup 2} of floor space. This note deals with the radiological considerations of operations using electrons up to 700 MeV and at power levels up to the safety envelope of 1 kW. Previous radiological considerations for electron and positron operations in the linac, PAR, and synchrotrons have been addressed else-where (MOE 93a, 93b, and 93c). Much of the methodology discussed in the previous writeups, as well as in MOE 94, has been used in the computations in this note. The radiological aspects that are addressed include the following: prompt secondary radiation (bremsstrahlung, giant resonance neutrons, medium- and high-energy neutrons) produced by electrons interacting in a beam stop or in component structures; skyshine radiation, which produces a radiation field in nearby areas and at the nearest off-site location; radioactive gases produced by neutron irradiation of air in the vicinity of a particle loss site; noxious gases (ozone and others) produced in air by the escaping bremsstrahlung radiation that results from absorbing particles in the components; activation of the LEUTL components that results in a residual radiation field in the vicinity of these materials following shutdown; potential activation of water used for cooling the magnets and other purposes in the tunnel; and evaluation of the

  6. Calculations of H2O microwave line broadening in collisions with He atoms - Sensitivity to potential energy surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical computations of broadening parameters are reported for three microwave lines of H2O in a bath of He atoms. The potential-energy surfaces employed are corrected for basis-set superposition error, and their reliability is checked by repeating the calculations with a different basis set for orbital expansion. The results are presented in extensive tables and discussed in detail. The corrections applied are shown to have a significant impact on the accuracy of the room-temperature broadenings determined: 8.9 sq A for the 22.2-GHz line, 11.8 sq A for the 183,3-GHz line, and 10.0 sq A for the 380.2-GHz line, in good agreement with published experimental data. The importance of collisional broadening for the atmospheric transmission of radiation and for remote-sensing applications is indicated.

  7. Small-energy analysis for the selfadjoint matrix Schrödinger operator on the half line. II

    SciTech Connect

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Klaus, Martin; Weder, Ricardo

    2014-03-15

    The matrix Schrödinger equation with a selfadjoint matrix potential is considered on the half line with the most general selfadjoint boundary condition at the origin. When the matrix potential is integrable and has a second moment, it is shown that the corresponding scattering matrix is differentiable at zero energy. An explicit formula is provided for the derivative of the scattering matrix at zero energy. The previously established results when the potential has only the first moment are improved when the second moment exists, by presenting the small-energy asymptotics for the related Jost matrix, its inverse, and various other quantities relevant to the corresponding direct and inverse scattering problems.

  8. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  9. Recyclable transmission line concept for z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy.

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, J. S.; Olson, Craig Lee; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Peterson, Per F.

    2003-12-01

    Recyclable transmission lines (RTL)s are being studied as a means to repetitively drive z pinches to generate fusion energy. We have shown previously that the RTL mass can be quite modest. Minimizing the RTL mass reduces recycling costs and the impulse delivered to the first wall of a fusion chamber. Despite this reduction in mass, a few seconds will be needed to reload an RTL after each subsequent shot. This is in comparison to other inertial fusion approaches that expect to fire up to ten capsules per second. Thus a larger fusion yield is needed to compensate for the slower repetition rate in a z-pinch driven fusion reactor. We present preliminary designs of z-pinch driven fusion capsules that provide an adequate yield of 1-4 GJ. We also present numerical simulations of the effect of these fairly large fusion yields on the RTL and the first wall of the reactor chamber. These simulations were performed with and without a neutron absorbing blanket surrounding the fusion explosion. We find that the RTL will be fully vaporized out to a radius of about 3 meters assuming normal incidence. However, at large enough radius the RTL will remain in either the liquid or solid state and this portion of the RTL could fragment and become shrapnel. We show that a dynamic fragmentation theory can be used to estimate the size of these fragmented particles. We discuss how proper design of the RTL can allow this shrapnel to be directed away from the sensitive mechanical parts of the reactor chamber.

  10. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Griesheimer, D. P.; Stedry, M. H.

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  11. Multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line as direct energy driver for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N.

    1995-12-31

    An FEL based energy driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is proposed. The key element of the scheme is free electron laser system. Novel technical solutions, namely, using of multichannel, multi-stage FEL amplifier with diaphragm focusing line, reveal a possibility to construct the FEL system operating at radiation wavelength {lambda} = 0.5 {mu}m and providing flush energy E = 1 MJ and brightness 4 x 10{sup 22} W cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} within steering pulse duration {tau} {approximately} 0.1-2 ns. Total energy efficiency of the proposed ICF energy driver is about of 11% and repetition rate is 40 Hz. It is shown that the FEL based ICF energy driver may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique R& D.

  12. Towards a Theoretical Basis for Energy Economics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    34: . . < . (4.84) To prove this assLme a contradictory subcase that all 7. were below a. This would imply Z S > 3 and a= according to capacitiy assumption, which...Efficiencies, Engineering, Vol 130, 1930, pp 283-285 Dasgupta, P S , Heal, G M, Economic Theory and ExhaustibleResources, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge...A.70-.. 1 6826 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/ S 5/3 TOWARDS A THEORETICAL BASIS FOR ENERGY ECONOMICS. (U) AUG GO R V GRUBBSTROM ae c~rf nCf

  13. Getting the Most from Your On-Line Energy Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Describes the online energy management control system at San Diego State University, California. Tips for the smooth operation of systems already installed or those under consideration are presented. Following these tips can save campuses time, money, and energy. (RE)

  14. A marching method for calculating line and continuum radiation in high energy flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, C. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating nongrey radiative fluxes and intensities in a highly ionized, low temperature plasma with extreme line broadening. The method was developed to study radiative heating phenomena in the mass-injected hypersonic shock-layer environments characteristic of outer planet atmospheric entry, although it is not limited to such studies. The radiative properties model assumed local thermodynamic equilibrium and used standard continuum and molecular band models. The atomic line model, however, used a frequency-marching method for the frequency integration, which not only accounted completely for line overlapping (reabsorption) effects, but compared favorably in economy with the best equivalent-width methods. An assessment of hydrogen line-far-wing treatments, with recommendations for engineering models, is also presented.

  15. Study of semiconductor valence plasmon line shapes via electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kundmann, M.K.

    1988-11-01

    Electron energy-loss spectra of the semiconductors Si, AlAs, GaAs, InAs, InP, and Ge are examined in detail in the regime of outer-shell and plasmon energy losses (0--100eV). Particular emphasis is placed on modeling and analyzing the shapes of the bulk valence plasmon lines. A line shape model based on early work by Froehlich is derived and compared to single-scattering probability distributions extracted from the measured spectra. Model and data are found to be in excellent agreement, thus pointing the way to systematic characterization of the plasmon component of EELS spectra. The model is applied to three separate investigations. 82 refs.

  16. FIELD LINES TWISTING IN A NOISY CORONA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY STORAGE AND RELEASE, AND INITIATION OF SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, M.; Einaudi, G.

    2013-07-10

    We present simulations modeling closed regions of the solar corona threaded by a strong magnetic field where localized photospheric vortical motions twist the coronal field lines. The linear and nonlinear dynamics are investigated in the reduced magnetohydrodynamic regime in Cartesian geometry. Initially the magnetic field lines get twisted and the system becomes unstable to the internal kink mode, confirming and extending previous results. As typical in this kind of investigations, where initial conditions implement smooth fields and flux-tubes, we have neglected fluctuations and the fields are laminar until the instability sets in. However, previous investigations indicate that fluctuations, excited by photospheric motions and coronal dynamics, are naturally present at all scales in the coronal fields. Thus, in order to understand the effect of a photospheric vortex on a more realistic corona, we continue the simulations after kink instability sets in, when turbulent fluctuations have already developed in the corona. In the nonlinear stage the system never returns to the simple initial state with ordered twisted field lines, and kink instability does not occur again. Nevertheless, field lines get twisted, although in a disordered way, and energy accumulates at large scales through an inverse cascade. This energy can subsequently be released in micro-flares or larger flares, when interaction with neighboring structures occurs or via other mechanisms. The impact on coronal dynamics and coronal mass ejections initiation is discussed.

  17. Limits to sustained energy intake. XXII. Reproductive performance of two selected mouse lines with different thermal conductance.

    PubMed

    Al Jothery, Aqeel H; Król, Elżbieta; Hawkins, James; Chetoui, Aurore; Saint-Lambert, Alexander; Gamo, Yuko; Shaw, Suzanne C; Valencak, Teresa; Bünger, Lutz; Hill, William G; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R

    2014-10-15

    Maximal sustained energy intake (SusEI) appears limited, but the factors imposing the limit are disputed. We studied reproductive performance in two lines of mice selected for high and low food intake (MH and ML, respectively), and known to have large differences in thermal conductance (29% higher in the MH line at 21°C). When these mice raised their natural litters, their metabolisable energy intake significantly increased over the first 13 days of lactation and then reached a plateau. At peak lactation, MH mice assimilated on average 45.3% more energy than ML mice (222.9±7.1 and 153.4±12.5 kJ day(-1), N=49 and 24, respectively). Moreover, MH mice exported on average 62.3 kJ day(-1) more energy as milk than ML mice (118.9±5.3 and 56.6±5.4 kJ day(-1), N=subset of 32 and 21, respectively). The elevated milk production of MH mice enabled them to wean litters (65.2±2.1 g) that were on average 50.2% heavier than litters produced by ML mothers (43.4±3.0 g), and pups that were on average 27.2% heavier (9.9±0.2 and 7.8±0.2 g, respectively). Lactating mice in both lines had significantly longer and heavier guts compared with non-reproductive mice. However, inconsistent with the 'central limit hypothesis', the ML mice had significantly longer and heavier intestines than MH mice. An experiment where the mice raised litters of the opposing line demonstrated that lactation performance was not limited by the growth capacity of offspring. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the SusEI at peak lactation is constrained by the capacity of the mothers to dissipate body heat.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

  19. Development of an Energy Efficient Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Susta, Joseph T.; Hull, John R.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Britcher, Colin P.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Werfel, Frank; Bonnema, Edward C.

    2006-04-01

    In a conventional vacuum-jacketed cryogen transfer line, the major heat transfer is dominated by two modes: i) radiation between the warm outer pipe and the cold inner pipe and ii) thermal conduction through support members and penetrations. Magnetic levitation makes it possible to eliminate the conduction portion by use of non-contact support, consisting of high temperature superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnet (PM). Several transfer line prototypes (including a 6-meter prototype) have been designed and constructed to optimized the levitation and thermal performance. This paper reviews the key design/fabrication issues, such as levitation configuration, levitation force measurement, warm-support design using smart materials, fabrication process, and technical milestones throughout a 3-year period. This novel transfer line offers the potential of significant savings of cryogens and hence reduces the cost of crygon use.

  20. Moving body velocity arresting line. [stainless steel cables with energy absorbing sleeves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, R. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The arresting of a moving body is improved through the use of steel cables that elongate to absorb the kinetic energy of the body. A sleeve surrounds the cables, protecting them from chafing and providing a failsafe energy absorbing system should the cables fail.

  1. Modeling Energy Efficiency As A Green Logistics Component In Vehicle Assembly Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer

    2016-11-01

    This paper uses System Dynamics (SD) simulation to investigate the concept green logistics in terms of energy efficiency in automotive industry. The car manufacturing industry is considered to be one of the highest energy consuming industries. An efficient decision making model is proposed that capture the impacts of strategic decisions on energy consumption and environmental sustainability. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. SD is the chosen simulation method and the main green logistics issues considered are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission and energy utilization. The model will assist decision makers acquire an in-depth understanding of relationship between high level planning and low level operation activities on production, environmental impacts and costs associated. The results of the SD model signify the existence of positive trade-offs between green practices of energy efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emission.

  2. High spin spectroscopy near the N=Z line: Channel selection and excitation energy systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, C.E.; Cameron, J.A.; Flibotte, S.

    1996-12-31

    The total {gamma}-ray and charged-particle energies emitted in fusion-evaporation reactions leading to N=Z compound systems in the A = 50-70 mass region have been measured with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer and the miniball charged-particle detector array. A new method of channel selection has been developed which combines particle identification with these total energy measurements and greatly improves upon the selectivity possible with particle detection alone. In addition, the event by event measurement of total {gamma}-ray energies using the BGO ball of the 8{pi} spectrometer has allowed a determination of excitation energies following particle evaporation for a large number of channels in several different reactions. The new channel selection procedure and excitation energy systematics are illustrated with data from the reaction of {sup 24}Mg on {sup 40}Ca at E{sub lab} = 80MeV.

  3. Energy-efficient optical line terminal for WDM-OFDM-PON based on two-dimensional subcarrier and layer allocation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Qi; Su, Yikai

    2012-11-05

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical line terminal (OLT) in wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). In our scheme, a wireless communication technique, termed layered modulation, is introduced to maximize the transmission capacity of OFDM modulation module in the OLT by multiplexing data from different ONU groups with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) margins onto the same subcarriers. With adaptive and dynamic subcarrier and layer allocation, several ONU groups with low traffic demands can share one OFDM modulation module to deliver their data during non-peak hours of a day, thus greatly reducing the number of running devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. Numerical calculation shows that an energy efficiency improvement of 28.3% in the OLT can be achieved by using proposed scheme compared to the conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  4. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  5. The Swift-BAT monitoring reveals a long-term decay of the cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; D'Aì, A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the behaviour of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) of the high-mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 using the long-term hard X-ray monitoring performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. High-statistics, intensity-selected spectra were built along 11 years of BAT survey. While the fundamental line is not revealed, the second harmonic of the CRSF can be clearly detected in all the spectra, at an energy varying between ˜53 and ˜58 keV, directly correlated with the luminosity. We have further investigated the evolution of the CRSF in time, by studying the intensity-selected spectra built along four 33-month time intervals along the survey. For the first time, we find in this source a secular variation in the CRSF energy: independent of the source luminosity, the CRSF second harmonic energy decreases by ˜0.36 keV yr-1 between the first and the third time intervals, corresponding to an apparent decay of the magnetic field of ˜3 × 1010 G yr-1. The intensity-cyclotron energy pattern is consistent between the third and the last time intervals. A possible interpretation for this decay could be the settling of an accreted mound that produces either a distortion of the poloidal magnetic field on the polar cap or a geometrical displacement of the line forming region. This hypothesis seems supported by the correspondence between the rate of the line shift per unit accreted mass and the mass accreted on the polar cap per unit area in Vela X-1 and Her X-1, respectively.

  6. A quasi-periodic modulation of the iron line centroid energy in the black hole binary H1743-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Adam; van der Klis, Michiel; Middleton, Matthew; Done, Chris; Altamirano, Diego; Heil, Lucy; Uttley, Phil; Axelsson, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Accreting stellar-mass black holes often show a `Type-C' quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in their X-ray flux and an iron emission line in their X-ray spectrum. The iron line is generated through continuum photons reflecting off the accretion disc, and its shape is distorted by relativistic motion of the orbiting plasma and the gravitational pull of the black hole. The physical origin of the QPO has long been debated, but is often attributed to Lense-Thirring precession, a General Relativistic effect causing the inner flow to precess as the spinning black hole twists up the surrounding space-time. This predicts a characteristic rocking of the iron line between red- and blueshift as the receding and approaching sides of the disc are respectively illuminated. Here we report on XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the black hole binary H1743-322 in which the line energy varies systematically over the ˜4 s QPO cycle (3.70σ significance), as predicted. This provides strong evidence that the QPO is produced by Lense-Thirring precession, constituting the first detection of this effect in the strong gravitation regime. There are however elements of our results harder to explain, with one section of data behaving differently than all the others. Our result enables the future application of tomographic techniques to map the inner regions of black hole accretion discs.

  7. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  8. Design of the prototype of a beam transport line for handling and selection of low energy laser-driven beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Costa, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.

    2016-11-01

    A first prototype of transport beam-line for laser-driven ion beams to be used for the handling of particles accelerated by high-power laser interacting with solid targets has been realized at INFN. The goal is the production of a controlled and stable beam in terms of energy and angular spread. The beam-line consists of two elements: an Energy Selection System (ESS), already realized and characterized with both conventional and laser-accelerated beams, and a Permanent Magnet Quadrupole system (PMQ) designed, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI (Fr), to improve the ESS performances. In this work a description of the ESS system and some results of its characterization with conventional beams are reported, in order to provide a complete explanation of the acceptance calculation. Then, the matching with the PMQ system is presented and, finally, the results of preliminary simulations with a realistic laser-driven energy spectrum are discussed demonstrating the possibility to provide a good quality beam downstream the systems.

  9. Efficient energy transfer through a bifilar metamaterial line connecting microwave waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaccia, D.; Barbuto, M.; Tobia, A.; Bilotti, F.; Toscano, A.

    2017-02-01

    Microwave waveguides allow an effective transfer of electromagnetic energy through straight connection or well-rounded curves, but become rather inefficient in case of sharp bends or squeezed waveguide cross-sections. Here, we discuss the possibility to funnel the electromagnetic energy propagating in a waveguide through arbitrarily curved narrow channels hosting a metamaterial-inspired structure able to convert the propagating mode of the waveguide in an electric signal, and vice versa. We show experimentally how sharp bends can be inserted within these propagation channels of arbitrary lengths without introducing significant insertion losses. In particular, efficient energy funneling in 90°-, 180°-, and "S"-shaped bends are numerically and experimentally verified. The proposed reflectionless waveguide bends may find applications in modern radar and antenna systems, where the demand for space and weight reduction of the electromagnetic circuitry is ever growing.

  10. Soft X-ray bremsstrahlung and fluorescent line production in the atmosphere by low energy electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of low energy quasi-trapped or precipitating electrons which impact on the counter windows of soft X-ray detectors are discussed. The errors caused by X-rays produced in the residual atmosphere above a rocket-borne detector because of the resemblance to X-rays of cosmic origin are examined. The design and development of counter windows which make it possible to identify the atmospherically produced X-rays are described. Curves are presented to show the following: (1) preliminary low energy electron data from Atmospheric Explorer C, (2) X-ray flux in electron-excited nitrogen and oxygen, (3) typical proportional counter response to low energy cosmic rays, and (4) proportional counter response to X-radiation produced by electrons incident upon a gas of oxygen to nitrogen number of 0.4.

  11. Mapping coexistence lines via free-energy extrapolation: application to order-disorder phase transitions of hard-core mixtures.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Fernando A

    2014-03-07

    In this work, a variant of the Gibbs-Duhem integration (GDI) method is proposed to trace phase coexistence lines that combines some of the advantages of the original GDI methods such as robustness in handling large system sizes, with the ability of histogram-based methods (but without using histograms) to estimate free-energies and hence avoid the need of on-the-fly corrector schemes. This is done by fitting to an appropriate polynomial function not the coexistence curve itself (as in GDI schemes) but the underlying free-energy function of each phase. The availability of a free-energy model allows the post-processing of the simulated data to obtain improved estimates of the coexistence line. The proposed method is used to elucidate the phase behavior for two non-trivial hard-core mixtures: a binary blend of spheres and cubes and a system of size-polydisperse cubes. The relative size of the spheres and cubes in the first mixture is chosen such that the resulting eutectic pressure-composition phase diagram is nearly symmetric in that the maximum solubility of cubes in the sphere-rich solid (∼20%) is comparable to the maximum solubility of spheres in the cube-rich solid. In the polydisperse cube system, the solid-liquid coexistence line is mapped out for an imposed Gaussian activity distribution, which produces near-Gaussian particle-size distributions in each phase. A terminal polydispersity of 11.3% is found, beyond which the cubic solid phase would not be stable, and near which significant size fractionation between the solid and isotropic phases is predicted.

  12. Lines of Energy Deposition for Supersonic/Hypersonic Temperature/ Drag-Reduction and Vehicle Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-06

    amount of energy to deposit along the cone axis in order to open up low-density cylindrical cores of various radii. The reason behind modeling the...for a 15° half- angle cone and up to 96% for a 45° half-angle cone . The energy retum ratio [thrust (power) saved]:[invested power] of this...addresses the r ~q .•-.~~,~.~ .• ~.~.~.~, ~.~.~. (a) X ·2 · $ ·4 ·3 ·~ · 1 0 I l 3 4 5 6 (c) X FIGURE 3: A low-density core streaming over the cone

  13. On-line computer system for use with low- energy nuclear physics experiments is reported

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gemmell, D. S.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program handles data from low-energy nuclear physics experiments which utilize the ND-160 pulse-height analyzer and the PHYLIS computing system. The program allows experimenters to choose from about 50 different basic data-handling functions and to prescribe the order in which these functions will be performed.

  14. Evidence for an Evolving Cyclotron Line Energy in 4U 1538-522

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton Hemphill, Paul; Rothschild, Richard E.; Fuerst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Klochkov, Dmitry; Kretschmar, Peter; Pottschmidt, Katja; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    In this talk, I present results from a comprehensive analysis of the existing RXTE, INTEGRAL, and Suzaku data for the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538-522. This persistent X-ray pulsar has a clearly-detected cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF), which appears to have increased in energy over the past decade, from approximately 20-21 keV as measured by RXTE in 1996-2004 to ~22-23 keV as found in the 2012 Suzaku observation. This spectral feature is the only direct measurement of the neutron star's magnetic field strength, and its behavior can be used to track the conditions in the accretion mound near the neutron star surface. Our analysis finds that the increased CRSF energy is especially prominent in spectra from the peak of the main pulse, which suggests that the physical origin of this shift in energy may be restricted to a single magnetic pole, possibly indicating some reconfiguration of the structure of the accretion mound not reflected in the other spectral parameters. I will discuss the analysis and some implications of this result, especially in the context of work by Staubert et al. (2015, A&A 572, 119), which unveiled a secular trend in the CRSF energy of the prototypical CRSF source, Hercules X-1.

  15. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guimei

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  16. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Lettry, Jacques; Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H(-) beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  17. ERICA: an energy resolving photon counting readout ASIC for X-ray in-line cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias-Montero, J.-G.; Sarraj, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Moore, T.; Casanova, R.; Martinez, R.; Puigdengoles, C.; Prats, X.; Kolstein, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present ERICA (Energy Resolving Inline X-ray Camera) a photon-counting readout ASIC, with 6 energy bins. The ASIC is composed of a matrix of 8 × 20 pixels controlled by a global digital controller and biased with 7 independent digital to analog converters (DACs) and a band-gap current reference. The pixel analog front-end includes a charge sensitive amplifier with 16 mV/ke- gain and dynamic range of 45 ke-. ERICA has programmable pulse width, an adjustable constant current feedback resistor, a linear test pulse generator, and six discriminators with 6-bit local threshold adjustment. The pixel digital back-end includes the digital controller, 8 counters of 8-bit depth, half-full buffer flag for any of the 8 counters, a 74-bit shadow/shift register, a 74-bit configuration latch, and charge sharing compensation processing to perform the energy classification and counting operations of every detected photon in 1 μ s. The pixel size is 330 μm × 330 μm and its average consumption is 150 μW. Implemented in TSMC 0.25 μm CMOS process, the ASIC pixel's equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 90 e- RMS connected to a 1 mm thickness matching CdTe detector biased at -300 V with a total leakage current of 20 nA.

  18. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geslot, B.; Vermeeren, L.; Filliatre, P.; Lopez, A. Legrand; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Bréaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 1020 n/cm2. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  19. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.; Lopez, A. Legrand

    2011-03-15

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  20. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions.

    PubMed

    Geslot, B; Vermeeren, L; Filliatre, P; Lopez, A Legrand; Barbot, L; Jammes, C; Bréaud, S; Oriol, L; Villard, J-F

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 10(20) n∕cm(2). A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  1. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: III. Emission Line Diagnostics of Ensembles of H II Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Leitherer, C; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A

    2006-05-10

    We have built, as far as possible, fully self-consistent models of H II regions around aging clusters of stars. These produce strong emission line diagnostics applicable to either individual H II regions in galaxies, or to the integrated emission line spectra of disk or starburst galaxies. The models assume that the expansion and internal pressure of individual H II regions is driven by the net input of mechanical energy from the central cluster, be it through winds or supernova events. This eliminates the ionization parameter as a free variable, replacing it with a parameter which depends on the ratio of the cluster mass to the pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. These models explain why H II regions with low abundances have high excitation, and demonstrate that at least part of the warm ionized medium is the result of overlapping faint, old, large, and low pressure H II regions. We present a number of line ratios (at both optical and IR wavelengths) that provide reliable abundance diagnostics for either single H II regions or for integrated galaxy spectra, and others that are sensitive to the age of the cluster stars exciting individual H II regions.

  2. A critical compilation of experimental data on spectral lines and energy levels of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, A. E.

    2010-11-01

    For more than 50 years, Charlotte Moore's compilation of atomic energy levels and its subsequent revisions have been the standard source of reference data for the spectra of hydrogen and its isotopes. In those publications, theoretical data based on quantum-electrodynamic calculations have been given. This reflects the fact that the theory of the hydrogen spectrum has been perfected to an extent far exceeding the capabilities of the best measurements. However, rapid advances in the techniques of laser spectroscopy and optical frequency metrology have recently put experiments on a par with theory in terms of precision. This calls for construction of new comprehensive data sets for H, D, and T that summarize the latest experimental work and can be directly compared with the modern theoretical reference data. The present work compiles several tens of recent measurements of the hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium fine and hyperfine structure intervals and presents sets of energy levels and Ritz wavelengths derived from those measurements. Data exist for the fine structure of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium up to principal quantum number n = 12. For higher lying levels, there are many observed lines with unresolved fine structure. From those observations, level centers (centers of the fine structure) are derived by a least-squares optimization, and Ritz wavelengths of series with upper levels up to n = 40 are obtained. For tritium, the n = 2 and 3 energy level intervals are derived from experimental observations.

  3. Experimental investigation of energy localization in line-defect resonator based on silicon locally resonant phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wanli; Feng, Duan; Xu, Dehui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yuelin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, energy localization in line-defect resonator based on locally resonant phononic crystal (PnC) is experimentally studied. The defected resonator is realized by creating line defects on a two-dimension (2-D) silicon PnC. The silicon resonator was fabricated by micro machining process and tested by a combination of the fluid coupling method and Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Acoustic waves with frequency range from 7.19 MHz to 7.50 MHz are trapped in the cavity, and the corresponding resonant modes are observed in-situ. The measured quality (Q) factor of the resonator, which is 427 at its resonant frequency of 7.3 MHz, is smaller than the simulated ones (666 and 5135). The experimental results agree well with the simulation results that frequencies of the trapped acoustic waves of are mostly in the range of the phononic bandgaps. The locally resonant based PnC resonator in paper with 17 dB magnitude amplification, which is normalized with respect to the transmission of a freestanding silicon slab in the same frequency range, has great potential in energy harvesting or sound concentration.

  4. Pulse compression below 40fs at 1μm: The first step towards a short-pulse, high-energy beam line at LULI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Zou, Jiping; Martin, Luc; Simon, Francois; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Audebert, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    We present the upgrading project ELFIE (Equipement Laser de Forte Intensité et Energie) based on the "100TW" mixed Nd:glass CPA laser system at 1μm at LULI, which includes an energy enhancement and the development of a short-pulse, high-energy, good temporal contrast beam line (50fs/5J). We report the first experimental step towards the short-pulse, high-energy beam line: spectral broadening above 60nm from 7nm and temporal pulse compression below 40fs from 300fs at 1μm through a Krypton-filled hollow fiber compressor.

