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Sample records for energy magnitude determinations

  1. Suitability of rapid energy magnitude determinations for emergency response purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Bormann, Peter; Grosser, Helmut; Saul, Joachim; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in the seismological community to use, especially for large earthquakes, the moment magnitude Mw as a unique magnitude parameter to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, as a static measure of earthquake size, Mw does not provide direct information about the released seismic wave energy and its high frequency content, which is the more interesting information both for engineering purposes and for a rapid assessment of the earthquake's shaking potential. Therefore, we recommend to provide to disaster management organizations besides Mw also sufficiently accurate energy magnitude determinations as soon as possible after large earthquakes. We developed and extensively tested a rapid method for calculating the energy magnitude Me within about 10-15 min after an earthquake's occurrence. The method is based on pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions obtained from numerical simulations of Green's functions. After empirical validation, the procedure has been applied offline to a large data set of 767 shallow earthquakes that have been grouped according to their type of mechanism (strike-slip, normal faulting, thrust faulting, etc.). The suitability of the proposed approach is discussed by comparing our rapid Me estimates with Mw published by GCMT as well as with Mw and Me reported by the USGS. Mw is on average slightly larger than our Me for all types of mechanisms. No clear dependence on source mechanism is observed for our Me estimates. In contrast, Me from the USGS is generally larger than Mw for strike-slip earthquakes and generally smaller for the other source types. For ~67 per cent of the event data set our Me differs <= +/-0.3 magnitude units (m.u.) from the respective Me values published by the USGS. However, larger discrepancies (up to 0.8 m.u.) may occur for strike-slip events. A reason of that may be the overcorrection of the energy flux applied by the USGS for this type of earthquakes. We follow the original

  2. Determination of the Limiting Magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingery, Aaron; Blaauw, Rhiannon

    2017-01-01

    The limiting magnitude of an optical camera system is an important property to understand since it is used to find the completeness limit of observations. Limiting magnitude depends on the hardware and software of the system, current weather conditions, and the angular speed of the objects observed. If an object exhibits a substantial angular rate during the exposure, its light spreads out over more pixels than the stationary stars. This spreading causes the limiting magnitude to be brighter when compared to the stellar limiting magnitude. The effect, which begins to become important when the object moves a full width at half max during a single exposure or video frame. For targets with high angular speeds or camera systems with narrow field of view or long exposures, this correction can be significant, up to several magnitudes. The stars in an image are often used to measure the limiting magnitude since they are stationary, have known brightness, and are present in large numbers, making the determination of the limiting magnitude fairly simple. In order to transform stellar limiting magnitude to object limiting magnitude, a correction must be applied accounting for the angular velocity. This technique is adopted in meteor and other fast-moving object observations, as the lack of a statistically significant sample of targets makes it virtually impossible to determine the limiting magnitude before the weather conditions change. While the weather is the dominant factor in observing satellites, the limiting magnitude for meteors also changes throughout the night due to the motion of a meteor shower or sporadic source radiant across the sky. This paper presents methods for determining the limiting stellar magnitude and the conversion to the target limiting magnitude.

  3. Determination of the meteor limiting magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R. C.

    2017-09-01

    We present our method to calculate the meteor limiting magnitude. The limiting meteor magnitude defines the faintest magnitude at which all meteors are still detected by a given system. An accurate measurement of the limiting magnitude is important in order to calculate the meteoroid flux from a meteor shower or sporadic source. Since meteor brightness is linked to meteor mass, the limiting magnitude is needed to calculate the limiting mass of the meteor flux measurement. The mass distribution of meteoroids is thought to follow a power law, thus being slightly off in the limiting magnitude can have a significant effect on the measured flux. Sky conditions can change on fairly short timescales; therefore one must monitor the meteor limiting magnitude at regular intervals throughout the night, rather than just measuring it once. We use the stellar limiting magnitude as a proxy of the meteor limiting magnitude. Our method for determining the stellar limiting magnitude and how we transform it into the meteor limiting magnitude is presented. These methods are currently applied to NASA's wide-field meteor camera network to determine nightly fluxes, but are applicable to other camera networks.

  4. Fast Regional Magnitude Determination at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.; Lomax, A.; Bono, A.; Amato, A.

    2006-12-01

    The recent, very large earthquakes in the Indian Ocean and Indonesia have shown the importance of rapid magnitude determination for tsunami warning. In the Mediterranean region, destructive tsunamis have occurred repeatedly in the past; however, because of the proximity of the tsunami sources to populated coasts, very rapid analysis is necessary for effective warning. Reliable estimates of the earthquake location and size should be available within tens of seconds after the first arriving P-waves are recorded at local and regional distances. Currently in Europe there is no centralized agency such as the PTWC for the Pacific Ocean dedicated to issue tsunami warnings, though, recent initiatives, such as the NEAMTWS (North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System), aim toward the establishment of such an agency. Thus established seismic monitoring centers, such as INGV, Rome, are currently relied upon for rapid earthquake analysis and information dissemination. In this study, we describe the recent, experimental implementation at the INGV seismic center of a procedure for rapid magnitude determination at regional distances based on the Mwp methodology (Tsuboi et al., 1995), which exploits information in the P-wave train. For our Mwp determinations, we have implemented an automatic procedure that windows the relevant part of the seismograms and picks the amplitudes of the first two largest peaks, providing within seconds after each P arrival an estimate of earthquake size. Manual revision is completed using interactive software that presents an analysis with the seismograms, amplitude picks and magnitude estimates. We have compared our Mwp magnitudes for recent earthquakes within the Mediterranean region with Mw determined through the Harvard CMT procedure. For the majority of the events, the Mwp and Mw magnitudes agree closely, indicating that the rapid Mwp estimates forms a useful tool for effective tsunami warning on a regional scale.

  5. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-06-20

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance ({Delta}) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log {Delta}+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  6. Rapid determination of P-wave-based Energy Magnitude: Insights on source parameter scaling of the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Bindi, Dino; Brondi, Piero; Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a novel methodology for the rapid estimation of the earthquake size from the seismic radiated energy. Two relationships have been calibrated using recordings from 29 earthquakes of the 2009 L'Aquila and the 2012 Emilia seismic sequences in Italy. The first relation allows obtaining seismic radiated energy ER estimates using as proxy the time integral of squared P-waves velocities measured over vertical components, including regional attributes for describing the attenuation with distance. The second relation is a regression between the local magnitude and the radiated energy, which allows defining an energy-based local magnitude (MLe) compatible with ML for small earthquakes. We have applied the new procedure to the seismic sequence that struck central Italy in 2016. Scaling relationships involving seismic moment and radiated energy are discussed considering the Mw 6.0 Amatrice, Mw 5.9 Ussita and Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquakes and their ML >4 aftershocks, in total 38 events. The Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake presents the highest apparent stress, and the observed differences among the three larger shocks highlight the dynamic heterogeneity with which large earthquakes can occur in central Italy. Differences between MLe and Mw measures allows to identify events characterized by a higher amount of energy transferred to seismic waves, providing important constraints for the real-time evaluation of an earthquake shaking potential.

  7. Rapid determination of P wave-based energy magnitude: Insights on source parameter scaling of the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Bindi, Dino; Brondi, Piero; Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-05-01

    We propose a P wave based procedure for the rapid estimation of the radiated seismic energy, and a novel relationship for obtaining an energy-based local magnitude (MLe) measure of the earthquake size. We apply the new procedure to the seismic sequence that struck Central Italy in 2016. Scaling relationships involving seismic moment and radiated energy are discussed for the Mw 6.0 Amatrice, Mw 5.9 Ussita, and Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquakes, including 35 ML > 4 aftershocks. The Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake shows the highest apparent stress, and the observed differences among the three main events highlight the dynamic heterogeneity with which large earthquakes can occur in Central Italy. Differences between estimates of MLe and Mw allows identification of events which are characterized by a higher proportion of energy being transferred to seismic waves, providing important real-time indications of earthquakes shaking potential.

  8. Determination of the Meteor Limiting Magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The limiting meteor magnitude of a meteor camera system will depend on the camera hardware and software, sky conditions, and the location of the meteor radiant. Some of these factors are constants for a given meteor camera system, but many change between meteor shower or sporadic source and on both long and short timescales. Since the limiting meteor magnitude ultimately gets used to calculate the limiting meteor mass for a given data set, it is important to have an understanding of these factors and to monitor how they change throughout the night, as a 0.5 magnitude uncertainty in limiting magnitude translates to a uncertainty in limiting mass by a factor of two.

  9. The moment magnitude M w and the energy magnitude M e: common roots and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Peter; di Giacomo, Domenico

    2011-04-01

    Starting from the classical empirical magnitude-energy relationships, in this article, the derivation of the modern scales for moment magnitude M w and energy magnitude M e is outlined and critically discussed. The formulas for M w and M e calculation are presented in a way that reveals, besides the contributions of the physically defined measurement parameters seismic moment M 0 and radiated seismic energy E S, the role of the constants in the classical Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-energy relationship. Further, it is shown that M w and M e are linked via the parameter Θ = log( E S/ M 0), and the formula for M e can be written as M e = M w + (Θ + 4.7)/1.5. This relationship directly links M e with M w via their common scaling to classical magnitudes and, at the same time, highlights the reason why M w and M e can significantly differ. In fact, Θ is assumed to be constant when calculating M w. However, variations over three to four orders of magnitude in stress drop Δ σ (as well as related variations in rupture velocity V R and seismic wave radiation efficiency η R) are responsible for the large variability of actual Θ values of earthquakes. As a result, for the same earthquake, M e may sometimes differ by more than one magnitude unit from M w. Such a difference is highly relevant when assessing the actual damage potential associated with a given earthquake, because it expresses rather different static and dynamic source properties. While M w is most appropriate for estimating the earthquake size (i.e., the product of rupture area times average displacement) and thus the potential tsunami hazard posed by strong and great earthquakes in marine environs, M e is more suitable than M w for assessing the potential hazard of damage due to strong ground shaking, i.e., the earthquake strength. Therefore, whenever possible, these two magnitudes should be both independently determined and jointly considered. Usually, only M w is taken as a unified magnitude in many

  10. Automated Determination of Magnitude and Source Extent of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun

    2017-04-01

    Rapid determination of earthquake magnitude is of importance for estimating shaking damages, and tsunami hazards. However, due to the complexity of source process, accurately estimating magnitude for great earthquakes in minutes after origin time is still a challenge. Mw is an accurate estimate for large earthquakes. However, calculating Mw requires the whole wave trains including P, S, and surface phases, which takes tens of minutes to reach stations at tele-seismic distances. To speed up the calculation, methods using W phase and body wave are developed for fast estimating earthquake sizes. Besides these methods that involve Green's Functions and inversions, there are other approaches that use empirically simulated relations to estimate earthquake magnitudes, usually for large earthquakes. The nature of simple implementation and straightforward calculation made these approaches widely applied at many institutions such as the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, the Japan Meteorological Agency, and the USGS. Here we developed an approach that was originated from Hara [2007], estimating magnitude by considering P-wave displacement and source duration. We introduced a back-projection technique [Wang et al., 2016] instead to estimate source duration using array data from a high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net). The introduction of back-projection improves the method in two ways. Firstly, the source duration could be accurately determined by seismic array. Secondly, the results can be more rapidly calculated, and data derived from farther stations are not required. We purpose to develop an automated system for determining fast and reliable source information of large shallow seismic events based on real time data of a dense regional array and global data, for earthquakes that occur at distance of roughly 30°- 85° from the array center. This system can offer fast and robust estimates of magnitudes and rupture extensions of large earthquakes in 6 to 13 min (plus

  11. A Strategy to Rapidly Determine the Magnitude of Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William; Levin, Vadim

    2005-05-01

    In the initial hours following the origin of the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake at 0058:53 GMT on 26 December 2004, the event was widely reported as having a magnitude of about 8. Thus, its potential for generating a damaging teletsunami (ocean-crossing tsunami) was considered minimal. The event's size later was shown to be approximately 10 times larger, but only after more than four and a half hours had passed, when a moment estimate based on 2.5 hours of data became available from Harvard University's Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) Project (M. Nettles and G. Ekstrom, Quick CMT of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake, Seismoware FID: BR345, e-mailed announcement, 26 December 2004). This estimate placed its magnitude at Mw ~ 9.0, in the range capable of generating a damaging teletsunami. Actually, the earthquake had caused a teletsunami, one that by that time had already killed more than a hundred thousand people. The magnitude estimate has been subsequently revised to at least 9.3 (Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/~seth/research/sumatra.html), with the exact magnitude of the event likely to be a subject of further research in the coming years.

  12. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria

    2016-05-01

    The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

  13. Fast Moment Magnitude Determination from P-wave Trains for Bucharest Rapid Early Warning System (BREWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Wiszniowski, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Bucharest, with a population of approximately 2 million people, has suffered damage from earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone, which is located about 170 km from Bucharest, at a depth of 80-200 km. Consequently, an earthquake early warning system (Bucharest Rapid earthquake Early Warning System or BREWS) was constructed to provide some warning about impending shaking from large earthquakes in the Vrancea zone. In order to provide quick estimates of magnitude, seismic moment was first determined from P-waves and then a moment magnitude was determined from the moment. However, this magnitude may not be consistent with previous estimates of magnitude from the Romanian Seismic Network. This paper introduces the algorithm using P-wave spectral levels and compares them with catalog estimates. The testing procedure used waveforms from about 90 events with catalog magnitudes from 3.5 to 5.4. Corrections to the P-wave determined magnitudes according to dominant intermediate depth events mechanism were tested for November 22, 2014, M5.6 and October 17, M6 events. The corrections worked well, but unveiled overestimation of the average magnitude result of about 0.2 magnitude unit in the case of shallow depth event ( H < 60 km). The P-wave spectral approach allows for the relatively fast estimates of magnitude for use in BREWS. The average correction taking into account the most common focal mechanism for radiation pattern coefficient may lead to overestimation of the magnitude for shallow events of about 0.2 magnitude unit. However, in case of events of intermediate depth of M6 the resulting M w is underestimated at about 0.1-0.2. We conclude that our P-wave spectral approach is sufficiently robust for the needs of BREWS for both shallow and intermediate depth events.

  14. Relation between postural sway magnitude and metabolic energy cost during upright standing on a compliant surface.

    PubMed

    Houdijk, Han; Brown, Starr E; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-09-15

    Postural control performance is often described in terms of postural sway magnitude, assuming that lower sway magnitude reflects better performance. However, people do not typically minimize sway magnitude when performing a postural control task. Possibly, other criteria are satisfied when people select the amount of sway they do. Minimal metabolic cost has been suggested as such a criterion. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the relation between sway magnitude and metabolic cost to establish whether metabolic cost could be a potential optimization criterion in postural control. Nineteen healthy subjects engaged in two experiments in which different magnitudes of sway were evoked during upright standing on a foam surface while metabolic energy expenditure, center of pressure (CoP) excursion, and muscle activation were recorded. In one experiment, sway was manipulated by visual feedback of CoP excursion. The other experiment involved verbal instructions of standing still, natural or relaxed. In both experiments, metabolic cost changed with sway magnitude in an asymmetric parabolic fashion, with a minimum around self-selected sway magnitudes and a larger increase at small compared with large sway magnitudes. This metabolic response was paralleled by a change in tonic and phasic EMG activity in the major leg muscles. It is concluded that these results are in line with the notion that metabolic cost can be an optimization criterion used to set postural control and as such could account for the magnitude of naturally occurring postural sway in healthy individuals, although the pathway remains to be elucidated.

  15. Sound energy and the magnitude of change: effects on mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Takegata, Rika; Heikkilä, Roope; Näätänen, Risto

    2011-03-09

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) of event-related potential generally increases in amplitude, as a function of magnitude of change. This study examined whether this relation holds true for intensity decrement, in which the stimulus energy that conveys the change falls in inverse proportion to magnitude of change. The MMN was recorded from healthy young adults for intensity decrements of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 dB. As the change increased, the MMN amplitude also increased first and thereafter diminished; thus, an inverted U-shaped relation was found between the MMN amplitude and the magnitude of change. These results, therefore, suggest a possible interplay between the energy of deviant stimulus and magnitude of change in the MMN elicitation.