  5. Analysing drying unit performance in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing line by means of mass--energy balances.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2014-04-01

    The current trend in the pharmaceutical industry to move from batch-wise to continuous production processes strengthens the need for monitoring and controlling the process in-line. The ConsiGma™ continuous tableting line collects data of the different subunits in real-time, but these are not really used. In this paper the data of the six-segmented fluidized bed dryer in the line are used for the development and evaluation of a mass and energy balance. The objectives are multiple: (1) prediction of the moisture content of the granules leaving the dryer solely based on the currently logged data and (2) prediction of the gas outlet temperature to check the mass balances. Once a validated system is established the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the drying unit can be predicted. Calculations are also used to identify errors in the system and to propose alternative sensor locations. A calibration is performed in order to predict the evaporation rate. The balances were able to predict both the moisture content of the granules at the end of the drying process and the gas outlet temperature quite accurately. Combining the gathered information with the height of the bed in the fluidized bed can be used to predict the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the dryer. An extra sensor measuring the gas temperature and the humidity at the wet transfer line would increase the accuracy of the calculations. An extra gas velocity sensor at the outlet would be useful to incorporate an extra supervision of the calculations.

  6. Energy shifts of K- and L-lines as spectroscopic diagnostic of Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Słabkowska, K.; Szymańska, E.; Polasik, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Syrocki, Ł.; Pereira, N. R.

    2014-12-15

    Ultrafast molybdenum wire implosions on the Z machine at Sandia produce intense pulses of multi-keV x-rays from partially ionized plasmas. The most intense radiation comes from a hot, dense core of thermal plasma in ionization equilibrium with Mo ionized to within the L-shell. Non-thermal, energetic electrons in the plasma generate Kα and Kβ radiation, whose energy is affected by Mo’s ionization state, and therefore on the plasma temperature. Based on an extensive series of recent computations on this effect, we recalculate the pinch’ Mo x-ray spectrum, with reasonable results.

  7. Energy efficient fume and odor control equipment for coil coating line

    SciTech Connect

    Coughran, G.

    1982-06-01

    Wolverine Aluminum Corporation, producer of exterior siding building material, recently installed a Variable Energy Recovery Control System at its Lincoln Park coil coating plant. Boilers had an incinerator which emitted odors and consumed large volumes of gas. The fume incinerators were eliminated by one Model G 56,000 SCFM RE-THE M thermal Oxidizer from Reeco of Morris Plains, NJ. Its chambers, preheaters, two main ducts, and other design features are described. Installation was simple, as was operation. Fumes and odor have been controlled; operating costs have been reduced.

  8. Temperature dependence of the crystal-liquid interfacial free energy and the endpoint of the melting line.

    PubMed

    Baidakov, Vladimir G; Protsenko, Sergey P; Tipeev, Azat O

    2013-12-14

    The crystal-liquid interfacial free energy γ has been calculated as a function of the crystal orientation in a molecular dynamics experiment in a system of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles with a cutoff radius of the potential rc(*)=rc/σ=6.78 at a triple-point temperature Tt(*)=kBTt/ε=0.692 and temperatures above (in the region of the stable coexistence of liquid and solid phases) and below (metastable continuation of the coexistence curve of liquid and solid phases) the temperature Tt(*). At T(*)=Tt(*), for determining γ use was made of the method of cleaving potential. The temperature dependence of γ on the crystal-liquid coexistence curve has been determined by the Gibbs-Cahn thermodynamic integration method. In the region of stable phase coexistence (T(*)>Tt(*)) good agreement with the data of Davidchack and Laird [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7651 (2003)] has been obtained with respect to the character of the temperature dependence of γ and the orientation anisotropy. In the region of metastable phase coexistence (T(*)line (TK(*)=0.529) (the existence of which was established first by Baidakov and Protsenko [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 015701 (2005)]) the interfacial free energy decreases, approaching at T(*)=TK(*) the orientation-averaged value γ0K(*)=γ0Kσ(2/ε)=0.365. The paper discusses the behavior of the excess interfacial energy, excess interfacial entropy and excess interfacial stress on the metastable extension of the melting line and close to T(*)=TK(*).

  9. Broad-wing molecular lines without internal energy sources. [in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blitz, Leo; Magnani, Loris; Wandel, Amri

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of broad CO wings in four high-latitude molecular clouds which do not have associated internal energy sources is reported. The velocity width of the wings is as much as five times greater than the width of the cloud cores. Neither visible stars brighter than the background population, optical nebulosity, nor IRAS point sources are found at the position of the wings, except for one case with an IRAS source 3 arcmin from the peak position of the wings. The possibility that the wings are the result of conductive interfaces resulting from cold molecular clouds in a hotter ambient medium is examined, and it is concluded that the expected column density of such gas is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that observed.

  10. New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallén, A.; Åström, J.; Primetzhofer, D.; Legendre, S.; Possnert, G.

    2012-09-01

    A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the Ångström laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, 1H+, 4He+, and 11B+. Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted.

  11. Energy and Water Conservation: Techniques to Reduce Waste and Improve the Budgetary Bottom Line. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This "IssueTrak" discusses how saving energy and becoming energy efficient may significantly impact a school district's bottom line as well as simply being the right thing to do. There are many opportunities to conserve that can be implemented at little or no cost. To be successful, a school district must allow employees to gather data, analyze…

  12. Parametric performance analysis of steam-injected gas turbine with a thermionic-energy-converter-lined combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Y. K.; Burns, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of steam-injected gas turbines having combustors lined with thermionic energy converters (STIG/TEC systems) was analyzed and compared with that of two baseline systems; a steam-injected gas turbine (without a TEC-lined combustor) and a conventional combined gas turbine/steam turbine cycle. Common gas turbine parameters were assumed for all of the systems. Two configurations of the STIG/TEC system were investigated. In both cases, steam produced in an exhaust-heat-recovery boiler cools the TEC collectors. It is then injected into the gas combustion stream and expanded through the gas turbine. The STIG/TEC system combines the advantage of gas turbine steam injection with the conversion of high-temperature combustion heat by TEC's. The addition of TEC's to the baseline steam-injected gas turbine improves both its efficiency and specific power. Depending on system configuration and design parameters, the STIG/TEC system can also achieve higher efficiency and specific power than the baseline combined cycle.

  13. Vacuum chamber with distributed titanium sublimation pumping for the G-line wiggler at Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; He, Y.; Mistry, N. B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes a 3-m-long vacuum chamber for the new wiggler magnet at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) for the synchrotron light beam line of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Copper was chosen as the main chamber material for its good electric and thermal conductivities. Proper mechanical design and welding procedure were implemented to meet very tight tolerances to ensure adequate vertical aperture for the stored beams in CESR while allowing the required small wiggler gap. Distributed titanium sublimation pumping is incorporated along the 3 m length of the chamber to provide sufficient pumping speed and capacity for CESR and CHESS operations. The chamber pumping performance was evaluated prior to installation. Linear distributed pumping speeds at the beam line of ~720 l/s/m for N2 and CO and ~4000 l/s/m for H2 were measured. The measured pumping capacities for N2, CO and H2 are ~1.0, ~2.0 and ~77 Torr l, respectively, for each titanium sublimation cycle. Measurements also showed that CO molecules adsorb on the N2 and H2 saturated titanium films with virtually the same initial sticking coefficient as on a fresh titanium film. Analyses indicated very different CO adsorption mechanisms between the N2 and H2 saturated titanium films. While the replacement of surface H2 by CO was observed, little desorption of nitrogen was measured. Operational experience showed excellent vacuum pumping performance over two years after the chamber installation.

  14. Parametric performance analysis of steam-injected gas turbine with a thermionic-energy-converter-lined combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Y. K.; Burns, R. K.

    1982-02-01

    The performance of steam-injected gas turbines having combustors lined with thermionic energy converters (STIG/TEC systems) was analyzed and compared with that of two baseline systems; a steam-injected gas turbine (without a TEC-lined combustor) and a conventional combined gas turbine/steam turbine cycle. Common gas turbine parameters were assumed for all of the systems. Two configurations of the STIG/TEC system were investigated. In both cases, steam produced in an exhaust-heat-recovery boiler cools the TEC collectors. It is then injected into the gas combustion stream and expanded through the gas turbine. The STIG/TEC system combines the advantage of gas turbine steam injection with the conversion of high-temperature combustion heat by TEC's. The addition of TEC's to the baseline steam-injected gas turbine improves both its efficiency and specific power. Depending on system configuration and design parameters, the STIG/TEC system can also achieve higher efficiency and specific power than the baseline combined cycle.

  15. Modeling of fluorescence line-narrowed spectra in weakly coupled dimers in the presence of excitation energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chen; Reppert, Mike; Feng, Ximao; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2014-07-21

    This work describes simple analytical formulas to describe the fluorescence line-narrowed (FLN) spectra of weakly coupled chromophores in the presence of excitation energy transfer (EET). Modeling studies for dimer systems (assuming low fluence and weak coupling) show that the FLN spectra (including absorption and emission spectra) calculated for various dimers using our model are in good agreement with spectra calculated by: (i) the simple convolution method and (ii) the more rigorous treatment using the Redfield approach [T. Renger and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9997 (2002)]. The calculated FLN spectra in the presence of EET of all three approaches are very similar. We argue that our approach provides a simplified and computationally more efficient description of FLN spectra in the presence of EET. This method also has been applied to FLN spectra obtained for the CP47 antenna complex of Photosystem II reported by Neupane et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 4214 (2010)], which indicated the presence of uncorrelated EET between pigments contributing to the two lowest energy (overlapping) exciton states, each mostly localized on a single chromophore. Calculated and experimental FLN spectra for CP47 complex show very good qualitative agreement.

  16. Temperature dependence of the crystal-liquid interfacial free energy and the endpoint of the melting line

    SciTech Connect

    Baidakov, Vladimir G. Protsenko, Sergey P.; Tipeev, Azat O.

    2013-12-14

    The crystal–liquid interfacial free energy γ has been calculated as a function of the crystal orientation in a molecular dynamics experiment in a system of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles with a cutoff radius of the potential r{sub c}{sup *}=r{sub c}/σ=6.78 at a triple-point temperature T{sub t}{sup *}=k{sub B}T{sub t}/ε=0.692 and temperatures above (in the region of the stable coexistence of liquid and solid phases) and below (metastable continuation of the coexistence curve of liquid and solid phases) the temperature T{sub t}{sup *}. At T{sup *}=T{sub t}{sup *}, for determining γ use was made of the method of cleaving potential. The temperature dependence of γ on the crystal–liquid coexistence curve has been determined by the Gibbs-Cahn thermodynamic integration method. In the region of stable phase coexistence (T{sup *}>T{sub t}{sup *}) good agreement with the data of Davidchack and Laird [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7651 (2003)] has been obtained with respect to the character of the temperature dependence of γ and the orientation anisotropy. In the region of metastable phase coexistence (T{sup *}line (T{sub K}{sup *}=0.529) (the existence of which was established first by Baidakov and Protsenko [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 015701 (2005)]) the interfacial free energy decreases, approaching at T{sup *}=T{sub K}{sup *} the orientation-averaged value γ{sub 0K}{sup *}=γ{sub 0K}σ{sup 2}/ε=0.365. The paper discusses the behavior of the excess interfacial energy, excess interfacial entropy and excess interfacial stress on the metastable extension of the melting line and close to T{sup *}=T{sub K}{sup *}.

  17. Effects of feeding diets varying in energy and nutrient density to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens on production performance and economics.

    PubMed

    dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age.

  18. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-09-20

    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  19. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicate the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. An intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.

  20. Determination of the sequence of intersecting lines from laser toner and seal ink by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscope / energy dispersive X-ray mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Li, Bing

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify that the combination of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscope / energy dispersive X-ray mapping could be applied to line intersection problems. The spectral data of red seal ink, laser toner and their intersections, such as peak location and peak intensity, were described. Relative peak height ratios of different chemical components in intersecting lines were used to distinguish the sequences. Energy dispersive X-ray mapping characteristics of intersecting areas were also detailed. The results show that both the laser toner and the seal ink appear on the surface of intersections, regardless of the sequence. The distribution of the two inks on the surface is influenced not only by the sequence of heterogeneous lines but also by diffusion. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray mapping are able to explore the chemical components and the corresponding elemental distribution in the intersections. The combination of these two techniques has provided a reliable method for sequencing intersecting lines of red seal ink and laser toner, and more importantly, this method may be a basis for sequencing superimposed lines from other writing instruments.

  1. Study of endothelial cell apoptosis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor cell line with hemodynamic microfluidic chip system.

    PubMed

    Yu, J Q; Liu, X F; Chin, L K; Liu, A Q; Luo, K Q

    2013-07-21

    To better understand how hyperglycemia induces endothelial cell dysfunction under the diabetic conditions, a hemodynamic microfluidic chip system was developed. The system combines a caspase-3-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor cell line which can detect endothelial cell apoptosis in real-time, post-treatment effect and with a limited cell sample, by using a microfluidic chip which can mimic the physiological pulsatile flow profile in the blood vessel. The caspase-3-based FRET biosensor endothelial cell line (HUVEC-C3) can produce a FRET-based sensor protein capable of probing caspase-3 activation. When the endothelial cells undergo apoptosis, the color of the sensor cells changes from green to blue, thus sensing apoptosis. A double-labeling fluorescent technique (yo pro-1 and propidium iodide) was used to validate the findings revealed by the FRET-based caspase sensor. The results show high rates of apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells when high glucose concentration was applied in our hemodynamic microfluidic chip combined with an exhaustive pulsatile flow profile. The two apoptosis detection techniques (fluorescent method and FRET biosensor) are comparable; but FRET biosensor offers more advantages such as real-time observation and a convenient operating process to generate more accurate and reliable data. Furthermore, the activation of the FRET biosensor also confirms the endothelial cell apoptosis induced by the abnormal pulsatile shear stress and high glucose concentration is through caspase-3 pathway. A 12% apoptotic rate (nearly a 4-fold increase compared to the static condition) was observed when the endothelial cells were exposed to a high glucose concentration of 20 mM under 2 h exhaustive pulsatile shear stress of 30 dyne cm(-2) and followed with another 10 h normal pulsatile shear stress of 15 dyne cm(-2). Therefore, the most important finding of this study is to develop a novel endothelial cell apoptosis detection

  2. On-line modeling intracellular carbon and energy metabolism of Nannochloropsis sp. in nitrogen-repletion and nitrogen-limitation cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Yan, Fei; Sun, Zhongliang; Zhang, Qinghua; Xue, Shengzhang; Cong, Wei

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a photobioreactor cultivation system and a calculation method for on-line monitoring of carbon and energy metabolism of microalgae were developed using Nannochloropsis sp. in nitrogen-repletion and nitrogen-limitation cultures. Only 30-60% of carbon fixed in Calvin cycle was used for biomass and the rest was lost in light respiration. The net fixed carbon was assumed to be incorporated into protein, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, whose contents calculated on-line fitted well with the experimental measurements. Intracellular ATPs were quantitatively divided for biomass production and cell maintenance, and the result is in accordance with known reports. Due to light limitation induced by high cell concentration in batch cultures, the proportion of CO2 loss in light respiration and the proportion of energy for maintenance rapidly increased in culturing process. Nitrogen starvation reduced the light respiration, thus decreasing CO2 loss and maintenance energy, but no effect on ATP requirement for cell growth.

  3. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  4. Advanced light element and low energy X-ray line analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) with Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salge, T.; Palasse, L.; Berlin, J.; Hansen, B.; Terborg, R.; Falke, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Characterization at the micro- to nano-scale is crucial for understanding many processes in earth, planetary, material and biological sciences. The composition of thin electron transparent samples can be analyzed in the nm-range using transmission electron microscopes (TEM) or, specific sample holders provided, in the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Nevertheless both methods often require complex sample preparation. An alternative method is to analyze bulk samples with a FE-SEM. In order to decrease the excitation volume for generated X-rays, low accelerating voltages (HV<10) are required. Consequently, only low to intermediate energy X-ray lines can be evaluated and many peak overlaps have to be deconvoluted since the high energy range is not available. Methods: A BRUKER Quantax EDS system with an XFlash Silicon Drift Detector acquired EDS spectra in spectrum images. To separate overlapping peaks, an extended atomic database [1] was used. For single channel EDS the electron beam current, solid angle, take-off angle and exposure time can be optimized to investigate the element composition. Multiple SDD setups ensure an even higher efficiency and larger collection angles for the X-ray analysis than single channel detectors. Shadowing effects are minimized in element distribution maps so that samples can be investigated quickly and sometimes in a close to natural state, with little preparation. A new type of EDS detector, the annular four channel SDD (XFlash 5060F), is placed between the pole piece and sample. It covers a very large solid angle (1.1 sr) and allows sufficient data collection at low beam currents on beam sensitive samples with substantial surface topography. Examples of applications: Results demonstrate that SDD-based EDS analysis contributes essential information on the structure at the micro- to nano scale of the investigated sample types. These include stardust analogue impact experiments [2], Chicxulub asteroid

  5. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  6. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-03-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  7. Evaluation of the conservation potential of a refit energy management system (using a power line subcarrier) in a large, high-rise apartment complex. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    An energy conservation study of the application of an energy management system (EMS) utilizing power line subcarrier communication equipment was made in a large apartment building in New York, New York. The building utilized individual cooling and resistance heating units in each apartment. The EMS turned the individual units on and off (with override by tenants) on a schedule determined by the building operator. Summer savings were found to be 11%; winter savings were 20%. Annual savings were projected to be 19%. The study demonstrated the conservation value of power line subcarrier technology as an alternative to submetering. It also developed and evaluated control strategies for the system and served as a field test to accelerate commercialization of the technology.

  8. Corrections to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift due to the insertion of the two-loop electron self-energy with overlapping divergences in the electron line

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1994-12-01

    Contributions on the order of {alpha}{sup 2}(Z{alpha}){sup 5} to hyperfine splitting (HFS) and the Lamb shift due to the insertion of the two-loop electron self-energy diagram with overlapping divergences in the electron line are considered. An explicit expression for the two-loop self-energy diagram with overlapping divergences is obtained in the Fried-Yennie gauge. Contributions to HFS and the Lamb shift due to the diagram containing this subgraph are calculated. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Comparisons of Earthward Poynting flux and the kinetic energy flux of up-flowing transversely heated ions from the Polar spacecraft on cusp magnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Scudder, J. D.; Mozer, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents estimates of the Poynting flux flowing along magnetic field lines in the Earth's cusp region over altitudes from 0.8 Re to 7 Re using measurements during several passes from the Polar spacecraft. The Poynting flux is calculated from measurements of electric fields from the University of California, Berkeley double probe electric field instrument, and from magnetic field measurements from the U.C.L.A. fluxgate magnetometer. The estimates of Poynting flux are of special interest because the high altitude mapping of the cusp magnetic flux tubes may connect to newly reconnected field lines and the low altitude mapping of these field lines is the scene of powerful acceleration processes, most notably transverse heating and outflow of ions. The data show that the Poynting flux is predominantly downward over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz . This frequency range includes the Poynting flux due to steady state convection and field-aligned current systems, Alfven waves, and kinetic Alfven waves. Measurement of transversely heated ions over the energy ranges from 10 eV to several keV and their associated ion kinetic energy flux are presented from the University of Iowa Hydra instrument and compared to the values of the downward Poynting flux. Generally the downward Poynting flux exceeds the upward kinetic energy flux of the ions.

  10. Highly accurate potential energy surface, dipole moment surface, rovibrational energy levels, and infrared line list for {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} up to 8000 cm{sup −1}

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xinchuan E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J. E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov

    2014-03-21

    A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (σ{sub RMS}) for all J = 0–80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm{sup −1}. Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296 K and covers up to 8000 cm{sup −1}. Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85%–90%. Our predictions for {sup 34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins, higher energy {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins and missing {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict {sup 32/34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins below 5500 cm{sup −1} with 0.01–0.03 cm{sup −1} uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The K{sub a}-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO{sub 2} IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO{sub 2} lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.

  11. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  12. A soft computing scheme incorporating ANN and MOV energy in fault detection, classification and distance estimation of EHV transmission line with FSC.

    PubMed

    Khadke, Piyush; Patne, Nita; Singh, Arvind; Shinde, Gulab

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel and accurate scheme for fault detection, classification and fault distance estimation for a fixed series compensated transmission line is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on artificial neural network (ANN) and metal oxide varistor (MOV) energy, employing Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. The novelty of this scheme is the use of MOV energy signals of fixed series capacitors (FSC) as input to train the ANN. Such approach has never been used in any earlier fault analysis algorithms in the last few decades. Proposed scheme uses only single end measurement energy signals of MOV in all the 3 phases over one cycle duration from the occurrence of a fault. Thereafter, these MOV energy signals are fed as input to ANN for fault distance estimation. Feasibility and reliability of the proposed scheme have been evaluated for all ten types of fault in test power system model at different fault inception angles over numerous fault locations. Real transmission system parameters of 3-phase 400 kV Wardha-Aurangabad transmission line (400 km) with 40 % FSC at Power Grid Wardha Substation, India is considered for this research. Extensive simulation experiments show that the proposed scheme provides quite accurate results which demonstrate complete protection scheme with high accuracy, simplicity and robustness.

  13. Realization of unusual ligand binding motifs in metalated container molecules: synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties of the complexes [(LMe)Ni2(mu-L')]n+ with L'=NO3-, NO2-, N3-, N2H4, pyridazine, phthalazine, pyrazolate, and benzoate.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Julia; Klingele, Marco H; Lozan, Vasile; Steinfeld, Gunther; Siebert, Dieter; Journaux, Yves; Girerd, Jean Jacques; Kersting, Berthold

    2004-04-02

    A series of dinickel(II) complexes with the 24-membered macrocyclic hexaazadithiophenol ligand H(2)L(Me) was prepared and examined. The doubly deprotonated form (L(Me))(2-) forms complexes of the type [(L(Me))Ni2II(mu-L')](n+) with a bioctahedral N(3)Ni(II)(mu-SR)(2)(mu-L')Ni(II)N(3) core and an overall calixarene-like structure. The bridging coordination site L' is accessible for a wide range of exogenous coligands. In this study L'=NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), N(3)(-), N(2)H(4), pyrazolate (pz), pyridazine (pydz), phthalazine (phtz), and benzoate (OBz). Crystallographic studies reveal that each substrate binds in a distinct fashion to the [(L(Me))Ni(2)](2+) portion: NO(2)(-), N(2)H(4), pz, pydz, and phtz form mu(1,2)-bridges, whereas NO(3)(-), N(3)(-), and OBz(-) are mu(1,3)-bridging. These distinctive binding motifs and the fact that some of the coligands adopt unusual conformations is discussed in terms of complementary host-guest interactions and the size and form of the binding pocket of the [(L(Me))Ni(2)](2+) fragment. UV/Vis and electrochemical studies reveal that the solid-state structures are retained in the solution state. The relative stabilities of the complexes indicate that the [(L(Me))Ni(2)](2+) fragment binds anionic coligands preferentially over neutral ones and strong-field ligands over weak-field ligands. Secondary van der Waals interactions also contribute to the stability of the complexes. Intramolecular ferromagnetic exchange interactions are present in the nitrito-, pyridazine-, and the benzoato-bridged complexes where J=+6.7, +3.5, and +5.8 cm(-1) (H=-2 JS(1)S(2), S(1)=S(2)=1) as indicated by magnetic susceptibility data taken from 300 to 2 K. In contrast, the azido bridge in [(L(Me))Ni(2)(mu(1,3)-N(3))](+) results in an antiferromagnetic exchange interaction J=-46.7 cm(-1). An explanation for this difference is qualitatively discussed in terms of bonding differences.

  14. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin; Ma, Kun; Wang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Kai; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zeng, Jiao-Long

    2017-01-01

    Detailed calculations using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method are carried out for the lowest 64 fine-structure levels of the 3s23p2, 3s23p3d, 3s3p3, 3s3p23d, 3s23d2, and 3p4 configurations in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI. Energies, oscillator strengths, wavelengths, line strengths, and radiative electric dipole transition rates are given for all ions. A parallel calculation using the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) method is also carried out to assess the present energy levels accuracy. Comparisons are performed between these two sets of energy levels, as well as with other available results, showing that they are in good agreement with each other within 0.5%. These high accuracy results can be used to the modeling and the interpretation of astrophysical objects and fusion plasmas.

  15. A Critical Compilation of Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, and Transition Probabilities of Singly Ionized Silver, Ag II.

    PubMed

    Kramida, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    All available experimental measurements of the spectrum of the Ag(+) ion are critically reviewed. Systematic shifts are removed from the measured wavelengths. The compiled list of critically evaluated wavelengths is used to derive a comprehensive list of energy levels with well-defined uncertainties. Eigenvector compositions and level designations are found in two alternate coupling schemes. Some of the older work is found to be incorrect. A revised value of the ionization energy, 173283(7) cm(-1), equivalent to 21.4844(8) eV, is derived from the new energy levels. A set of critically evaluated transition probabilities is given.

  16. A Survey on Next-Generation Mixed Line Rate (MLR) and Energy-Driven Wavelength-Division Multiplexed (WDM) Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Sridhar

    2015-06-01

    With the ever-increasing traffic demands, infrastructure of the current 10 Gbps optical network needs to be enhanced. Further, since the energy crisis is gaining increasing concerns, new research topics need to be devised and technological solutions for energy conservation need to be investigated. In all-optical mixed line rate (MLR) network, feasibility of a lightpath is determined by the physical layer impairment (PLI) accumulation. Contrary to PLI-aware routing and wavelength assignment (PLIA-RWA) algorithm applicable for a 10 Gbps wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network, a new Routing, Wavelength, Modulation format assignment (RWMFA) algorithm is required for the MLR optical network. With the rapid growth of energy consumption in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), recently, lot of attention is being devoted toward "green" ICT solutions. This article presents a review of different RWMFA (PLIA-RWA) algorithms for MLR networks, and surveys the most relevant research activities aimed at minimizing energy consumption in optical networks. In essence, this article presents a comprehensive and timely survey on a growing field of research, as it covers most aspects of MLR and energy-driven optical networks. Hence, the author aims at providing a comprehensive reference for the growing base of researchers who will work on MLR and energy-driven optical networks in the upcoming years. Finally, the article also identifies several open problems for future research.

  17. Direct determination of radionuclides in building materials with self-absorption correction for the 63 and 186 keV γ-energy lines.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Ziomek, Martyna

    2015-12-01

    The use of 911 keV and 129 keV γ-line intensity ratio has been applied for self-absorption correction of the 63 keV (234)Th ((238)U) and 186 keV((226)Ra and (235)U) lines in typical building materials and soil samples. Proposed procedure allows to determine (238)U from the (234)Th line (63 keV) and (226)Ra after subtraction of (235)U interference in the 186 keV. It is important in the case of low uranium concentration and weak intensity of (235)U 143 keV γ energy line, when activity of this radionuclide can be apprised on the natural constant (238)U/(235)U ratio, only (excluding accidental anthropogenic depleted uranium deposition in the soil samples). Therefore, by this method a direct and fast determination of the (226)Ra and other important radionuclides, without one month waiting period for (226)Ra-(222)Rn daughter equilibrium, is possible. The accuracy of the method has been confirmed (relative relation deviation <10%) for typical buildings materials such as: tales, bricks, concrete blocks and various type of ceramic materials.

  18. Method of averaged energy differences of coupled states and other approaches for calculation line broadening parameters of HD16O transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudaryonok, A. S.; Voronin, B. A.; Lavrentieva, N. N.; Lugovskoy, A. A.; Starikov, V. I.

    2012-11-01

    Air-broadening coefficients of the water isotopologue HD16O up to J = 50 for P, Q and R branches calculated using different methods are presented. For partially labeled lines ("good" quantum numbers: J, symmetry and level number) we combined three methods for calculating half-widths: J-dependence and JJ'-dependence up to J=15 and averaging coefficients calculated using a previously developed semi-empirical method for high J (15-50). For lines with full assignments based on normal modes v1, v2, v3, Ka, Kc we used: (a) an analytical model (approximation) which depends on use of rotational quantum numbers J and Ka for both the upper and lower levels; and (b) a method based on the estimate of the averaged energy differences between coupled states. The comparison of calculated data with broadening coefficients from HITRAN-2008 and available experimental data is presented. The resulting broadening coefficients can be used to calculate spectra of water vapor with hundreds millions of weak lines with reasonable accuracy. The line list VTT [Voronin, Tennyson, Tolchenov, MNRAS, 2010], supporting programs, files for calculations of spectra HD16O and estimation of broadening coefficient are made freely available also in electronic form via http://www.exomol.com.

  19. Search on extraterrestrial gamma-ray lines from Southern Hemisphere sources with high energy resolution gamma-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacosta, J. M.; Jardim, J. O. D.; Gonzalez-Blanco, F.; Nordemann, D. J. R.; Martin, I. M.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, P.

    1981-07-01

    The scope of the GEL 1 and 2 balloon-borne gamma ray telescope experiments is described. The gamma ray spectrometer to be used on GEL 1 is described. It is designed to study the nature of the Galactic center positron annihilation 511 KeV line. The telescope effect is achieved through the aperture angle formed by the gamma ray spectrometer anticoincidence crystals. The balloon gondola and onboard instrumentation of the balloon are described.

  20. FINEST: a high performance branch-line for VUV photon energy range gas phase studies at MAX-lab

    SciTech Connect

    Urpelainen, S.; Huttula, M.; Kovala, P.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankari, R.; Nyholm, R.; Kukk, E.; Nommiste, E.

    2010-06-23

    We present a dedicated beamline branch for high flux and ultra-high resolution (R>100000) gas and vapor phase studies in the vacuum-ultra-violet (VUV) region of light on the undulator beamline I3, located on the 700 MeV MAX-III storage ring. The mechanical and optical design of the branch-line, the differential pumping setup as well as performance characteristics are presented.

  1. China's water, energy and food nexus - an assessment of the sustainability of the "3 Red Lines" water policies in the Haihe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ying; Allwood, Julian; Richards, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and economic development continue to put increasing pressures on China's limited resources which are further exacerbated by the country's substantial regional variations in both natural and socioeconomic conditions. China's pursuit of water, energy and food security faces trade-offs and tensions and the Haihe Basin exemplifies these issues. The river basin contains the capital region of Beijing, Hebei and Tianjin which are already experiencing stress and shortfalls of water resources as a result of intense competition for limited resources. To tackle water scarcity and promote more sustainable use of water, the government has implemented national and regional "3 Red Lines" water policies but they are not integrated with energy and food policies. The aim of this analysis is to assess the sustainability of the regional "3 Red Lines" water targets and their compatibility with energy and food security. This study uses a spatially-explicit, integrated resource model which integrates a hydrological model (GWAVA) with energy and food sub-models in order to analyse current and future resource availability and demand. To assess resource futures, different demand and supply scenarios were analysed up to 2030. Results are visualised as maps and connected Sankey diagrams and outputs are compared with the "3 Red Lines" water targets as well as against indicators related to land and energy policies. The results show that under a business-as-usual scenario, total water demands for Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei are unlikely to comply with future water targets. Reducing water use in the industry and agriculture sectors will be critical in this water-scarce region and whilst efficiency improvements are important, technology choices appear to make the most significant impact e.g. irrigation method for agriculture and cooling technology for power generation. However, both these water saving-measures have trade-offs in energy consumption. Proposed water saving plans of

  2. Design and fabrication of polymer-concrete-lined pipe for testing in geothermal-energy processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, A.O.

    1981-12-01

    A specific polymer-concrete formulation was applied as a steel pipe liner in response to a need for durable, economical materials for use in contact with high temperature geothermal brine. Processes are described for centrifugally applying the liner to straight pipe, for casting the liner in pipe fittings, and for closure of field joints. Physical properties of the liner materials were measured. Compressive strengths of up to 165.8 MPa (24,045 psi) and splitting tensile strengths of 23.5 MPa (3408 psi) were measured at ambient temperature. Compressive strengths of 24 MPa (3490 psi) and splitting tensile strengths of 2.5 MPa (366 psi) were measured at about 150/sup 0/C (302/sup 0/F). A full-scale production plant is described which would be capable of producing about 950 m (3120 ft) of lined 305-mm-diam (12 in.) pipe per day. Capital cost of the plant is estimated to be about $8.6 million with a calculated return on investment of 15.4%. Cost of piping a geothermal plant with PC and PC-lined steel pipe is calculated to be $1.21 million, which compares favorably with a similar plant piped with alloy steel piping at a cost of $1.33 million. Life-cycle cost analysis indicates that the cost of PC-lined steel pipe would be 82% of that of carbon steel pipe over a 20-year plant operating life.

  3. Comparison of measured and calculated neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra behind an in-line shielded duct

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.; Tang, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV neutrons through a 0.30-m-diameter duct having a length-to-diameter ratio of 2.83 that is partially plugged with a 0.15 m diameter, 0.51 m long shield comprised of alternating layers of stainless steel type 304 and borated polyethylene have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared at several locations relative to the mouth of the duct. The measured spectra were obtained using an NE-213 liquid scintillator detector with pulse shape discrimination methods used to simultaneously resolve neutron and gamma ray events. The calculated spectra were obtained using a computer code network that incorporates two radiation transport methods: discrete ordinates (with P/sub 3/ multigroup cross sections) and Monte Carlo (with continuous point cross sections). The two radiation transport methods are required to account for neutrons that singly scatter from the duct to the detectors. The calculated and measured neutron energy spectra above 850 keV agree with 5 to 50% depending on detector location and neutron energy. The calculated and measured gamma ray energy spectra above 750 keV are also in favorable agreement, approx. 5 to 50%, depending on detector location and gamma ray energy.

  4. Measurement of electron-attachment line shapes, cross sections, and rate constants in HI and DI at ultralow electron energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alajajian, S. H.; Chutjian, A.

    1988-01-01

    Electron-attachment cross sections are reported in the electron energy range 0-150 MeV, at an energy resolution of 6.5 MeV (full width at half maximum) for the molecules HI and DI. Use is made of the Kr photoionization method to obtain cross sections for HI, and a signal intercomparison technique to obtain cross sections and the thermal-attachment rate constant for DI. Attachment properties of the two molecules are very similar. The ratio of attachment cross sections is discussed in terms of the reduced-mass dependence of the dissociation width and the survival probability, and in terms of spectroscopic thresholds and rotational populations for attachment at 300 K. Approximate potential-energy curves for the lowest states of the neutral molecule and negative ion are given.

  5. Net-zero Building Cluster Simulations and On-line Energy Forecasting for Adaptive and Real-Time Control and Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiwang

    Buildings consume about 41.1% of primary energy and 74% of the electricity in the U.S. Moreover, it is estimated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory that more than 1/4 of the 713 GW of U.S. electricity demand in 2010 could be dispatchable if only buildings could respond to that dispatch through advanced building energy control and operation strategies and smart grid infrastructure. In this study, it is envisioned that neighboring buildings will have the tendency to form a cluster, an open cyber-physical system to exploit the economic opportunities provided by a smart grid, distributed power generation, and storage devices. Through optimized demand management, these building clusters will then reduce overall primary energy consumption and peak time electricity consumption, and be more resilient to power disruptions. Therefore, this project seeks to develop a Net-zero building cluster simulation testbed and high fidelity energy forecasting models for adaptive and real-time control and decision making strategy development that can be used in a Net-zero building cluster. The following research activities are summarized in this thesis: 1) Development of a building cluster emulator for building cluster control and operation strategy assessment. 2) Development of a novel building energy forecasting methodology using active system identification and data fusion techniques. In this methodology, a systematic approach for building energy system characteristic evaluation, system excitation and model adaptation is included. The developed methodology is compared with other literature-reported building energy forecasting methods; 3) Development of the high fidelity on-line building cluster energy forecasting models, which includes energy forecasting models for buildings, PV panels, batteries and ice tank thermal storage systems 4) Small scale real building validation study to verify the performance of the developed building energy forecasting methodology. The outcomes of

  6. X-ray Variability Characteristics of the Narrow line SEYFERT 1 MKN 766 I: Energy Dependent Timing Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Turner, T. J.; Papadakis, I.; Arevalo, P.; Reeves, J. N.; Miller, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present the energy-dependent power spectral density (PSD) and cross-spectral properties of Mkn 766 obtained from a six-revolution XMM-Newton observation in 2005. The resulting PSDs, which have highest temporal frequency resolution for an AGN PSD to date, show breaks which increase in temporal frequency as photon energy increases; break frequencies differ by an average of approx.0.4 in the log between the softest and hardest bands. The consistency of the 2001 and 2005 observations variability properties, namely PSD shapes and the linear rms-flux relation, suggests the 2005 observation is simply a low-flux extension of the 2001 observation. The coherence function is measured to be approx.0.6-0.9 at temporal frequencies below the PSD break, and is lower for relatively larger energy band separation; coherence also drops significantly towards zero above the PSD break frequency. Temporal frequency-dependent soft-to-hard time lags are detected in this object for the first time: lags increase towards longer time scales and as energy separation increases. Cross-spectral properties are the thus consistent with previous measurements for Mkn 766 (Vaughan & Fabian 2003) and other accreting black hole systems. The results are discussed in the context of several variability models, including those based on inwardly-propagating viscosity variations in the accretion disk.

  7. The Energy-Dependent X-Ray Timing Characteristics of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 MKN 766

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Papadakis, I.; Arevalo, P.; Turner, T. J.; Miller, L.; Reeves, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    We present the energy-dependent power spectral density (PSD) and cross-spectral properties of Mkn 766, obtained from combining data obtained during an XMM-Newton observation spanning six revolutions in 2005 with data obtained from an XMM-Newton long-look in 2001. The PSD shapes and rms-flux relations are found to be consistent between the 2001 and 2005 observations, suggesting the 2005 observation is simply a low-flux extension of the 2001 observation and permitting us to combine the two data sets. The resulting PSD has the highest temporal frequency resolution for any AGN PSD measured to date. Applying a broken power-law model yields break frequencies which increase in temporal frequency with photon energy. Obtaining a good fit when assuming energy-independent break frequencies requires the presence of a Lorentzian at 4.6 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp -4)Hz whose strength increases with photon energy, a behavior seen in black hole X-ray binaries. The cross-spectral properties are measured; temporal frequency-dependent soft-to-hard time lags are detected in this object for the first time. Cross-spectral results are consistent with those for other accreting black hole systems. The results are discussed in the context of several variability models, including those based on inwardly-propagating viscosity variations in the accretion disk.

  8. Some metal-graphite and metal-ceramic composites for use as high energy brake lining materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Materials were studied as candidates for development as potential new aircraft brake lining materials. These families were (1) copper-graphite composites; (2) nickel-graphite composites; (3) copper - rare-earth-oxide (gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) or lanthanum oxide (La2O3)) composites and copper - rare-earth-oxide (La2O3) - rare-earth-fluoride (lanthanum fluoride (LaF3)) composites; (4) nickel - rare-earth-oxide composites and nickel - rare-earth-oxide - rare-earth-fluoride composites. For comparison purposes, a currently used metal-ceramic composite was also studied. Results showed that the nickel-Gd2O3 and nickel-La2O3-LaF3 composites were comparable or superior in friction and wear performance to the currently used composite and therefore deserve to be considered for further development.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET NON-THERMAL LINE BROADENING AND HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate, T.; Imada, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have studied the relationship between the location of EUV non-thermal broadening and high-energy particles during large flares using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter, the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We have analyzed five large flare events that contain thermal-rich, intermediate, and thermal-poor flares classified by the definition discussed in the paper. We found that, in the case of thermal-rich flares, the non-thermal broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the top of the flaring loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the footpoint of the flare loop. On the other hand, in the case of intermediate/thermal-poor flares, the non-thermal broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the footpoint of the flare loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the top of the flaring loop. We discussed the difference between thermal-rich and intermediate/thermal-poor flares based on the spatial information of non-thermal broadening, which may provide clues that the presence of turbulence plays an important role in the pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons.

  10. Mode-Specific Reorganization Energies and Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics of Tryptophan from Raman Line-Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Milán-Garcés, Erix A.; Kaptan, Shreyas; Puranik, Mrinalini

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan is widely used as an intrinsic fluorophore for studies of protein structure and dynamics. Its fluorescence is known to have two decay components with lifetimes of 0.5 and 3.1 ns. In this work we measure the ultrafast dynamics of Tryptophan at <100 fs through measurements and modeling of the Raman excitation profiles with time-dependent wave packet propagation theory. We use a Brownian oscillator model to simulate the water-tryptophan interaction. Upon photoexcitation to the higher singlet electronic state (Bb) the structure of tryptophan is distorted to an overall expansion of the pyrrole and benzene rings. The total reorganization energy for Trp in water is estimated to be 2169 cm−1 with a 1230 cm−1 contribution from the inertial response of water. The value of reorganization energy of water corresponding to the fast response is found to be higher than that obtained upon excitation to the La state by previous studies that used computational simulations. The long-time dynamics of Trp manifests as a conformational heterogeneity at shorter times and contributes to inhomogeneous broadening of the Raman profiles (315 cm−1). PMID:23823241

  11. The Relationship between Extreme Ultraviolet Non-thermal Line Broadening and High-energy Particles during Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawate, T.; Imada, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have studied the relationship between the location of EUV non-thermal broadening and high-energy particles during large flares using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter, the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We have analyzed five large flare events that contain thermal-rich, intermediate, and thermal-poor flares classified by the definition discussed in the paper. We found that, in the case of thermal-rich flares, the non-thermal broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the top of the flaring loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the footpoint of the flare loop. On the other hand, in the case of intermediate/thermal-poor flares, the non-thermal broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the footpoint of the flare loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the top of the flaring loop. We discussed the difference between thermal-rich and intermediate/thermal-poor flares based on the spatial information of non-thermal broadening, which may provide clues that the presence of turbulence plays an important role in the pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons.

  12. [Line scanning analysis of white porcelain from Gong Kiln in early Tang dynasty by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xue; Mao, Zhen-wei; Feng, Min; Hu, Yao-wu; Wang, Chang-sui; Liu, Hong-miao

    2005-07-01

    Gong kiln, for its long porcelain-firing history, was one of three representative white porcelain kilns in northern China. In order to improve the quality and whiteness of white porcelain, a decorating layer or cosmetic earth was laid on the body surface in Gong kiln during early Tang dynasty, which was able to blot out rough surface and weaken the influence of fuscous body upon surface color. In this paper the main chemical composition of the white porcelain's profile was analyzed by using energy disperse X-Ray fluorescence. The result showed that different materials were used as cosmetic earth during early Tang dynasty, in accordance with the phenomenon under optical microscope. In addition, the glaze belongs to calcium glaze in which plant ash was added.

  13. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  14. Energy level systems and transitions of Ho:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by a narrow line-width Tm fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Le; Zhou, Tianyuan; Tang, Dingyuan; Wong, Chingping; Chen, Yung-Fu; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-11-28

    We presented a Ho:LuAG ceramic laser in-band pumped by a narrow emission line-width Tm fiber laser at 1907 nm. All of potential transitions between 5I7 and 5I8 manifold were discussed to form the Ho's in-band-pump energy level systems, which were not described in details earlier. For the emission band centered at ~2095 nm, both laser absorption and emission transition separately consisted of two groups were first analyzed and observed. Using output couplers (OCs) with different transmittances (T = 6, 10 and 20%), the similar ~0.5 W continuous-wave (CW) output power under an incident pump power of ~4.9 W was obtained, with twin (or triplet) emission bands respectively. The blue shift of center emission wavelengths was observed with the increase of transmittances.

  15. Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J. F. Feldman, U.; Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert; Pereira, N.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 μm in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.

  16. Investigation of the 2p_{32}-3d_{52} line emission of Au;{53+}-Au;{69+} for diagnosing high energy density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Brown, G V; Hansen, S B; Träbert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Widmann, K; Chen, H; Chung, H K; Clementson, J H T; Gu, M F; Thorn, D B

    2008-06-01

    Measurements of the L -shell emission of highly charged gold ions were made under controlled laboratory conditions using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, allowing detailed spectral observations of lines from Fe-like Au53+ through Ne-like Au69+ . Using atomic data from the Flexible Atomic Code, we have identified strong 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features that can be used to diagnose the charge state distribution in high energy density plasmas, such as those found in the laser entrance hole of hot hohlraum radiation sources. We provide collisional-radiative calculations of the average ion charge Z as a function of temperature and density, which can be used to relate charge state distributions inferred from 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features to plasma conditions, and investigate the effects of plasma density on calculated L -shell Au emission spectra.

  17. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  18. Electron stripping processes of H{sup −} ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-15

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H{sup −} Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H{sup −} ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H{sup −} beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H{sup −} ions on molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H{sup −} ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  19. Establishment of a mammalian cell line suitable for industrial production of recombinant protein using mutations induced by high-energy beam radiation.

    PubMed

    Chida, Yasuhito; Takagi, Keiichi; Terada, Satoshi

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian cells are extensively used for production of biopharmaceuticals. Most cells used in industry have infinite proliferative capacity, which provides a high number of cells and corresponding productivity. However, infinite cells will continue to multiply even after cell density reaches sufficient levels. This excess proliferation aggravates the culture environment and induces low productivity. Therefore, after cell density reaches sufficient levels, downregulation of proliferation would prevent such aggravation and extend the culture period and improve productivity. To realize such suitable proliferation, we aimed to establish a novel cell line whose proliferation was spontaneously downregulated after reaching a sufficient population level. Mutagenesis using high-energy beam irradiation was used. CHO-DP12 cells were irradiated with 2.5 Gy X-rays and screened with hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil to eliminate any cells multiplying after confluence and to concentrate desired mutants. One clone was established and named CHO-M1. Cell cycle analysis indicated that CHO-M1 cells had a similar cell cycle profile in the exponential growth phase, but cells rapidly accumulated in G1 phase just before confluence and did not progress through the cell cycle. This suggested that until confluence, proliferation of CHO-M1 was similar to parental CHO, but after confluence, it was inhibited and under G1 arrest. The specific antibody production rate of CHO-M1 was kept high, even after confluence, while that of parental CHO was drastically decreased in stationary phase. These results suggest that the desired cell line was successfully established and that high-energy beam irradiation could be an efficient mutagenic technique for breeding industrial cells.

  20. On-line quick-look analysis and archiving system for the calibration of the PICsIT high-energy detector on the INTEGRAL satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, John B.; Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio

    2000-12-01

    The PICsIT instrument is the high energy imager which together with a low-energy plane comprises one of the two main detectors of the INTEGRAL gamma-ray satellite due to be launched by ESA in late 2001. PICsIT consists of 8 identical modules of 512 Caesium Iodide (CsI) scintillation crystals. The calibration of the detection plane is performed at module level (in three parallel chains), and consists of characterizing each pixel in terms of resolution, gain and efficiency to a very high precision. The high precision and large number of pixels leads to the production of very large amounts of data which then leads to the requirement for a system capable of accumulating at a very high bit-rate; of archiving the data in a suitable format for later analysis; of visualizing these data as they are accumulated in a quick-look fashion in order to control the correct set-up of the test arrangement and the detector functionality during the test and of partially analyzing these extremely large quantities of data on-line so as to obtain the results essential for proceeding with the test process in a rapid manner and not to impede the data accumulation process. Herein we describe the test equipment currently in use for the flight model calibration.

  1. Two-neutron "halo" from the low-energy limit of neutron-neutron interaction: Applications to drip-line nuclei 22C and 24O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu; Yuan, Cenxi; Alahari, Navin

    2016-02-01

    The formation of two-neutron "halo", a low-density far-extended surface of weakly-bound two neutrons, is described using the neutron-neutron (nn) interaction fixed at the low-energy nn scattering limit. This method is tested for loosely-bound two neutrons in 24O, where a good agreement with experimental data is found. It is applied to halo neutrons in 22C in two ways: with the 20C core being closed or correlated (due to excitations from the closed core). This nn interaction is shown to be strong enough to produce a two-neutron halo in both cases, locating 22C on the drip line, while 21C remains unbound. A unique relation between the two neutron separation energy, S2n, and the radius of neutron halo is presented. New predictions for S2n and the radius of neutron halo are given for 22C. The appearance of Efimov states is also discussed.

  2. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  3. Energy utilization and growth performance of chickens fed novel wheat inbred lines selected for different pentosan levels with and without xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Pellny, T; Amerah, A M; Wickramasinghe, M; Ulker, M; Rakszegi, M; Bedo, Z; Shewry, P R; Lovegrove, A

    2015-02-01

    Different F5 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Yumai 34×Ukrainka were grown in replicated trials on a single site in one harvest year at Rothamsted Research. A total of 10 samples from those lines were harvested and used in a broiler experiment. Twenty nutritionally complete meal-form diets that had 630 g/kg of wheat with different amounts of pentosan, with and without exogenous xylanase supplementation, were used to compare broiler growth performance and determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for N retention (AMEn). We examined the relationship between the nutritive value of the wheat samples and their chemical compositions and results of quality tests. The amounts of total and water soluble pentosans in wheat samples ranged from 36.7 to 48.0 g/kg DM, and 6.7 to 11.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The mean crude oil and protein contents of the wheat samples were 10.5 and 143.9 g/kg DM, respectively. The average determined value for the kinematic viscosity was 0.0018 mPa.s, and 2.1 mPa.s for the dynamic viscosity. The AMEn of the wheat-based diets had a maximum range of 0.47 MJ/kg DM within the ten wheat samples that were tested. Xylanase supplementation improved (P<0.05) dietary AMEn, dry matter, and fat digestibility coefficients. There was a positive (P<0.05) relationship between in vitro kinematic viscosity of the wheat samples and the total pentosan content. There was a negative relationship between the total pentosan content in the wheat and broiler growth performance. An increase by 10 g of pentosan per kg of wheat reduced (P<0.001) daily feed intake and weight gain by 2.9 g and 3.5 g, respectively. The study shows that the feeding quality of wheat samples can be predicted by their total pentosan content. Supplementary xylanase improved energy and nutrient availability of all wheat samples that was independent of differences in pentosan content.

  4. Investigation of the 2p3/2-3d5/2 line emission of Au53+ -- Au69+ for diagnosing high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Hansen, S B; Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Widmann, K; Chen, H; Chung, H K; Clementson, J T; Gu, M F; Thorn, D B

    2008-01-29

    Measurements of the L-shell emission of highly charged gold ions were made under controlled laboratory conditions using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, allowing detailed spectral observations of lines from ironlike Au{sup 53+} through neonlike Au{sup 69+}. Using atomic data from the Flexible Atomic Code, we have identified strong 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features that can be used to diagnose the charge state distribution in high energy density plasmas, such as those found in the laser entrance hole of hot hohlraum radiation sources. We provide collisional-radiative calculations of the average ion charge as a function of temperature and density, which can be used to relate charge state distributions inferred from 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features to plasma conditions, and investigate the effects of plasma density on calculated L-shell Au emission spectra.

  5. On-line determination of Förster resonance energy transfer efficiency in drying latex films: Correlation of interdiffusion and particle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, K.; Kussmaul, B.; Adams, J.; Johannsmann, D.

    2012-06-01

    An instrument is described, which measures the efficiency of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in parallel to the sample's turbidity. The instrument was used to study the film formation from polymer latex dispersions. In this context, the FRET efficiency reflects the diffusion of polymer chains across the interparticle boundaries, while the loss of turbidity reflects the progress of particle deformation. Particle deformation causes tensile in-plane stress, while polymer interdiffusion creates cohesion and thereby helps to prevent cracking. The relative timing between the two therefore is of fundamental importance for successful film formation. The on-line determination of FRET efficiency while the film dries is complicated by the fact that the fluorescence lifetime of the donor, τD, depends on the water content in the vicinity of the donor. In the established procedure for data analysis, drifts in τD induce corresponding artifical drifts in the values of the FRET efficiency. A novel algorithm for the analysis of fluorescence decay profiles is proposed, which makes use of the method of moments. The FRET efficiency is quantified by the upward curvature of the fluorescence decay curve in log-linear display. In the application example, interdiffusion is delayed relative to particle deformation by about 10 min. For successful film formation, this delay should be as small as possible.

  6. Excitation energies, radiative and autoionization rates, dielectronic satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination rates for excited states of Yb-like W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for [Cd]4f^145p^65l'nl, [Cd]4f^145p^66l''nl, [Cd]4f^145p^55d^2nl, [Cd]4f^145p^55d6l''nl, [Cd]4f^135p^65d^2nl, and [Cd]4f^135p^65d6l''nl (l'=d, f, g , l''=s,p,d,f, g, n=5-7) states of Yb-like tungsten (W^4+) are calculated using the RMBPT, HULLAC, and COWAN codes. Branching ratios relative to the [Cd]4f^145p^65d, [Cd]4f^145p^66s, and [Cd]4f^145p^66p thresholds in Tm-like tungsten and intensity factors are calculated for satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients are determined for the singly excited, as well as non-autoionizing core-excited states in Yb-like tungsten. Contributions from the autoionizing doubly excited states and core-excited states (with n up to 100), which are particulary important for calculating total DR rates, are estimated. Synthetic dielectronic satellite spectra from Yb-like W are simulated in a broad spectral range from 200 to 1400 å. These calculations provide recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of W^4+ properties useful for a variety of applications including for fusion applications.