  16. Moment Magnitude Determination for Marmara Region-Turkey Using Displacement Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köseoǧlu Küsmezer, Ayşegül; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Barış, Å.žErif; Üçer, S. Balamir; Ottemöller, Lars

    2010-05-01

    The main purpose of the study is to determine moment magnitude Mω using displacement source spectra of earthquakes occurred in Marmara Region. The region is the most densely populated and fast-developing part of Turkey, bounded by 39.0°N to 42.0°N and 26.0°E to 32.0°E, and have experienced major earthquake disasters during the last four centuries with destructive earthquakes and probabilistic seismic hazard studies shows that the region have significant probability of producing M>7 earthquake within the next years. Seismic moment is a direct measurement of earthquake size (rupture area and static displacement) and does not saturate, spectral analysis at local distances is a very useful method which allows the reliable determination of seismic moment and moment magnitude. We have used converging grid search method developed by L. Ottemöller, and J. Havskov, 2008 for the automatic determination of moment magnitude for local distances. For data preperation; the time domain signal of S waves were extracted from the vertical component seismograms.Data was transformed from time to frequency domain by applying the standart fast fourier transform (fft). Source parameters and moment magnitudes of earthquakes are determined by applying spectral fitting procedure to classical Brune's model. The method is first manually and then automatically performed on the source spectrum of S waves within 20 sec. Mo and fc (Aki;1967, and Brune;1970) were determined by using the method which the model space is divided into a grid and the error function detected for all grid points. A smaller grid with denser spacing around the best solution is generated with an iterative procedure. The moment magnitudes of the earthquakes have been calculated according to the scale of Kanamori (1977) and Hanks and Kanamori (1979). A data set of 279 events recorded on broadband velocity seismograms extracted from KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) seismic network were

  17. The Magnitude, Destinations, and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover. CPRE Research Report # RR-66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of the departures of mathematics and science teachers from public schools. The data are from the National Center for Education Statistics' nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-up Survey. Our analyses show that…

  18. The Magnitude, Destinations, and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. The data are from the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey. Over the past two decades, rates of mathematics and science teacher turnover have increased but, contrary to conventional…

  19. A method for determining the V magnitude of asteroids from CCD images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymock, R.; Miles, R.

    2009-06-01

    We describe a method of obtaining the V magnitude of an asteroid using differential photometry, with the magnitudes of comparison stars derived from Carlsberg Meridian Catalogue 14 (CMC14) data. The availability of a large number of suitable CMC14 stars enables a reasonably accurate magnitude (+/-0.05 mag) to be determined without having to resort to more complicated absolute or all-sky photometry. An improvement in accuracy to +/-0.03 mag is possible if an ensemble of several CMC14 stars is used. This method is expected to be less accurate for stars located within +/-10° of the galactic equator owing to excessive interstellar reddening and stellar crowding. Non-refereed articles

  20. Response of finger circulation to energy equivalent combinations of magnitude and duration of vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M; Lindsell, C; Griffin, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the acute response of finger circulation to vibration with different combinations of magnitude and duration but with the same "energy equivalent" acceleration magnitude according to current standards for hand transmitted vibration.
METHODS—Finger skin temperature (FST) and finger blood flow (FBF) were measured in the middle fingers of both hands of 10 healthy men who had not used hand held vibrating tools regularly. With a static load of 10 N, the right hand was exposed to 125 Hz vibration with the following unweighted root mean square (rms) acceleration magnitudes and durations of exposure: 44 m/s2 for 30 minutes; 62 m/s2 for 15 minutes; 88 m/s2 for 7.5 minutes; 125 m/s2 for 3.75 minutes; and 176 m/s2 for 1.88 minutes. These vibration exposures produce the same 8 hour energy equivalent frequency weighted acceleration magnitude (~1.4 m/s2 rms) according to international standard ISO 5349 (1986). Finger circulation was measured in both the right (vibrated) and the left (non-vibrated) middle fingers before application of the vibration, and at fixed intervals during exposure to vibration and during a 45 minute recovery period.
RESULTS—The FST did not change during exposure to vibration, whereas vibration with any combination of acceleration magnitude and duration produced significant percentage reductions in the FBF of the vibrated finger compared with the FBF before exposure (from −40.1% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) −24.3% to −57.2%) to −61.4% (95% CI −45.0% to −77.8%). The reduction in FBF during vibration was stronger in the vibrated finger than in the non-vibrated finger. Across the five experimental conditions, the various vibration stimuli caused a similar degree of vasoconstriction in the vibrated finger during exposure to vibration. There was a progressive decrease in the FBF of both fingers after the end of exposure to vibration with acceleration magnitudes of 44 m/s2 for 30 minutes and 62

  1. Doing more with short period data: Determining magnitudes from clipped and over-run seismic data at Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellik, John J., II

    How can we calculate earthquake magnitudes when the signal is clipped and over-run? When a volcano is very active, the seismic record may saturate (i.e., the full amplitude of the signal is not recorded) or be over-run (i.e., the end of one event is covered by the start of a new event). The duration, and sometimes the amplitude, of an earthquake signal are necessary for determining event magnitudes; thus, it may be impossible to calculate earthquake magnitudes when a volcano is very active. This problem is most likely to occur at volcanoes with limited networks of short period seismometers. This study outlines two methods for calculating earthquake magnitudes when events are clipped and over-run. The first method entails modeling the shape of earthquake codas as a power law function and extrapolating duration from the decay of the function. The second method draws relations between clipped duration (i.e., the length of time a signal is clipped) and the full duration. These methods allow for magnitudes to be determined within 0.2 to 0.4 units of magnitude. This error is within the range of analyst hand-picks and is within the acceptable limits of uncertainty when quickly quantifying volcanic energy release during volcanic crises. Most importantly, these estimates can be made when data are clipped or over-run. These methods were developed with data from the initial stages of the 2004-2008 eruption at Mount St. Helens. Mount St. Helens is a well-studied volcano with many instruments placed at varying distances from the vent. This fact makes the 2004-2008 eruption a good place to calibrate and refine methodologies that can be applied to volcanoes with limited networks.

  2. Roles of testosterone and amygdaloid LTP induction in determining sex differences in fear memory magnitude.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Shen; Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Chuang, Jia-Ying; Cherng, Chianfang G; Gean, Po-Wu; Yu, Lung

    2014-08-01

    Women are thought to form fear memory more robust than men do and testosterone is suspected to play a role in determining such a sex difference. Mouse cued fear freezing was used to study the sex-related susceptibility and the role of testosterone in fear memory in humans. A 75-dB tone was found to provoke weak freezing, while 0.15-mA and 0.20-mA footshock caused strong freezing responses. No sex differences were noticed in the tone- or footshock-induced (naïve fear) freezing. Following the conditionings, female mice exhibited greater tone (cued fear)-induced freezing than did male mice. Nonetheless, female mice demonstrated indistinctive cued fear freezing across the estrous phases and ovariectomy did not affect such freezing in female mice. Orchidectomy enhanced the cued fear freezing in male mice. Systemic testosterone administrations and an intra-lateral nucleus of amygdala (LA) testosterone infusion diminished the cued fear freezing in orchidectomized male mice, while pretreatment with flutamide (Flu) eradicated these effects. Long-term potentiation (LTP) magnitude in LA has been known to correlate with the strength of the cued fear conditioning. We found that LA LTP magnitude was indeed greater in female than male mice. Orchidectomy enhanced LTP magnitude in males' LA, while ovariectomy decreased LTP magnitude in females' LA. Testosterone decreased LTP magnitude in orchidectomized males' LA and estradiol enhanced LTP magnitude in ovariectomized females' LA. Finally, male mice had lower LA GluR1 expression than female mice and orchidectomy enhanced the GluR1 expression in male mice. These findings, taken together, suggest that testosterone plays a critical role in rendering the sex differences in the cued fear freezing and LA LTP. Testosterone is negatively associated with LA LTP and the cued fear memory in male mice. However, ovarian hormones and LA LTP are loosely associated with the cued fear memory in female mice.

  3. Local magnitude determinations for intermountain seismic belt earthquakes from broadband digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pechmann, J.C.; Nava, S.J.; Terra, F.M.; Bernier, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) earthquake catalogs for the Utah and Yellowstone National Park regions contain two types of size measurements: local magnitude (ML) and coda magnitude (MC), which is calibrated against ML. From 1962 through 1993, UUSS calculated ML values for southern and central Intermountain Seismic Belt earthquakes using maximum peak-to-peak (p-p) amplitudes on paper records from one to five Wood-Anderson (W-A) seismographs in Utah. For ML determinations of earthquakes since 1994, UUSS has utilized synthetic W-A seismograms from U.S. National Seismic Network and UUSS broadband digital telemetry stations in the region, which numbered 23 by the end of our study period on 30 June 2002. This change has greatly increased the percentage of earthquakes for which ML can be determined. It is now possible to determine ML for all M ???3 earthquakes in the Utah and Yellowstone regions and earthquakes as small as M <1 in some areas. To maintain continuity in the magnitudes in the UUSS earthquake catalogs, we determined empirical ML station corrections that minimize differences between MLs calculated from paper and synthetic W-A records. Application of these station corrections, in combination with distance corrections from Richter (1958) which have been in use at UUSS since 1962, produces ML values that do not show any significant distance dependence. ML determinations for the Utah and Yellowstone regions for 1981-2002 using our station corrections and Richter's distance corrections have provided a reliable data set for recalibrating the MC scales for these regions. Our revised ML values are consistent with available moment magnitude determinations for Intermountain Seismic Belt earthquakes. To facilitate automatic ML measurements, we analyzed the distribution of the times of maximum p-p amplitudes in synthetic W-A records. A 30-sec time window for maximum amplitudes, beginning 5 sec before the predicted Sg time, encompasses 95% of the

  4. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  5. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Soumagnac, M. T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Kirk, D.; Sevilla, I.; Bertin, E.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Annis, J.; Busha, M. T.; Da Costa, L. N.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Jarvis, M.; Lin, H.; Percival, W. J.; Santiago, B. X.; Sabiu, C. G.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wolz, L.; Yanny, B.

    2015-04-14

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the gravitational weak lensing and large-scale structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by point spread function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use principal component analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multiparameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20 per cent for stars and by up to 12 per cent for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  6. Three methods of determining magnitudes of individual stars in resolved binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.

    1998-12-01

    The only way to measure the mass of star is by analyzing its orbit with Kepler's laws. Knowing the luminosity of a star in addition to its mass is very useful in theoretical astrophysics. For single stars with known distances, it is straightforward to calculate the luminosity. For binary stars determining the luminosity is often difficult, as most techniques measure the blended light from both and not that of the individual components. Three methods for measuring the differential magnitudes of resolved binary stars are investigated: adaptive optics (AO), aperture masking and bispectrum analysis. Of the three techniques used here adaptive optics performed the best, producing differential magnitudes in Johnson I, R, V and B filters for 36 stars. The observational technique was to take many exposures of the same object in an effort to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. It was discovered that AO frames show frame-to- frame intensity variations. These inter-frame variations. showed up in AO data from both the 1.5-m telescope at the Starfire Optical Range and the 100-inch telescope at Mt. Wilson Observatory. These variations are most likely caused by the failure of the AO system to fully compensate for the atmospheric distortions. Aperture masking consists of dividing the telescope's aperture into several subapertures. The light from each subaperture interferes and creates fringes. The brightness ratio of the binary can be determined from the resulting fringe pattern. The technique was hampered by the Intensified CCD (ICCD) detector used in these experiments and performed rather poorly, producing only one differential magnitude measurement. The main thrust of the bispectrum. technique was to derive differential magnitudes from archival speckle data. The standard bispectrum technique is used to reconstruct images from speckle data, but it requires the observation of calibration stars, which are not needed in the standard speckle method. Instead, the method used here fits

  7. Sources and magnitude of bias associated with determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Gossett, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently complled data on the composition of commercial Aroclor mixtures and ECD (electron capture detector) response factors for all 209 PCB congeners are used to develop estimates of the bias associated with determination of polychlorinated blphenyis. During quantitation of multlcomponent peaks by congener-specific procedures error is introduced because of variable ECD response to isomeric PCBs. Under worst case conditions, the magnitude of this bias can range from less than 2% to as much as 600%. Multicomponent peaks containing the more highly and the lower chlorinated congeners experience the most bias. For this reason, quantitation of ??PCB in Aroclor mixtures dominated by these species (e.g. 1016) are potentially subject to the greatest error. Comparison of response factor data for ECDs from two laboratories shows that the sign and magnitude of calibration bias for a given multicomponent peak is variable and depends, in part, on the response characteristics of individual detectors. By using the most abundant congener (of each multicomponent peak) for purposes of calibration, one can reduce the maximum bias to less than 55%. Moreover, due to cancellation of errors, the bias resulting from summation of all peak concentrations (i.e. ??PCB) becomes vanishingly small (200%) and highly variable in sign and magnitude. In this case, bias originates not only from the incomplete chromatographic resolution of PCB congeners but also the overlapping patterns of the Aroclor mixtures. Together these results illustrate the advantages of the congener-specific method of PCB quantitation over the traditional Aroclor Method and the extreme difficulty of estimating bias incurred by the latter procedure on a post hoc basis.

  8. CODA-DERIVED SOURCE SPECTRA, MOMENT MAGNITUDES, AND ENERGY-MOMENT SCALING IN THE WESTERN ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Walter, W

    2004-02-03

    A stable estimate of the earthquake source spectra in the western Alps is obtained using an empirical method based on coda envelope amplitude measurements described by Mayeda et al. (2003) for events ranging between M{sub W} {approx} 1.0 to {approx}5.0. We calibrated path corrections for consecutive narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.2 and 25.0-Hz using a simple 1-D model for 5 three-component stations of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The 1-D assumption performs well, even though the region is characterized by a complex structural setting involving strong lateral variations in the Moho depth. For frequencies less than 1.0-Hz, we tied our dimensionless, distance-corrected coda amplitudes to an absolute scale in units of dyne-cm by using independent moment magnitudes from long-period waveform modeling for 3 moderate magnitude events in the region. For the higher frequencies, we used small events as empirical Green's functions, with corner frequencies above 25.0-Hz. For each station, the procedure yields frequency-dependent corrections that account for site effects, including those related to f{sub max}, as well as those related to S-to-coda transfer function effects. After the calibration was completed, the corrections were applied to the entire data-set composed of 957 events. Our findings using the coda-derived source spectra are summarized as follows: (1) We derived stable estimates of seismic moment, M{sub 0}, (and hence M{sub W}) as well as radiated S-wave energy, (E{sub S}), from waveforms recorded by as few as one station, for events that were too small to be waveform modeled (i.e., events less than M{sub W} {approx}3.5); (2) The source spectra were used to derive an equivalent local magnitude, M{sub L(coda)}, that is in excellent agreement with the network averaged values using direct S-waves; (3) Scaled energy, {tilde e} = E{sub R}/M{sub 0}, where E{sub R}, the radiated seismic energy, is comparable to results from other

  9. HYPOELLIPSE; a computer program for determining local earthquake hypocentral parameters, magnitude, and first-motion pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides Fortran source code and program manuals for HYPOELLIPSE, a computer program for determining hypocenters and magnitudes of near regional earthquakes and the ellipsoids that enclose the 68-percent confidence volumes of the computed hypocenters. HYPOELLIPSE was developed to meet the needs of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studying crustal and sub-crustal earthquakes recorded by a sparse regional seismograph network. The program was extended to locate hypocenters of volcanic earthquakes recorded by seismographs distributed on and around the volcanic edifice, at elevations above and below the hypocenter. HYPOELLIPSE was used to locate events recorded by the USGS southern Alaska seismograph network from October 1971 to the early 1990s. Both UNIX and PC/DOS versions of the source code of the program are provided along with sample runs.