  7. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  8. Low Dose High Energy X-ray In-Line Phase Sensitive Imaging Prototype: Investigation of Optimal Geometric Conditions and Design Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Muhammad. U.; Yan, Aimin; Wong, Molly. D.; Li, Yuhua; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the optimization of a high energy in-line phase sensitive x-ray imaging prototype under different geometric and operating conditions for mammography application. A phase retrieval algorithm based on phase attenuation duality (PAD) was applied to the phase contrast images acquired by the prototype. Imaging performance was investigated at four magnification values of 1.67, 2, 2.5 and 3 using an acrylic edge, an American College of Radiology (ACR) mammography phantom and contrast detail (CD) phantom with tube potentials of 100, 120 and 140 kVp. The ACR and CD images were acquired at the same mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.29 mGy with a computed radiography (CR) detector of 43.75 µm pixel pitch at a fixed source to image distance (SID) of 170 cm. The x-ray tube focal spot size was kept constant as 7 µm while a 2.5 mm thick aluminum (Al) filter was used for beam hardening. The performance of phase contrast and phase retrieved images were compared with computer simulations based on the relative phase contrast factor (RPF) at high x-ray energies. The imaging results showed that the x-ray tube operated at 100 kVp under the magnification of 2.5 exhibits superior imaging performance which is in accordance to the computer simulations. As compared to the phase contrast images, the phase retrieved images of the ACR and CD phantoms demonstrated improved imaging contrast and target discrimination. We compared the CD phantom images acquired in conventional contact mode with and without the anti-scatter grid using the same prototype at 1.295 mGy and 2.59 mGy using 40 kVp, a 25 µm rhodium (Rh) filter. At the same radiation dose, the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for both the large and small discs, while compared to the double dose image acquired in conventional mode, the observer study also indicated that the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for the large discs. This

  9. Low dose high energy x-ray in-line phase sensitive imaging prototype: Investigation of optimal geometric conditions and design parameters.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Muhammad U; Yan, Aimin; Wong, Molly D; Li, Yuhua; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the optimization of a high energy in-line phase sensitive x-ray imaging prototype under different geometric and operating conditions for mammography application. A phase retrieval algorithm based on phase attenuation duality (PAD) was applied to the phase contrast images acquired by the prototype. Imaging performance was investigated at four magnification values of 1.67, 2, 2.5 and 3 using an acrylic edge, an American College of Radiology (ACR) mammography phantom and contrast detail (CD) phantom with tube potentials of 100, 120 and 140 kVp. The ACR and CD images were acquired at the same mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.29 mGy with a computed radiography (CR) detector of 43.75 μm pixel pitch at a fixed source to image distance (SID) of 170 cm. The x-ray tube focal spot size was kept constant as 7 μm while a 2.5 mm thick aluminum (Al) filter was used for beam hardening. The performance of phase contrast and phase retrieved images were compared with computer simulations based on the relative phase contrast factor (RPF) at high x-ray energies. The imaging results showed that the x-ray tube operated at 100 kVp under the magnification of 2.5 exhibits superior imaging performance which is in accordance to the computer simulations. As compared to the phase contrast images, the phase retrieved images of the ACR and CD phantoms demonstrated improved imaging contrast and target discrimination. We compared the CD phantom images acquired in conventional contact mode with and without the anti-scatter grid using the same prototype at 1.295 mGy and 2.59 mGy using 40 kVp, a 25 μm rhodium (Rh) filter. At the same radiation dose, the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for both the large and small discs, while compared to the double dose image acquired in conventional mode, the observer study also indicated that the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for the large discs. This

  10. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    SciTech Connect

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Trenti, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  11. Excitation energies, radiative and autoionization rates, dielectronic satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination rates for excited states of Yb-like W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2012-04-01

    Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities and autoionization rates for [Cd]4f145p65l‧nl, [Cd]4f145p66l″nl, [Cd]4f145p55d2nl, [Cd]4f145p55d6l″nl, [Cd]4f135p65d2nl and [Cd]4f135p65d6l″nl (l‧ = d, f, g, l″ = s, p, d, l = s, p, d, f, g and n = 5-7) states of Yb-like tungsten (W4 +) are calculated using the relativistic many-body perturbation theory method (RMBPT code), the multiconfiguration relativistic Hebrew University-Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC code) and the Hartree-Fock relativistic method (COWAN code). Branching ratios relative to the [Cd]4f145p65d, [Cd]4f145p66s and [Cd]4f145p66p thresholds in Tm-like tungsten and intensity factors are calculated for satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients are determined for the singly excited, as well as non-autoionizing core-excited states in Yb-like tungsten. Contributions from the autoionizing doubly excited states [Cd]4f145p65fnl, [Cd]4f145p66l″nl and core-excited [Cd]4f145p55d2nl, [Cd]4f145p55d6l″nl, [Cd]4f135p65d2nl, [Cd]4f135p65d6l″nl states (with n up to 100), which are particulary important for calculating the total DR rates, are estimated. Synthetic dielectronic satellite spectra from Yb-like W are simulated in a broad spectral range from 200 to 1400 Å. These calculations provide recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of W4 + properties useful for a variety of applications including for fusion applications.

  12. The Spectral Energy Distributions of z ~ 8 Galaxies from the IRAC Ultra Deep Fields: Emission Lines, Stellar Masses, and Specific Star Formation Rates at 650 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbé, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Carollo, C. M.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ~ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ~120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ~28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct >=3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at >=5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ~ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ~ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ~ 7 and z ~ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of {W}_{[O\\,\\scriptsize{III}]\\ \\lambda \\lambda 4959,5007+H\\beta }=670^{+260}_{-170} Å contributing 0.56^{+0.16}_{-0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ~ 8. The corresponding {W}_{H\\alpha }=430^{+160}_{-110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11_{-5}^{+11} Gyr-1 and a stellar population age of 100_{-50}^{+100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ~3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to \\rho ^*(z=8,M_{\\rm{UV}}<-18)=0.6^{+0.4}_{-0.3}\\times 10^6 \\,M_\\odot Mpc-3. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated

  13. Excitation energies, radiative and autoionization rates, dielectronic satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination rates for excited states of Rb-like W from Kr-like W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2016-11-01

    Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for [Ni]4{s}24{p}6{nl}, [Ni]4{s}24{p}54l\\prime {nl} (l\\prime =d,f,n = 4-7), [Ni]4s4{p}64l\\prime {nl}, (l\\prime =d,f,n = 4-7), [Ni]4{s}24{p}55l\\prime {nl} (n = 5-7), and [Ni]4s4{p}66l\\prime {nl} (n = 6-7) states in Rb-like tungsten (W37+) are calculated using the relativistic many-body perturbation theory method (RMBPT code) and the Hartree-Fock-relativistic method (COWAN code). Autoionizing levels above the [Ni]4{s}24{p}6 threshold are considered. It is found that configuration mixing among [Ni]4{s}24{p}54l\\prime {nl} and [Ni]4s4{p}64l\\prime {nl} plays an important role for all atomic characteristics. Branching ratios relative to the first threshold and intensity factors are calculated for satellite lines, and dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients are determined for the [Ni]4{s}24{p}6{nl} (n = 4-7) singly excited states, as well as the [Ni]4{s}24{p}54{dnl}, [Ni]4{s}24{p}54{fnl}, [Ni]4s4{p}64{dnl}, [Ni]4{s}24{p}64{fnl}, (n = 4-6), and [Ni]4{s}24{p}55l\\prime 5l doubly excited nonautoionizing states in Rb-like W37+ ion. Contributions from the [Ni]4s24{p}64{fnl} (n = 6-7), [Ni]4{s}24{p}55l\\prime {nl} (n = 5-6), and [Ni]4{s}24{p}56l\\prime {nl} (n = 6-7) doubly excited autoionizing states are evaluated numerically. The high-n state (with n up to 500) contributions are very important for high temperatures. These contributions are determined by using a scaling procedure. Synthetic dielectronic satellite spectra from Rb-like W are simulated in a broad spectral range from 8 to 70 Å. These calculations provide highly accurate values for a number of W37+ properties useful for a variety of applications including for fusion applications.

  14. 75 FR 39680 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid Continent Market Center, L.L.C., Oasis Pipeline, LP (Not... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-44-000; Docket No. PR10-46-000; Docket No....

  15. Electron attachment line shapes, cross sections, and rate constants at ultralow energies in CF3SO3H, (CF3SO2)2O, and CF3I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alajajian, S. H.; Man, K.-F.; Chutjian, A.

    1991-01-01

    Electron attachment cross sections are reported in the energy range 0-160 meV, and at resolutions of 6.0-6.5 meV (FWHM) for the molecules CF3SO3H (triflic acid), (CF3SO2)2O (triflic anhydride), and CF3I (methyl iodide). Use is made of the Kr photoionization method. Attachment line shapes are deconvoluted from the spectral slit (electron energy) function, and are converted to cross sections by normalization to thermal attachment rate constants at 300 K. Rate constants as a function of mean electron energy are calculated from the cross sections using a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function. Present data are compared with flowing-afterglow, Langmuir-probe results in triflic acid and anhydride, and with high-Rydberg ionization results in CF3I.

  16. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  17. New Fe i Level Energies and Line Identifications from Stellar Spectra. II. Initial Results from New Ultraviolet Spectra of Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2017-04-01

    The Fe i spectrum is critical to many areas of astrophysics, yet many of the high-lying levels remain uncharacterized. To remedy this deficiency, Peterson & Kurucz identified Fe i lines in archival ultraviolet and optical spectra of metal-poor stars, whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe i excitation. Sixty-five new levels were recovered, with 1500 detectable lines, including several bound levels in the ionization continuum of Fe i. Here, we extend the previous work by identifying 59 additional levels, with 1400 detectable lines, by incorporating new high-resolution UV spectra of warm metal-poor stars recently obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We provide gf values for these transitions, both computed as well as adjusted to fit the stellar spectra. We also expand our spectral calculations to the infrared, confirming three levels by matching high-quality spectra of the Sun and two cool stars in the H-band. The predicted gf values suggest that an additional 3700 Fe i lines should be detectable in existing solar infrared spectra. Extending the empirical line identification work to the infrared would help confirm additional Fe i levels, as would new high-resolution UV spectra of metal-poor turnoff stars below 1900 Å.

  18. World lines.

    PubMed

    Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribicić, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making.

  19. NLO Hierarchy of Wilson Lines Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The high-energy behavior of QCD amplitudes can be described in terms of the rapidity evolution of Wilson lines. I present the hierarchy of evolution equations for Wilson lines in the next-to-leading order.

  20. Statistical comparison of WINDII auroral green line emission rate with DMSP/SSJ4 electron energy input for high and low solar flux years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Shepherd, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    The atmospheric response to precipitating auroral electrons under varying conditions of solar illumination is investigated using a statistical approach with respect to magnetic local time (MLT), solar zenith angle (χ), and geomagnetic latitude (MLAT) in the northern high-latitude region. Vertical profiles of daytime auroral O(1S) emission rate are obtained from UARS/WINDII measurements by removing the airglow components. These are compared with precipitating electron and proton input observed with DMSP-F10 and -F12 SSJ4 from which total energy and average energy are obtained. In order to investigate the solar flux effect, 2 a of data are examined, 1993 (high solar flux) and 1996 (low solar flux). Total electron energy flux increases with increasing solar zenith angle from 40° to 160° so that the energy flux during nighttime is much greater than in the daytime. During the daytime (χ <= 90°) the auroral atmospheric response correlates well with electron energy input yielding auroral production rates of 1.2 and 1.6 kR erg-1 cm2 s, but this relation breaks down beyond χ = 90°. It is suspected that nighttime thin sheet auroral profiles are not correctly inverted for this limb-viewing imager. A strong anticorrelation is found between the altitude of peak auroral volume emission rate and the average precipitating electron energy with slopes of 12.1 km keV-1 and 5.7 km keV-1 for 1993 and 1996, respectively. The dependence of auroral emission rate on solar illumination conditions is consistent with earlier work by Newell et al. (1996b) and others, but the clear dependence on solar zenith angle has not been demonstrated before.

  1. Geant4 simulation of the PSI LEM beam line: energy loss and muonium formation in thin foils and the impact of unmoderated muons on the μSR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaw, K. S.; Antognini, A.; Crivelli, P.; Kirch, K.; Morenzoni, E.; Salman, Z.; Suter, A.; Prokscha, T.

    2015-10-01

    The PSI low-energy μSR spectrometer is an instrument dedicated to muon spin rotation and relaxation measurements. Knowledge of the muon beam parameters such as spatial, kinetic energy and arrival-time distributions at the sample position are important ingredients to analyze the μSR spectra. We present here the measured energy losses in the thin carbon foil of the muon start detector deduced from time-of-flight measurements. Muonium formation in the thin carbon foil (10 nm thickness) of the muon start detector also affect the measurable decay asymmetry and therefore need to be accounted for. Muonium formation and energy losses in the start detector, whose relevance increase with decreasing muon implantation energy (<10 keV), have been implemented in Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation to reproduce the measured time-of-flight spectra. Simulated and measured time-of-flight and beam spot agrees only if a small fraction of so called ``unmoderated'' muons which contaminate the mono-energetic muon beam of the μSR spectrometer is introduced. Moreover the sensitivity of the beam size and related upstream-downstream asymmetry for a specially shaped ``nose'' sample plate has been studied for various beam line settings, which is of relevance for the study of thermal muonium emission into vacuum from mesoporous silica at cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Understanding Atomic Structure: Is There a More Direct and Compelling Connection between Atomic Line Spectra and the Quantization of an Atom's Energy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The "atoms first" philosophy, adopted by a growing number of General Chemistry textbook authors, places greater emphasis on atomic structure as a key to a deeper understanding of the field of chemistry. A pivotal concept needed to understand the behavior of atoms is the restriction of an atom's energy to specific allowed values. However,…

  3. Critical current density, irreversibility line, and flux creep activation energy in silver-sheathed Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]Ca[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] superconducting tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, D.; Wang, Z.; Sengupta, S.; Smith, M. ); Goodrich, L.F. , Boulder, CO . Electromagnetic Technology Div.); Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Guo, Y.C. . School of Materials and Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    Transport data, magnetic hysteresis and flux creep activation energy experimental results are presented for silver-sheathed high-[Tc] Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]Ca[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] superconducting tapes. The 110 K superconducting phase was formed by lead doping in a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 system. The transport critical current density was measured at 4.0 K to be 0.7 [times] 10[sup 5] A/cm[sup 2] (the corresponding critical current is 74 A) at zero field and 1.6 [times] 10[sup 4] A/cm[sup 2] at 12 T for H[parallel]ab. Excellent grain alignment in the a-b plane was achieved by a short-melting method, which considerably improved the critical current density and irreversibility line. Flux creep activation energy as a function of current is obtained based on the magnetic relaxation measurements.

  4. Critical current density, irreversibility line, and flux creep activation energy in silver-sheathed Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} superconducting tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, D.; Wang, Z.; Sengupta, S.; Smith, M.; Goodrich, L.F.; Dou, S.X.; Liu, H.K.; Guo, Y.C.

    1992-08-01

    Transport data, magnetic hysteresis and flux creep activation energy experimental results are presented for silver-sheathed high-{Tc} Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} superconducting tapes. The 110 K superconducting phase was formed by lead doping in a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 system. The transport critical current density was measured at 4.0 K to be 0.7 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} (the corresponding critical current is 74 A) at zero field and 1.6 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 12 T for H{parallel}ab. Excellent grain alignment in the a-b plane was achieved by a short-melting method, which considerably improved the critical current density and irreversibility line. Flux creep activation energy as a function of current is obtained based on the magnetic relaxation measurements.

  5. Nuclear structure beyond the neutron drip line: The lowest energy states in 9He via their T = 5/2 isobaric analogs in 9Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Rogachev, G. V.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Koshchiy, E.; Roeder, B. T.; Alcorta, M.; Chubarian, G.; Davids, B.; Fu, C.; Hooker, J.; Jayatissa, H.; Melconian, D.; Tribble, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The level structure of the very neutron rich and unbound 9He nucleus has been the subject of significant experimental and theoretical study. Many recent works have claimed that the two lowest energy 9He states exist with spins Jπ = 1 /2+ and Jπ = 1 /2- and widths on the order of 100-200 keV. These findings cannot be reconciled with our contemporary understanding of nuclear structure. The present work is the first high-resolution study with low statistical uncertainty of the relevant excitation energy range in the 8He+n system, performed via a search for the T = 5 / 2 isobaric analog states in 9Li populated through 8He+p elastic scattering. The present data show no indication of any narrow structures. Instead, we find evidence for a broad Jπ = 1 /2+ state in 9He located approximately 3 MeV above the neutron decay threshold.

  6. Full-scale in-line hydrolysis and simulation for potential energy and resource savings in activated sludge--a case study.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tobias; Jönsson, Karin; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of altering primary settlers during biological in-line hydrolysis and converting a nitrifying activated sludge process into a partial pre-denitrification process for the purpose of resource conservation were evaluated. A full-scale primary sludge hydrolysis experiment was performed at a wastewater treatment plant and implemented in a dynamic modelling tool based on ASM2d. The full-scale hydrolysis experiment achieved a volatile fatty acid (VFA) production of 43 g COD(HAc) x m(-3) with no release of ammonium. Additional nitrogen removal of 44 t N x a(-1) was simulated, and the produced hydrolysate was able to replace 50% of the annual ethanol usage. Furthermore, 196 MWh of electricity per annum could be saved through the reduction of ethanol production and the optimization of the operation strategy of the activated sludge tank by operating a different number of anoxic zones.

  7. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI): On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring for Next Generation Nuclear Plants - Phase I Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Bond; S. R. Doctor; R. W. Gilbert; D. B. Jarrell; F. L. Greitzer; R. J. Meador

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 This OSTI ID belongs to an IWO and is being released out of the system. The Program Manager Rebecca Richardson has confirmed that all reports have been received. The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the operation of the real-time intelligent self-diagnostic and prognostic system for next generation nuclear power plant systems. This new self-diagnostic technology is titled, ''On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System'' (SDMS). This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS on a pilot plant scale service water system, where a distributed array of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures typical of next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. This project employs state-of-the-art sensors, instrumentation, and computer processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and to provide diagnostic and automated prognostics capabilities.

  8. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Annual Report-Innovative Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Sandness, Gerald A.; Gray, Joseph N.; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Panetta, Paul D.; Saurwein, John J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Good, Morris S.

    2004-04-20

    This document summarizes the activities performed and progress made in FY-03. Various approaches for automating the particle fuel production QC process using on-line nondestructive methods for higher reliability were evaluated. In this first-year of a three-year project, surrogate fuel particles made available for testing included leftovers from initial coater development runs. These particles had a high defect fraction and the particle properties spanned a wide range, providing the opportunity to examine worst-case conditions before refining the inspection methods to detect more subtle coating features. Particles specifically designed to evaluate the NDE methods being investigated under this project will be specified and fabricated at ORNL early next reporting period. The literature was reviewed for existing inspection technology and to identify many of the fuel particle conditions thought to degrade its performance. A modeling study, including the electromagnetic and techniques, showed that the in-line electromagnetic methods should provide measurable responses to missing layers, kernel diameter, and changes in coating layer thickness, with reasonable assumptions made for material conductivities. The modeling study for the ultrasonic methods provided the resonant frequencies that should be measured using the resonant ultrasound technique, and the results from these calculations were published in the proceedings for two conferences. The notion of a particle quality index to relate coating properties to fabrication process parameters was explored. Progress was made in understanding the fabrication process. GA identified key literature in this area and Saurwein (2003a) provided a literature review/summary. This literature has been reviewed. An approach previously applied to flexible manufacturing was adopted and the modification and development of the concepts to meet TRISO particle fuel manufacturing and QA/QC needs initiated. This approach establishes

  9. Excitation energies and spins of a superdeformed band in {sup 194}{ital H}{ital g} from one-step discrete decays to the yrast line

    SciTech Connect

    Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.; Lauritsen, T.; Ackermann, D.; Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Janssens, R.V.; Nisius, D.; Moore, E.F.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Do Kruecken, R.; Asztalos, S.J.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Farris, L.P.; Hannachi, F.; Henry, E.A.; Korichi, A.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Stephens, F.S. ||||||

    1996-03-01

    Discrete {gamma} rays directly connecting states of a superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 194}Hg to the yrast states have been discovered. Thus, the excitation energies and spins of all members of the lowest SD band are established for the first time, together with their likely parity. The SD band decays from its 10{sup +} and 12{sup +} states, which lie 4204.8 and 4407.4 keV above the normal-deformed yrast states of the same spins. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Nuclear structure beyond the neutron drip line. The lowest energy states in 9He via their T=5/2 isobaric analogs in 9Li

    DOE PAGES

    Uberseder, E.; Rogachev, G. V.; Goldberg, V. Z.; ...

    2016-03-01

    The level structure of the very neutron rich and unbound 9He nucleus has been the subject of significant experimental and theoretical study. Many recent works have claimed that the two lowest energy 9He states exist with spins Jπ=1/2+and Jπ=1/2-and widths on the order of 100–200 keV. These find-ings cannot be reconciled with our contemporary understanding of nuclear structure. Our present work is the first high-resolution study with low statistical uncertainty of the relevant excitation energy range in the 8He+n system, performed via a search for the T =5/2 isobaric analog states in 9Li populated through 8He+p elastic scattering. Moreover, themore » present data show no indication of any narrow structures. Instead, we find evidence for a broad Jπ=1/2+state in 9He located approximately 3 MeV above the neutron decay threshold.« less

  11. Cyclotron Line Measurements with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Caballero, I.; Fritz, S.; Schoenherr, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; McBride, V. A.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its broadband energy coverage, INTEGRAL has made important contributions to observing and interpreting cyclotron lines, which are present in the 10-100 keV range of a sample of accreting pulsars. In these systems photons with energies fulfilling the resonance condition inelastically Compton scatter off electrons quantized in the accretion column above the neutron star's magnetic pole(s). This process gives rise to the broad, absorption-like lines or 'cyclotron resonant scattering features' (CRSF). The observed lines allow to directly measure the B-fields of these sources, resulting in values of a few times 1E12G. In this overview I will present recent highlights regarding CRSF observations as well as discuss current ideas and models for the physical conditions in the accretion column. Among the former are the stability of the spectrum of Vela X-1 during giant flares in 2003, the observation of three cyclotron lines during the 2004 outburst of V0332+53, the confirmation of the fundamental line at approximately 45 keV during a 2005 normal outburst of A0535-26, and the simultaneous detection of the two lines in the dipping source 4U 1907+09 (for which also a torque reversal was detected for the first time). Through these and other observations it has become increasingly apparent that two types of observations can potentially be used to constrain the accretion column geometry: the determination of energy ratios for multiple harmonic lines (only two sources with greater than 2 lines are known), was well as the evolution of the fundamental line centroid, which, for different sources, may or may not be correlated with flux. Furthermore, first steps have been taken away from the usual phenomenological description of the lines, towards a physical approach based on self-consistent CRSF modeling. Initial applications are presented.

  12. Time and Energy Characterization of a Neutron time of Flight Detector for Re-designing Line of Sight 270 at the Z Pulsed Power Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, Jedediah D.

    2016-11-01

    This work will focus on the characterization of NTOF detectors fielded on ICF experiments conducted at the Z-experimental facility with emphasis on the MagLif and gas puff campaigns. Three experiments have been proposed. The first experiment will characterize the response of the PMT with respect to the amplitude and width of signals produced by single neutron events. A second experiment will characterize the neutron transit time through the scintillator and the third is to characterize the pulse amplitude for a very specific range of neutron induced charged particle interactions within the scintillator. These experiments will cover incident neutron energies relevant to D-D and D-T fusion reactions. These measurements will be taken as a function of detector bias to cover the entire dynamic range of the detector. Throughout the characterization process, the development of a predictive capability is desired. A new post processing code has been proposed that will calculate a neutron time-of-flight spectrum in units of MeVee. This code will couple the experimentally obtained values and the results obtained with the Monte Carlo code MCNP6. The motivation of this code is to correct for geometry issues when transferring the calibration results from a light lab setting to the Zenvironment. This capability will be used to develop a hypothetical design of LOS270 such that more favorable neutron measurements, requiring less correction, can be made in the future.

  13. Helical Pulse Line Structures for Ion Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Waldron, W.L.

    2005-05-01

    The basic concept of the ''Pulse Line Ion Accelerator'' is presented, where pulse power sources create a ramped traveling wave voltage pulse on a helical pulse line. Ions can surf on this traveling wave and achieve energy gains much larger than the peak applied voltage. Tapered and untapered lines are compared, and a transformer coupling technique for launching the wave is described.

  14. Changes in Body Fat Distribution on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Black South Africans Starting First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Zulfa; Levitt, Naomi; Lesosky, Maia; Maartens, Gary; Dave, Joel

    2016-10-01

    Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART. Body fat distribution was assessed using anthropometric measurements and DEXA scans at baseline and then at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after commencing ART. DEXA was also used to estimate abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Women gained more overall weight and more regional fat in all areas analyzed on DEXA scans. Women, not men, experienced a significant increasing trend in trunk fat and a significant decreasing trend in limb fat, when expressed as a percentage of total body fat. In men, the risk of developing lipoatrophy was more than two times greater than that of women, after adjusting for age, baseline body mass index, and ART regimen. Lipohypertrophy occurred similarly in men and women. VAT and SAT increased significantly in men and women, with women gaining considerably more than men. These findings are of great concern as an increased waist circumference is associated with increased mortality in HIV-infected populations. Further investigation is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the sex differences in changes in body fat distribution and its effects on cardiovascular risk.

  15. Measurements of Excitation Functions and Line Polarizations for Electron Impact Excitation of the n = 2, 3 States of Atomic Hydrogen in the Energy Range 11 - 2000 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.; Kanik, I.; Slevin, J.; Franklin, B.; Shemansky, D.

    1993-01-01

    The electron-atomic hydrogen scattering system is an important testing ground for theoretical models and has received a great deal of attention from experimentalists and theoreticians alike over the years. A complete description of the excitation process requires a knowledge of many different parameters, and experimental measurements of these parameters have been performed in various laboratories around the world. As far as total cross section data are concerned it has been noted that the discrepancy between the data of Long et al. and Williams for n = 2 excitations needs to be resolved in the interests of any further refinement of theory. We report new measurements of total cross sections and atomic line polarizations for both n=2 and n=3 excitations at energies from threshold to 2000 eV...

  16. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOEpatents

    Reindel, John

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  17. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  18. Lightning protection of distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, T.E. ); Short, T.A. ); Anderson, J.G. , Pittsfield, MA )

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a study of distribution line lightning performance, using computer simulations of lightning overvoltages. The results of previous investigations are extended with a detailed model of induced voltages from nearby strokes, coupled into a realistic power system model. The paper also considers the energy duty of distribution-class surge arresters exposed to direct strokes. The principal result is that widely separated pole-top arresters can effectively protect a distribution line from induced-voltage flashovers. This means that nearby lightning strokes need not be a significant lightning performance problem for most distribution lines.

  19. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  20. Cutting of bent vortex lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenleithner, P.

    1982-07-01

    One of the major problems in the application of type II superconductors is the appearance of resistivity in case where a current-carrying specimen is in a longitudinal magnetic field. This is explained by the onset of flux-line cutting events, followed by cross-joining of the line parts. The calculation given here shows the amount of repulsive force and energy between two curved vortex lines and examines the general stability of the vortex-vortex system. First, the actual interaction potential between curved vortices is computed. It includes all electromagnetic and core overlap terms of interactions and self-interaction, and allows computation of the system energy under all curved vortex-line configurations. A computer program is used to find the form of lowest free energy. To do this, special trial functions are established to describe the three-dimensional form of the vortex-vortex system. In these functions parameters determine the qualitative and quantitative form. The asymptotic boundary conditions are built into the nature of the trial functions. The computer program now minimizes the free energy with respect to these parameters. The resulting repulsive energy and force are more than ten times less than the known results for straight flux lines, especially for small asymptotic cutting angles. There is no sharp maximum in the plot of repulsive force versus flux-line separation. A remarkable results is the loss of general stability below a separation distance of several London penetration depths, depending on the cutting angle and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. The explanation lies in the local attraction of central sections of the vortices as a result of configurational adaption. This explains the onset of resistance at small currents and small magnetic fields.

  1. In-line stirling energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N; Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-22

    A high efficiency generator is provided using a Stirling engine to amplify an acoustic wave by heating the gas in the engine in a forward mode. The engine is coupled to an alternator to convert heat input to the engine into electricity. A plurality of the engines and respective alternators can be coupled to operate in a timed sequence to produce multi-phase electricity without the need for conversion. The engine system may be operated in a reverse mode as a refrigerator/heat pump.