  10. Determinants of the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: A study of 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovacs, Katalin; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; de Gelder, Rianne

    2017-09-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality differs importantly between countries, but these variations have not been satisfactorily explained. We explored the role of behavioral and structural determinants of these variations, by using a dataset covering 17 European countries in the period 1970-2010, and by conducting multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty. Also, countries with higher national income, higher quality of government, higher social transfers, higher health care expenditure and more self-expression values have smaller inequalities in mortality. Finally, trends in behavioral risk factors, particularly smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, appear to partly explain variations in inequalities in mortality trends. This study shows that analyses of variations in health inequalities between countries can help to identify entry-points for policy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Acrylamide concentration determines the direction and magnitude of helical membrane protein gel shifts

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Arianna; Cunningham, Fiona; Deber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    SDS/PAGE is universally used in biochemistry, cell biology, and immunology to resolve minute protein amounts readily from tissue and cell extracts. Although molecular weights of water-soluble proteins are reliably determined from their SDS/PAGE mobility, most helical membrane proteins, which comprise 20–30% of the human genome and the majority of drug targets, migrate to positions that have for decades been unpredictably slower or faster than their actual formula weight, often confounding their identification. Using de novo designed transmembrane-mimetic polypeptides that match the composition of helical membrane-spanning sequences, we quantitate anomalous SDS/PAGE fractionation of helical membrane proteins by comparing the relative mobilities of these polypeptides with typical water-soluble reference proteins on Laemmli gels. We find that both the net charge and effective molecular size of the migrating particles of transmembrane-mimetic species exceed those of the corresponding reference proteins and that gel acrylamide concentration dictates the impact of these two factors on the direction and magnitude of anomalous migration. Algorithms we derived from these data compensate for this differential effect of acrylamide concentration on the SDS/PAGE mobility of a variety of natural membrane proteins. Our results provide a unique means to predict anomalous migration of membrane proteins, thereby facilitating straightforward determination of their molecular weights via SDS/PAGE. PMID:24019476

  12. What determines the magnitude of climate change commitment after cessation of emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, D.; Zickfeld, K.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies show that climate change persists for several centuries after CO2 emissions cease. For example, global mean warming stays approximately constant after CO2 emissions stop, i.e., CO2 forcing levels decline. Thermosteric sea level rise continues after emissions stop. The question thus arises: what determines the magnitude of these committed climate changes? This study focuses on the timing at which emissions cease. One would assume that given a constant forcing level, the earlier emissions cease, the further the system is away from equilibrium, i.e., the larger the expected residual change. We will investigate this question by using a climate model of intermediate complexity, version 2.9 of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (Uvic ESCM 2.9). The simulations follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their extensions to the year 2300 for CO2 and non-CO2 GHG forcings. After 2300 the CO2 concentrations are set at a constant level. Starting from different points along the RCP trajectories CO2 emissions are set to preindustrial levels and the atmospheric CO2 concentrations are allowed to evolve freely. By comparing these different simulations we will gain improved understanding of the role of the forcing level and the timing of emission cessation for climate change commitment.

  13. Determining the magnitude, frequency and source of prehistoric events - Is there a Holy Grail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Strotz, Luke; Anning, David; Bird, Deanne; Calgaro, Emma; Courtney, Claire

    2010-05-01

    palaeotsunami sources, we need to be able to compare and contrast between national databases. This can only happen if databases exist and are compatible - for example, are the criteria used for palaeotsunami interpretations consistent? Similarly, to be able to start commenting on the magnitude and frequency of palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources there need to be regional and national databases to refer to. Surprisingly, this is rarely the case. We highlight this issue with reference to palaeotsunami data from the Pacific Ocean. Palaeotsunami magnitude, frequency and source (PMFS) modelling can be and has been achieved albeit with some caution. While it is acknowledged that any single palaeotsunami database will never be entirely complete and we may therefore never be fully able to determine the PMFS for any one region, this does not mean that is has no value. Far from it, after all every single historical database is also incomplete and they are regularly used for probabilistic tsunami hazard modelling. Is there a Holy Grail? In many ways it largely depends upon whether you think the cup is half full or half empty.

  14. Prefusion F–specific antibodies determine the magnitude of RSV neutralizing activity in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuta, Joan O.; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Joyce, M. Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kumar, Azad; Yassine, Hadi M.; Moin, Syed M.; Killikelly, April M.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Rundlet, Emily J.; Sastry, Mallika; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Nason, Martha C.; Capella, Cristina; Peeples, Mark E.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; McLellan, Jason S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Graham, Barney S.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly neutralization-sensitive epitope, antigenic site Ø, is found only on pre-F. We determined what fraction of neutralizing (NT) activity in human sera is dependent on antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø or other antigenic sites on F in healthy subjects from ages 7 to 93 years. Adsorption of individual sera with stabilized pre-F protein removed >90% of NT activity and depleted binding antibodies to both F conformations. In contrast, adsorption with post-F removed ~30% of NT activity, and binding antibodies to pre-F were retained. These findings were consistent across all age groups. Protein competition neutralization assays with pre-F mutants in which sites Ø or II were altered to knock out binding of antibodies to the corresponding sites showed that these sites accounted for ~35 and <10% of NT activity, respectively. Binding competition assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated that the amount of site Ø–specific antibodies correlated with NT activity, whereas the magnitude of binding competed by site II mAbs did not correlate with neutralization. Our results indicate that RSV NT activity in human sera is primarily derived from pre-F–specific antibodies, and therefore, inducing or boosting NT activity by vaccination will be facilitated by using pre-F antigens that preserve site Ø. PMID:26468324

  15. Automated determination of magnitude and source length of large earthquakes using backprojection and P wave amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Zhuang, Jiancang; Mori, Jim; Maeda, Takuto; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Zhao, Xu

    2017-06-01

    Fast estimates of magnitude and source extent of large earthquakes are fundamental for disaster mitigation. However, resolving these estimates within 10-20 min after origin time remains challenging. Here we propose a robust algorithm to resolve magnitude and source length of large earthquakes using seismic data recorded by regional arrays and global stations. We estimate source length and source duration by backprojecting seismic array data. Then the source duration and the maximum amplitude of the teleseismic P wave displacement waveforms are used jointly to estimate magnitude. We apply this method to 74 shallow earthquakes that occurred within epicentral distances of 30-85° to Hi-net (2004-2014). The estimated magnitudes are similar to moment magnitudes estimated from W-phase inversions (U.S. Geological Survey), with standard deviations of 0.14-0.19 depending on the global station distributions. Application of this method to multiple regional seismic arrays could benefit tsunami warning systems and emergency response to large global earthquakes.

  16. A framework for accurate determination of the T₂ distribution from multiple echo magnitude MRI images.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ruiliang; Koay, Cheng Guan; Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Basser, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of the T2 distribution in tissues provides biologically relevant information about normal and abnormal microstructure and organization. Typically, the T2 distribution is obtained by fitting the magnitude MR images acquired by a multi-echo MRI pulse sequence using an inverse Laplace transform (ILT) algorithm. It is well known that the ideal magnitude MR signal follows a Rician distribution. Unfortunately, studies attempting to establish the validity and efficacy of the ILT algorithm assume that these input signals are Gaussian distributed. Violation of the normality (or Gaussian) assumption introduces unexpected artifacts, including spurious cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-like long T2 components; bias of the true geometric mean T2 values and in the relative fractions of various components; and blurring of nearby T2 peaks in the T2 distribution. Here we apply and extend our previously proposed magnitude signal transformation framework to map noisy Rician-distributed magnitude multi-echo MRI signals into Gaussian-distributed signals with high accuracy and precision. We then perform an ILT on the transformed data to obtain an accurate T2 distribution. Additionally, we demonstrate, by simulations and experiments, that this approach corrects the aforementioned artifacts in magnitude multi-echo MR images over a large range of signal-to-noise ratios.

  17. A framework for accurate determination of the T2 distribution from multiple echo magnitude MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Koay, Cheng Guan; Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Basser, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of the T2 distribution in tissues provides biologically relevant information about normal and abnormal microstructure and organization. Typically, the T2 distribution is obtained by fitting the magnitude MR images acquired by a multi-echo MRI pulse sequence using an inverse Laplace transform (ILT) algorithm. It is well known that the ideal magnitude MR signal follows a Rician distribution. Unfortunately, studies attempting to establish the validity and efficacy of the ILT algorithm assume that these input signals are Gaussian distributed. Violation of the normality (or Gaussian) assumption introduces unexpected artifacts, including spurious cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-like long T2 components; bias of the true geometric mean T2 values and in the relative fractions of various components; and blurring of nearby T2 peaks in the T2 distribution. Here we apply and extend our previously proposed magnitude signal transformation framework to map noisy Rician-distributed magnitude multi-echo MRI signals into Gaussian-distributed signals with high accuracy and precision. We then perform an ILT on the transformed data to obtain an accurate T2 distribution. Additionally, we demonstrate, by simulations and experiments, that this approach corrects the aforementioned artifacts in magnitude multi-echo MR images over a large range of signal-to-noise ratios.

  18. Making sense of nonsense: the visual salience of units determines sensitivity to magnitude.

    PubMed

    Shen, Luxi; Urminsky, Oleg

    2013-03-01

    When are people sensitive to the magnitude of numerical information presented in unfamiliar units, such as a price in a foreign currency or a measurement of an unfamiliar product attribute? We propose that people exhibit deliberational blindness, a failure to consider the meaning of even unfamiliar units. When an unfamiliar unit is not salient, people fail to take their lack of knowledge into account, and their judgments reflect sensitivity to the magnitude of the number. However, subtly manipulating the visual salience of the unit (e.g., enlarging its font size relative to the font size of the number) prompts recognition of the unit's unfamiliarity and reduces magnitude sensitivity. In five experiments, we demonstrated this unit-salience effect, provided evidence for deliberational blindness, and ruled out alternative explanations, such as nonperception and fluency. These findings have implications for decision making involving numerical information expressed in both unfamiliar units and familiar but poorly calibrated units.

  19. Determination of Love- and Rayleigh-Wave Magnitudes for Earthquakes and Explosions and Other Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-30

    However, tectonic release (Toksöz and Kehrer, 1972) near the explosion source often results in Love Approved for public release; distribution is...bias in magnitude estimation. Significant heterogeneities along the plate boundaries are the most likely causes of such scattering. We have applied...areas with strong lateral velocity variations, including active tectonic belts, continental shelves etc. Strike-slip mechanisms are usually better

  20. Conspecific density determines the magnitude and character of predator-induced phenotype.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael W

    2007-10-01

    The benefits in survival gained from predator-induced phenotypes often come at a cost to other components of fitness. Therefore, the level of expression of an induced phenotype should mirror the level of risk in the environment. When a predator exhibits a saturating functional response the risk of mortality to a given prey decreases as prey density increases. Therefore, for a given predator threat, investment in defense should be lower in prey at high density relative to those at low density. In this study, I test whether the magnitude of predator-induced morphological plasticity decreases with increasing conspecific density by exposing pine woods tree frog (Hyla femoralis) tadpoles at three different densities to predators (present or absent) in a factorial experiment. Tadpole morphology was not affected by changes in density in the absence of predators. However, predators had a significant, density-dependent effect on tadpole morphology. Specifically, the magnitude of morphological response was graded and larger for animals in the low density (high risk) environment. This study demonstrates that tadpoles can modulate phenotypic plasticity in response to mortality risk as a function of both the density of conspecifics and chemical cues from predators, which suggests that they are able to detect and respond to fine-scale changes in the threat environment. In addition, this study highlights the need for analytical approaches that allow morphological plasticity studies to elucidate allometric relationships in addition to simply quantifying size-corrected traits.

  1. The role of active muscle mass in determining the magnitude of peripheral fatigue during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Garten, Ryan S; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-06-15

    Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (-25 ± 3 vs. -12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (-44 ± 6 vs. -33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass.

  2. Determining Distances for Active Galactic Nuclei using an Optical and Near-Infrared Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Gorjian, V.; Richter, K. L.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN, are extremely luminous bodies that emit large quantities of light via accretion onto supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. This project investigated the relationship between color (ratio of dust emission to accretion disk emission) and magnitude of AGN in order to establish a predictive correlation between the two, similar to the relationship between the color and magnitude of stars seen in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This relationship will prove beneficial in creating a standard candle for determining interstellar distances between AGN bodies. Photometry data surrounding Type 1 Seyferts and quasars from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) were studied. Using this data, color-magnitude diagrams comparing the ratio of two wavelengths to the absolute magnitude of another were created. Overall, many of the diagrams created indicated a clear correlation between color and luminosity of AGN. Several of the diagrams, focused on portions of the visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelength bands, showed the strongest correlations. When the z-k bands were plotted against the absolute magnitude of the k band, specifically surrounding the bodies with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.15, a strong predictive relationship was seen, with a high slope (0.75) and R2 close to 1 (0.69). Additionally, the diagram comparing the i-j bands to the absolute magnitude of the j band, specifically surrounding the bodies with redshifts between 0.05 and 0.1, also demonstrated a strong predictive relationship with a high slope (0.64) and R2 close to 1 (0.58). These correlations have several real-world applications, as they help determine cosmic distances, and, resultantly, age of the bodies in the universe.

  3. Magnitude of daily energy deficit predicts frequency but not severity of menstrual disturbances associated with exercise and caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Heather J.; Hill, Brenna R.; Lieberman, Jay L.; Legro, Richard S.; Souza, Mary Jane De

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the impact of energy deficiency on menstrual function using controlled feeding and supervised exercise over four menstrual cycles (1 baseline and 3 intervention cycles) in untrained, eumenorrheic women aged 18–30 yr. Subjects were randomized to either an exercising control (EXCON) or one of three exercising energy deficit (ED) groups, i.e., mild (ED1; −8 ± 2%), moderate (ED2; −22 ± 3%), or severe (ED3; −42 ± 3%). Menstrual cycle length and changes in urinary concentrations of estrone-1-glucuronide, pregnanediol glucuronide, and midcycle luteinizing hormone were assessed. Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Weight loss occurred in ED1 (−3.8 ± 0.2 kg), ED2 (−2.8 ± 0.6 kg), and ED3 (−2.6 ± 1.1 kg) but was minimal in EXCON (−0.9 ± 0.7 kg). The overall sum of disturbances (luteal phase defects, anovulation, and oligomenorrhea) was greater in ED2 compared with EXCON and greater in ED3 compared with EXCON AND ED1. The average percent energy deficit was the main predictor of the frequency of menstrual disturbances (f = 10.1, β = −0.48, r2 = 0.23, P = 0.003) even when weight loss was included in the model. The estimates of the magnitude of energy deficiency associated with menstrual disturbances ranged from −22 (ED2) to −42% (ED3), reflecting an energy deficit of −470 to −810 kcal/day, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the magnitude of energy deficiency and the frequency of exercise-related menstrual disturbances; however, the severity of menstrual disturbances was not dependent on the magnitude of energy deficiency. PMID:25352438

  4. Anthropogenic Disturbance Can Determine the Magnitude of Opportunistic Species Responses on Marine Urban Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Laura; Bulleri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties). Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. Methodology/Principal Findings Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a possible outcome of policies

  5. Anthropogenic disturbance can determine the magnitude of opportunistic species responses on marine urban infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Laura; Bulleri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties). Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a possible outcome of policies that consider the ecological features of built infrastructures and

  6. Determining the Location and Magnitude of Basin and Range and Laramide Faulting, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundrett, C. E.; Lamb, M. A.; Beard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Southern Nevada records two recent periods of deformation; the Laramide orogeny and Basin and Range extension. Our research focuses on these events to understand the history of faulting in this area and the resulting landscape. First, we have advanced an on-going research project in the Lake Mead region of Nevada, which was deformed by extension that began around 17 Ma. We are currently working in the White Basin, near Lake Mead. The White Basin is comprised of the Lovell Wash Member, ~14-12 Ma, of the Horse Spring Formation. The Lovell Wash Member contains siliciclastic and carbonate units that vary laterally and vertically throughout this area. This is a change from the fairly homogenous Bitter Ridge Limestone Member below and suggests a change in the style of faulting. To determine the faulting history, we mapped out marker beds, focusing on tuffs and limestone beds that form continuous, well-exposed outcrops in the area. We found abrupt stratigraphic thickening of ~50% across faults, documenting syndepositional faulting. We used dated tuffs to determine that this faulting developed from ~13.7-13.2 Ma. Secondly, we are working on a Laramide uplift project. We are testing the hypothesis that an area in the Kingman Uplift region was deformed by a Laramide age fault, prior to Miocene extensional deformation. We are using U-Th/He Apatite and K-Spar Multiple Diffusion Domain thermochronology, to determine the cooling histories of rocks on either side of the proposed fault. Both of these on-going research projects highlight the complex geology that is found in the Basin and Range province in the United States. Understanding this complex geology will help answer questions about the timing, driving forces, and processes associated with extensional and compressional events.

  7. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    PubMed

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm.

  8. Surface brightness, standard candles and q/0/. [universe deceleration parameter determination by redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The most direct way to determine the deceleration parameter, q(0), of the universe is through the study of the redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources. Progress has been slow because the necessary sources for this study must be standard candles, which have identical absolute total luminosity (balometric or monochromatic). The present paper shows, first of all, that, although necessary, this is not a sufficient condition for nonpoint-like (or resolved) sources. A modification of the redshift-magnitude relation is then described for a certain class of nonstandard candles using measurements of isophotal surface brightness. It is noted that such measurements can be used to standardize the central surface brightness of galaxies, but the standardization of the scale parameter remains beyond observations.

  9. Current progress in using multiple electromagnetic indicators to determine location, time, and magnitude of earthquakes in California and Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Roth, S.; Heraud, J.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Bryant, N.; Bambery, R.; Lira, A.