  2. Influence of Substratum Surface Chemistry/Energy and Topography on the Human Fetal Osteoblastic Cell Line hFOB 1.19: Phenotypic and Genotypic Responses Observed In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaomei; Lim, Jung Yul; Donahue, Henry J.; Dhurjati, Ravi; Mastro, Andrea M.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-dependent phenotypic response of a model osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19, ATCC, CRL-11372) to substrata with varying surface chemistry and topography is reviewed within the context of extant cell-adhesion theory. Cell-attachment and proliferation kinetics are compared using morphology as a leading indicator of cell phenotype. Expression of (α2, α3, α4, α5, αv, β1 and β3) integrins, vinculin, as well as secretion of osteopontin and type I collagen supplement this visual assessment of hFOB growth. It is concluded that significant cell-adhesion events – contact, attachment, spreading, and proliferation – are similar on all surfaces, independent of substratum surface chemistry/energy. However, this sequence of events is significantly delayed and attenuated on hydrophobic (poorly water-wettable) surfaces exhibiting characteristically low-attachment efficiency and long induction periods before cells engage in an exponential-growth phase. Results suggest that a ‘time-cell-substratum compatibility-superposition-principle’ is at work wherein similar bioadhesive outcomes can be ultimately achieved on all surface types with varying hydrophilicity, but the time required to arrive at this outcome increases with decreasing cell-substratum compatibility. Genomic and proteomic tools offer unprecedented opportunity to directly measure changes in the cellular machinery that lead to observed cell responses to different materials. But for the purpose of measuring structure-property relationships that can guide biomaterial development, genomic/proteomic tools should be applied early in the adhesion/spreading process before cells have an opportunity to significantly remodel the cell-substratum interface, effectively erasing cause-and-effect relationships between cell cell-substratum compatibility and substratum properties. Impact Statement This review quantifies relationships among cell phenotype, substratum surface chemistry/energy, topography, and cell

  3. Rotational Energy Levels and Line Intensities for 2S+1Sigma-2S+1Sigma Transitions in an Open-Shell Diatomic Molecule Weakly Bonded to a Closed-Shell Partner.

    PubMed

    Fawzy

    1998-09-01

    This paper concerns rotational energy levels and line intensities for electronic, vibrational, and microwave transitions in an open-shell complex consisting of an open-shell diatomic molecule and a closed-shell partner. The electronic state of the open-shell diatomic fragment is a 2S+1Sigma state, where S >/= 12, the close-shell partner could be a rare gas atom or a diatomic molecule or a planar polyatomic molecule. We are considering a near-rigid rotor model for a nonlinear complex, taking into account thoroughly all effects of the electron spin and the quartic centrifugal distortion correction terms. The total Hamiltonian is expressed as H=Hrot+Hsr+Hss+Hcd+Hsrcd+Hsscd. We have derived all the nonvanishing matrix elements of the Hamiltonian operators in the molecular basis set. The rotational energy levels are calculated by numerical diagonalization of the total Hamiltonian matrix for each J value. The nonvanishing matrix elements of the electric dipole moment operator are derived in the molecular basis set for electronic, vibrational, and microwave transitions within the complex. Expectation values of the quantum numbers and of the parities of the rotational states are derived in the molecular basis set. Relative intensities of the allowed rotational transitions, expectation values of the quantum numbers and the parities are calculated numerically in the space of the eigenvectors obtained from diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix. The formalism and the computer program of this paper are considered as extensions to our previous work [W. M. Fawzy and J. T. Hougen, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 137, 154-165 (1989); W. M. Fawzy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 160, 84-96 (1993)] and are expected to be particularly useful for analyzing and fitting high-resolution spectra of weakly bonded oxygen complexes. A brief discussion of the Hamiltonian operators, the matrix elements, and the computer program is given. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Vibrational averages along thermal lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of vibrational quantum and thermal expectation values of physical properties from first principles. Thermal lines are introduced: these are lines in configuration space parametrized by temperature, such that the value of any physical property along them is approximately equal to the vibrational average of that property. The number of sampling points needed to explore the vibrational phase space is reduced by up to an order of magnitude when the full vibrational density is replaced by thermal lines. Calculations of the vibrational averages of several properties and systems are reported, namely, the internal energy and the electronic band gap of diamond and silicon, and the chemical shielding tensor of L-alanine. Thermal lines pave the way for complex calculations of vibrational averages, including large systems and methods beyond semilocal density functional theory.

  5. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  6. Line-on-Line Coincidence: A New Type of Epitaxy Found in Organic-Organic Heterolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannsfeld, Stefan C.; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-02-01

    We propose a new type of epitaxy, line-on-line coincidence (LOL), which explains the ordering in the organic-organic heterolayer system PTCDA on HBC on graphite. LOL epitaxy is similar to point-on-line coincidence (POL) in the sense that all overlayer molecules lie on parallel, equally spaced lines. The key difference to POL is that these lines are not restricted to primitive lattice lines of the substrate lattice. Potential energy calculations demonstrate that this new type of epitaxy is indeed characterized by a minimum in the overlayer-substrate interaction potential.

  7. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  8. Towards Perfect Water Line Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodi, L.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-06-01

    Over the last ten years the increased availability of computational resources and the steady refinement of theoretical methods have permitted more and more accurate first principle calculations of water-vapor spectra as exemplified, e.g., by the very successful BT2 line list both line positions and intensities, a reliable dipole moment surface (DMS), affecting line intensities. It is also very useful to several application to give reasonable uncertainty bars for computed quantities, an aspect which traditionally has received little attention. We report here recent progress leading to very accurate room-temperature linelists covering the range 0.05-20 000 cm-1, complete with uncertainty bars, for the H_218O and H_217O water isotopologues Line intensities were produced using a recent DMS produced by our group which is capable of giving line intensites accurate to 1% for most medium and strong transitions. Line positions are based if possible on the experimentally derived energy levels recently produced by a IUPAC task group and have a typical accuracy of 0.0002 cm-1; when experimentally derived energy levels are unavailable calculated line position are provided, with an accuracy of the order of 0.2 cm-1. An extension to the main isotopologue H_216O is currently underway. R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris and R. N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. {368}, 1087-1094 (2006). L. Lodi and J. Tennyson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.02.023 L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and O. L. Polyansky, J. Chem. Phys. {135}, 034113 (2011). J. Tennyson at al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. {110}, 573-96 (2009).

  9. In-line ion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2008-02-15

    An in-line particle detector (IPD) uses secondary electrons for the detection of multiply charged ions with low to medium energy (10-10 keV). The ion detector does not physically intercept the ion beam line and is fully transparent to ions without applied voltages. The activation of the detector is performed by applying appropriate voltages to electrodes, which avoids any physical movement. Equipped with a channel electron multiplier, single particle counting is possible as well as measurement of currents. This detector therefore has a large dynamical range from about 10{sup -17} to 10{sup -3} A. The basic principle also allows for ion beam diagnostics.

  10. In-line ion detectora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2008-02-01

    An in-line particle detector (IPD) uses secondary electrons for the detection of multiply charged ions with low to medium energy (10-10keV). The ion detector does not physically intercept the ion beam line and is fully transparent to ions without applied voltages. The activation of the detector is performed by applying appropriate voltages to electrodes, which avoids any physical movement. Equipped with a channel electron multiplier, single particle counting is possible as well as measurement of currents. This detector therefore has a large dynamical range from about 10-17to10-3A. The basic principle also allows for ion beam diagnostics.

  11. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  12. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  13. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  14. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  15. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  16. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  17. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  18. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  19. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  20. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  1. Dynamic Line-by-line Pulse Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willits, John Thomas

    In pursuit of optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG), line-by-line pulse shapers use dynamic masks that can be modulated at the repetition rate of an input pulse train. The pulse-to-pulse control of the output pulse train with the waveform fidelity provided by line-by-line pulse shaping creates the most arbitrary waveform output possible, OAWG. This thesis studies the theoretical dynamic effects of such a pulse shaper and presents efforts towards realization of OAWG. Pulse shaping theory is extended to include rapid waveform update for line-by-line pulse shaping. The fundamental tradeoff between response speed and waveform fidelity is illustrated by several examples. Line-by-line pulse shaping is demonstrated at a repetition rate of 890 MHz on a mode-locked titanium sapphire laser. This pulse shaper relies on a virtual imaged phased array (VIPA) to obtain the necessary high spectral resolution. The details of the VIPA's ideal and nonideal performance are analyzed, simulated and tested. Individual frequency modes from the mode-locked titanium sapphire laser are also resolved using the same VIPA paired with a diffraction grating creating a 2-D spectral brush with a resolution of 357 MHz. The advantages and nonideal effects of VIPA-based pulse shaping are investigated. Analysis of several high speed modulation techniques are explored. The optical system required to separate adjacent comb lines into different single mode (SM) fibers necessary for several modulation techniques is designed and tested.

  2. Abstract Line Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  3. The Language of Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breig-Allen, Cheryl; Hill, Janet; Geismar-Ryan, Lori; Cadwell, Louise Boyd

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project about lines in the environment used with 2- and 3-year olds and based on the Reggio Emilia approach. Activities included making tracks with riding toys, drawing lines on papers, seeing cloud lines, and making lines with yarn and Cuisenaire rods. Shows how young children's observations and ongoing discoveries can uncover their…

  4. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  5. Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poynter, R. L.; Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer accessible catalogue of submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral lines in the frequency range between O and 3000 GHz (such as; wavelengths longer than 100 m) is discussed. The catalogue was used as a planning guide and as an aid in the identification and analysis of observed spectral lines. The information listed for each spectral line includes the frequency and its estimated error, the intensity, lower state energy, and quantum number assignment. The catalogue was constructed by using theoretical least squares fits of published spectral lines to accepted molecular models. The associated predictions and their estimated errors are based upon the resultant fitted parameters and their covariances.

  6. Solar flare gamma-ray line shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werntz, C.; Kim, Y. E.; Lang, Frederick L.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code has been developed which is used to calculate ab initio the laboratory shapes and energy shifts of gamma-ray lines from (C-12)(p, gamma/4.438/)p-prime(C-12) and (O-16)(p, gamma/6.129/)p-prime(O-16) reactions and to calculate the expected shapes of these lines from solar flares. The sensitivity of observable solar flare gamma-ray line shapes to the directionality of the incident particles is investigated for several projectile angular distributions. Shapes of the carbon and oxygen lines are calculated assuming realistic proton energy spectra for particles in circular orbits at the mirror points of magnetic loops, for particle beams directed downward into the photosphere, and for isotropic particle distributions. Line shapes for flare sites near the center of the sun and on the limb are shown for both thin-target and thick-target interaction models.

  7. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-02-15

    The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was motivated by the desire for an inexpensive way to accelerate intense short pulse heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. A pulse power driver applied at one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines the heavy ion beam pulse. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The concept might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the PFN is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication.

  8. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  9. Monthly energy review: February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-23

    This is the February report by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an article on the effect of the proximity of wind resources to transmission lines, an energy overview, energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and international energy. 57 tabs.

  10. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  11. Reconnection of vorticity lines and magnetic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic field and fluid vorticity share many features. First, as divergence-free vector fields they are conveniently visualized in terms of their field lines, curves that are everywhere tangent to the field. The lines indicate direction and their density indicates field strength. The question arises of the extent to which the evolution of the fields can be treated in terms of the evolution of their field lines. Newcomb (1958) derived the general conditions on the evolution of vector fields that permit the identification of field lines from one instant to the next. The equations of evolution of the vorticity field and the magnetic field fall within Newcomb's analysis. The dynamics of the flows differ between these two systems, so that geometrically similar phenomena happen in different ways in the two systems. In this paper the geometrical similarities are emphasized. Reconnection will be defined here as evolution in which it is not possible to preserve the global identification of some field lines. There is a close relation between reconnection and the topology of the vector field lines. Nontrivial topology occurs where the field has null points or there are field lines that are closed loops.

  12. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  13. Altering graphene line defect properties using chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Smitha; White, Carter; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    First-principles calculations are presented of a fundamental topological line defect in graphene that was observed and reported in Nature Nanotech. 5, 326 (2010). These calculations show that atoms and smaller molecules can bind covalently to the surface in the vicinity of the graphene line defect. It is also shown that the chemistry at the line defect has a strong effect on its electronic and magnetic properties, e.g. the ferromagnetically aligned moments along the line defect can be quenched by some adsorbates. The strong effect of the adsorbates on the line defect properties can be understood by examining how these adsorbates affect the boundary-localized states in the vicinity of the Fermi level. We also expect that the line defect chemistry will significantly affect the scattering properties of incident low-energy particles approaching it from graphene.

  14. The intrinsic line width of the Fe K α line of AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiren

    2016-11-01

    X-ray fluorescent lines are unique features of the reflection spectrum of the cold torus when irradiated by the central AGN. Their intrinsic line widths can be used to probe the line-emitting region. The line widths of the Fe K α line measured from the first-order Chandra High Energy Grating (HEG) spectra are 3-5 times larger than those measured with the Si K α line for Circinus, Mrk 3, and NGC 1068. Because the observed Si K α and Fe K α lines are not necessarily coming from the same physical region, it is uncertain whether the line widths of the Fe K α line are overestimated or not. We measured the intrinsic line widths of the Fe K α line of several nearby bright AGN using the second- and third-order Chandra HEG spectra, whose spectral resolutions are better than the first-order data. We found the measured widths are all smaller than those from the first-order data. The results clearly show that the widths of the Fe K α line measured from the first-order HEG data are overestimated. It indicates that the Fe K α lines of the studied sources are originating from regions around the cold dusty torus.

  15. Internal-integral sodium return line for sodium heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Thomas K.

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a portion of the return line for the alkali metal is located within the generator vacuum space.

  16. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  17. Energy Deskbook

    SciTech Connect

    Glasstone, S

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the Energy Deskbook is to serve as a convenient reference to definitions of energy-related terms and descriptions of current and potential energy sources and their utilization. The material is presented at a low technical level with emphasis on general principles, which are not difficult to understand, rather than technology. The entries vary in length from a few lines to several pages, according to circumstances. As a general rule, each topic is defined and outlined in the first paragraph; this may be followed by a more detailed treatment, as required. An important feature of the Deskbook is the use of boldface (heavy) type for cross references. Words in the text set in boldface are the titles of articles where the particular subjects are described.

  18. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  19. Rapidity evolution of Wilson lines at the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian; Chirilli, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    At high energies particles move very fast so the proper degrees of freedom for the fast gluons moving along the straight lines are Wilson-line operators - infinite gauge factors ordered along the line. In the framework of operator expansion in Wilson lines the energy dependence of the amplitudes is determined by the rapidity evolution of Wilson lines. We present the next-to-leading order hierarchy of the evolution equations for Wilson-line operators.

  20. Experimental investigation of the hyperfine spectra of Pr I-lines: discovery of new fine structure energy levels of Pr I using LIF spectroscopy with medium angular momentum quantum number between 7/2 and 13/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Windholz, Laurentius

    2016-03-01

    We present 39 even and 60 odd parity newly discovered fine structure levels of Pr I with angular momentum quantum numbers J = 7 / 2, 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2. Spectral lines in the wavelength range of 4200 Å to 7500 Å were investigated experimentally using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy or optogalvanic spectroscopy. Free Pr atoms were produced in a hollow cathode discharge. A high resolution Fourier transform spectrum of Pr was used to extract excitation wavelengths. From an analysis of the recorded hyperfine patterns, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, we were able to find the unknown levels involved in the formation of the investigated lines. More than 500 spectral lines could be classified by the new levels. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-60485-2

  1. Second line of defense program

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Thomas, L L

    1999-07-15

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the prospect of nuclear materials entering the world market has become an ever-increasing threat. The Second Line of Defense (SLD) program was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43) to assist the Russian Federation State Customs Committee (RFSCC) in strengthening its capability to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials across Russia's borders. The SLD program is a natural complement to the Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program, which represents a first line of defense against the theft and diversion of nuclear materials. The SLD program is the first U.S.-Russian cooperative program to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear and nuclear-related materials to would-be proliferators across Russia's borders.

  2. Pulse Phase Dependence of Low Energy Emission Lines in an X-ray pulsar 4U 1626-67 during its spin-up and spin-down phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Aru; Paul, Biswajit; Dewangan, Gulab Chand

    2016-07-01

    We will present the results obtained from the new observation of an ultra-compact X-ray binary pulsar 4U 1626-67, carried out with the XMM-Newton observatory. 4U 1626-67, a unique accretion powered pulsar underwent two torque reversals since its discovery in 1977. Pulse phase resolved spectroscopy of this source performed using the data from the XMM-Newton observatory during its spin-down phase revealed the dependence of the emission lines on the pulse phase. O VII emission line at 0.569 keV showed the maximum variation by factor of 4. These variations were interpreted due to warps in the accretion disk (Beri et al. 2015). Radiation pressure induced warping is also believed to be the cause for spin-down. In light of this possible explanation for spin-down torque reversal we expect different line variability during the spin-up phase. We will discuss the implications of the results obtained after performing pulse phase resolved spectroscopy using data from the EPIC-pn during the current spin-up phase. Detailed study of the prominent Neon and Oxygen line complexes with the high resolution Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on-board XMM-Newton will also be presented.

  3. FFAG Beam Line for nuPIL - Neutrinos from PIon Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste; Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Bross, Alan; Liu, Ao; Appleby, Robert; Tygier, Sam

    2016-06-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facilities (LBNF) program aims to deliver a neutrino beam for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The current baseline for LBNF is a conventional magnetic horn and decay pipe system. Neutrinos from PIon beam Line (nuPIL) is a part of the optimization effort to optimize the LBNF. It consists of a pion beam line after the horn to clean the beam of high energy protons and wrong-sign pions before transporting them into a decay beam line, where instrumentation could be implemented. This paper focuses on the FFAG solution for this pion beam line. The resulting neutrino flux is also presented.

  4. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  5. Cyclotron Lines in Accreting Neutron Star Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Jörn; Schönherr, Gabriele; Schmid, Julia; Dauser, Thomas; Kreykenbohm, Ingo

    2009-05-01

    Cyclotron lines are formed through transitions of electrons between discrete Landau levels in the accretion columns of accreting neutron stars with strong (1012 G) magnetic fields. We summarize recent results on the formation of the spectral continuum of such systems, describe recent advances in the modeling of the lines based on a modification of the commonly used Monte Carlo approach, and discuss new results on the dependence of the measured cyclotron line energy from the luminosity of transient neutron star systems. Finally, we show that Simbol-X will be ideally suited to build and improve the observational database of accreting and strongly magnetized neutron stars.

  6. Line-focus concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J. A.; Dugan, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the line-focus concentrating solar collector technology and applications is presented. Included are a description of the collectors, some of the key features of the engineering approach, instantaneous and all-day performance and operating data, temperature capabilities and limitations for selected collectors, projected future capabilities for peak and annual performance. Projected system capital costs and annualized life cycle costs for thermal energy produced are discussed. Several existing application projects which employ line concentrating collectors are reviewed, and finally, plans for future DOE-funded line concentrating collector projects are described.

  7. Stiff directed lines in random media.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the localization of stiff directed lines with bending energy by a short-range random potential. We apply perturbative arguments, Flory scaling arguments, a variational replica calculation, and functional renormalization to show that a stiff directed line in 1+d dimensions undergoes a localization transition with increasing disorder for d>2/3. We demonstrate that this transition is accessible by numerical transfer matrix calculations in 1+1 dimensions and analyze the properties of the disorder-dominated phase in detail. On the basis of the two-replica problem, we propose a relation between the localization of stiff directed lines in 1+d dimensions and of directed lines under tension in 1+3d dimensions, which is strongly supported by identical free-energy distributions. This shows that pair interactions in the replicated Hamiltonian determine the nature of directed line localization transitions with consequences for the critical behavior of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. We support the proposed relation to directed lines via multifractal analysis, revealing an analogous Anderson transition-like scenario and a matching correlation length exponent. Furthermore, we quantify how the persistence length of the stiff directed line is reduced by disorder.

  8. Lining in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sebastian; Fischer, Helmut; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Restoring nasal lining is one of the essential parts during reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the nose. Without a sufficient nasal lining the whole reconstruction will fail. Nasal lining has to sufficiently cover the shaping subsurface framework. But in addition, lining must not compromise or even block nasal ventilation. This article demonstrates different possibilities of lining reconstruction. The use of composite grafts for small rim defects is described. The limits and technical components for application of skin grafts are discussed. Then the advantages and limitations of endonasal, perinasal, and hingeover flaps are demonstrated. Strategies to restore lining with one or two forehead flaps are presented. Finally, the possibilities and technical aspects to reconstruct nasal lining with a forearm flap are demonstrated. Technical details are explained by intraoperative pictures. Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the different approaches and should help to understand the process of decision making. It is concluded that although the lining cannot be seen after reconstruction of the cover it remains one of the key components for nasal reconstruction. When dealing with full-thickness nasal defects, there is no way to avoid learning how to restore nasal lining.

  9. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  10. Energy Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States and other countries face the problem of waste disposal in an economical, environmentally safe manner. A widely applied solution adopted by Americans is "waste to energy," incinerating the refuse and using the steam produced by trash burning to drive an electricity producing generator. NASA's computer program PRESTO II, (Performance of Regenerative Superheated Steam Turbine Cycles), provides power engineering companies, including Blount Energy Resources Corporation of Alabama, with the ability to model such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiency, exhaust loss, leakage, mechanical losses and generator losses are used to calculate the cycle heat rate. The generator output program is sufficiently precise that it can be used to verify performance quoted in turbine generator supplier's proposals.

  11. Vortex line in the unitary Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Madeira, Lucas; Vitiello, Silvio A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2016-04-06

    Here, we report diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground state of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a cylindrical container and properties of the system with a vortex-line excitation. The density profile of the system with a vortex line presents a nonzero density at the core. We also calculate the ground-state energy per particle, the superfluid pairing gap, and the excitation energy per particle. Finally, these simulations can be extended to calculate the properties of vortex excitations in other strongly interacting systems such as superfluid neutron matter using realistic nuclear Hamiltonians.

  12. Analysis of Hα( Dα) Line Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xu; Yan, Li

    2014-09-01

    The particles energy distribution is derived directly from the Hα( Dα) line shape, which is measured by two sets of OMA. The dissociative excitation of molecular is dominating when the local electron temperature is > 10 eV. The D α line shape is also simulated by the Monte-Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is discussed in SOL, the power loss from molecular dissociation is 6 × 104 kW at SOL.

  13. The SLAC NLC extraction & diagnostic line

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.; Irwin, J.; Walz, D.; Woods, M.

    1995-05-01

    A prototype extraction line for the Next Linear Collider is discussed that has several important functions that include optimizing luminosity, characterizing beam properties at the Interaction Point and transporting beams from the IP to a dump. Beam characterization includes measurements of current, position, profile, energy, polarization and low-order correlations on a bunch-to-bunch basis for feedback and stabilization. Prototype optical and diagnostic layouts are described that provide such functions. The authors also consider possibilities for e, {mu} and {gamma} secondary beam lines and dump experiments as well as energy recovery and local reuse of an assumed 10MW in each 500 GeV beam.

  14. Iron K Lines from Accretion Disks: Models for Line Production and Spectroscopic Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, Timothy; Palmeri, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Measured profiles of the iron K lines provide important dynamical information about emitting matrial in compact objects. However, much of the modeling work which has been used to infer the location and origin of line observed from AGN and galactic black hole sources is based on highly simplified assumptions about the microphysics of K line emission. In particular, many of the intrinsic line energies, widths and emissivities are based on central-field atomic calculations. We present the results of new calculations of the quantities for the entire iron isonuclear sequence, and demonstrate that the intrinsic K line spectra contain considerably more complexity than has been previously considered. We also present calculations of iron K emission and absorption spectra which include the new data, including the local spectrum radiated from an X-ray illuminated accretion disk. The implications for the interpretation of observed iron K lines from black hole sources will be discussed.

  15. Line graphs for fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warchalowski, Wiktor; Krawczyk, Malgorzata J.

    2017-03-01

    We found the Lindenmayer systems for line graphs built on selected fractals. We show that the fractal dimension of such obtained graphs in all analysed cases is the same as for their original graphs. Both for the original graphs and for their line graphs we identified classes of nodes which reflect symmetry of the graph.

  16. Product Line Systems Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Mellon University Product Line Systems Program Our mission: • create, mature, apply, and transition technology and practices • to effect... Technology Initiative) Predictable Software Construction (Predictable Assembly from Certifiable Code Initiative) Software Product Lines (Product...Presentation Software Architecture (Software Architecture Technology Initiative) Predictable Software Construction (Predictable Assembly from Certifiable

  17. Software Product Lines Essentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    improvement Technology innovation Reuse 7 Software Product Lines Linda Northrop © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Few Systems Are Unique Most...Focus was small-grained, opportunistic, and technology -driven. Results did not meet business goals. Reuse History 9 Software Product Lines Linda...servers, storage servers, network camera and scanner servers Bold Stroke Avionics Customized solutions for transportation industries E-COM Technology

  18. Attachment Line Blockage Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographs shows the attachment-line experiment model with fairing and fence for supersonic attachment-line experiments. The fairing is intended to eliminate the wing/fuselage juncture shock and align the flow for the streamlined fence. The streamlined fence traps the turbulent fuselage boundary layer to prevent turbulent contamination of the leading edge flow.

  19. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  1. Tangent Lines without Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a problem that can help high school students develop the concept of instantaneous velocity and connect it with the slope of a tangent line to the graph of position versus time. It also gives a method for determining the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial function at any point without using calculus. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Microstructural lines involving luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    Japanese National Printing Bureau has been focused upon the development of anti-copy lines for many years. The basic concept with regard to security measure lies in the merge of art and technology. On this basis, our originally developed anti-copy lines show flexibility to various security designs. Our newest anti-copy lines comprising from the Tri-Branched and Divided Lines shows clearer latent image effect compared to that of our other developed anti-copy lines. However, the anti-copy effect of security printing lines with microstructure is deteriorating due to the emergence of digital image techniques with higher resolution. In this situation, this paper introduces a new security measure comprising from luminescence and security printing lines with microstructure. It gives rise to a latent image effect under UV light due to the characteristic microstructure while visually same density. The principle advantage is that the combination of the anti-copy and luminescent feature strongly enhances its secure effect in documents. There is no necessity of two kinds of inks and any specially designed equipment to produce security documents with microstructural lines involving luminescence.

  4. Mooring Line Damping Estimation for a Floating Wind Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design. PMID:25243231

  5. Mooring line damping estimation for a floating wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design.

  6. Cell line provenance.

    PubMed

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  7. Enamel craze lines.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Enamel craze lines are a common clinical finding, especially in older patients and in patients who brux. These craze lines frequently are discolored and may present as clear in color, grey, or brown. The clinical question is, when do enamel craze lines need restoration and when should we leave them untreated? This review will look at enamel structure and the effects of occlusion, bruxing, temperature, and restorations on enamel structure. Recommendations will be made on how and when to deal with these cosmetic defects of enamel.

  8. Flow line sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  9. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  10. Firing up the front line.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, J R; Santamaria, J A

    1999-01-01

    For many organizations, achieving competitive advantage means eliciting superior performance from employees on the front line--the burger flippers, hotel room cleaners, and baggage handlers whose work has an enormous effect on customers. That's no easy task. Front line workers are paid low wages, have scant hope of advancement, and--not surprisingly--often care little about the company's performance. But then how do some companies succeed in engaging the emotional energy of rank-and-file workers? A team of researchers at McKinsey & Company and the Conference Board recently explored that question and discovered that one highly effective route is demonstrated by the U.S. Marine Corps. The Marines' approach to motivation follows the "mission, values, and pride" path, which researchers say is practical and relevant for the business world. More specifically, the authors say the Marines follow five practices: they over-invest in cultivating core value; prepare every person to lead, including front line supervisors; learn when to create teams and when to create single-leader work groups; attend to all employees, not just the top half; and encourage self-discipline as a way of building pride. The authors admit there are critical differences between the Marines and most businesses. But using vivid examples from companies such as KFC and Marriott International, the authors illustrate how the Marines' approach can be translated for corporate use. Sometimes, the authors maintain, minor changes in a company's standard operating procedure can have a powerful effect on front line pride and can result in substantial payoffs in company performance.

  11. Dielectronic recombination lines of C{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Sochi, Taha Storey, Peter J.

    2013-11-15

    The present paper presents atomic data generated to investigate the recombination lines of C II in the spectra of planetary nebulae. These data include energies of bound and autoionizing states, oscillator strengths and radiative transition probabilities, autoionization probabilities, and recombination coefficients. The R-matrix method of electron scattering theory was used to describe the C{sup 2+} plus electron system.

  12. Line Up a Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lamoine J.; Beattie, John R.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a lesson plan for teaching students the third of five steps for solving mathematical problems, "lining up a plan." Steps for teaching students to visualize the problem and draw a picture of the problem are given. (DB)

  13. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a line plot of the spectrum. The spectra here are shown for various locations on the Sun. The changes in the movie are caused by differing physical conditions in the locations. Cre...

  14. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  15. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  16. Line, Shape, Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project used with beginning high school art students that teaches them about continuous line drawing. Explains that the students create portraits of themselves, or another student, using glue, black construction paper, and chalk. (CMK)

  17. PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT RIGHT) ON GENTLE TERRACE SLOPE. A LINE POLE 75A (LEFT FOREGROUND) HAS ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  18. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  19. Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poynter, R. L.; Pickett, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a computer accessible catalogue of submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral lines in the frequency range between 0 and 10000 GHz (i.e., wavelengths longer than 30 micrometers). The catalogue can be used as a planning guide or as an aid in the identification and analysis of observed spectral lines. The information listed for each spectral line includes the frequency and its estimated error, the intensity, lower state energy, and quantum number assignment. The catalogue has been constructed using theoretical least squares fits of published spectral lines to accepted molecular models. The associated predictions and their estimated errors are based upon the resultant fitted parameters and their covariances. Future versions of this catalogue will add more atoms and molecules and update the present listings (151 species) as new data appear. The catalogue is available from the authors as a magnetic tape recorded in card images and as a set of microfiche records.

  20. Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poynter, R. L.; Pickett, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer accessible catalogue of submillimeter, millimeter and microwave spectral lines in the frequency range between 0 and 3000 GHZ (i.e., wavelengths longer than 100 mu m) is presented which can be used a planning guide or as an aid in the identification and analysis of observed spectral lines. The information listed for each spectral line includes the frequency and its estimated error, the intensity, lower state energy, and quantum number assignment. The catalogue was constructed by using theoretical least squares fits of published spectral lines to accepted molecular models. The associated predictions and their estimated errors are based upon the resultant fitted parameters and their covariances. Future versions of this catalogue will add more atoms and molecules and update the present listings (133 species) as new data appear. The catalogue is available as a magnetic tape recorded in card images and as a set of microfiche records.

  1. NLC extraction line studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.

    1999-12-09

    In this note, the authors briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then the authors describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, the authors present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  2. Energy information directory 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-28

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information.

  3. Energy information directory 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are: (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory lists most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters.

  4. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Preliminary optical design of a varied line-space spectrograph for the multi-channel detection of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra in the 280-550 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, B.S.; McKinney, W.R.; Hussain, Z.; Padmore, H.

    1996-07-01

    The optical design of a varied line-space spectrograph for the multi-channel recording of NEXAFS spectra in a single {open_quotes}snapshot{close_quotes} is proposed. The spectrograph is to be used with a bending magnet source on beamline 7.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Approximately 20 volts of spectra are simultaneously imaged across a small square of material sample at each respective K absorption edge of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Photoelectrons emitted from the material sample will be collected by an electron imaging microscope, the view field of which determines the sampling size. The sample also forms the exit slit of the optical system. This dispersive method of NEXAFS data acquisition is three to four orders of magnitude faster than the conventional method of taking data point-to-point using scanning of the grating. The proposed design is presented along with the design method and supporting SHADOW raytrace analysis.

  6. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  7. Thermal energy transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  8. Relativistic Fe Kα Line In Bright Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, Giulia; Nandra, K.; Ponti, G.

    2016-10-01

    Relativistic iron lines are expected to be an ubiquitous feature in bright AGN. However, a significant fraction of object misses a relativistic line component. We investigated the physical reasons of its absence. To this aim we studied a sample of Seyfert 1 galaxies where controversial results on the presence of a relativistic line have been previously reported. I will show that high statistics is key to reveal the line: the relativistic Fe Kalpha line is detected at >95% confidence level in observations where the counts in the 5-7 keV energy band are >4 x 10^4. We also st udied the correlation between the relativistic line and the high energy reflection continuum, and explored whether evidences of light bending exist in the data.

  9. Overview of The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Nelson, S.D.

    2006-06-29

    An overview of the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) concept and its development is presented. In the PLIA concept a pulse power driver applied to one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines a heavy ion beam pulse The motivation for its development at the IFE-VNL is the acceleration of intense, short pulse, heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The main attraction of the concept is the very low cost it promises. It might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the pulse-forming network is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication.

  10. Interaction of lightning with power distribution lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, Carlos Tomas

    Triggered-lightning experiments were conducted in 1996, 1999, and 2000 to study the responses of overhead power distribution lines to lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The lightning was artificially initiated (triggered) from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, and its current was directed to a phase conductor at midspan or at a pole near the center of the line. Experimental results and associated EMTP modeling are presented in this dissertation for the following line configurations: (1)a two-conductor, 740-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1996; (2)a four- conductor, 245-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1999; and (3)a four-conductor, 829-m overhead distribution line with 6 arrester stations in 2000. The three-phase lines tested in 1999 and 2000 were standard designs of a major Florida power company. Lightning peak currents injected into the lines ranged from 7 to 57 kA. Voltages and currents were measured at various locations along the line. Video and photographic cameras were used to image lightning channels and detect line flashovers. The significant results of the research are (1)flashovers between conductors were observed, both accompanied and not accompanied by arrester failures, (2)an arrester failed on seven of eight direct lightning strikes to the line in 2000, (3)arcing between conductors may prevent failures of arresters connected to the struck phase, (4)the bulk of the lightning current flows from the struck phase to neutral through the arresters closest to the strike point, (5)the withstand energy of the arresters can be exceeded due to the contribution from multiple strokes and/or relatively low-level, long-lasting current components, (6)the distribution of charge transferred to ground among multiple neutral grounds, which is determined by low-frequency, low-current grounding resistances is different from the

  11. Topological nodal line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chen; Weng, Hongming; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    We review the recent, mainly theoretical, progress in the study of topological nodal line semimetals in three dimensions. In these semimetals, the conduction and the valence bands cross each other along a one-dimensional curve in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone, and any perturbation that preserves a certain symmetry group (generated by either spatial symmetries or time-reversal symmetry) cannot remove this crossing line and open a full direct gap between the two bands. The nodal line(s) is hence topologically protected by the symmetry group, and can be associated with a topological invariant. In this review, (i) we enumerate the symmetry groups that may protect a topological nodal line; (ii) we write down the explicit form of the topological invariant for each of these symmetry groups in terms of the wave functions on the Fermi surface, establishing a topological classification; (iii) for certain classes, we review the proposals for the realization of these semimetals in real materials; (iv) we discuss different scenarios that when the protecting symmetry is broken, how a topological nodal line semimetal becomes Weyl semimetals, Dirac semimetals, and other topological phases; and (v) we discuss the possible physical effects accessible to experimental probes in these materials. Project partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFA0302400 and 2016YFA0300604), partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274359 and 11422428), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB921700), and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100).

  12. Nuclear structure beyond the neutron drip line. The lowest energy states in 9He via their T=5/2 isobaric analogs in 9Li

    SciTech Connect

    Uberseder, E.; Rogachev, G. V.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Koshchiy, E.; Roeder, B. T.; Alcorta, M.; Chubarian, G.; Davids, B.; Fu, C.; Hooker, J.; Jayatissa, H.; Melconian, D.; Tribble, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The level structure of the very neutron rich and unbound 9He nucleus has been the subject of significant experimental and theoretical study. Many recent works have claimed that the two lowest energy 9He states exist with spins Jπ=1/2+and Jπ=1/2-and widths on the order of 100–200 keV. These find-ings cannot be reconciled with our contemporary understanding of nuclear structure. Our present work is the first high-resolution study with low statistical uncertainty of the relevant excitation energy range in the 8He+n system, performed via a search for the T =5/2 isobaric analog states in 9Li populated through 8He+p elastic scattering. Moreover, the present data show no indication of any narrow structures. Instead, we find evidence for a broad Jπ=1/2+state in 9He located approximately 3 MeV above the neutron decay threshold.

  13. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  14. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  15. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  16. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  17. Long line coupling models.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2004-03-01

    This report assembles models for the response of a wire interacting with a conducting ground to an electromagnetic pulse excitation. The cases of an infinite wire above the ground as well as resting on the ground and buried beneath the ground are treated. The focus is on the characteristics and propagation of the transmission line mode. Approximations are used to simplify the description and formulas are obtained for the current. The semi-infinite case, where the short circuit current can be nearly twice that of the infinite line, is also examined.

  18. Pipe Line Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The array of tanks, pipes and valves in the photo below is a petroleum tank farm in Georgia, part of a petrochemical pipe line system that moves refined petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana to the mid-Eastern seaboard. The same pipes handle a number of different products, such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or fuel oil. The fluids are temporarily stored in tanks, pumped into the pipes in turn and routed to other way stations along the pipe line. The complex job of controlling, measuring and monitoring fuel flow is accomplished automatically by a computerized control and communications system which incorporates multiple space technologies.

  19. Spin line groups.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Nataša; Milivojević, Marko; Damnjanović, Milan

    2013-11-01

    Spin line groups describe the symmetries of spin arrangements in quasi-one-dimensional systems. These groups are derived for the first family of line groups. Among them, magnetic groups are singled out as a special case. Spin arrangements generated by the derived groups are first discussed for single-orbit systems and then the conclusions are extended to multi-orbit cases. The results are illustrated by the examples of a CuO2 zigzag chain, a (13)C nanotube and the hexaferrite Ba2Mg2Fe12O22. Applications to neutron diffraction and classical ground-state determination are indicated.

  20. A Best-Fit Line Using the Method of Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for calculating lines of best fit that is easy to understand and apply. Presents an example using the Arrhenius plot of a first-order reaction from which the energy of activation is calculated. (MM)

  1. Large capacitor performs as a distributed parameter pulse line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Capacitor of extended foil construction performs as a distributed parameter pulse line in which current, amplitude, and period are readily controlled. The capacitor is used as the energy storage element in a pulsed plasma accelerator.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  3. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  4. Flux cloning in Josephson transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Gulevich, D R; Kusmartsev, F V

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The "baby" vortex arises at the moment when a "mother" vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  5. On-line atomic data access

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.R.; Nash, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser- produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology nables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users of the Internet. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  6. On-line atomic data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David R.; Nash, Jeffrey K.

    1996-07-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser-produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology enables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users over the INTERNET. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  7. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  8. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  9. Sticks and Stones are Bones: The Eclectic Use of Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Craig L.

    Lines are elemental design devices that provide the primary structure for visual expressions in printed media. Gestalt principles of perception emphasize the role of the viewer, so the energy of the lines and the commercial viability of a particular design depend upon the designer's and photojournalist's understanding of both the viewer's…

  10. The Front Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    The author draws an analogy between today's school system and an assembly line, deploring the notion that all children are taught the same thing at the same time, ending in humiliation, disgrace, and failure for some, and nonchallenging academic activities for others. (KC)

  11. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  12. Automatic transmission line monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  13. Straight Line Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

  14. Building with a Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  15. Microwave spectral line listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The frequency, intensity, and identification of 9615 spectral lines belonging to 75 molecules are tabulated in order of increasing frequency. Measurements for all 75 molecules were made in the frequency range from 26500 to 40000 MHz by a computer controlled spectrometer. Measurements were also made in the 18000 to 26500 MHz range for some of the molecules.

  16. Possibilities of energy recovery and integrated energy supply for foundries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautz, J.

    1980-08-01

    The energy utilization of foundries equipped with electric melting and arc furnaces was investigated. Systems were studied which optimize heat economy. Studies of the energy balance of arc furnaces with conventional refractory linings and with water cooled linings clearly demonstrate recovery possibilities as a function of the temperature of the waste heat. Domestic water heating, central heating, scrap drying and steam generator plant applications are proposed for the recovered heat. A considerable overall improvement in efficiency can be achieved.

  17. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-27

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  18. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  19. Line-defect calibration for line-scanning projection display.

    PubMed

    An, Seungdo; Song, Jonghyeong; Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Yurlov, Victor; Ryu, Seung-Won; Kim, Eungju; Yun, Sang Kyeong

    2009-09-14

    A method of line-defect calibration for line-scanning projection display is developed to accomplish acceptable display uniformity. The line scanning display uses a line modulating imaging and scanning device to construct a two-dimensional image. The inherent line-defects in an imaging device and optical lenses are the most fatal performance-degrading factor that should be overcome to reach the basic display uniformity level. Since the human eye recognizes line defects very easily, a method that perfectly removes line defects is required. Most line imaging devices are diffractive optical devices that require a coherent light source. This particular requirement makes the calibration method of sequential single pixel measurement and correction insufficient to take out the line defects distributed on screen due to optical crosstalk. In this report, we present a calibration method using a recursively converging algorithm that successfully transforms the unacceptable line-defected images into a uniform display image.

  20. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  1. Multiple gamma lines from semi-annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Eramo, Francesco; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse E-mail: mccull@mit.edu

    2013-04-01

    Hints in the Fermi data for a 130 GeV gamma line from the galactic center have ignited interest in potential gamma line signatures of dark matter. Explanations of this line based on dark matter annihilation face a parametric tension since they often rely on large enhancements of loop-suppressed cross sections. In this paper, we pursue an alternative possibility that dark matter gamma lines could arise from ''semi-annihilation'' among multiple dark sector states. The semi-annihilation reaction ψ{sub i}ψ{sub j} → ψ{sub k}γ with a single final state photon is typically enhanced relative to ordinary annihilation ψ{sub i}ψ-bar {sub i} → γγ into photon pairs. Semi-annihilation allows for a wide range of dark matter masses compared to the fixed mass value required by annihilation, opening the possibility to explain potential dark matter signatures at higher energies. The most striking prediction of semi-annihilation is the presence of multiple gamma lines, with as many as order N{sup 3} lines possible for N dark sector states, allowing for dark sector spectroscopy. A smoking gun signature arises in the simplest case of degenerate dark matter, where a strong semi-annihilation line at 130 GeV would be accompanied by a weaker annihilation line at 173 GeV. As a proof of principle, we construct two explicit models of dark matter semi-annihilation, one based on non-Abelian vector dark matter and the other based on retrofitting Rayleigh dark matter.

  2. Energy transport and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Peres, Giovanni; Enome, Shinzo; Falciani, Roberto; Heinzel, Petr; Henoux, Jean-Claude; Mariska, John T.; Reale, Fabio; Rilee, Mike L.; Rompolt, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    We report findings concerning energy transport and dynamics in flares during the impulsive and gradual phases based on new ground-based and space observations (notably from Yohkoh). A preheating sometimes occurs during the impulsive phase. Ca XIX line shifts are confirmed to be good tracers of bulk plasma motions, although strong blue shifts are not as frequent as previously claimed. They often appear correlated with hard X-rays but, for some events, the concept that electron beams provide the whole energy input to the thermal component seems not to apply. Theory now yields: new diagnostics of low-energy proton and electric beams; accurate hydrodynamical modeling of pulse beam heating of the atmosphere; possible diagnostics of microflares (based on X-ray line ratio or on loop variability); and simulated images of chromospheric evaporation fronts. For the gradual phase, the continual reorganization of magnetic field lines over active regions determines where and when magnetic reconnection, the mechanism favored for energy release, will occur. Spatial and temporal fragmentation of the energy release, observed at different wavelengths, is considered to be a factor as well in energy transport and plasma dynamics.

  3. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  4. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  5. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Venzin, Alexander M.; Bramer, Lisa M.

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  6. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  7. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  8. Energy & Climate: Getting Quantitative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, Richard

    2011-11-01

    A noted environmentalist claims that buying an SUV instead of a regular car is energetically equivalent to leaving your refrigerator door open for seven years. A fossil-fuel apologist argues that solar energy is a pie-in-the-sky dream promulgated by na"ive environmentalists, because there's nowhere near enough solar energy to meet humankind's energy demand. A group advocating shutdown of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant claims that 70% of its electrical energy is lost in transmission lines. Around the world, thousands agitate for climate action, under the numerical banner ``350.'' Neither the environmentalist, the fossil-fuel apologist, the antinuclear activists, nor most of those marching under the ``350'' banner can back up their assertions with quantitative arguments. Yet questions about energy and its environmental impacts almost always require quantitative answers. Physics can help! This poster gives some cogent examples, based on the newly published 2^nd edition of the author's textbook Energy, Environment, and Climate.

  9. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  10. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  11. HealthLines

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink coffee a new study suggests. Researchers compared caffeine (the stimulant in coffee, tea, soda, and energy ... took a nap, another took a pill with caffeine, and the third took a dummy pill with ...

  12. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  13. Coolant line hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

  14. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  15. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  16. High speed electrical transmission line design and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Buytaert, J.; Eklund, L.; de Acedo, L. F. S.; Longstaff, I.; Naik, S.; Sullivan, S.; Wraight, K.

    2017-02-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments have unique requirements for data communication. High data speeds, combined with extreme restrictions on materials allowed, leads to custom transmission lines. This paper will present transmission line design theory, simulation and testing methods. Transmission line designs options like flexes and rigid PCBs as well as cables will be studied. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software packages simulate energy dissipation and quality of transmitted signals. The characterisation techniques of time-domain reflectometry and frequency-domain measurements are discussed and compared. Bit-error-rate testing is presented and its limitations for design discussed. Methods to improve quality, like three different types of equalization are described.

  17. ExoMol line lists - XV. A new hot line list for hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Refaie, Ahmed F.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2016-09-01

    A computed line list for hydrogen peroxide, H216O2, applicable to temperatures up to T = 1250 K is presented. A semi-empirical high-accuracy potential energy surface is constructed and used with an ab initio dipole moment surface as input TROVE to compute 7.5 million rotational-vibrational states and around 20 billion transitions with associated Einstein-A coefficients for rotational excitations up to J = 85. The resulting APTY line list is complete for wavenumbers below 6000 cm-1 (λ < 1.67 μm) and temperatures up to 1250 K. Room-temperature spectra are compared with laboratory measurements and data currently available in the HITRAN data base and literature. Our rms with line positions from the literature is 0.152 cm-1 and our absolute intensities agree better than 10 per cent. The full line list is available from the CDS data base as well as at www.exomol.com.

  18. Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

  19. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  20. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  1. Propagation of microwaves in gradient transmission lines: exactly solvable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Silin, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of microwaves along the transmission line with smoothly continuously distributed capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of an exactly solvable model. The appearance of strong heterogeneity-induced plasma-like dispersion in gradient transmission line determined by the sizes and shapes of these distributions, is visualized by means of this model. Owing to this dispersion the energy transport in the line discussed can be ensured by both travelling and evanescent microwave modes, characterized by the real and imaginary wave numbers, respectively. The reflectance spectra for microwaves, incident on this heterogeneous transition section located between two homogeneous sections of transmission line are presented, the antireflection properties of this section are demonstrated. The interference of evanescent and anti-evanescent microwave modes is shown to provide the effective weakly attenuated energy transfer in the tunneling regime. The analogy between this microwave system and gradient nano-optical photonic barrier in revealed.

  2. Application of lightning arrester on transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, K.

    1990-05-01

    A lightning arrester on transmission lines is expected to reduce lightning incidents; however, the problems of the application guide to be established such as the method of application, the treating capacity for lightning energy, and the coordination to an arc horn remain as they are. The method of application for a lightning arrester on transmission lines and its effect are examined from the viewpoint of the generating incident on transmission lines by lightning and the operating viewpoint of a lightning arrester for a 77kV system. The double circuit setup of an arrester is the best method to reduce the lightning incidents and the single circuit setup can reduce the incident rate by 40 percent preventing the flashover of the circuit on which the arrester is not set up. For installing an arrester on a short section, the flashover point can transfer to the next steel tower where the arrester is not set up, only when lightning strikes the last steel tower. Inflowing current into an arrester from a direct lightning strike is considerably large and the energy at that time becomes large but this energy can be reduced by the operation of the arrester set up on another steel tower.

  3. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  4. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  5. Iron K Lines from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present models for reprocessing of an intense flux of X-rays and gamma rays expected in the vicinity of gamma ray burst sources. We consider the transfer and reprocessing of the energetic photons into observable features in the X-ray band, notably the K lines of iron. Our models are based on the assumption that the gas is sufficiently dense to allow the microphysical processes to be in a steady state, thus allowing efficient line emission with modest reprocessing mass and elemental abundances ranging from solar to moderately enriched. We show that the reprocessing is enhanced by down-Comptonization of photons whose energy would otherwise be too high to absorb on iron, and that pair production can have an effect on enhancing the line production. Both "distant" reprocessors such as supernova or wind remnants and "nearby" reprocessors such as outer stellar envelopes can reproduce the observed line fluxes with Fe abundances 30-100 times above solar, depending on the incidence angle. The high incidence angles required arise naturally only in nearby models, which for plausible values can reach Fe line to continuum ratios close to the reported values.

  6. Capping Layer Effects on Electromigration in Narrow Cu Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, C.-K.; Rosenberg, R.

    2004-12-08

    Electromigration in narrow (bamboo-like) Cu Damascene lines capped with either a CoWP, Ta/TaN, SiNx, or SiCxNyHz layer is reviewed. A thin CoWP or Ta/TaN cap on top of the Cu line surface significantly reduces interface diffusion and improves the electromigration lifetime when compared with lines capped with SiNx or SiCxNyHz. Activation energies for electromigration were found to be 1.9-2.4 eV, 1.4 eV, and 0.85-1.1 eV for the Cu lines capped with CoWP, Ta/TaN, and SiNx or SiCxNyHz, respectively. Relationships between line width, diffusion path, void nucleation sites and lifetime are presented. Resistance changes in the CoWP coated lines were related to the solubility and diffusivity of Co in Cu such that void growth caused by electromigration was detectable only as a significant resistance increase over that caused by the Co. The solubility and diffusivity of Co in Cu was determined from line resistance measurements of thermally annealed Cu lines with CoWP caps. The activation energy of Co diffusion in Cu lines was found to be 2.2 eV, and the solubility limit of Co in Cu was found to be 18e(-0.57eV/kT) atomic percent.

  7. 45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SELAH LINE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING END OF LINE AT LARSON FRUIT COMPANY - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  8. Looking West at Line Two Pelletizing Line, Centering Furnaces and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West at Line Two Pelletizing Line, Centering Furnaces and Dewaxers of First Floor of Pellet Plant - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Pellet Plant, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  9. Rotational Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)

  10. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  11. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  12. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  13. Diatomic predissociation line widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Predissociation by rotation and curve crossing in diatomic molecules is discussed. The pattern of predissociation line widths is seen as providing a highly sensitive yardstick for the determination of unknown potential curves. In addition, the computation of such a pattern for given potential curves is considered a matter of routine, unless the predissociation happens to occur from an adiabatic potential curve. Analytic formulas are used to provide physical insight into the details of the predissociation pattern, to the extent that a direct inversion procedure is developed for determination of the repulsive potential curves for Type 1 predissociations.

  14. Read Between the Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Lynny

    2009-10-01

    When viewing it is best to have another person standing behind you reading the list of names of some of the women in the physical sciences that are placed ``between the lines''. It creates a profound contrast to the written words of the author of the letter, Robert A. Millikan. My mother-in-law, Dr. Isabelle Ganz, said she attended a physics conference during her freshman year of college at the University of Rochester and personally ``waited'' on Robert Oppenheimer. She noted that there were no women present. They were most likely in the lab.

  15. Annual energy review 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherin E.

    2004-09-30

    The Annual Energy Review 2003 is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States in modern times. Data are presented for all major forms of energy by production (extraction of energy from the earth, water, and other parts of the environment), consumption by end-user sector, trade with other nations, storage changes, and pricing. Much of the data provided covers the fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nature’s batteries; they have stored the sun’s energy over millennia past. It is primarily that captured energy that we are drawing on today to fuel the activities of the modern economy. Data in this report measure the extraordinary expansion of our use of fossil fuels from 29 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 84 quadrillion Btu in 2003. In recent years, fossil fuels accounted for 86 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. This report also records the development of an entirely new energy industry—the nuclear electric power industry. The industry got its start in this country in 1957 when the Shippingport, Pennsylvania, nuclear electric power plant came on line. Since that time, the industry has grown to account for 20 percent of our electrical output and 8 percent of all energy used in the country. Renewable energy is a third major category of energy reported in this volume. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite in supply, renewable energy is essentially inexhaustible because it can be replenished. Types of energy covered in the renewable category include conventional hydroelectric power, which is power derived from falling water; wood; waste; alcohol fuels; geothermal; solar; and wind. Together, these forms of energy accounted for about 6 percent of all U.S. energy consumption in recent years.

  16. 134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF LOW LINE AND POWER GATES, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. Majorana approach to the stochastic theory of line shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijani, Yashar; Coleman, Piers

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by recent Mössbauer experiments on strongly correlated mixed-valence systems, we revisit the Kubo-Anderson stochastic theory of spectral line shapes. Using a Majorana representation for the nuclear spin we demonstrate how to recast the classic line-shape theory in a field-theoretic and diagrammatic language. We show that the leading contribution to the self-energy can reproduce most of the observed line-shape features including splitting and line-shape narrowing, while the vertex and the self-consistency corrections can be systematically included in the calculation. This approach permits us to predict the line shape produced by an arbitrary bulk charge fluctuation spectrum providing a model-independent way to extract the local charge fluctuation spectrum of the surrounding medium. We also derive an inverse formula to extract the charge fluctuation from the measured line shape.

  18. Energy Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  19. World Energy Data Systems (WENDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lareau, William E.

    The World Energy Data System (WENDS) allows qualified users on-line access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. Information is arranged on textual pages and available by means of a simple accessing procedure. Described in this report are the WENDS concept and approach, the…

  20. 76 FR 58263 - Kenai Pipe Line Company; Tesoro Alaska Company; Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kenai Pipe Line Company; Tesoro Alaska Company; Tesoro Logistics Operations... Company (Tesoro Alaska), and Tesoro Logistics, LLC (TLO) (collectively, Tesoro) filed a Request...

  1. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  2. Identifying Fractions on Number Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, George W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the ways students represented fractions on number lines and the effects of instruction on those representations. The instruction primarily concerned representing fractions and ordering fractions on number lines. (Author/PK)

  3. Bee Line BR-1 Racer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Bee Line BR-1 Racer: The Bee Line BR-1 was a racing aircraft used to compete in the 1922 Pulitzer Air Race. The aircraft and its sister ship, the Bee Line BR-2, came to Langley and the NACA in 1926. The BR-1 is shown in the NACA hangar at Langley Field in early 1926.

  4. The Median-Median Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Graphing bivariate data in a scatter plot and drawing an approximate line of best fit for the data have become commonly recommended activities for middle school and high school students. The graphing calculator has provided a mechanism for students both to approximate a best-fit line and to calculate the best-fit line using a built-in option. Two…

  5. The Intermediate-line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Czerny, B.; Hryniewicz, K.; Ferland, G. J.

    2016-11-01

    We show that the recently observed suppression of the gap between the broad-line region (BLR) and the narrow-line region (NLR) in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be fully explained by an increase of the gas density in the emitting region. Our model predicts the formation of the intermediate-line region (ILR) that is observed in some Seyfert galaxies by the detection of emission lines with intermediate-velocity FWHM ˜ 700-1200 km s-1. These lines are believed to be originating from an ILR located somewhere between the BLR and NLR. As was previously proved, the apparent gap is assumed to be caused by the presence of dust beyond the sublimation radius. Our computations with the use of the cloudy photoionization code show that the differences in the shape of the spectral energy distribution from the central region of AGNs do not diminish the apparent gap in the line emission in those objects. A strong discontinuity in the line emission versus radius exists for all lines at the dust sublimation radius. However, increasing the gas density to ˜{10}11.5 cm-3 at the sublimation radius provides the continuous line emission versus radius and fully explains the recently observed lack of apparent gap in some AGNs. We show that such a high density is consistent with the density of upper layers of an accretion disk atmosphere. Therefore, the upper layers of the disk atmosphere can give rise to the formation of observed emission-line clouds.