    2010-12-01

    showed similar increases in 30 minute averaged energy excursions, but the 30 minute averages had a disadvantage in that they reduced the signal to noise ratio over the individual pulse counting method. In other electromagnetic monitoring methods, air conductivity instrumentation showed major changes in positive air-borne ions observed near the Alum Rock and Tacna sites, peaking during the 24 hours prior to the earthquake. The use of GOES (geosynchronous) satellite infra red (IR) data showed that an unusual apparent “night time heating” occurred in an extended area within 40+ km. of the Alum Rock site, and this IR signature peaked around the time of the magnetic pulse count peak. The combination of these 3 indicators (magnetic pulse counts, air conductivity, and IR night time heating) may be the start in determining the time (within 1-2 weeks), location (within 20-40km) and magnitude (within +/- 1 increment of Richter magnitude) of earthquake greater than M5.4

  10. Factors determining the magnitude of the pre-ejection leftward septal motion in left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Remme, Espen W; Niederer, Steven; Gjesdal, Ola; Russell, Kristoffer; Hyde, Eoin R; Smith, Nicolas; Smiseth, Otto A

    2016-12-01

    An abnormal large leftward septal motion prior to ejection is frequently observed in left bundle branch block (LBBB) patients. This motion has been proposed as a predictor of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Our goal was to investigate factors that influence its magnitude. Left (LVP) and right ventricular (RVP) pressures and left ventricular (LV) volume were measured in eight canines. After induction of LBBB, LVP and, hence, the transmural septal pressure (PLV-RV = LVP-RVP) increased more slowly (P < 0.01) during the phase when septum moved leftwards. A biventricular finite-element LBBB simulation model confirmed that the magnitude of septal leftward motion depended on reduced rise of PLV-RV. The model showed that leftward septal motion was decreased with shorter activation delay, reduced global or right ventricular (RV) contractility, septal infarction, or when the septum was already displaced into the LV at end diastole by RV volume overload. Both experiments and simulations showed that pre-ejection septal hypercontraction occurs, in part, because the septum performs more of the work pushing blood towards the mitral valve leaflets to close them as the normal lateral wall contribution to this push is lost. Left bundle branch block lowers afterload against pre-ejection septal contraction, expressed as slowed rise of PLV-RV, which is a main cause and determinant of the magnitude of leftward septal motion. The motion may be small or absent due to septal infarct, impaired global or RV contractility or RV volume overload, which should be kept in mind if this motion is to be used in evaluation of CRT response. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. White Energy Hereford, LLC Determination Letter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This determination letter responds to the fuel pathway petition from White Energy Hereford, LLC to use the purchase of renewable energy certificates (RECs) to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions factor associated with electricity used at their facility.

  12. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

  13. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

  14. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores. PMID:26620189

  15. Determining Timing and Magnitude of Dietary Shifts in Black Guillemots (Cepphus grylle) Using Stable Isotope Analysis of Flight Feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleese, M. C.; Boswell, K. M.; Divoky, G.; Barton, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Recent decreases in Artic summer sea and increases in SST have caused changes in the marine ecosystems associated with ice-covered waters. A four-decade study of Black Guillemots (Cepphus grylle) on Cooper Island near Point Barrow, AK has shown that nestling quality and survival is linked to proximity to sea ice and SST. In recent years when sea ice retreats from the foraging area and SST increases to >4°C during the nestling period, parent guillemots have switched from their preferred prey, Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), to less desirable fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). The guillemots' shift from a cryopelagic fish to a nearshore demersal is hard to monitor through direct observation and we suggest a new method to assess the timing and magnitude of this dietary shift using stable isotope analysis of nestling flight feathers. Flight feathers (primaries, secondaries and tail feathers) provide a linear record of material incorporated into the body of the chick from the start of feather growth to fledging, a period of approximately 30 days. Arctic cod and fourhorn sculpin have distinctive diets and are reliant on different basal resources and should produce distinct isotopic signatures in guillemot tissues. We extracted vane tissues from sections of 30 black guillemot feathers grown in a breeding season that experienced an observed prey shift, and conducted stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses to determine whether such analyses could be used to assess the dietary shift linked with loss of sea ice and increasing SST. Most seabird populations are not as easily accessible as the guillemots of Cooper Island and thus observations of dietary composition are difficult to obtain. Development of a technique using nestling feathers to examine timing and magnitude of seasonal shifts in prey would preclude the need for daily observations and have great utility for monitoring the ecological effects of the continuing annual decrease in Arctic summer ice.

  16. Determination of fault planes and dimensions for low-magnitude earthquakes - A case study in eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Delouis, Bertrand; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2017-03-01

    We present a modified version of the FMNEAR method for determining the focal mechanisms and fault plane geometries of small earthquakes. Our improvements allow determination of the fault plane and dimensions using the near-field components of only a few local records. The limiting factor is the number of stations: a minimum of five to six stations is required to discriminate between the fault plane and auxiliary plane. This limitation corresponds to events with magnitudes ML > 3.5 in eastern Taiwan, but strongly depends on station coverage in the study area. Once a fault plane is identified, it is provided along with its source time function and fault slip distribution. The proposed approach is validated by synthetic tests, and applied to real cases from a seismic crisis that occurred in the Longitudinal Valley of eastern Taiwan in April 2006. The fault geometries and faulting types of test events closely match the fault system of the main shock and reveal a minor one inside the faults zone of the Longitudinal Valley. Tested on a larger scale, this approach enables the fault geometries of main and secondary fault systems to be recovered from small earthquakes, allowing subsurface faults to be mapped in detail without waiting for a large, damaging event.

  17. Stoichiometry and Life-History Interact to Determine the Magnitude of Cross-Ecosystem Element and Biomass Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Luhring, Thomas M; DeLong, John P; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems are linked through the transfer of materials and energy. Studies examining material fluxes across habitat boundaries frequently quantify unidirectional flows of nutrients and energy. However, material fluxes can be multidirectional, and we lack a conceptual framework to describe how their quantity and stoichiometry influence the net transfer of individual elements between ecosystems. Here we develop a zero net transfer isocline (ZNTI) framework that integrates the relative mass and stoichiometry of fluxes into and out of an ecosystem. We then use case studies with amphibians and salmon to elucidate how life history, ontogenetic shifts in stoichiometry, and trophic interactions shape relative fluxes of nutrients between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Because they increase in both size and Ca content from ova to metamorphs, amphibian life histories strongly bias them toward net Ca export into the terrestrial environment. Because amphibian biomass, C, P, and Ca ZNTIs do not overlap, there is no value of survivorship where the net flux of biomass, C, P, and Ca are simultaneously balanced between terrestrial and aquatic habitats. The degree of iteroparity and semelparity in salmon strongly affects both the magnitude of net biomass and P flux between riverine and marine environments. While the net direction of biomass flux generally remains strongly biased toward import into the riverine system, net P flux can reach net export into the marine environment because of increasing adult breeding survival leading to reduced mass and %P of what they deposit in rivers (e.g., ova vs. whole carcasses). These examples highlight how ontogenetic shifts in body size and stoichiometry result in asymmetric fluxes of elements and biomass that can lead to simultaneous net imports and exports of different elements within the same system. Furthermore, they demonstrate how changes in life-history characteristics and stage-specific survivorship can lead to changes in net

  18. A Precision Determination of the Effect of Metallicity on Cepheid Absolute Magnitudes in VIJHK Bands from Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgórski, Piotr; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Górski, Marek; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Zgirski, Bartłomiej; Bresolin, Fabio; Storm, Jesper; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Graczyk, Dariusz; Soszyński, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Using high-quality observed period-luminosity (P-L) relations in both Magellanic Clouds in the VIJHK s bands and optical and near-infrared Wesenheit indices, we determine the effect of metallicity on Cepheid P-L relations by comparing the relative distance between the LMC and SMC as determined from the Cepheids to the difference in distance between the Clouds that has been derived with very high accuracy from late-type eclipsing binary systems. Within an uncertainty of 3%, which is dominated by the uncertainty on the mean difference in metallicity between the Cepheid populations in the LMC and SMC, we find metallicity effects smaller than 2% in all bands and in the Wesenheit indices, consistent with a zero metallicity effect. This result is valid for the metallicity range from -0.35 dex to -0.75 dex corresponding to the mean [Fe/H] values for classical Cepheids in the LMC and SMC, respectively. Yet most Cepheids in galaxies beyond the Local Group and located in the less crowded outer regions of these galaxies do fall into this metallicity regime, making our result important for applications to determine the distances to spiral galaxies well beyond the Local Group. Our result supports previous findings that indicated a very small metallicity effect on the near-infrared absolute magnitudes of classical Cepheids, and resolves the dispute about the size and sign of the metallicity effect in the optical spectral range. It also resolves one of the most pressing problems in the quest toward a measurement of the Hubble constant with an accuracy of 1% from the Cepheid-supernova Ia method.

  19. Magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia: evidence from rural, community-based setting.

    PubMed

    Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting a high proportion of pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1731 pregnant women selected by a cluster random sampling method. Data on maternal anthropometry and other factors were gathered by trained data collectors. Mid-upper arm circumference < 22 cm defined malnutrition. Mixed-effect, multilevel logistic regression was used to control clustering effect. On average, 19.06% of subjects were malnourished, while 23.3% study participants were underweight (body mass index < 19.8 kg m(-2)). In the final adjusted analysis, the risk of malnutrition was more than twofold higher in pregnant women with low (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-4.34) and medium (adjusted odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-5.35) autonomy of household decision-making than those who had high level of autonomy in household decision-making. Husband illiteracy and not owning livestock were associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Women in the second and third trimester had a 66% and nearly twofold increased risk of malnutrition compared with their counterparts in the first trimester, respectively. Women who improved their eating habits had a 53% lower risk of malnutrition than those who did not. The risk of malnutrition was 39% lower in respondents who received prenatal dietary advice than in those who did not. Malnutrition affects at least one of every five pregnant women studied, calling for priority attention. Interventions that improve maternal involvement in household decision-making autonomy and provision of prenatal dietary advice are recommended.

  20. A theoretical study of correlation between scaled energy and earthquake magnitude based on two source displacement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2013-12-01

    The correlation of the scaled energy, ê = E s/ M 0, versus earthquake magnitude, M s, is studied based on two models: (1) Model 1 based on the use of the time function of the average displacements, with a ω -2 source spectrum, across a fault plane; and (2) Model 2 based on the use of the time function of the average displacements, with a ω -3 source spectrum, across a fault plane. For the second model, there are two cases: (a) As τ ≒ T, where τ is the rise time and T the rupture time, lg( ê) ~ - M s; and (b) As τ ≪ T, lg( ê) ~ -(1/2) M s. The second model leads to a negative value of ê. This means that Model 2 cannot work for studying the present problem. The results obtained from Model 1 suggest that the source model is a factor, yet not a unique one, in controlling the correlation of ê versus M s.

  1. Experimental determination of ice sublimation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, R.; Canto, J.; Satorre, M. A.; Domingo, M.

    2011-11-01

    In Astrophysics, the study of ices is important due to the wide range of scenarios in which they are present. Their physical and chemical characteristics play an important role in the study of the interstellar medium (ISM). The assessment of the energy of sublimation allows us to improve our understanding of physical and/or chemical processes that take place where ices are present. The energy of sublimation E_sub is defined as the change of energy between solid and gas phase of certain molecule. This value is important to determinate other thermodynamical parameters such as the reticular energy of ionic compounds, the energy of formation in gas phase from the energy of formation in condensed phase, or to estimate the sublimation rate, which is very important in determining the evolution of surfaces of astrophysical objects.

  2. Energy Intensity Determination in Wood Processing Sawmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddula, Ramakrishna Babu

    Energy intensity is an important aspect to wood products producing sawmills in the State of West Virginia. This research aims to facilitate the accurate measurement of electrical energy intensity in sawmills by means of energy analysis and diagnostics using various data acquisition devices on electrical motors used in the manufacturing processes. Close to 90% of the electrical energy used in a typical sawmill is consumed by motors alone. The energy intensity determination is being accomplished by data collection with respect to electrical energy consumption parameters as well as production parameters. The electrical energy consumption was recorded on all the major motors in three sawmills for a period of one month. The recorded data were analyzed with respect to the production volume and the specific energy consumption for different size lumber of varying species was developed. The specific energy allocation for different size lumber was done based on the surface area cut to manufacture that lumber. The specific energy consumption of a particular size lumber has been compared with respect to different species. The specific energy consumption of different size lumber of the same species was developed. Sawmills can evaluate the impact of their production decisions on energy consumption using the results of this research. Energy consumption of different size and species was compared among three sawmills. Specific energy consumption of hardwood species in sawmill 1 for 4/4 lumber is varying from 124 kwh to 170 kWh per 1,000 board feet, where as in sawmill 2 it is varying from 79 kwh to 118 kWh and in sawmill 3 it is varying from 90 kwh to 145 kWh. Further, results of the energy assessment conducted in each sawmill would save on average 12% of energy consumption at current operation. Finally, productivity improvement that can be achieved by sawing high quality logs and using new saw blade technologies were discussed.

  3. Moments, magnitudes, and radiated energies of non-volcanic tremor near Cholame, CA, from ground motion spectra at UPSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; McGarr, A.

    2011-01-01

    By averaging the spectra of events within two episodes of tremor (on Jan. 21 and 24, 2005) across the 12 stations of UPSAR, we improved the S/N sufficiently to define source spectra. Analysis of eleven impulsive events revealed attenuation-corrected spectra of displacement similar to those of earthquakes, with a low-frequency plateau, a corner frequency, and a high frequency decay proportional to f−2. Seismic moments, M0, estimated from these spectra range from about 3 to 10 × 1011 N-m or moment magnitudes in the range 1.6 to 1.9. The corner frequencies range from 2.6 to 7.2 Hz and, if interpreted in the same way as for earthquakes, indicate low stress drops that vary from 0.001 to 0.04 MPa. Seismic energies, estimated from the ground motion spectra, vary from 0.2 × 105 to 4.4 × 105 J, or apparent stresses in the range 0.002 to 0.02 MPa. The low stress parameters are consistent with a weak fault zone in the lower crust at the depth of tremor. In contrast, the same analysis on a micro-earthquake, located near Cholame (depth = 10.3 km), revealed a stress drop of 0.5 MPa and an apparent stress of 0.02 MPa. Residual spectra from ω−2 model fits to the displacement spectra of the non-volcanic tremor events show peaks near 4 Hz that are not apparent in the spectra for the microearthquake nor for the spectrum of earth noise. These spectral peaks may indicate that tremor entails more than shear failure reminiscent of mechanisms, possibly entailing fluid flow, associated with volcanic tremor or deep volcanic earthquakes.

  4. Aspects of energy transitions: History and determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Peter A.

    Energy intensity in the U.S. from 1780 to 2010 shows a declining trend when traditional energy is included, in contrast to the "inverted U-curve" seen when only commercial energy is considered. The analysis quantifies use of human and animal muscle power, wind and water power, biomass, harvested ice, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. Historical prices are provided for many energy resources. The analysis reaffirms the importance of innovation in conversion technologies in energy transitions. An increase in energy intensity in the early 20th century is explained by diminishing returns to pre-electric manufacturing systems, which produced a transformation in manufacturing. In comparison to similar studies for other countries, the U.S. has generally higher energy intensity. A population-weighted series of heating degree days and cooling degree days partially explains differences in energy intensity. Series are developed for 231 countries and territories with multiple reference temperatures, with a "wet-bulb" series accounting for the effects of humidity. Other variables considered include energy prices, income per capita, and governance indices. A panel regression of thirty-two countries from 1995 to 2010 establishes GDP per capita and share of primary energy as determinants of energy intensity, but fails to establish statistical significance of the climate variables. A group mean regression finds average heating and cooling degree days to be significant predictors of average energy intensity over the study period, increasing energy intensity by roughly 1.5 kJ per 2005 international dollar for each annual degree day. Group mean regression results explain differences in countries' average energy intensity, but not changes within a country over time. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) influences the economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of an energy resource and is one driver of energy transitions. The EROI of U.S. petroleum production has declined since 1972

  5. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  6. The horizon line, linear perspective, interposition, and background brightness as determinants of the magnitude of the pictorial moon illusion.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie A H; Wilson, Alexander E

    2009-01-01

    A total of 110 undergraduate students participated in a series of three experiments that explored the magnitude of the moon illusion in pictures. Experiment 1 examined the role of the number and salience of depth cues and background brightness. Experiment 2 examined the role of the horizon line, linear perspective, interposition, and background brightness. In Experiment 3, comparative distance judgments of the moon as a function of linear perspective, interposition, and the size of the standard moon were obtained. The magnitude of the moon illusion increased as a function of the number and salience of depth cues and changes in background brightness. Experiment 2 failed to support the role of the horizon line in affecting the illusion. Experiment 3 provided additional support for the illusory distance component of the moon illusion.

  7. Initial viral load determines the magnitude of the human CD8 T cell response to yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Akondy, Rama S; Johnson, Philip L F; Nakaya, Helder I; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J; Lawson, Benton; Miller, Joseph D; Pulendran, Bali; Antia, Rustom; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-03-10

    CD8 T cells are a potent tool for eliminating intracellular pathogens and tumor cells. Thus, eliciting robust CD8 T-cell immunity is the basis for many vaccines under development. However, the relationship between antigen load and the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response is not well-described in a human immune response. Here we address this issue by quantifying viral load and the CD8 T-cell response in a cohort of 80 individuals immunized with the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV-17D) by sampling peripheral blood at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 30, and 90. When the virus load was below a threshold (peak virus load < 225 genomes per mL, or integrated virus load < 400 genome days per mL), the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response correlated strongly with the virus load (R(2) ∼ 0.63). As the virus load increased above this threshold, the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell responses saturated. Recent advances in CD8 T-cell-based vaccines have focused on replication-incompetent or single-cycle vectors. However, these approaches deliver relatively limited amounts of antigen after immunization. Our results highlight the requirement that T-cell-based vaccines should deliver sufficient antigen during the initial period of the immune response to elicit a large number of CD8 T cells that may be needed for protection.

  8. The Role of Spatial and Temporal Variability in Determining the Magnitude and Structure of Thermospheric Vertical Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, E.; Ridley, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Vertical winds in the thermosphere can occur in various spatial scales and vary in very short time-scales. They are typically associated with barometric, divergent, and nonhydrostatic motions. Increasing number of observational studies suggest that vertical winds are temporally and spatially highly variable and their magnitudes and structures are overall not captured well enough by contemporary general circulation models (GCMs) that are based on the hydrostatic assumption and have coarse spatial resolutions and relatively large time steps. In this study, using the 3-D nonhydrostatic Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) developed at the University of Michigan, we investigate the physical mechanisms that control the magnitudes and structures of the thermosphere neutral vertical winds, focusing on the role of spatial and temporal variability simulated by GITM. To identify the response of the high-latitude thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) to variable magnetospheric inputs, such as the IMF Bz, the associated Joule and auroral heating are analyzed. In a series of systematic simulations, the magnitude and temporal variations of Bz are modulated. Additionally, the effects of random electric field variability are investigated by implementing first constant and then temporally variable noise term in the electric fields. Vertical winds are found to be sensitive to spatial resolution as well as to the specific form of temporally varying magnetospheric input and random noise in the electric field input.

  9. Determining energy costs for milling solid matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangbin, Yu., Dr.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Marakhovskii, M. B.; Aleksina, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The article provides findings of analytical research into the process of milling friable matter in a ball mill. We have received an expression to determine energy cost of milling with the account of the method of milling and the characteristics of the material to be ground.

  10. How Are the Form and Magnitude of DIF Effects in Multiple-Choice Items Determined by Distractor-Level Invariance Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how the magnitude and form of differential item functioning (DIF) effects in multiple-choice items are determined by the underlying differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects, as modeled under the nominal response model. The results of a numerical investigation indicated that (a) the presence of one or more nonzero DDF…

  11. Female nutritional status determines the magnitude and sign of responses to a male ejaculate signal in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fricke, C; Bretman, A; Chapman, T

    2010-01-01

    Ejaculate chemicals transferred from males to females during mating cause significant changes in female behaviour and physiology, but the causes of phenotypic variation in these responses is little understood. We tested here the effect of adult female nutrition on the response of female Drosophila melanogaster to a specific ejaculate component, the sex peptide (SP), which is of interest because of its effects on female egg laying, sexual receptivity, feeding rate, immune responses and potential role in mediating sexual conflict. We exposed adult females to five different diets and kept them continuously with males that did or did not transfer SP. Diet altered the presence, magnitude and sign of the effects of SP on different phenotypic traits (egg laying, receptivity and lifespan) and different traits responded in different ways. This showed that the set of responses to mating can be uncoupled and can vary independently in different environments. Importantly, diet also significantly affected whether exposure to SP transferring males was beneficial or costly to females, with beneficial effects occurring more often than expected. Hence, the food environment can also shape significantly the strength and direction of selection on mating responses.

  12. Predator biomass determines the magnitude of non-consumptive effects (NCEs) in both laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennifer M; Weissburg, Marc J

    2013-05-01

    Predator body size often indicates predation risk, but its significance in non-consumptive effects (NCEs) and predator risk assessment has been largely understudied. Although studies often recognize that predator body size can cause differing cascading effects, few directly examine prey foraging behavior in response to individual predator sizes or investigate how predator size is discerned. These mechanisms are important since perception of the risk imposed by predators dictates behavioral responses to predators and subsequent NCEs. Here, we evaluate the role of predator body size and biomass on risk assessment and the magnitude of NCEs by investigating mud crab foraging behavior and oyster survival in response to differing biomasses of blue crab predators using both laboratory and field methods. Cues from high predator biomass treatments including large blue crab predators and multiple small blue crab predators decreased mud crab foraging and increased oyster survival, whereas mud crab foraging in response to a single small blue crab did not differ from controls. Mud crabs also increased refuge use in the presence of large and multiple small, but not single small, blue crab predators. Thus, both predator biomass and aggregation patterns may affect the expression of NCEs. Understanding the impact of predator biomass may therefore be necessary to successfully predict the role of NCEs in shaping community dynamics. Further, the results of our laboratory experiments were consistent with observed NCEs in the field, suggesting that data from mesocosm environments can provide insight into field situations where flow and turbulence levels are moderate.

  13. Vulnerability Reduction Needed to Maintain Current Burdens of Heat-Related Mortality in a Changing Climate-Magnitude and Determinants.

    PubMed

    Åström, Christofer; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Andersson, Camilla; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil

    2017-07-07

    The health burden from heatwaves is expected to increase with rising global mean temperatures and more extreme heat events over the coming decades. Health-related effects from extreme heat are more common in elderly populations. The population of Europe is rapidly aging, which will increase the health effects of future temperatures. In this study, we estimate the magnitude of adaptation needed to lower vulnerability to heat in order to prevent an increase in heat-related deaths in the 2050s; this is the Adaptive Risk Reduction (ARR) needed. Temperature projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 18 climate models were coupled with gridded population data and exposure-response relationships from a European multi-city study on heat-related mortality. In the 2050s, the ARR for the general population is 53.5%, based on temperature projections under RCP 4.5. For the population above 65 years in Southern Europe, the ARR is projected to be 45.9% in a future with an unchanged climate and 74.7% with climate change under RCP 4.5. The ARRs were higher under RCP 8.5. Whichever emission scenario is followed or population projection assumed, Europe will need to adapt to a great degree to maintain heat-related mortality at present levels, which are themselves unacceptably high, posing an even greater challenge.

  14. Role of the spin magnitude of the magnetic ion in determining the frustration and low-temperature properties of kagome lattices.

    PubMed

    Pati, Swapan K; Rao, C N R

    2005-12-15

    In view of the variety of low-temperature magnetic properties reported recently for kagome lattices with transition-metal ions in different oxidation states, we have investigated the low-energy spectrum and low-temperature thermodynamic properties of antiferromagnetic kagome lattices with varying magnitudes of site spins, employing quantum many-body Heisenberg models. The ground state and the low-lying excitation spectrum are found to depend strongly on the nature of the spin magnitude of the magnetic ions. The system remains highly frustrated if spins are half-odd-integer in magnitude, while the frustration is very weak or almost absent for integer spins or mixed-spin systems. In fact, for a mixed-spin kagome system with a certain magnitude, the whole system behaves as a classical magnet with a ferrimagnetic ground state without any frustration. These theoretical findings are consistent with a few experimental observations recently reported in the literature and would be of value in designing new kagome systems with unusual and interesting low-temperature magnetic properties.

  15. The magnitude, share and determinants of unpaid care costs for home-based palliative care service provision in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chai, Huamin; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care in Canada, economic evaluation is warranted, given its tremendous demands on family caregivers. Despite this, very little is known about the economic outcomes associated with home-based unpaid care-giving at the end of life. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the magnitude and share of unpaid care costs in total healthcare costs for home-based palliative care patients, from a societal perspective and (ii) examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that account for variations in this share. One hundred and sixty-nine caregivers of patients with a malignant neoplasm were interviewed from time of referral to a home-based palliative care programme provided by the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, until death. Information regarding palliative care resource utilisation and costs, time devoted to care-giving and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was collected between July 2005 and September 2007. Over the last 12 months of life, the average monthly cost was $14 924 (2011 CDN$) per patient. Unpaid care-giving costs were the largest component - $11 334, accounting for 77% of total palliative care expenses, followed by public costs ($3211; 21%) and out-of-pocket expenditures ($379; 2%). In all cost categories, monthly costs increased exponentially with proximity to death. Seemingly unrelated regression estimation suggested that the share of unpaid care costs of total costs was driven by patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Results suggest that overwhelming the proportion of palliative care costs is unpaid care-giving. This share of costs requires urgent attention to identify interventions aimed at alleviating the heavy financial burden and to ultimately ensure the viability of home-based palliative care in future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Methods for determining magnitude and frequency of floods in California, based on data through water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Parrett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in California that are not substantially affected by regulation or diversions have been updated. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2006 were analyzed for 771 streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) in California having 10 or more years of data. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for the streamgages by using the expected moments algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to logarithms of annual peak flows for each streamgage. Low-outlier and historic information were incorporated into the flood-frequency analysis, and a generalized Grubbs-Beck test was used to detect multiple potentially influential low outliers. Special methods for fitting the distribution were developed for streamgages in the desert region in southeastern California. Additionally, basin characteristics for the streamgages were computed by using a geographical information system. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least squares regression, was used to develop a set of equations for estimating flows with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities for ungaged basins in California that are outside of the southeastern desert region. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 630 streamgages were combined to form the final database used in the regional regression analysis. Five hydrologic regions were developed for the area of California outside of the desert region. The final regional regression equations are functions of drainage area and mean annual precipitation for four of the five regions. In one region, the Sierra Nevada region, the final equations are functions of drainage area, mean basin elevation, and mean annual precipitation. Average standard errors of prediction for the regression equations in all five regions range from 42.7 to 161.9 percent. For the desert region of California, an analysis of 33 streamgages was used to develop regional estimates

  17. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  18. SCARDEC: a new technique for the rapid determination of seismic moment magnitude, focal mechanism and source time functions for large earthquakes using body-wave deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, M.; Charléty, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Delouis, B.; Vergoz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and fast magnitude determination for large, shallow earthquakes is of key importance for post-seismic response and tsumami alert purposes. When no local real-time data are available, which is today the case for most subduction earthquakes, the first information comes from teleseismic body waves. Standard body-wave methods give accurate magnitudes for earthquakes up to Mw= 7-7.5. For larger earthquakes, the analysis is more complex, because of the non-validity of the point-source approximation and of the interaction between direct and surface-reflected phases. The latter effect acts as a strong high-pass filter, which complicates the magnitude determination. We here propose an automated deconvolutive approach, which does not impose any simplifying assumptions about the rupture process, thus being well adapted to large earthquakes. We first determine the source duration based on the length of the high frequency (1-3 Hz) signal content. The deconvolution of synthetic double-couple point source signals—depending on the four earthquake parameters strike, dip, rake and depth—from the windowed real data body-wave signals (including P, PcP, PP, SH and ScS waves) gives the apparent source time function (STF). We search the optimal combination of these four parameters that respects the physical features of any STF: causality, positivity and stability of the seismic moment at all stations. Once this combination is retrieved, the integration of the STFs gives directly the moment magnitude. We apply this new approach, referred as the SCARDEC method, to most of the major subduction earthquakes in the period 1990-2010. Magnitude differences between the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) and the SCARDEC method may reach 0.2, but values are found consistent if we take into account that the Global CMT solutions for large, shallow earthquakes suffer from a known trade-off between dip and seismic moment. We show by modelling long-period surface waves of these events that

  19. A self-consistent structural perturbation approach for determining the magnitude and extent of allosteric coupling in proteins.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Nandakumar; Naganathan, Athi N

    2017-07-06

    Elucidating the extent of energetic coupling between residues in single-domain proteins, which is a fundamental determinant of allostery, information transfer and folding cooperativity, has remained a grand challenge. While several sequence- and structure-based approaches have been proposed, a self-consistent description that is simultaneously compatible with unfolding thermodynamics is lacking. We recently developed a simple structural perturbation protocol that captures the changes in thermodynamic stabilities induced by point mutations within the protein interior. Here, we show that a fundamental residue-specific component of this perturbation approach, the coupling distance, is uniquely sensitive to the environment of a residue in the protein to a distance of ∼15 Å. With just the protein contact map as an input, we reproduce the extent of percolation of perturbations within the structure as observed in network analysis of intra-protein interactions, molecular dynamics simulations and NMR-observed changes in chemical shifts. Using this rapid protocol that relies on a single structure, we explain the results of statistical coupling analysis (SCA) that requires hundreds of sequences to identify functionally critical sectors, the propagation and dissipation of perturbations within proteins and the higher-order couplings deduced from detailed NMR experiments. Our results thus shed light on the possible mechanistic origins of signaling through the interaction network within proteins, the likely distance dependence of perturbations induced by ligands and post-translational modifications and the origins of folding cooperativity through many-body interactions. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. First determination of ionization energies of phenylnitrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijuan, Che; Huimin, Bi; Rui, Ding; Dong, Wang; Lingpeng, Meng; Shijun, Zheng; Dianxun, Wang; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wak; Chau, Foo-Tim

    2003-12-01

    The continuous flowing beams of the triplet state phenylnitrene (PhN) species have been generated by respective pyrolysis of PhN 3 at 83(±0.5) °C and phenylisocyanate (PhNCO) at 105(±0.5) °C in the quartz inlet tube loosely filled with a 30 Å molecular sieve powder supported on the quartz wool. PE spectrum of PhN is recorded in situ for the first time. The ionization energies, corresponding to different ionic states of PhN +, are determined by PES experiment and both G2 and DFT calculations. The study indicates that PhN is a diradical with C 2v symmetry and has a 3A 2 ground state.

  1. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth.

    PubMed

    de Onís, M; Monteiro, C; Akré, J; Glugston, G

    1993-01-01

    Using the WHO Global Database on Child Growth, which covers 87% of the total population of under-5-year-olds in developing countries, we describe the worldwide distribution of protein-energy malnutrition, based on nationally representative cross-sectional data gathered between 1980 and 1992 in 79 developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania. The findings confirm that more than a third of the world's children are affected. For all the indicators (wasting, stunting, and underweight) the most favourable situation--low or moderate prevalences--occurs in Latin America; in Asia most countries have high or very high prevalences; and in Africa a combination of both these circumstances is found. A total 80% of the children affected live in Asia--mainly in southern Asia--15% in Africa, and 5% in Latin America. Approximately, 43% of children (230 million) in developing countries are stunted. Efforts to accelerate significantly economic development will be unsuccessful until optimal child growth and development are ensured for the majority.

  2. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth.

    PubMed Central

    de Onís, M.; Monteiro, C.; Akré, J.; Glugston, G.

    1993-01-01

    Using the WHO Global Database on Child Growth, which covers 87% of the total population of under-5-year-olds in developing countries, we describe the worldwide distribution of protein-energy malnutrition, based on nationally representative cross-sectional data gathered between 1980 and 1992 in 79 developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania. The findings confirm that more than a third of the world's children are affected. For all the indicators (wasting, stunting, and underweight) the most favourable situation--low or moderate prevalences--occurs in Latin America; in Asia most countries have high or very high prevalences; and in Africa a combination of both these circumstances is found. A total 80% of the children affected live in Asia--mainly in southern Asia--15% in Africa, and 5% in Latin America. Approximately, 43% of children (230 million) in developing countries are stunted. Efforts to accelerate significantly economic development will be unsuccessful until optimal child growth and development are ensured for the majority. PMID:8313488

  3. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  4. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  5. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  6. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  7. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  8. Order of magnitude enhancement of monolayer MoS2 photoluminescence due to near-field energy influx from nanocrystal films

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tianle; Sampat, Siddharth; Zhang, Kehao; Robinson, Joshua A.; Rupich, Sara M.; Chabal, Yves J.; Gartstein, Yuri N.; Malko, Anton V.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like MoS2 are promising candidates for various optoelectronic applications. The typical photoluminescence (PL) of monolayer MoS2 is however known to suffer very low quantum yields. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase of MoS2 excitonic PL enabled by nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) from adjacent nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) films. The understanding of this effect is facilitated by our application of transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to monitor the energy influx into the monolayer MoS2 in the process of ET from photoexcited CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. In contrast to PL spectroscopy, TA can detect even non-emissive excitons, and we register an order of magnitude enhancement of the MoS2 excitonic TA signatures in hybrids with NQDs. The appearance of ET-induced nanosecond-scale kinetics in TA features is consistent with PL dynamics of energy-accepting MoS2 and PL quenching data of the energy-donating NQDs. The observed enhancement is attributed to the reduction of recombination losses for excitons gradually transferred into MoS2 under quasi-resonant conditions as compared with their direct photoproduction. The TA and PL data clearly illustrate the efficacy of MoS2 and likely other TMDC materials as energy acceptors and the possibility of their practical utilization in NRET-coupled hybrid nanostructures. PMID:28155920

  9. Order of magnitude enhancement of monolayer MoS2 photoluminescence due to near-field energy influx from nanocrystal films

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Tianle; Sampat, Siddharth; Zhang, Kehao; ...