  6. On a front line.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.

    1995-01-01

    Like the patients, doctors in Sarajevo depend largely on humanitarian aid; everyone in the public sector has worked without pay for almost three years. The hospital is on a front line; yet the psychiatric department continues to function, even conducting large scale studies of psychosocial aspects of war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The type of inpatient morbidity and treatment patterns have changed. A plethora of psychosocial rehabilitation programmes has emerged, including counselling, drop in centres, and attending to special needs of elderly people, schoolchildren, and women. The most prominent psychological symptoms were exhaustion at the prospect of a third winter of war and bewilderment at the Western stereotype of Bosnians as Muslim fundamentalists. Images p1052-a p1053-a PMID:7728062

  7. Open field lines instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzoli, R. |

    1995-09-01

    The results of some recent theoretical papers dealing with flute-like instabilities in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with limiter configuration, where the magnetic field intersects conducting walls, are briefly recalled. Attention is then paid to the instability driven by the electron temperature gradient across the field in conjunction with the formation of the Debye sheath at the boundary, and to the effects due to the inclination of the end walls with respect to the magnetic field. When a divertor configuration is considered, important modifications are found owing to the strong deformations of the flux tubes passing near the {ital x}-point, which contrast the onset of flute-like perturbations, and to the stochasticity of field lines that can be excited by magnetic field perturbations. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

    1992-02-01

    The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

  9. Torque balance at a line of contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukman, Dirk Jan

    2003-03-01

    Kerins and Boiteux (Physica A 117 (1983) 575) were the first to apply Noether's theorem to the van der Waals theory of non-uniform fluids. In particular, for a three-phase line of contact, they showed that the translation invariance of the variational integral for the excess free energy implies a balance of forces at the three-phase line. In this paper we consider the implications of the rotation invariance of the variational integral for the excess free energy. Intuitively, one would expect this invariance to lead to an equation of torque balance, and this is indeed the case-the total moment of the forces around the line of contact is zero. In the course of the calculation it will be necessary to find an expression for the surface of tension for a model with a multi-component density, which is a simple extension of earlier work by Fisher and Wortis (Phys. Rev. 29 (1984) 6252). At the same time, we extend to multi-component densities those authors’ results for the Tolman length and the equimolar surface, making contact with a more general calculation by Groenewold and Bedeaux (Physica A 214 (1995) 356).

  10. Renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  11. Design of ITER Relief Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, N.; Choukekar, K.; Jadon, M.; Sarkar, B.; Joshi, B.; Kanzaria, H.; Gehani, V.; Vyas, H.; Pandya, U.; Panjwani, R.; Badgujar, S.; Monneret, E.

    2017-02-01

    The ITER Cryogenic system is one of the most complex cryogenic systems in the world. It includes roughly 5 km of cryogenic transfer line (cryolines) having large number of layout singularities in terms of bends at odd angles and branches. The relief lines are particularly important cryolines as they collect the helium from outlet of all process safety valves of the cryogenic clients and transfers it back to cryoplant. The total length of ITER relief lines is around 1.6 km with process pipe size varying from DN 50 to DN 200. While some part of relief lines carries warm helium for the recovery system, most part of the relief line is vacuum jacketed cryoline which carries cold helium from the clients. The final detailed design of relief lines has been completed. The paper describes the major input data and constraints for design of relief lines, design steps, flexibility and structural analysis approach and major design outcome.

  12. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  13. Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  14. Energy Auditing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Energy Engineers, Atlanta, GA.

    Presented is a discussion of various aspects of policy and implementation of energy auditing at various levels of government. Included are 11 chapters dealing with: (1) a national energy plan, (2) state certification for energy auditors, (3) survey instrumentation, (4) energy management economics, (5) Maine school energy auditing, (6) energy…

  15. Variable Iron K(alpha) Lines in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Gelbord, J.; Yaqoob, T.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We find that variability of the iron K alpha line is common in Seyfert 1 galaxies. Using data from the ASCA archive for objects that have been observed more than once during the mission, we study the time-averaged spectra from individual observations, thereby probing variability on timescales that range from days to years. Since the statistics of the data do not warrant searches for line variability in terms of a complex physical model, we use a simple Gaussian to model the gross shape of the line and then use the centroid energy, intensity, and equivalent width as robust indicators of changes in the line profile. We find that approximately 70% of Seyfert 1 galaxies (10 out of 15) show variability in at least one of these parameters: the centroid energy, intensity, and equivalent width vary in six, four, and eight sources, respectively. Because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, limited sampling, and time averaging, we consider these results to represent lower limits to the rate of incidence of variability. In most cases changes in the line do not appear to track changes in the continuum. In particular, we find no evidence for variability of the line intensity in NGC 4151, suggesting an origin in a region larger than the putative accretion disk, where most of the iron line has been thought to originate. Mrk 279 is investigated on short timescales. The time-averaged effective line energy (as measured by the Gaussian center energy, which is weighted by emission in the entire line profile) is 6.5 keV in the galaxy rest frame. As the continuum flux increases by 20% in a few hours, the Fe K line responds within approximately 10,000 seconds with the effective line energy increasing by 0.22 keV (approximately 10,500 kilometers per second). We also examine the ROSAT PSPC spectrum of Mrk 279 but find inconsistencies with ASCA. Problems with the ASCA and ROSAT calibration that affect simultaneous spectral fits at low energies are discussed in an appendix.

  16. Status of the PXIE Low Energy Beam Transport Line

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel; Andrews, Richard; Chen, Alex; Hanna, Bruce; Scarpine, Victor; Shemyakin, Alexander; Steimel, Jim; D'Arcy, Richard

    2014-07-01

    A CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac (a.k.a. PIP-II) is envisaged as a possible path for upgrading Fermilab’s injection complex [1]. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator (a.k.a. PXIE) [2] is under construction. The warm part of this accelerator comprises a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2m-long LEBT, a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, and a MEBT that feeds the first cryomodule. In addition to operating in the nominal CW mode, the LEBT should be able to produce a pulsed beam for both PXIE commissioning and modelling of the front-end nominal operation in the pulsed mode. Concurrently, it needs to provide effective means of inhibiting beam as part of the overall machine protection system. A peculiar feature of the present LEBT design is the capability of using the ~1m-long section immediately preceding the RFQ in two regimes of beam transport dynamics: neutralized and space charge dominated. This paper introduces the PXIE LEBT, reports on the status of the ion source and LEBT installation, and presents the first beam measurements.

  17. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as ‘cell line’, ‘cell line cell’, ‘cell line culturing’, and ‘mortal’ vs. ‘immortal cell line cell’. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO’s utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  18. Quasar Absorption Line Survey - Cycle 4 High

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, John

    1994-01-01

    The Absorption Line Survey of bright quasars provides a homogeneous data base for studying fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of gaseous systems in the universe. The initial results determine at small redshifts the number densities of Ly-ALPHA systems, of metal-lines and extragalactic halos, of Lyman-limit systems, of associated absorption systems, and the shapes and intensities of quasar emission lines and spectral energy distributions. The survey reveals that much of the sky is covered by high or very high velocity metal-line clouds present in the Galactic halo. A larger sample, which includes the requested Cycle 3 observations, is required to answer many important questions. For example, what is the correlation function of Ly-ALPHA systems at small redshifts? What fraction of the metal, the Ly-ALPHA, and the Ly-limit systems are associated with galaxies and what are the characteristic sizes of the outer gaseous regions of different types of galaxies? Do absorbing systems show evidence of the large-scale structure seen with galaxies and clusters of galaxies? The observations requested in Cycle 3 will extend the region of coverage of the Key Project sample from the redshift range of z = 0.0 to 1.0 (Cycles 1& 2) to z = 0.0 to 1.6 (Cycles 1-3). THIS FILE CONTAINS THE HIGH PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS FROM CYCLES 2 and 3 WHICH WERE NOT COMPLETED IN THOSE CYCLES.

  19. Energy overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slone, H. O.

    1980-01-01

    The experience, capabilities, and facilities being utilized at NASA Lewis in support of energy programs conducted by the Department of Energy and other agencies are discussed. Background information is given regarding NASA's involvement in solving energy problems.

  20. Energy Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy models characterize the energy system, its evolution, and its interactions with the broader economy. The energy system consists of primary resources, including both fossil fuels and renewables; power plants, refineries, and other technologies to process and convert these r...

  1. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  2. On multiscale moving contact line theory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaofan; Fan, Houfu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiscale moving contact line (MMCL) theory is presented and employed to simulate liquid droplet spreading and capillary motion. The proposed MMCL theory combines a coarse-grained adhesive contact model with a fluid interface membrane theory, so that it can couple molecular scale adhesive interaction and surface tension with hydrodynamics of microscale flow. By doing so, the intermolecular force, the van der Waals or double layer force, separates and levitates the liquid droplet from the supporting solid substrate, which avoids the shear stress singularity caused by the no-slip condition in conventional hydrodynamics theory of moving contact line. Thus, the MMCL allows the difference of the surface energies and surface stresses to drive droplet spreading naturally. To validate the proposed MMCL theory, we have employed it to simulate droplet spreading over various elastic substrates. The numerical simulation results obtained by using MMCL are in good agreement with the molecular dynamics results reported in the literature. PMID:26345090

  3. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-06-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project “Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology” at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube-based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report discusses the validation studies performed to establish the degree of accuracy of the computer modeling methods current used to simulate the response of boron-lined tubes. This is the precursor to developing models for the uranium neutron coincidence collar under Task 2 of this project.

  4. Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system

    SciTech Connect

    Figotin, Alexander; Reyes, Guillermo

    2013-11-15

    We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube due to J. R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

  5. Bloch state tomography using Wilson lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tracy; Duca, Lucia; Reitter, Martin; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene; Endres, Manuel; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high-energy theories, quantum information, and condensed-matter physics. In condensed-matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multiband systems. Using an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms loaded in a honeycomb optical lattice, we realize strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observe an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals the band geometry. Our technique enables a full determination of band eigenstates, Berry curvature, and topological invariants, including single- and multiband Chern and Z2 numbers.

  6. Energy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. Bruce

    2007-10-01

    Without energy (E) there is nothing, m=E/c^2. Without energy the various global economies will collapse. In fact, these economies generally require more energy every year. Where will this energy come from? What are the expected impacts of the various energy sources & uses on the environment? Brief summary answers to these questions are presented, and a plea is made for more energy R&D at our national laboratories and within the industrial community.

  7. Energy flows in rock mass under tidal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klishin, SV; Revuzhenko, AF

    2017-02-01

    Under analysis is the stress state of an elliptical domain under varying loading conditions. The energy flow lines are plotted. The paper demonstrates the effect of the boundary conditions on the shape of the flow lines.

  8. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  9. Recombination rates, Resonance Strengths and Line Profiles of Dielectronic Satellite Lines of He-like Ca, Fe, Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, S. N.; Oelgoetz, J.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2009-03-01

    Dielectronic satellite (DES) lines arising from the radiative decay of ions with excited cores are used as diagnostics of the plasma conditions found in astronomical objects. In collisional plasmas, the most common DES lines are due to an electron being dielectronically captured by a He-like ion, forming a 3-electron, Li-like ion in a doubly excited, autoionizing state (i.e. 1s2l2l' (KLL), 1s2l3l' (KLM), etc). These states can decay to bound levels by emitting a photon, completing a process known as dielectronic recombination (DR). The autoionizing KLL complex gives rise to 22 DES lines, labeled `a' through `v', via transitions of the type 1s2l2l'→ls^22l. These lines are seen at energies lower than the He-like resonance line (1s2p(^1P^0_1)→ 1s^2(^1S_0) - which is also referred to as the `w' line). The unified recombination method, which treats photoionization and electron-ion recombination in a manner which couples autoionizing states to the continuum, has been extended to study the DES lines of the highly charged ions Ca XVIII, Fe XXIV, and Ni XXVI. In contrast to obtaining a single energy point for a DES line (as is the case for existing theoretical approaches based on the isolated resonance approximation - IRA), the unified method: (i) provides detailed profiles of DES lines, including the blending of lines which occurs in nature, (ii) includes the background contribution of radiative recombination (RR), and (iii) provides a simple relation between the resonance strengths and recombination rates of narrow lines which is useful for astrophysical modeling.

  10. On the 630 nm red-line pulsating aurora: Red-line Emission Geospace Observatory observations and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Donovan, E.; Jackel, B.; Spanswick, E.; Gillies, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we present observations of red-line (630 nm) pulsating auroras using the camera system of Red-line Emission Geospace Observatory (REGO), during a geomagnetic storm interval. We also develop a time-dependent model to simulate the 630 nm auroral pulsations in response to modulated precipitation inputs and compare the model outputs with REGO observations. Key results are as follows. (1) Notwithstanding the long radiative timescale of the 630 nm emission, red-line auroras can still be modulated by pulsating electron precipitations and feature noticeable oscillations, which constitute the red-line pulsating auroral phenomena. (2) In a majority of cases, the oscillation magnitude of red-line pulsating auroras is substantially smaller than that of the concurrent pulsating auroras seen on Thermal Emission Imaging System whitelight images (generally dominated by 557.7 nm green-line emissions). Under certain circumstances, e.g., when the characteristic energy of the precipitation is very high, some of the pulsating auroras may not show discernible imprints on red line. (3) The altitude range contributing most to the red-line pulsating aurora is systematically lower than that of the steady-state red-line aurora, since the slower O(1D) loss rate at higher altitudes tends to suppress the oscillation range of the 630 nm emission rate. (4) We find that some pulsating auroral patches are characterized by enhanced red-to-green color ratio during their on time, hinting that the percentage increase of the red-line auroral component exceeds that of the green-line auroral component for those patches. We suggest that those special patches might possibly be associated with lower energy (<1 keV) electron precipitations.

  11. The Narrow-Line Region of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Binette, Luc; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Donzelli, Carlos J.

    2000-08-01

    This work studies the optical emission-line properties and physical conditions of the narrow-line region (NLR) of seven narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1's) for which high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations were available. The resolution is 340 km s-1 (at Hα) over the wavelength interval 3700-9500 Å, enabling us to separate the broad and narrow components of the permitted emission lines. Our results show that the flux carried out by the narrow component of Hβ is, on average, 50% of the total line flux. As a result, the [O III] λ5007/Hβ ratio emitted in the NLR varies from 1 to 5, instead of the universally adopted value of 10. This has strong implications for the required spectral energy distribution that ionizes the NLR gas. Photoionization models that consider a NLR composed of a combination of matter-bounded and ionization-bounded clouds are successful at explaining the low [O III] λ5007/Hβ ratio and the weakness of low-ionization lines of NLS1's. Variation of the relative proportion of these two type of clouds nicely reproduces the dispersion of narrow-line ratios found among the NLS1 sample. Assuming similar physical model parameters of both NLS1's and the normal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, we show that the observed differences of emission-line ratios between these two groups of galaxies can be explained, to a first approximation, in terms of the shape of the input ionizing continuum. Narrow emission-line ratios of NLS1's are better reproduced by a steep power-law continuum in the EUV-soft X-ray region, with spectral index α~-2. Flatter spectral indices (α~-1.5) match the observed line ratios of NGC 5548 but are unable to provide a good match to the NLS1 ratios. This result is consistent with ROSAT observations of NLS1's, which show that these objects are characterized by steeper power-law indices than those of Seyfert 1 galaxies with strong broad optical lines. Based on observations made at CASLEO. Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito

  12. Erosion on a line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Sean D.

    2010-03-01

    An erosion model is proposed to calculate erosion rates for plane-strain models in which the Earth's surface is represented on a line. The fundamentals of river erosion networks are captured by two principles, Hack's Law, which describes the drainage area structure of river network and a stream-power erosion law, which describes the rate of incision of a river. For a simple morphology of parallel transverse rivers with rectangular drainage basins, this allows the earth's surface to be parameterized by two heights: the trunk stream channel height and the interfluvial ridge height. The resulting expressions are solved for the simple cases of constant uplift rate and a constant mean slope as occurs in critical wedge problems. In the latter case, the uplift rate is variable and changes in space so that the trunk channel elevation and the interfluvial ridge elevation average to maintain a constant mean slope. A general, numerical solution is presented for application to any numerical model with arbitrary surface velocity, variable rock erodibility and precipitation. This algorithm is coupled to a plane-strain, plastic-deformation model to demonstrate the utility of the model.

  13. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  14. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  15. Simulation of the 'negative temperature' instability for line vortices.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G.; Montgomery, D.

    1972-01-01

    In previous numerical solution to the continuum Navier-Stokes equations, a 'negative temperature' instability for the two-dimensional motions of interacting line vortices was observed. The experiment is repeated for a discrete vortex model, thus obtaining a numerical simulation of the 'negative temperature' instability for a large number of discrete line vortices. Typical results which are shown, are thought to lie above and below the energy threshold for negative temperature instability.

  16. Radiant energy collector

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  17. Energy Theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-05-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical scenario, and participants move from one region to another to demonstrate the flow of energy among objects. (See Figs. 1, 3, and 4.) The goal of Energy Theater is for students to track energy transfers and transformations in real-world energy scenarios while employing the principle of energy conservation and disambiguating matter and energy. Unlike most representations of energy, which are static before-and-after accounting schemes for energy changes, Energy Theater is a dynamic representation that provides a natural stepping stone toward the more advanced ideas of energy density, energy current, and a continuity equation relating them. The fact that conservation of energy is embedded in the representation encourages students to "find the energy" in situations where it may be imperceptible. The rules of Energy Theater are listed in Fig. 2.

  18. Energy information directory 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, state, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are: (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory lists some of the Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It includes those DOE offices which deal with the public or public information. For the purposes of this publication, each entry has been given a numeric identification symbol. The index found in the back of this publication uses these identification numbers to refer the reader to relevant entries.

  19. Packings of a charged line on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas

    2008-12-01

    We find equilibrium configurations of open and closed lines of charge on a sphere, and track them with respect to varying sphere radius. Closed lines transition from a circle to a spiral-like shape through two low-wave-number bifurcations—“baseball seam” and “twist”—which minimize Coulomb energy. The spiral shape is the unique stable equilibrium of the closed line. Other unstable equilibria arise through tip-splitting events. An open line transitions smoothly from an arc of a great circle to a spiral as the sphere radius decreases. Under repulsive potentials with faster-than-Coulomb power-law decay, the spiral is tighter in initial stages of sphere shrinkage, but at later stages of shrinkage the equilibria for all repulsive potentials converge on a spiral with uniform spacing between turns. Multiple stable equilibria of the open line are observed.

  20. Synthetic CA II Triplet Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdelyi, M. M.; Barbuy, B.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se hicieron calculos de sintesis del espectro en el ititervalo de longitud de onda - 8700 A, ara ? oder verificar el comporta- mien to de diferentes lineas moleculares y at5micas como funci5n de los parametros esteldres de temperatura, gravedad y metalicidad. El espec- tro sintetico ha sido generado para:(a) todas las , (b) solamente de CN, (c) solamente de TiO, y (d) solamente lineas at6micas. Abstract. Spectrum synthesis calculations are carried out in the wavelength interval X 8300 - 8700 A, in order to verify the behaviour of different molecular and atomic lines as a function of the stellar para meters temperature, gravity and metallicity. Synthetic spectra were ge nerated for: (a) all lines, (b) only CN lines, (c) only TiO lines, and (d) only atomic lines Key `td6: LINE-PROFILE - ST S-AThOSPHERES

  1. Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research.

  2. Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...14. ABSTRACT A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the...846-9101 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line David M. French, Brad W. Hoff

  3. Dielectronic Satellite Lines of Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Laska, Alexander; Lepson, Jaan K.

    2015-08-01

    L-shell dielectronic satellite lines were recently identified in the spectrum of Capella observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory [1,2]. Although the observed features were weak, they can add to the background between the prominent lines, as discussed for the case of Fe XVIII [1]. Moreover, the Fe XVII dielectronic satellite, i.e., Fe XVI lines with a so-called spectator electron n’l (with n'=4), have been observed on the long-wavelength side of the dominant 2p-3d transitions in Fe XVII [2]. They were used to infer a formation electron temperature of log(T) = 6.67 ± 0.026 K. In addition, we have recently carried out a theoretical study of the dielectronic satellites with n’=3 [3] that provided greatly improved theoretical wavelengths. We found that most of these lines are not produced purely by dielectronic recombination. Instead they are also formed by collisional excitation making them less reliable as an electron temperature. We are now augmenting the observations and theoretical studies with laboratory measurements designed to determine the positions and strengths of the n’=3 and n’=4 dielectronic satellite lines in the Fe XVII spectrum [4]. Our measurements of the dielectronic recombination satellite lines are performed on Livermore electron beam ion trap. By sweeping the electron beam energy we have observed resonances with spectator electrons n’ = 3 and 4 as well as n’ ≥ 5. The resulting x-ray spectrum was observed using two crystal spectrometers. All data were accumulated using event-mode tagging of a given x-ray photon with the value of the beam energy. We therefore were able to obtain x-ray spectra associated with each set of resonances.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis contract NNX12AH84G.[1] J. Clementson and P. Beiersdorfer, ApJ, 763, 54 (2013)[2] P. Beiersdorfer et al., in ASP Conf. Series, Vol. 448, ed

  4. Concentric fuel line system

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, A.N.; Parker, E.G.

    1993-08-31

    In a fuel injection type of fuel distribution system for motor vehicles, a connector structure is described comprising, in combination: an integral fuel line formed of an innermost tube having a first duct defined therein for carrying a first fuel component of the fuel distribution system, an intermediate tube being spaced from and surrounding the innermost tube so as to form a second duct there between for carrying a second fuel component of the fuel distribution system, and an outer tube being spaced from and surrounding the intermediate tube so as to form a third duct there between for carrying a third fuel component of the fuel distribution system; manifold means having a first coupling union, a second coupling union disposed upstream of the first coupling union, and a third coupling union disposed upstream of the second coupling union; the first coupling union including a first axial bore for receiving one end of the innermost tube, and a first passageway in fluid communication with the first duct; the second coupling union including a second axial bore for receiving one end of the intermediate tube, and a second passageway in fluid communication with the second duct; the third coupling union including a third axial bore for receiving one end of the outer tube, and a third passageway in fluid communication with the third duct; the first coupling union having a first mounting hole, extending transversely to the first axial bore, for receiving first screw so that an outer peripheral edge portion of the first screw is tangentially aligned with an outer circumferential wall portion of the innermost tube so as to mechanically and positively secure the one end thereof with the first axial bore; the second coupling union including a second mounting hole, extending transversely to the second axial bore, for receiving a second screw.

  5. Line mixing in H broadening of the Na 3P-3D lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Fortún Stoker, J.; Dickinson, A. S.

    2003-04-01

    Line mixing of the Na 3P-3D lines broadened by atomic hydrogen has been calculated in the impact approximation. The required S-matrix elements are calculated using a time-dependent close-coupling rectilinear-path approximation, the ab initio NaH potentials used by Leininger et al (2000 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33 1805) being employed. At energies of less than 25 000 cm-1, the real and imaginary parts of the mixing cross sections were found to be about 50 and about 25 times smaller, respectively, than the broadening coefficients, while at about 105 cm-1, the real and imaginary parts were found to be smaller in magnitude by factors of about 200 and 10, respectively. On thermally averaging the cross sections, the line-shape parameters leading to mixing were found to be 50-100 times smaller than the corresponding broadening coefficients for the isolated lines. For a number density of 1016 - 1017 cm-3 and temperature of 6000 K, the mixed and unmixed line shapes were found to deviate by less than 3% over the range of frequencies for which the application of the impact approximation was valid.

  6. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  7. Power transmission line monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1993-08-17

    A method for monitoring the sag of an overhead power transmission line comprising the steps of: measuring the tension of the power line; producing an electrical signal representative of the tension measurement; processing said electrical signal in accordance with a predetermined tension-sag relationship to produce a second signal which is a function of sag of the power line; transmitting said second electrical signal to a distant location in a predetermined transmission mode; receiving the second signal at the distant location whereby current in the power line is adjusted in accordance with the received second signal.

  8. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  9. 132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; POWER GATES FOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. Line of Dirac Nodes in Hyperhoneycomb Lattices.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kieran; Uchoa, Bruno; Glatzhofer, Daniel T

    2015-07-10

    We propose a family of structures that have "Dirac loops," closed lines of Dirac nodes in momentum space, on which the density of states vanishes linearly with energy. Those lattices all possess the planar trigonal connectivity present in graphene, but are three dimensional. We show that their highly anisotropic and multiply connected Fermi surface leads to quantized Hall conductivities in three dimensions for magnetic fields with toroidal geometry. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, we show that those structures have topological surface states. We discuss the feasibility of realizing the structures as new allotropes of carbon.

  11. Line of Dirac Nodes in Hyperhoneycomb Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Kieran; Uchoa, Bruno; Glatzhofer, Daniel T.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a family of structures that have "Dirac loops," closed lines of Dirac nodes in momentum space, on which the density of states vanishes linearly with energy. Those lattices all possess the planar trigonal connectivity present in graphene, but are three dimensional. We show that their highly anisotropic and multiply connected Fermi surface leads to quantized Hall conductivities in three dimensions for magnetic fields with toroidal geometry. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, we show that those structures have topological surface states. We discuss the feasibility of realizing the structures as new allotropes of carbon.

  12. Animation of flocks flying in line formations.

    PubMed

    Klotsman, Marina; Tal, Ayellet

    2012-01-01

    We provide a biologically motivated technique for modeling and animating bird flocks in flight, which produces plausible and realistic-looking flock animations. While most previous approaches have focused on animating cluster formations, this article introduces a technique for animating flocks that fly in certain patterns, so-called line formations. We distinguish between the behavior of such flocks during initiation and their behavior during steady flight. Our simulation of the initiation stage is rule-based and incorporates an artificial bird model. Our simulation of the steady-flight stage combines a data-driven approach and an energy-savings model.

  13. Energy Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  14. Energy Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of three energy experts on the issue of school facility energy management. The experts respond to the following questions: will energy deregulation occur in all 50 states and will it provide real savings; and will the majority of districts hire ESCOs to manage their energy needs? (GR)

  15. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  16. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  17. Velocity profiles of high-excitation molecular hydrogen lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Profiles of three lines of molecular hydrogen near 2.2 microns, originating from widely spaced energy levels, have been measured at a resolution of 32 km/s at Peak 1 in the Orion molecular outflow. The three lines, 1 - 0 S(1), 2 - 1 S(1), and 3 - 2 S(3), are found to have identical profiles. This result rules out any significant contribution to the population of the higher energy levels of molecular hydrogen at Peak 1 by fluorescence, and is generally consistent with emission from multiple J-type shocks.

  18. First Penning Trap Mass Measurements beyond the Proton Drip Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rauth, C.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mukherjee, M.; Rahaman, S.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Chaudhuri, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Di, Z.; Plass, W. R.; Eliseev, S.; Vorobjev, G.; Habs, D.