    2017-02-03

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like MoS2 are promising candidates for various optoelectronic applications. The typical photoluminescence (PL) of monolayer MoS2 is however known to suffer very low quantum yields. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase of MoS2 excitonic PL enabled by nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) from adjacent nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) films. The understanding of this effect is facilitated by our application of transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to monitor the energy influx into the monolayer MoS2 in the process of ET from photoexcited CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. In contrast to PL spectroscopy, TA can detect even non-emissive excitons, and we register anmore » order of magnitude enhancement of the MoS2 excitonic TA signatures in hybrids with NQDs. The appearance of ET-induced nanosecond-scale kinetics in TA features is consistent with PL dynamics of energy-accepting MoS2 and PL quenching data of the energy-donating NQDs. The observed enhancement is attributed to the reduction of recombination losses for excitons gradually transferred into MoS2 under quasi-resonant conditions as compared with their direct photoproduction. Furthermore, the TA and PL data clearly illustrate the efficacy of MoS2 and likely other TMDC materials as energy acceptors and the possibility of their practical utilization in NRET-coupled hybrid nanostructures.« less

  10. Order of magnitude enhancement of monolayer MoS2 photoluminescence due to near-field energy influx from nanocrystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianle; Sampat, Siddharth; Zhang, Kehao; Robinson, Joshua A.; Rupich, Sara M.; Chabal, Yves J.; Gartstein, Yuri N.; Malko, Anton V.

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like MoS2 are promising candidates for various optoelectronic applications. The typical photoluminescence (PL) of monolayer MoS2 is however known to suffer very low quantum yields. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase of MoS2 excitonic PL enabled by nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) from adjacent nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) films. The understanding of this effect is facilitated by our application of transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to monitor the energy influx into the monolayer MoS2 in the process of ET from photoexcited CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. In contrast to PL spectroscopy, TA can detect even non-emissive excitons, and we register an order of magnitude enhancement of the MoS2 excitonic TA signatures in hybrids with NQDs. The appearance of ET-induced nanosecond-scale kinetics in TA features is consistent with PL dynamics of energy-accepting MoS2 and PL quenching data of the energy-donating NQDs. The observed enhancement is attributed to the reduction of recombination losses for excitons gradually transferred into MoS2 under quasi-resonant conditions as compared with their direct photoproduction. The TA and PL data clearly illustrate the efficacy of MoS2 and likely other TMDC materials as energy acceptors and the possibility of their practical utilization in NRET-coupled hybrid nanostructures.

  11. Order of magnitude enhancement of monolayer MoS2 photoluminescence due to near-field energy influx from nanocrystal films.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianle; Sampat, Siddharth; Zhang, Kehao; Robinson, Joshua A; Rupich, Sara M; Chabal, Yves J; Gartstein, Yuri N; Malko, Anton V

    2017-02-03

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like MoS2 are promising candidates for various optoelectronic applications. The typical photoluminescence (PL) of monolayer MoS2 is however known to suffer very low quantum yields. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase of MoS2 excitonic PL enabled by nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) from adjacent nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) films. The understanding of this effect is facilitated by our application of transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to monitor the energy influx into the monolayer MoS2 in the process of ET from photoexcited CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. In contrast to PL spectroscopy, TA can detect even non-emissive excitons, and we register an order of magnitude enhancement of the MoS2 excitonic TA signatures in hybrids with NQDs. The appearance of ET-induced nanosecond-scale kinetics in TA features is consistent with PL dynamics of energy-accepting MoS2 and PL quenching data of the energy-donating NQDs. The observed enhancement is attributed to the reduction of recombination losses for excitons gradually transferred into MoS2 under quasi-resonant conditions as compared with their direct photoproduction. The TA and PL data clearly illustrate the efficacy of MoS2 and likely other TMDC materials as energy acceptors and the possibility of their practical utilization in NRET-coupled hybrid nanostructures.

  12. A Robust Method for Determining the Magnitude of the Fully Asymmetric Alignment Tensor of Oriented Macromolecules in the Absence of Structural Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clore, G. Marius; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Bax, Ad

    1998-07-01

    It has recently been shown that the degree of alignment of macromolecules in an aqueous dilute liquid crystalline medium of bicelles is sufficient to permit accurate values of residual15N-1H,13C-1H, and13Cα-C‧ dipolar couplings to be obtained on a routine basis, thereby providing potentially unique long-range structural information. To make use of this information in macromolecular structure determination, the magnitude of the axial and rhombic components of the molecular alignment tensor must be determined. This can be achieved by taking advantage of the fact that different, fixed-distance internuclear vector types are differently distributed relative to the alignment tensor. A histogram of the ensemble of normalized residual dipolar couplings for several such vector types approximates a powder pattern from which the magnitude of the axial and rhombic components are readily extracted in the absence of any prior structural information. The applicability of this method is demonstrated using synthetic data derived from four proteins representative of different sizes, topologies, and secondary structures, and experimental data measured on the small protein ubiquitin.

  13. Determination of optical parameters in general film-substrate systems: a reformulation based on the concepts of envelope extremes and local magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Antón, J C

    2000-09-01

    We present a reformulation of the determination of optical parameters in general film-substrate systems. Developed for interferential films in terms of photometric magnitudes (R, T), the formalism introduced allows us to establish how many parameters can be extracted from a set of measurements and from which type of sample model. These parameters are the refractive index and the absorption of both film and substrate (i.e., ñ1 = n1-jk1 and ñ2 = n2-jk2), the thickness of the film (d), the inhomogeneity of the film (Deltan1), and the surface roughness of the interfaces (sigma1, sigma2) delimiting the film. The new formalism leads to some new analytical results and confirms others. Among the new results we have the following: (a) The mathematical condition commonly related with extremes (maxima and minima) in an interference pattern defines in fact a condition for envelope extremes. (b) The refractive index of a film can be obtained without prior knowledge of the thickness or the refractive index of the substrate (provided we have an optical interference film). (c) Absorption can be directly extracted from an interference-free magnitude T/(1-R). (d) Roughness at the inner surface, inhomogeneity in the film, and absorption are correlated in reflection spectral measurements.

  14. Elastic Barrier Dynamical Freezing in Free Energy Calculations: A Way To Speed Up Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations by Orders of Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Edoardo; Cardini, Gianni; Chelli, Riccardo

    2016-03-08

    An important issue concerning computer simulations addressed to free energy estimates via nonequilibrium work theorems, such as the Jarzynski equality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 1997, 78, 2690], is the computational effort required to achieve results with acceptable accuracy. In this respect, the dynamical freezing approach [Phys. Rev. E 2009, 80, 041124] has been shown to improve the efficiency of this kind of simulations, by blocking the dynamics of particles located outside an established mobility region. In this report, we show that dynamical freezing produces a systematic spurious decrease of the particle density inside the mobility region. As a consequence, the requirements to apply nonequilibrium work theorems are only approximately met. Starting from these considerations, we have developed a simulation scheme, called "elastic barrier dynamical freezing", according to which a stiff potential-energy barrier is enforced at the boundaries of the mobility region, preventing the particles from leaving this region of space during the nonequilibrium trajectories. The method, tested on the calculation of the distance-dependent free energy of a dimer immersed into a Lennard-Jones fluid, provides an accuracy comparable to the conventional steered molecular dynamics, with a computational speedup exceeding a few orders of magnitude.

  15. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  16. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  17. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  18. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  19. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  20. On the determination of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, Chris

    2010-06-23

    I consider some of the issues we face in trying to understand dark energy. Huge fluctuations in the unknown dark energy equation of state can be hidden in distance data, so I argue that model-independent tests which signal if the cosmological constant is wrong are valuable. These can be constructed to remove degeneracies with the cosmological parameters. Gravitational effects can play an important role. Even small inhomogeneity clouds our ability to say something definite about dark energy. I discuss how the averaging problem confuses our potential understanding of dark energy by considering the backreaction from density perturbations to second-order in the concordance model: this effect leads to at least a 10% increase in the dynamical value of the deceleration parameter, and could be significantly higher. Large Hubble-scale inhomogeneity has not been investigated in detail, and could conceivably be the cause of apparent cosmic acceleration. I discuss void models which defy the Copernican principle in our Hubble patch, and describe how we can potentially rule out these models.This article is a summary of two talks given at the Invisible Universe Conference, Paris, 2009.

  1. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  2. Magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy among persons with diabetes registered at employee health department of a tertiary Eye Hospital of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Hassan, Arif; Al Dhibi, Hassan; Al Bahlal, Abdullah; Al-Futais, Muneera

    2015-01-01

    Background: To estimate the magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes registered at the employee health department of King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH). Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted in 2013–14 at KKESH. The case record review extracted demographic, profile of diabetes, diabetic complications, and different blood indices to determine the status of potential risk factors. Ocular profile, especially DR was also noted. Results: Our cohort had 94 staff with diabetes. Eye examination was carried out in 51 (54.8%) of them. The rate of DR was 52% (95% confidence interval (CI) 28–66). Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (proliferative DR and/or diabetic macular edema) was present in 40% of those examined. Good glycemic control was noted in 42% of participants. Duration of diabetes was associated with DR (P = 0.04). Good glycemic control was negatively associated to DR (odds ratio = 0.2 [95% CI 0.04–0.6]). The coverage of eye screening was 55% only. Laser treatment was given to 80% of STDR cases. The lens opacity and glaucoma rate was 15% and 8.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Low coverage for eye screening and laser treatment to diabetics among the staff of an eye hospital is a matter of concern. The underlying causes of low coverage of screening, digital fundus photography as a screening tool and management should be addressed. PMID:26903721

  3. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element Vt b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Borysova, M.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brucken, E.; Bu, X. B.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; D'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Farrington, S.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gogota, O.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ito, A. S.; Ivanov, A.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Jindariani, S.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, J.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, A. W.; Junk, T. R.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kiselevich, I.; Knoepfel, K.; Kohli, J. M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurata, M.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lammers, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Limosani, A.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipeles, E.; Lipton, R.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lungu, G.; Lyon, A. L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansour, J.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Mesropian, C.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miao, T.; Miconi, F.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Mulhearn, M.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nagy, E.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Nunnemann, T.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Orduna, J.; Ortolan, L.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pagliarone, C.; Pal, A.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parker, W.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pondrom, L.; Popov, A. V.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Ristori, L.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Rominsky, M.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sajot, G.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santi, L.; Santos, A. S.; Sato, K.; Savage, G.; Saveliev, V.; Savitskyi, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwarz, T.; Schwienhorst, R.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Sekaric, J.; Semenov, A.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Shabalina, E.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simak, V.; Simonenko, A.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Song, H.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sorin, V.; Soustruznik, K.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stark, J.; Stentz, D.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Titov, M.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vernieri, C.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vidal, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wallny, R.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wang, S. M.; Warchol, J.; Waters, D.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wobisch, M.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wood, D. R.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, J. M.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t -channel cross section is measured to be σt=2.2 5-0.31+0.29 pb . We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s - vs t -channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s +t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs +t=3.3 0-0.40+0.52 pb , without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt . The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vt b|=1.0 2-0.05+0.06 , corresponding to |Vt b|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  4. Tevatron combination of single-top-quark cross sections and determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $$\\bf V_{tb}$$

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt= 2.25-0.31+0.29 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t= 3.30-0.40+0.52 pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt. The resulting valuemore » of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|= 1.02-0.05+0.06, corresponding to |Vtb| > 0.92 at the 95% C.L.« less

  5. Tevatron combination of single-top-quark cross sections and determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $\\bf V_{tb}$

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt= 2.25-0.31+0.29 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t= 3.30-0.40+0.52 pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σst. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|= 1.02-0.05+0.06, corresponding to |Vtb| > 0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  6. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element V_{tb}.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Borysova, M; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brucken, E; Bu, X B; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Das, A; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; D'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Farrington, S; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernández Ramos, J P; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gogota, O; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kiselevich, I; Knoepfel, K; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurata, M; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lammers, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Limosani, A; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Luna-Garcia, R; Lungu, G; Lyon, A L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansour, J; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez-Ortega, J; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miao, T; Miconi, F; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondal, N K; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nagy, E; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Nunnemann, T; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Orduna, J; Ortolan, L; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pagliarone, C; Pal, A; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parker, W; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Pondrom, L; Popov, A V; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ripp-Baudot, I; Ristori, L; Rizatdinova, F; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Rominsky, M; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sajot, G; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santi, L; Santos, A S; Sato, K; Savage, G; Saveliev, V; Savitskyi, M; Savoy-Navarro, A; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwanenberger, C; Schwarz, T; Schwienhorst, R; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Sekaric, J; Semenov, A; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Shabalina, E; Shalhout, S Z; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simak, V; Simonenko, A; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, H; Sonnenschein, L; Sorin, V; Soustruznik, K; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stark, J; Stentz, D; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tokmenin, V V; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Verkheev, A Y; Vernieri, C; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vidal, M; Vilanova, D; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wahl, H D; Wallny, R; Wang, M H L S; Wang, S M; Warchol, J; Waters, D; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wobisch, M; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wood, D R; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, S; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Youn, S W; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, J M; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zucchelli, S

    2015-10-09

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb^{-1} per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σ_{t}=2.25_{-0.31}^{+0.29} pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σ_{s+t}=3.30_{-0.40}^{+0.52} pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σ_{s}/σ_{t}. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |V_{tb}|=1.02_{-0.05}^{+0.06}, corresponding to |V_{tb}|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  7. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  8. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  9. Dramatic role of fragility in determining the magnitude of Tg perturbations to ultrathin film layers and near-infinitely dilute blend components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Christopher; Torkelson, John; Northwestern University Team

    2013-03-01

    Using fluorescence, we measure the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ultrathin (11-14 nm) polystyrene (PS, bulk Tg = 103 °C) layers which can be tuned over ~ 80 °C when sandwiched between two bulk neighboring layers of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP), polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) or poly(tert-butyl acrylate). Between P4VP, an ultrathin PS layer has its dynamics slaved and reports the Tg of bulk P4VP. In contrast, an ultrathin PS layer is weakly perturbed (Tg = 97 °C) when placed between PVC. These perturbations to the PS Tg become evident even for layers 10s of nanometers in thickness. Additionally, binary blends were prepared with 0.1 wt% PS components surrounded by the same neighboring polymers as in the trilayers. The Tg reported by an ultrathin PS layer and a 0.1 wt% PS blend component are the same for a given polymer pair indicating that the Tg perturbations in these two systems arise from a common physical origin. The strength of perturbations to PS correlate with the fragility of the neighboring domain in both blends and multilayers indicating that it is a key variable in determining the strength of Tg-confinement effects. Fragility also tracks with the magnitude of Tg-confinement effects observed in single layer polymer films supported on silicon wafers.

  10. Determination of focal mechanisms of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in Mexico, based on Greens functions calculated for a 3D Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2015-04-01

    One important ingredient in the study of the complex active tectonics in Mexico is the analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, or the seismic moment tensor. They can be determined trough the calculation of Green functions and subsequent inversion for moment-tensor parameters. However, this calculation is gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with laterally heterogeneities in the crust. For these earthquakes, using 1D velocity models to compute the Greens fucntions works well. The opposite occurs for smaller and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle and requires more specific or regional 3D models. In this study, we calculate Greens functions for earthquakes in Mexico using a laterally heterogeneous seismic wave speed model, comprised of mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al 2008) and crustal model CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al 1990). Subsequently, we invert the observed seismograms for the seismic moment tensor using a method developed by Liu et al (2004) an implemented by Óscar de La Vega (2014) for earthquakes in Mexico. By following a brute force approach, in which we include all observed Rayleigh and Love waves of the Mexican National Seismic Network (Servicio Sismológico Naciona, SSN), we obtain reliable focal mechanisms for events that excite a considerable amount of low frequency waves (Mw > 4.8). However, we are not able to consistently estimate focal mechanisms for smaller events using this method, due to high noise levels in many of the records. Excluding the noisy records, or noisy parts of the records manually, requires interactive edition of the data, using an efficient tool for the editing. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI), based on python and the python library ObsPy, that allows the edition of observed and

  11. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  12. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  13. The free energy of DNA supercoiling is enthalpy-determined.

    PubMed

    Seidl, A; Hinz, H J

    1984-03-01

    The thermodynamics of superhelix formation was determined by combining superhelix density data with enthalpy values obtained from microcalorimetric measurements of the relaxation of supercoiled ColE1 amp plasmid DNA in the presence of topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli (omega protein). The thermodynamic quantities for superhelix formation at 37 degrees C in 10 mM Tris/2 mM MgCl2/1 mM EDTA pH 8, are: delta G = 921 kJ X (mol of plasmid)-1; delta H 2260 kJ X (mol of plasmid)-1; deltaS = 4.3 kJ X (mol of plasmid X K)-1. These data clearly demonstrate that the unfavorable Gibbs free energy associated with supercoiling of DNA results exclusively from the positive enthalpy involved in formation of superhelical turns. A positive overall entropy change accompanies superhelix formation, which overcompensates the expected decrease of configurational entropy. By neglecting contributions from bending, an estimate of the torsional rigidity C = 1.79 X 10(-19) erg X cm (1 erg = 0.1 microJ) of the supercoiled ColE1 amp plasmid DNA was made on the basis of the enthalpy value. This value is in excellent agreement with values of C derived from subnanosecond time-resolved fluorescence depolarization measurements for pBR322 DNA [Millar, D. P., Robbins, R. J. & Zewai, A.H. (1982) J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2080-2094]. The magnitude of C is larger than for linear DNAs, indicating that supercoiled DNA is more rigid than linear DNA.

  14. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and...addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation , measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and...release; distribution is unlimited. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies The views, opinions and/or findings contained in

  15. Component Design Report: International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants Model

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This Component Design Report discusses working design elements for a new model to replace the International Transportation Model (ITran) in the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) that is maintained by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The key objective of the new International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD) model is to enable more rigorous, quantitative research related to energy consumption in the international transportation sectors.

  16. 75 FR 54117 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... building energy prices of $0.1028/kWh of electricity and $11.99 per 1000 cubic feet ($1.163/therm) of...] [FR Doc No: 2010-22060] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EERE-2006-BC-0132] RIN 1904-AC18 Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

  17. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  18. Comparison of TV magnitudes and visual magnitudes of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeno, Yoshihiko; Toda, Masayuki

    2008-08-01

    The generally accepted belief is that a meteor, with a large amount of infrared rays, can be captured brighter than it actually is by infrared-sensitive image intensifiers (I.I.) or CCD. We conducted observations of meteors using three methodologies: 1) I.I. with an attached filter that has the same spectral response as the human eye at night vision, 2) I.I. without the filter and 3) visually to determine meteor magnitudes. A total of 31 members of the astronomical club at Meiji University observed 50 Perseid meteors, 19 Geminid meteors as well as 44 sporadic meteors and the results were tabulated. The results helped us understand that on average I.I. can record meteors as brighter than visual observation by the magnitude equivalent of 0.5 for Perseids, 1.0 for Geminids and 0.5 for sporadic meteors. For I.I. with a filter that has the same spectral response the human eye at night vision, it turned out that we could obtain almost the same magnitude with observation by the human eye. We learned that a bright meteor with negative magnitude can be observed by I.I. brighter than the human eye. From several examples, we found I.I. could record a meteor with about -1 visual magnitude as brighter by about three magnitudes. We could probably do so because a bright meteor with negative magnitude may contain more infrared rays and the brightness could be amplified.

  19. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  20. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  1. Associations between Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Adjustment: Using a Genetically Controlled Design to Determine the Direction and Magnitude of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Laursen, Brett; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study used a genetically controlled design to examine the direction and the magnitude of effects in the over-time associations between perceived relationship quality with mothers and adolescent maladjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency). A total of 163 monozygotic (MZ) twins pairs (85 female pairs, 78 male pairs) completed…

  2. Associations between Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Adjustment: Using a Genetically Controlled Design to Determine the Direction and Magnitude of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Laursen, Brett; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study used a genetically controlled design to examine the direction and the magnitude of effects in the over-time associations between perceived relationship quality with mothers and adolescent maladjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency). A total of 163 monozygotic (MZ) twins pairs (85 female pairs, 78 male pairs) completed…

  3. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  4. [Studies on the determinants of energy drinks intake by students].

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Górnicka, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks are among the most popular functional products. They contain bioactive substances which may produce beneficial effects on the body, but excessive consumption of energy drinks or use them in accordance with their intended use may be dangerous to health. The aim of the study was to assess determinants and circumstances of energy drinks consuming in selected group of students, their opinion and knowledge on energy drinks. The study was conducted in March 2011 in Warsaw and included 92 students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) and from University of Physical Education (UPE). The data was collected using diagnostic survey. Energy drinks consumed 67% of the respondents. The most common reason for drinking energy drinks was to stay awake (45.2%). They most often drank them during the examination session (21.0%) and afterwards they experienced stimulation (72.9%), but also palpitations (32.2%) and insomnia (25.8%). Students who consumed energy drinks confirmed that they are effective (88.7%) and tasty (41.9%), but dangerous for health (43.5%). Majority of all users of energy drinks (80.7%) mixed them with alcohol. Every fourth respondent did not read the composition of the consumed beverages. Energy drinks have been a popular food product among students. After energy drinks consumption students often felt agitated but also experienced negative symptoms. Young people have to pay attention to the composition of energy drinks, what proves their consciousness.

  5. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    1981-10-01

    The probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption were studied. Observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm consumption estimates of the Department of Energy's 2.0A simulation model were obtained. Home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions were investigated. The investigation of determinants of household energy consumption is described. The underlying economic theory and its implications are given as well as a description of the data collection procedures, of the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. The assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation.

  6. Determination of magnitudes and relative signs of 1H-19F coupling constants through 1D- and 2D-TOCSY experiments.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Juan F

    2013-12-20

    A novel methodology based on 1D- and 2D-TOCSY experiments is described for a quick and accurate measurement of proton-fluorine coupling constants in fluorinated organic compounds. The magnitude of the (1)H-(19)F coupling was measured from the displacement between the relayed peaks associated with the α or β spin state of the fluorine, and its relative sign was derived from the sense of the displacement.

  7. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs.

    PubMed

    Moses, Melanie; Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-08-19

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy-time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  9. Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

    1997-10-01

    The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

  10. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  11. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ulrich R.; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  12. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ulrich R; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-08

    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  13. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy–time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431524

  14. Cognitive and autonomic determinants of energy homeostasis in obesity.

    PubMed

    Richard, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Obesity ensues from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure that results from gene-environment interactions, which favour a positive energy balance. A society that promotes unhealthy food and encourages sedentary lifestyle (that is, an obesogenic environment) has become a major contributory factor in excess fat deposition in individuals predisposed to obesity. Energy homeostasis relies upon control of energy intake as well as expenditure, which is in part determined by the themogenesis of brown adipose tissue and mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Several areas of the brain that constitute cognitive and autonomic brain systems, which in turn form networks involved in the control of appetite and thermogenesis, also contribute to energy homeostasis. These networks include the dopamine mesolimbic circuit, as well as the opioid, endocannabinoid and melanocortin systems. The activity of these networks is modulated by peripheral factors such as hormones derived from adipose tissue and the gut, which access the brain via the circulation and neuronal signalling pathways to inform the central nervous system about energy balance and nutritional status. In this Review, I focus on the determinants of energy homeostasis that have emerged as prominent factors relevant to obesity.

  15. Order-of-magnitude differences in retention of low-energy Ar implanted in Si and SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmaack, Klaus; Giordani, Andrew; Umbel, Rachel; Hunter, Jerry L.

    2016-09-15

    The retention of 1 and 5 keV Ar implanted at 45° in Si and 4.3 nm SiO{sub 2} on Si was studied at fluences between 3 × 10{sup 14} and 1.5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) served to monitor the accumulation of Ar as well as the removal of SiO{sub 2}. Bombardment induced changes in oxygen chemistry caused the O 1s peak position to move toward lower binding energies by as much as 2.2 eV. Plotted versus depth of erosion, the fluence dependent changes in oxygen content, and peak position were similar at 1 and 5 keV. The Ar content of Si increased with increasing exposure, saturating at fluences of ∼2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} (1 keV) and ∼6 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} (5 keV). Much less Ar was retained in the SiO{sub 2}/Si sample, notably at 1 keV, in which case the low-fluence Ar signal amounted to only 8% of the Si reference. The results imply that essentially no Ar was trapped in undamaged SiO{sub 2}, i.e., the Ar atoms initially observed by XPS were located underneath the oxide. At the lowest fluence of 5 keV Ar, the retention ratio was much higher (43%) because the oxide was already highly damaged, with an associated loss of oxygen. The interpretation was assisted by TRIM(SRIM) calculations of damage production. Partial maloperation of the ion beam raster unit, identified only at a late stage of this work, enforced a study on the uniformity of bombardment. The desired information could be obtained by determining x,y line scan profiles of O 1s across partially eroded SiO{sub 2}/Si samples. Fluence dependent Ar retention in Si was described using an extended version of the rapid relocation model which takes into account that insoluble implanted rare-gas atoms tend to migrate to the surface readily under ongoing bombardment. The range parameters required for the modeling were determined using TRIM(SRIM); sputtering yields were derived from the literature. The other three parameters

  16. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    PubMed

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  17. Determining groundwater Ra end-member values for the estimation of the magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-04-01

    Radium isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra) are excellent tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). To estimate SGD magnitudes, information on the end-member values of Ra concentrations in groundwater is critical; however, the distribution characteristics of Ra in coastal aquifers are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Ra concentrations in coastal groundwater are primarily dependent on salinity based on the data (n > 500) obtained from global coastal aquifers, although previous end-member calculations averaged all Ra concentrations without considering salinity. If we assume that SGD is composed mainly of seawater infiltrating the aquifer, previous estimates of SGD for the Atlantic Ocean and the global ocean were overestimated twofold to threefold. This may be similar for other applications using different Ra isotopes. Our study highlights that the end-members of Ra isotopes in groundwater should be carefully considered when estimating SGD using Ra isotope mass balances in the ocean.

  18. Experiments to Determine the Efficiency of Various Energy Conversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, D.; Goodwin, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are experiments used in the "Physical Science and Man" course at Hartley CAE which enable determinations of efficiencies of two energy conversion processes, namely, electricity into heat and burning gas to produce heat. Activities for comparing the processes are suggested. (DS)

  19. Experiments to Determine the Efficiency of Various Energy Conversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, D.; Goodwin, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are experiments used in the "Physical Science and Man" course at Hartley CAE which enable determinations of efficiencies of two energy conversion processes, namely, electricity into heat and burning gas to produce heat. Activities for comparing the processes are suggested. (DS)

  20. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  1. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  2. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  3. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1 Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  4. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  5. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  6. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  7. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  8. Should Astronomy Abolish Magnitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy is riddled with a number of anachronistic and counterintuitive practices. Among these are: plotting increasing stellar temperature from right to left in the H-R diagram; giving the distances to remote astronomical objects in parsecs; and reporting the brightness of astronomical objects in magnitudes. Historical accident and observational technique, respectively, are the bases for the first two practices, and they will undoubtedly persist in the future. However, the use of magnitudes is especially egregious when essentially linear optical detectors like CCDs are used for measuring brightness, which are then reported in a logarithmic (base 2.512 deg!) scale. The use of magnitudes has its origin in three historical artifacts: Ptolemy's method of reporting the brightness of stars in the "Almagest"; the 19th century need for a photographic photometry scale; and the 19th century studies by psychophysicists E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner on the response of the human eye to light. The latter work sought to uncover the relationship between the subjective response of the human eye and brain to the objective brightness of external optical stimuli. The resulting Fechner-Weber law states that this response is logarithmic: that is, that the eye essentially takes the logarithm of the incoming optical signal. However, after more than a century of perceptual studies, most intensively by S. S. Stevens, it is now well established that this relation is not logarithmic. For naked eye detection of stars from the first to sixth magnitudes, it can be reasonably well fit by a power law with index of about 0.3. Therefore, the modern experimental studies undermine the physiological basis for the use of magnitudes in astronomy. Should the historical origins of magnitudes alone be reason enough for their continued use? Probably not, since astronomical magnitudes are based on outdated studies of human perception; make little sense in an era of linear optical detection; and provide a

  9. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  10. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-12-01

    Barriers of activation within the photocycle of a photoactive protein were extracted from comprehensive time courses of time resolved crystallographic data collected at multiple temperature settings. Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev.101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol.305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallography, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallographic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes.

  11. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-01-01

    Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev. 101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol. 305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallo­graphy, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallo­graphic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes. PMID:24311594

  12. Determining the magnitude and direction of photoinduced ligand field switching in photochromic metal-organic complexes: molybdenum-tetracarbonyl spirooxazine complexes.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Michelle M; Patrick, Brian O; Frank, Natia L

    2011-07-06

    The ability to optically switch or tune the intrinsic properties of transition metals (e.g., redox potentials, emission/absorption energies, and spin states) with photochromic metal-ligand complexes is an important strategy for developing "smart" materials. We have described a methodology for using metal-carbonyl complexes as spectroscopic probes of ligand field changes associated with light-induced isomerization of photochromic ligands. Changes in ligand field between the ring-closed spirooxazine (SO) and ring-opened photomerocyanine (PMC) forms of photochromic azahomoadamantyl and indolyl phenanthroline-spirooxazine ligands are demonstrated through FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and computational studies of their molybdenum-tetracarbonyl complexes. The frontier molecular orbitals (MOs) of the SO and PMC forms differ considerably in both electron density distributions and energies. Of the multiple π* MOs in the SO and PMC forms of the ligands, the LUMO+1, a pseudo-b(1)-symmetry phenanthroline-based MO, mixes primarily with the Mo(CO)(4) fragment and provides the major pathway for Mo(d)→phen(π*) backbonding. The LUMO+1 is found to be 0.2-0.3 eV lower in energy in the SO form relative to the PMC form, suggesting that the SO form is a better π-acceptor. Light-induced isomerization of the photochromic ligands was therefore found to lead to changes in the energies of their frontier MOs, which in turn leads to changes in π-acceptor ability and ligand field strength. Ligand field changes associated with photoisomerizable ligands allow tuning of excited-state and ground-state energies that dictate energy/electron transfer, optical/electrical properties, and spin states of a metal center upon photoisomerization, positioning photochromic ligand-metal complexes as promising targets for smart materials.

  13. Determination of the origin and magnitude of logarithmic finite-size effects on interfacial tension: role of interfacial fluctuations and domain breathing.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2014-03-28

    The ensemble-switch method for computing wall excess free energies of condensed matter is extended to estimate the interface free energies between coexisting phases very accurately. By this method, system geometries with linear dimensions L parallel and Lz perpendicular to the interface with various boundary conditions in the canonical or grand canonical ensemble can be studied. Using two- and three-dimensional Ising models, the nature of the occurring logarithmic finite-size corrections is studied. It is found crucial to include interfacial fluctuations due to "domain breathing."

  14. Determination of the Origin and Magnitude of Logarithmic Finite-Size Effects on Interfacial Tension: Role of Interfacial Fluctuations and Domain Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    The ensemble-switch method for computing wall excess free energies of condensed matter is extended to estimate the interface free energies between coexisting phases very accurately. By this method, system geometries with linear dimensions L parallel and Lz perpendicular to the interface with various boundary conditions in the canonical or grand canonical ensemble can be studied. Using two- and three-dimensional Ising models, the nature of the occurring logarithmic finite-size corrections is studied. It is found crucial to include interfacial fluctuations due to "domain breathing."