    2008-01-11

    The masses of six neutron-deficient rare holmium and thulium isotopes close to the proton drip line were determined with the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer. For the first time the masses of the proton-unbound isotopes {sup 144,145}Ho and {sup 147,148}Tm were directly measured. The proton separation energies were derived from the measured mass values and compared to predictions from mass formulas. The new values of the proton separation energies are used to determine the location of the proton drip line for holmium and thulium more accurately.

  19. PHENIX on-line and off-line computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, S. S.; Chujo, T.; Desmond, E. J.; Ewell, L.; Ghosh, T. K.; Haggerty, J. S.; Ichihara, T.; Jacak, B. V.; Johnson, S. C.; Kehayias, H.-J.; Lauret, J.; Maguire, C. F.; Messer, M.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitchell, J. T.; Morrison, D. P.; Ojha, I. D.; Pinkenburg, C. H.; Pollack, M.; Pope, K.; Purschke, M. L.; Sorensen, S.; Sourikova, I.; Thomas, T. L.; Velkovsky, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Witzig, C.; Yokkaichi, S.; Zajc, W. A.; PHEN. I. X. Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    Data handling in PHENIX is carried out by the On-Line Computing System (ONCS) and Off-Line Computing System (Off-Line). ONCS provides the overall control and monitoring of the front-end electronics, trigger and data acquisition system and detector ancillary systems. It configures and initializes the on-line system, monitors and controls the data flow, coordinates calibration processes, interlocks the data acquisition process with the slow control subsystems and performs a number of other functions. ONCS uses CORBA software to monitor and control the hardware. Off-Line provides all aspects of data handling not directly connected to the collection of data and monitoring, such as event simulation and reconstruction, data analysis and information management. The impact of the unprecedented data volumes on the design is presented, along with a detailed discussion of the tasks and methods of simulating, obtaining and monitoring the data.

  20. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint... Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service...

  1. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  2. Vacuum-jacketed line spacer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houte, F. A.; Mckee, H. B.; Patten, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    Device has three integral, equally spaced leaf springs. Springs separate outer vacuum jacket from fluid carrying line, yet minimize conductive heat leaks and liquid boiloff. One-piece heat spring has sufficient flexibility to accommodate differential thermal expansion of inner and outer line.

  3. Characteristic impedance of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function for a current embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to analyze microstrip lines at millimeter wave frequencies. The dyadic Green's function accounts accurately for fringing fields and dielectric cover over the microstrip line. Using Rumsey's reaction concept, an expression for the characteristic impedance is obtained. The numerical results are compared with other reported results.

  4. Army Software Product Line Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    2009 Carnegie Mellon University Linda Northrop Director Research, Technology , and System Solutions Program Software Engineering Institute Carnegie...Acquisition Support (ASP) Research, Technology , and System Solutions (RTSS) • Architecture-Centric Engineering • Product Line Practice • System of... Technology , and System Solutions (RTSS) • Architecture-Centric Engineering • Product Line Practice • System of Systems Practice • System of Systems

  5. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, J.; Churchill, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Every parcel of gas along the line of sight to a distant QUASAR will selectively absorb certain wavelengths of continuum light of the quasar due to the presence of the various chemical elements in the gas. Through the analysis of these quasar absorption lines we can study the spatial distributions, motions, chemical enrichment and ionization histories of gaseous structures from REDSHIFT five unti...

  6. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  7. Venus's Mysterious Oxygen Green Line: An Auroral Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Candace L.; Chanover, Nancy; Slanger, Tom; Molaverdikhani, Karan; Hausler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia; Peter, Kerstin; Witasse, Olivier; Blelly, Pierre-Louise; Garcia-Munoz, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Observations of nightglow (upper atmospheric emission from atoms and molecules on the nightside of a planet) allow for a multifaceted study of planetary atmospheres. Information on winds, chemistry, and solar effects is gained by observing temporal and spacial variation in nightglow intensity. One of the brightest nightglow features on Earth is the OI (1S) 557.7 nm line (oxygen green line). This emission is primarily due to photodissociation/transport but is also seen in the aurora as electron precipitation.Unlike Earth, the Venusian green line is highly temporally variable. The chemistry and mechanisms responsible are still unknown. We observe the Venusian nightglow before and after solar flares, which produce large amounts of EUV emission, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) impacts, which inject a large number of higher energy charged particles in the the Venusian atmosphere. We consistently detect green line emission after large charged particles injections from CMEs. However we do not detectthe OI (1D) red line at 630.0 nm, which is quenched below 150 km. We propose that the Venusian green line is an auroral-type emission due to electron precipitation and is occurring deep in the atmosphere, near 125 km.To investigate how CMEs and solar flares effect the electron energy, flux, and density in the Venusian nightside atmosphere, we compare data taken by ASPERA and ELS onboard Venus Express (VEX) before and after solar storms. We find that both electron energy and flux increase after CMEs, but onlyflux increases after solar flares. Additionally, the V1 ionospheric layer at 125 km increases in electron density while the V2 at 150 km decreases in density after CMEs but not after solar flares. We model the nightside Venusian ionosphere using the observed electron energy and fluxes from VEX in an effort to constrain the chemical processes and mechanisms responsible for green line emission. We will present the results of our ground-based observations and modeling.

  8. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  9. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  10. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    PubMed Central

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence–accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up. PMID:27703695

  11. New transmission lines: The challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Pierobon, J.R. |

    1995-03-15

    Increasing competition in the electric power industry is likely to entail a little-recognized major complication---difficulty in siting of transmission lines. The stakes will often be greater, the competition could be stronger, and both put a premium on finding a process that can win public acceptance cost-effectively. There are at least three major reasons why siting new lines will become more difficult: (1) More communities in the paths of the new lines will not be served by them and will see no benefit to offset the nuisance, (2) In addition to the perceived health threats of electric and magnetic fields, opposition will arise based on claims about siting of lines in low-income or minority neighborhoods, and (3) Electric power companies that stand to lose market share if the lines are completed may align themselves with the opposition. This article is a review of the challenges that utilities may face in their efforts.

  12. Hopi Sustainable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Honie, Jr.; Margie Schaff; Mark Hannifan

    2004-08-01

    The Hopi Tribal Government as part of an initiative to ?Regulate the delivery of energy and energy services to the Hopi Reservation and to create a strategic business plan for tribal provision of appropriate utility, both in a manner that improves the reliability and cost efficiency of such services,? established the Hopi Clean Air Partnership Project (HCAPP) to support the Tribe?s economic development goals, which is sensitive to the needs and ways of the Hopi people. The Department of Energy (DOE) funded, Formation of Hopi Sustainable Energy Program results are included in the Clean Air Partnership Report. One of the Hopi Tribe?s primary strategies to improving the reliability and cost efficiency of energy services on the Reservation and to creating alternative (to coal) economic development opportunities is to form and begin implementation of the Hopi Sustainable Energy Program. The Hopi Tribe through the implementation of this grant identified various economic opportunities available from renewable energy resources. However, in order to take advantage of those opportunities, capacity building of tribal staff is essential in order for the Tribe to develop and manage its renewable energy resources. As Arizona public utilities such as APS?s renewable energy portfolio increases the demand for renewable power will increase. The Hopi Tribe would be in a good position to provide a percentage of the power through wind energy. It is equally important that the Hopi Tribe begin a dialogue with APS and NTUA to purchase the 69Kv transmission on Hopi and begin looking into financing options to purchase the line.

  13. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  14. Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

  15. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rates in Table LM-2 of this section are inappropriately high for the unit, the owner or operator may use... interval, the owner or operator shall either report the appropriate default NOX emission rate from Table LM... example, use the default emission rates in Tables LM-1, LM-2, and LM-3 of this section or use the...

  16. HEAO 3 measurements of the atmospheric positron annihilation line

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, W.A.; Ling, J.C.; Jacobson, A.S.

    1981-12-01

    All spectra measured with the High Energy resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Experiment (HEAO C-1) on the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO 3) contain a strong line at 511 keV resulting from positron annihilation. This line originates in the instrument itself, the earth's atmosphere, and cosmic sources, possibly including the diffuse cosmic background. In order to understand the emission from cosmic sources, the atmospheric positron annihilation line emission has been determined as a function of geomagnetic latitude and zenith angle. Although the intensity of the line increases with increasing latitude, it was found that variations with zenith angle can be satisfactorily explained only if the atmospheric emission exhibits significant limb darkening. The atmospheric line has an energy of 511.07 +- 0.10 keV and a net width of 2.29 +- 0.30 keV FWHM. Characteristics of the instrument background have allowed an upper limit of 9.4 x 10/sup -3/ photons/cm/sup 2/-sec-sr to be placed on any narrow (< or approx. =3 keV) diffuse cosmic emission at 511 keV.

  17. Energy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    1981-01-01

    The Aquatic Center at Corvallis (Oregon) is analyzed for energy use. Energy conservation in the building would be accomplished best through heavy insulation of exterior surfaces and the maximization of passive solar gain. (Author/MLF)

  18. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  19. Save Energy $.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Thomas E., III; Shapiro, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    Large institutional energy users can reduce energy costs by constructing and operating steam and electricity cogeneration facilities and purchasing their own gas at lower prices rather than relying on local distributors. (MSE)

  20. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  1. Modeling line emission in PDRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourlot, J.

    2000-11-01

    The formation of emission lines in a diluted medium results from a large number of conspiring physical processes. When trying to compute a line intensity or (harder) a line profile from first principles, one has to take into account at least three different kind of processes: Atomic or molecular physics data. An accurate knowledge of radiative and collisional transition probabilities is required to determine the population of excited levels which rules the formation of emission lines. Thermodynamical equilibrium is almost never established, so that detailed balance equations need to be solved. Unfortunately many important data are still badly known. Structure and dynamics of the emitting medium. Local emissivities at a specific point depend at least on the local temperature and density of the gas, but often also on other less accessible parameters such as the turbulence state of the gas, a magnetic field or the existence of rapidly evolving transients such as shocks. Self consistent models which would include all relevant processes are out of reach numerically, and choices must be made among the more relevant physical processes to include. Radiative transfer effects. For a few relevant interstellar lines, the opacity is small enough that the emergent emissivity is just the sum of all local emissivities along the line of sight. Unfortunately, most lines are not so easy to cope with and a minimal radiative transfer formalism must be included. Various degrees of sophistication are possible, from a simple escape probability theory to full wavelength dependent line transfer. On the whole, line modelling is still more an art than a science. One should be well aware of the various assumptions made in a model before applying it to some particular observational result.

  2. Momentum transport near a magnetic X line in collisionless reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, H. J.; Ding, D. Q.; Lee, L. C.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma dynamics and momentum transport near an X line during time-dependent magnetic reconnection in a collisionless plasma are investigated based on two-dimensional particle simulations. We find that a weakly skewed velocity distribution is formed near the magnetic X line, leading to the presence of off-diagonal elements of the plasma pressure tensor. Let the reconnection electric field be in the y direction. The gradients of the off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor can provide a transport of the y momentum. During the normal magnetic reconnection, the momentum transport associated with the off-diagonal terms of the pressure tensor mediates a transfer of the y momentum from the region near the X line to regions outside the X line. A period of 'reverse magnetic reconnection,' during which the plasma kinetic energy is converted into magnetic energy, is also observed in the simulation. When reverse reconnection occurs, the gradients of the off-diagonal pressure tensor elements can mediate a transfer of y momentum into the X line. It is found that the inertial term also plays a significant role in the force balance near the magnetic X line. An explanation for the origin of the off-diagonal pressure terms is also given in this paper.

  3. Localization transition of stiff directed lines in random media.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the localization of stiff directed lines with bending energy by a short-range random potential. Using perturbative arguments, Flory arguments, and a replica calculation, we show that a stiff directed line in 1+d dimensions undergoes a localization transition with increasing disorder for d>2/3. We demonstrate that this transition is accessible by numerical transfer matrix calculations in 1+1 dimensions and analyze the properties of the disorder-dominated phase. On the basis of the two-replica problem, we propose a relation between the localization of stiff directed lines in 1+d dimensions and of directed lines under tension in 1+3d dimensions, which is strongly supported by identical free energy distributions. This shows that pair interactions in the replicated Hamiltonian determine the nature of directed line localization transitions with consequences for the critical behavior of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. Furthermore, we quantify how the persistence length of the stiff directed line is reduced by disorder.

  4. H line; a beam line for fundamental physics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Naritoshi; Toyoda, Akihisa; Aoki, Masaharu; Shimomura, Koichiro; Mibe, Tsutomu; Nakatsugawa, Yohei; Otani, Masashi; Saito, Naohito; Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    The muon facility, J-PARC (Muon Science Establishment; MUSE), has been operating since the first beam in 2008. Starting with a 200 kW proton beam, a beam intensity of 3 × 106 muons/s was reached in 2009 which was the most intense pulsed muon beam in the world. From the 2 cm thick graphite target, four secondary muon beam lines are designed to be extracted. Three beam lines currently exist, the first being operational and the other two undergoing commissioning. The fourth and the last beam line, the H line, is planned to be constructed. This new beam line is designed to have a large acceptance, provides the ability to tune the momentum, and use a kicker magnet and/or a Wien filter. The H line is designed to provide an intense beam of 108 surface muons/s for fundamental physics studies to observe new physics beyond the standard model. Such studies require high statistics and they need to occupy the experimental areas for a relatively long period.

  5. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  6. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  7. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  8. Solving the "Hidden Line" Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    David Hedgley Jr., a mathematician at Dryden Flight Research Center, has developed an accurate computer program that considers whether a line in a graphic model of a three dimensional object should or should not be visible. The Hidden Line Computer Code, program automatically removes superfluous lines and permits the computer to display an object from specific viewpoints, just as the human eye would see it. Users include Rowland Institute for Science in Cambridge, MA, several departments of Lockheed Georgia Co., and Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD).

  9. Restaurant Energy Use Benchmarking Guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, R.; Smith, V.; Field, K.

    2011-07-01

    A significant operational challenge for food service operators is defining energy use benchmark metrics to compare against the performance of individual stores. Without metrics, multiunit operators and managers have difficulty identifying which stores in their portfolios require extra attention to bring their energy performance in line with expectations. This report presents a method whereby multiunit operators may use their own utility data to create suitable metrics for evaluating their operations.

  10. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  11. Energy Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Carol T., Ed.; Wells, Kathy, Ed.

    This collection of reprints offers practical solutions, not readily available elsewhere, to everyday energy problems, such as high utility bills, insulating windows, getting more gas mileage, or buying a more efficient washer or refrigerator. The Arkansas Energy Office provides a weekly column of energy news and conservation tips to newspapers,…

  12. Energy Builders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Due to increasing energy demands and decreasing supplies, it is important for teachers to provide students with a solid foundation for energy decision making. Activities are presented which offer hands-on experiences with four sources of energy: wind, water, sun, and fossil fuels. (JN)

  13. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  14. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  15. A variationally computed line list for hot NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, S. N.; Barber, R. J.; Tennyson, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present 'BYTe', a comprehensive 'hot' line list for the ro-vibrational transitions of ammonia, 14NH3, in its ground electronic state. This line list has been computed variationally using the program suite TROVE, a new spectroscopically determined potential energy surface and an ab initio dipole moment surface. BYTe, is designed to be used at all temperatures up to 1500 K. It comprises 1138 323 351 transitions in the frequency range from 0 to 12 000 cm-1, constructed from 1373 897 energy levels below 18 000 cm-1 having J values ≤36. Comparisons with laboratory data confirm the accuracy of the line list which is suitable for modelling a variety of astrophysical problems including the atmospheres of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs.

  16. Observations and Modelling of Helium Lines in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Labrosse, N.; Kerr, G. S.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the response of the He II 304 Å and He I 584 Å line intensities to electron beam heating in solar flares using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. Comparing different electron beams parameters, we found that the intensities of both He lines are very sensitive to the energy flux deposited in the chromosphere, or more specifically to the heating rate, with He II 304 Å being more sensitive to the heating than He I 584 Å. Therefore, the He line ratio increases for larger heating rates in the chromosphere. A similar trend is found in observations, using SDO/EVE He irradiance ratios and estimates of the electron beam energy rate obtained from hard X-ray data. From the simulations, we also found that spectral index of the electrons can affect the He ratio but a similar effect was not found in the observations.

  17. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD..., based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE/EIS-0457, March 2012). BPA has decided... will continue to operate at 115 kV. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and EIS may be obtained by calling...

  18. Dielectric loss in microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, T. L.; Tseng, B.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is presented for calculating dielectric loss in microstrip lines. Numerical results for several different substrates are included. These are compared with other available results and experimental data.

  19. Drawing with a Single Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole Austen; Anderson, Lorraine

    1979-01-01

    Described is a method of tapping students' creative potential in art: the Spontaneous Response Drawing. SRD consists of drawing with a single line, usually with crayons or colored felt tip pens on a large sheet of paper. (KC)

  20. Biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and abuse of biomass energies in China, India, and Brazil. Topics include forests, trees for energy, crop residues, fuel crops, aquatic plants, and animal and human wastes. Recommended for environmental engineers and planners, and those involved in ecology, systematics, and forestry.

  1. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized.

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Iron Fe XI-XIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Liedahl, D. A.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Dupree, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (ca. 20--300 Å) is rich in emission lines from low- to mid-Z ions, particularly from the middle charge states of iron. Many of these emission lines are important diagnostics for astrophysical plasmas, providing information on properties such as elemental abundance, temperature, density, and even magnetic field strength. In recent years, strides have been made to understand the complexity of the atomic levels of the ions that emit the lines that contribute to the richness of the EUV region. Laboratory measurements have been made to verify and benchmark the lines. Here, we present laboratory measurements of Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 40-140 Å. The measurements were made at the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, which has been optimized for laboratory astrophysics, and which allows us to select specific charge states of iron to help line identification. We also present new calculations by the Hebrew University - Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC), which we also utilized for line identification. We found that HULLAC does a creditable job of reproducing the forest of lines we observed in the EBIT spectra, although line positions are in need of adjustment, and line intensities often differed from those observed. We identify or confirm a number of new lines for these charge states. This work was supported by the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Program under Contract NNH10AN31I and the DOE General Plasma Science program. Work was performed in part under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DEAC52-07NA27344.

  3. Edge determination for polycrystalline silicon lines on gate oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, John S.; Vladar, Andras E.; Lowney, Jeremiah R.; Postek, Michael T., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    In a scanning electron microscope (SEM) top-down secondary electron image, areas within a few tens of nanometers of the line edges are characteristically brighter than the rest of the image. In general, the shape of the secondary electron signal within such edge regions depends upon the energy and spatial distribution of the electron beam and the sample composition, and it is sensitive to small variations in sample geometry. Assigning edge shape and position is done by finding a model sample that is calculated, on the basis of a mathematical model of the instrument-sample interaction, to produce an image equal to the one actually observed. Edge locations, and consequently line widths, are then assigned based upon this model sample. In previous years we have applied this strategy to lines with geometry constrained by preferential etching of single crystal silicon. With this study we test the procedure on polycrystalline silicon lines. Polycrystalline silicon lines fabricated according to usual industrial processes represent a commercially interesting albeit technically more challenging application of this method. With the sample geometry less constrained a priori, a larger set of possible sample geometries must be modeled and tested for a match to the observed line scan, and the possibility of encountering multiple acceptable matches is increased. For this study we have implemented a data analysis procedure that matches measured image line scans to a precomputed library of sample shapes and their corresponding line scans. Linewidth test patterns containing both isolated and dense lines separated form the underlying silicon substrate by a thin gate oxide have been fabricated. Line scans from test pattern images have been fitted to the library of modeled shapes.

  4. DISCOVERY OF POLARIZED LINE EMISSION IN SN 1006

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Long, K. S.; Cracraft, M.; Carswell, R. F.

    2015-12-10

    Laming predicted that the narrow Balmer line core of the ∼3000 km s{sup −1} shock in the SN 1006 remnant would be significantly polarized due to electron and proton impact polarization. Here, based on deep spectrally resolved polarimetry obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO)’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report the discovery of polarized line emission with a polarization degree of 1.3% and position angle orthogonal to the SNR filament. Correcting for an unpolarized broad line component, the implied narrow line polarization is ≈2.0%, close to the predictions of Laming. The predicted polarization is primarily sensitive to shock velocity and post-shock temperature equilibration. By measuring polarization for the SN 1006 remnant, we validate and enable a new diagnostic that has important applications in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, such as shocks, intense radiation fields, high energy particle streams, and conductive interfaces.

  5. Line-oriented flight training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the concepts related to a line-oriented flight training program are discussed. The need to shift from training in manipulative skills to something closer to management skills is emphasized. The program is evaluated in terms of its realistic approaches which include the simulator's optimized motion and visual capabilities. The value of standard operating procedures as they affect the line pilot in everyday operations are also illustrated.

  6. Inspecting an ethylene pipe line

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsvig, D.M. ); Duncan, J.; Zillinger, L. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. (AGEC), completion of intensive internal cleaning and inspection program on their 112-mi ethylene pipe line. AGEC operates two ethylene manufacturing facilities in central Alberta, Canada. The ethylene plants are located 12.4 mi east of Red Deer, Alta., at Joffre, and supply two customers in Joffre. The remaining ethylene is shipped by the 112-mi, 12-in. line to a storage cavern near Edmonton.

  7. 76 FR 37109 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Mid-South Expansion Project The staff of the Federal Energy...

  8. 75 FR 14437 - Platte Pipe Line Company; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Platte Pipe Line Company; Notice of Technical Conference March 18, 2010....m. (EDT), in a room to be designated at the offices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission,...

  9. Greening the Bottom Line, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emily

    2012-01-01

    With buildings consuming almost half (49 percent) of all energy used in the United States, and three quarters of all electricity, there is a compelling need for investment in energy efficiency upgrades. These energy saving improvements "represent a significant opportunity to save money, reduce climate impact and generate jobs," according…

  10. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio; Qu, Zhongquan

    2017-03-01

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  11. Energy 101: Home Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A home energy checkup helps owners determine where their house is losing energy and money - and how such problems can be corrected to make the home more energy efficient. A professional technician - often called an energy auditor - can give your home a checkup. You can also do some of the steps yourself. Items shown here include checking for leaks, examining insulation, inspecting the furnace and ductwork, performing a blower door test and using an infrared camera.

  12. Energy 101: Home Energy Assessment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A home energy checkup helps owners determine where their house is losing energy and money - and how such problems can be corrected to make the home more energy efficient. A professional technician - often called an energy auditor - can give your home a checkup. You can also do some of the steps yourself. Items shown here include checking for leaks, examining insulation, inspecting the furnace and ductwork, performing a blower door test and using an infrared camera.

  13. Energy Economics. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in energy economics is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…

  14. Energy Audits. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy audits is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored training…

  15. Using Strong Solar Coronal Emission Lines as Coronal Flux Proxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Jordan, Studart D.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Hara, Hirosha

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of Skylab results with observations of the strong EUV lines of Fe XVI at 335 A and 361 A from the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) flight of 1989 suggests that these lines, and perhaps others observed with SERTS, might offer good proxies for estimating the total coronal flux over important wavelength ranges. In this paper, we compare SERTS observations from a later, 1993 flight with simultaneous cospatial Yohkoh soft X-ray observations to test this suggestion over the energy range of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. Both polynomial and power-law fits are obtained, and errors are estimated, for the SERTS lines of Fe XVI 335 A and 361 A, Fe XV 284 A and 417 A, and Mg IX 368 A. It is found that the power-law fits best cover the full range of solar conditions from quiet Sun through active region, though not surprisingly the 'cooler' Mg IX 368 A line proves to be a poor proxy. The quadratic polynomial fits yield fair agreement over a large range for all but the Mg IX line, but the linear fits fail conspicuously when extrapolated into the quiet Sun regime. The implications of this work for the He 11 304 A line formation problem are briefly considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of these iron lines observed with SERTS for estimating stellar coronal fluxes, as observed for example with the EUVE satellite.

  16. A short review of relativistic iron lines from stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    % In this contribution, I briefly review recent progress in detecting and measuring the properties of relativistic iron lines observed in stellar-mass black hole systems, and the aspects of these lines that are most relevant to studies of similar lines in Seyfert-1 AGN. In particular, the lines observed in stellar-mass black holes are not complicated by complex low-energy absorption or partial-covering of the central engine, and strong lines are largely independent of the model used to fit the underlying broad-band continuum flux. Indeed, relativistic iron lines are the most robust diagnostic of black hole spin that is presently available to observers, with specific advantages over the systematics-plagued disk continuum. If accretion onto stellar-mass black holes simply scales with mass, then the widespread nature of lines in stellar-mass black holes may indicate that lines should be common in Seyfert-1 AGN, though perhaps harder to detect.

  17. A method for determining the median line of measured cylindrical and conical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, Dariusz; Zwierzchowski, Jarosław

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a novel method for the determination of the median line of the cylindrical and conical surfaces. This method can be incorporated into virtually any cylindricity measurement strategy, including the bird-cage strategy and the helical line strategy. In the study, a median line was determined by minimizing the functional made up of two components. The form of the first component results from the classic definition of the median line provided in the corresponding standard. The other, termed the bending energy, is responsible for ensuring appropriate smoothness of the median line. In order to solve this variational problem, the median line was approximated by means of linear combination of cubic B-spline functions. A simulation and experiments were conducted to establish the suitability of the algorithm developed for the determination of the median line using the helical-line and the cross-section measurement strategy.

  18. Anomalous absorption line in the magneto-optical response of graphene.

    PubMed

    Gusynin, V P; Sharapov, S G; Carbotte, J P

    2007-04-13

    The intensity as well as position in energy of the absorption lines in the infrared conductivity of graphene, both exhibit features that are directly related to the Dirac nature of its quasiparticles. We show that the evolution of the pattern of absorption lines as the chemical potential is varied encodes the information about the presence of the anomalous lowest Landau level. The first absorption line related to this level always appears with full intensity or is entirely missing, while all other lines disappear in two steps. We demonstrate that if a gap develops, the main absorption line splits into two provided that the chemical potential is greater than or equal to the gap.

  19. High pressure line shapes of the Rb D1 and D2 lines for 4He and 3He collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Rice, Christopher A.; Hager, Gordon D.; Rotondaro, Mathew D.; Berriche, Hamid; Perram, Glen P.

    2016-11-01

    Line shapes for the Rb D1 (51/2 2S ↔ 51/2 2P) and D2 (51/2 2S ↔ 53/2 2P) transitions with 4He and 3He collisions at pressures of 500-15,000 Torr and temperatures of 333-533 K have been experimentally observed and compared to predictions from the Anderson-Talman theory. The ground X1/2 + 2Σ and excited A1/2 + 2Π, A3/2 2Π, and B1/2 + 2Σ potential energy surfaces required for the line shape predictions have been calculated using a one-electron pseudo-potential technique. The observed collision induced shift rates for 4He are dramatically higher for the D1 line, 4.60±0.12 MHz/Torr, than the D2 line, 0.20±0.14 MHz/Torr. The asymmetry is somewhat larger for the D1 line and has the same sign as the shifting rate. The 3He broadening rate for the D2 line is 4% larger than the 4He rate, and 14% higher for the D1 line, reflecting the higher relative speed. The calculated broadening rates are systematically larger than the observed rates by 1.1-3.2 MHz/Torr and agree within 14%. The primary focus of the current work is to characterize the high pressure line shapes, focusing on the non-Lorentzian features far from line center. In the far wing, the cross-section decreases by more than 4 orders of magnitude, with a broad, secondary maximum in the D2 line near 735 nm. The potentials do not require empirical modification to provide excellent quantitative agreement with the observations. The dipole moment variation and absorption Boltzmann factor is critical to obtaining strong agreement in the wings.

  20. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688