  15. REINFORCER MAGNITUDE ATTENUATES

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Lamb, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    When given to pigeons, the direct-acting dopamine agonist apomorphine elicits pecking. The response has been likened to foraging pecking because it bears remarkable similarity to foraging behavior, and it is enhanced by food deprivation. On the other hand, other data suggest the response is not related to foraging behavior and may even interfere with food ingestion. Although elicited pecking interferes with food capture, it may selectively alter procurement phases of feeding, which can be isolated in operant preparations. To explore the relation between operant and elicited pecking, we provided pigeons the opportunity to earn different reinforcer magnitudes during experimental sessions. During signaled components, each of 4 pigeons could earn 2-, 4-, or 8-s access to grain for a single peck made at the end of a 5-min interval. In general, responding increased as a function of reinforcer magnitude. Apomorphine increased pecking for 2 pigeons and decreased pecking for the other 2. In both cases, apomorphine was more potent under the component providing the smallest reinforcer magnitude. Analysis of the pattern of pecking across the interval indicated that behavior lost its temporal organization as dose increased. Because apomorphine-induced pecking varied inversely with reinforcer magnitude, we conclude that elicited pecks are not functionally related to food procurement. The data are consistent with the literature on behavioral resistance to change and suggest that the effects of apomorphine may be modulated by prevailing stimulus–reinforcer relationships. PMID:23144505

  16. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  17. A determination of Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations employing large basis sets and including correlation are carried out for Mg(+) with methanol, water, and formaldehyde. For Mg(+) with ethanol and acetaldehyde, the trends in the binding energies are studied at the self-consistent-field level. The predictions for the binding energy of Mg(+) to methanol and water of 41 + or - 5 and 36 + or - 5 kcal/mol, respectively, are much less than the experimental upper bounds, of 61 + or - 5 and 60 + or - 5 kcal mol, determined by using photodissociation techniques. The theoretical results are inconsistent with the onset of Mg(+) production observed in the photodissociation experiments, as the smallest absorptions are calculated at about 80 kcal/mol for both Mg(+)-CH3OH and Mg(+)-H2O, and these transitions are to bound excited states. The binding energy for Mg(+) with formaldehyde is predicted to be similar to Mg(+)-H2O. The relative binding energies are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The binding energy of a second water molecule to Mg(+) is predicted to be similar to the first. This suggests that the reduced reaction rate observed for the second ligand is not a consequence of a significantly smaller binding energy, at least for the smaller ligards such as those considered in this work.

  18. A determination of Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations employing large basis sets and including correlation are carried out for Mg(+) with methanol, water, and formaldehyde. For Mg(+) with ethanol and acetaldehyde, the trends in the binding energies are studied at the self-consistent-field level. The predictions for the binding energy of Mg(+) to methanol and water of 41 + or - 5 and 36 + or - 5 kcal/mol, respectively, are much less than the experimental upper bounds, of 61 + or - 5 and 60 + or - 5 kcal mol, determined by using photodissociation techniques. The theoretical results are inconsistent with the onset of Mg(+) production observed in the photodissociation experiments, as the smallest absorptions are calculated at about 80 kcal/mol for both Mg(+)-CH3OH and Mg(+)-H2O, and these transitions are to bound excited states. The binding energy for Mg(+) with formaldehyde is predicted to be similar to Mg(+)-H2O. The relative binding energies are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The binding energy of a second water molecule to Mg(+) is predicted to be similar to the first. This suggests that the reduced reaction rate observed for the second ligand is not a consequence of a significantly smaller binding energy, at least for the smaller ligards such as those considered in this work.

  19. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  20. Accelerated autoantibody clearance by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: studies in experimental models to determine the magnitude and time course of the effect.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, W K; Teeling, J L; Hack, C E

    2001-11-15

    Recently, it has been postulated that the beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) in antibody-mediated autoimmune disorders is based on accelerated catabolism of autoantibodies. In the current study, in vivo experiments were performed with mice in which autoantibody production was mimicked by continuous infusion of monoclonal antibodies. In this model, a single dose of IVIG reduced the plasma concentrations of the infused immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) by approximately 40% after 3 days, whereas the concentration of an IgA mAb was not affected. To extrapolate these findings to humans, a computational model for IgG clearance was established that accurately predicted the time course and magnitude of the decrease in IgG plasma levels observed in mice. Adapted for humans, this model predicted a gradually occurring decrease in autoantibody levels after IVIG administration (2 g/kg), with a maximum reduction of approximately 25% after 3 to 4 weeks and a continued decrease of several months. In conclusion, a single high dose of IVIG induces a relatively small but long-lasting reduction of autoantibody levels by accelerated IgG clearance. This mechanism has clinical relevance in the sense that it can fully explain, as the sole mechanism, the gradual decrease in autoantibody levels observed in several patient studies. However, in some clinical studies, larger or more rapid effects have been observed that cannot be explained by accelerated clearance. Hence, IVIG can also reduce autoantibody levels through mechanisms such as down-regulation of antibody production or neutralization by anti-idiotypic antibodies.

  1. Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for CS2: determination of molecular vibrational energies.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Ekadashi; Carreón-Macedo, José-Luis; Cuervo, Javier E; Schröder, Markus; Brown, Alex

    2013-08-15

    The ground state potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for CS2 have been determined at the CASPT2/C:cc-pVTZ,S:aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z level of theory. The potential energy surface has been fit to a sum-of-products form using the neural network method with exponential neurons. A generic interface between neural network potential energy surface fitting and the Heidelberg MCTDH software package is demonstrated. The potential energy surface has also been fit using the potfit procedure in MCTDH. For fits to the low-energy regions of the potential, the neural network method requires fewer parameters than potfit to achieve high accuracy; global fits are comparable between the two methods. Using these potential energy surfaces, the vibrational energies have been computed for the four most abundant CS2 isotopomers. These results are compared to experimental and previous theoretical data. The current potential energy surfaces are shown to accurately reproduce the low-lying vibrational energies within a few wavenumbers. Hence, the potential energy and dipole moments surfaces will be useful for future study on the control of quantum dynamics in CS2.

  2. Uranium enrichment determination by high-energy photon interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianyu; Zhang, Songbai; Wu, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Uranium enrichment determination by non-destructive assay is an important method in authenticating the nuclear warhead or uranium component in deep nuclear reduction verifications. In this paper, the feasibility of applying the high-energy photon interrogation to determine the uranium enrichment is studied. Simplified models are presented which were simulated by particle Monte Carlo transport code. The results indicate that the relation curves of the released neutrons and the enrichment of uranium objects are almost linear. For a uranium object of a given shape, the uranium enrichment can be obtained with the relation curves, which could be got in advance by calibration experiments or simulations.

  3. How much energy is locked in the USA? Alternative metrics for characterising the magnitude of overweight and obesity derived from BRFSS 2010 data.

    PubMed

    Reidpath, Daniel D; Masood, Mohd; Allotey, Pascale

    2014-06-01

    Four metrics to characterise population overweight are described. Behavioural Risk Factors Surveillance System data were used to estimate the weight the US population needed to lose to achieve a BMI < 25. The metrics for population level overweight were total weight, total volume, total energy, and energy value. About 144 million people in the US need to lose 2.4 million metric tonnes. The volume of fat is 2.6 billion litres-1,038 Olympic size swimming pools. The energy in the fat would power 90,000 households for a year and is worth around 162 million dollars. Four confronting ways of talking about a national overweight and obesity are described. The value of the metrics remains to be tested.

  4. Development of a Standardized Methodology for the Use of COSI-Corr Sub-Pixel Image Correlation to Determine Surface Deformation Patterns in Large Magnitude Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliner, C. W. D.; Dolan, J. F.; Hollingsworth, J.; Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.

    2014-12-01

    Coseismic surface deformation is typically measured in the field by geologists and with a range of geophysical methods such as InSAR, LiDAR and GPS. Current methods, however, either fail to capture the near-field coseismic surface deformation pattern where vital information is needed, or lack pre-event data. We develop a standardized and reproducible methodology to fully constrain the surface, near-field, coseismic deformation pattern in high resolution using aerial photography. We apply our methodology using the program COSI-corr to successfully cross-correlate pairs of aerial, optical imagery before and after the 1992, Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999, Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. This technique allows measurement of the coseismic slip distribution and magnitude and width of off-fault deformation with sub-pixel precision. This technique can be applied in a cost effective manner for recent and historic earthquakes using archive aerial imagery. We also use synthetic tests to constrain and correct for the bias imposed on the result due to use of a sliding window during correlation. Correcting for artificial smearing of the tectonic signal allows us to robustly measure the fault zone width along a surface rupture. Furthermore, the synthetic tests have constrained for the first time the measurement precision and accuracy of estimated fault displacements and fault-zone width. Our methodology provides the unique ability to robustly understand the kinematics of surface faulting while at the same time accounting for both off-fault deformation and measurement biases that typically complicates such data. For both earthquakes we find that our displacement measurements derived from cross-correlation are systematically larger than the field displacement measurements, indicating the presence of off-fault deformation. We show that the Landers and Hector Mine earthquake accommodated 46% and 38% of displacement away from the main primary rupture as off-fault deformation, over a mean

  5. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  6. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  7. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  8. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1 Each floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  9. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW...

  10. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with (137)Cs and (60)Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics.

  11. Determination of Free-Energy Relationships Using Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Nicholas H.

    1996-06-01

    By performing a few straightforward analyses on a gas chromatograph, it is possible to calculate the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes that occur when a compound transfers between the mobile and stationary phases. The partition theory of chromatography allows this transfer to be expressed as a chemical equlibrium. By calculating the equilibrium constant for this reaction from chromatographic retention times, the standard free energy change may be determined, and from this, the standard enthalpy and entropy changes. Also, by calculating these values at several temperatures for structurally related compounds, it is possible to explore the relationship between chromatographic retention, standard free energy, and the structure of a compound. These calculations were performed for groups of homologous alcohols, acetates, and hydrocarbons on packed and capillary column gas chromatographs, using both polar and non-polar columns, and on computer simulation software. It is seen that for homologous compounds, the relationship between standard free energy change in partitioning and hydrocarbon chain length for this reaction is linear. It is also seen that gas chromatography represents a useful tool for the calculation and comparison of thermodynamic properties of compounds and that straightforward exercise of this type allows training of students in chromatographic analysis, basic partition theory, thermodynamic relationships, and linear free energy relationships.

  12. Using a delta-doped CCD to determine the energy of a low-energy particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Croley, Donald R. (Inventor); Murphy, Gerald B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The back surface of a thinned charged-coupled device (CCD) is treated to eliminate the backside potential well that appears in a conventional thinned CCD during backside illumination. The backside of the CCD includes a delta layer of high-concentration dopant confined to less than one monolayer of the crystal semiconductor. The thinned, delta-doped CCD is used to determine the energy of a very low-energy particle that penetrates less than 1.0 nm into the CCD, such as a proton having energy less than 10 keV.

  13. Magnitude estimation of softness

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Robert M.; Hester, Kim D.; Green, Barry G.

    2008-01-01

    The human capacity to estimate the magnitude of softness of silicone rubber disks of differing compliance was studied under experimental conditions that altered the mode of contact. Subjects were able to scale softness regardless of whether they (1) actively indented each specimen by tapping or pressing it with the finger pad, (2) received passive indentation of the finger pad by each specimen via a force controlled tactile stimulator, thus eliminating kinesthetic cues, or (3) actively indented each specimen with a stylus that was manipulated either by tapping with one finger, or held by two fingers in a precision grip, thereby removing tactile cues provided by direct mechanical contact between the finger pad and specimen. Ratings of softness were independent of moderate variations in peak compressional force and force-rate. Additionally, functions for scaling softness were affected by the mode of contact; the slopes of the functions were greater in the tasks with a complete complement of compliance cues. When subjects were asked to classify objects as either hard or soft, specimens were classified as soft if the compliance were greater than that of the human finger. This suggests that the classification of softness depends on whether the object conforms to the body, and that tactile information about the spatial profile of object deformation is sufficient for the magnitude scaling of softness. But typically, kinesthetic information about the magnitude of object displacement, along with contact vibratory cues is also used while judging softness especially in the absence of direct skin contact with the object when using a tool. PMID:18679665

  14. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory†

    PubMed Central

    Vilseck, Jonah Z.; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood–Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm3 mol−1. The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  15. How interactions between microbial resource demands, soil organic matter stoichiometry, and substrate reactivity determine the direction and magnitude of soil respiratory responses to warming.

    PubMed

    Billings, Sharon A; Ballantyne, Ford

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical advances inform us about multiple drivers of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and microbial responses to warming. Absent from our conceptual framework of how soil respiration will respond to warming are adequate links between microbial resource demands, kinetic theory, and substrate stoichiometry. Here, we describe two important concepts either insufficiently explored in current investigations of SOM responses to temperature, or not yet addressed. First, we describe the complete range of responses for how warming may change microbial resource demands, physiology, community structure, and total biomass. Second, we describe how any relationship between SOM activation energy of decay and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry can alter the relative availability of C and N as temperature changes. Changing availabilities of C and N liberated from their organic precursors can feedback to microbial resource demands, which in turn influence the aggregated respiratory response to temperature we observe. An unsuspecting biogeochemist focused primarily on temperature sensitivity of substrate decay thus cannot make accurate projections of heterotrophic CO2 losses from diverse organic matter reservoirs in a warming world. We establish the linkages between enzyme kinetics, SOM characteristics, and potential for microbial adaptation critical for making such projections. By examining how changing microbial needs interact with inherent SOM structure and composition, and thus reactivity, we demonstrate the means by which increasing temperature could result in increasing, unchanging, or even decreasing respiration rates observed in soils. We use this exercise to highlight ideas for future research that will develop our abilities to predict SOM feedbacks to climate.

  16. Photodisintegration of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: A New Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Salamon, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a new calculation of the photodisintegration of ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for energy loss and photodisintegration of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the 2.73 K cosmic background radiation (CBR) and with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, consistent with direct measurements and upper limits from TeV gamma-ray observations. We have also improved the calculation by including the specific threshold energies for the various photodisintegration interactions in our Monte Carlo calculation. With the new smaller IBR flux, the steepness of the Wien side of the now relatively more important CBR makes their inclusion essential for more accurate results. Our results indicate a significant increase in the propagation time of UHCR nuclei of a given energy over previous results. We discuss the possible significance of this for UHCR origin theory.

  17. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  18. Application of static and dynamic enclosures for determining dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide exchange in Sphagnum peatlands: Implications for the magnitude and direction of flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, William Z.; Hines, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic (flow through) enclosure measurements with sulfur-free air used as sweep gas. This latter technique has been used to acquire the majority of available data on the exchange of S gases between the atmosphere and the continental surfaces and has been criticized because it is thought to overestimate the true flux of gases by disrupting natural S gas gradients. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were not statistically different between 4 and greater than 400 nmol/sq m/h, indicating that previous data on emissions of at least DMS are probably valid. However, the increase in DMS in static enclosures was not linear, indicating the potential for a negative feedback of enlosure DMS concentrations on efflux. The dynamic enclosure method measured positive OCS flux rates (emission) at all sites, while data using static enclosures indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere at these same sites at rates of 3.7 to 55 nmol/sq m/h. Measurements using both enclosure techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat was a source of both DMS and OCS. However, the rate of OCS efflux from decomposing peat was more than counterbalanced by OCS consumption by vegetation, including Sphagnum mosses, and net OCS uptake occurred at all sites. We propose that all wetlands are net sinks for OCS.

  19. Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure for Determining Excess Weight Gain in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L Anne; Butte, Nancy F; Ravussin, Eric; Han, Hongmei; Burton, Jeffrey H; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-05-01

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI 25 or greater [n=12]) were measured preconceptionally and at 22 and 36 weeks of gestation. Energy intake was calculated as the sum of total energy expenditure measured by doubly-labeled water and energy deposition determined by the four-compartment body composition model. Measurements of weight, body composition, and basal metabolic rate were completed preconceptionally and 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter and activity energy expenditure by doubly-labeled water. Energy intake from 22 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly higher in high gainers (n=19) (3,437±99 kcal per day) compared with low+ideal gainers (n=26) (2,687±110, P<.001) within both BMI categories. Basal metabolic rate increased in proportion to gestational weight gain; however, basal metabolic rate adjusted for body composition changes with gestational weight gain was not significantly different between high gainers and low+ideal gainers (151±33 compared with 129±36 kcal per day; P=.66). Activity energy expenditure decreased throughout pregnancy in both groups (low+ideal gainers: -150±70 kcal per day; P=.04 and high gainers: -230±92 kcal per day; P=.01), but there was no difference between high gainers and low+ideal gainers (P=.49). Interventions designed to increase adherence to the Institute of Medicine guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy may have increased efficacy if focused on limiting energy intake while increasing nutrient density and maintaining levels of physical activity.

  20. Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure for Determining Excess Weight Gain in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Butte, Nancy F.; Ravussin, Eric; Han, Hongmei; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Redman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is due to increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. Methods In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n=33 and BMI ≥ 25, n=12) were measured preconceptionally 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Energy intake was calculated as the sum of total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water and energy deposition determined by the 4-compartment body composition model. Weight, body composition, and metabolic chamber measurement were completed preconceptionally, 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter and activity energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Results Energy intake from 22 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly higher in high gainers (n=19) (3437 ± 99 kcal/d) versus low + ideal gainers (n=26) (2687 ± 110 p< .001) within both BMI categories. Basal metabolic rate increased in proportion to gestational weight gain; however, basal metabolic rate adjusted for body composition changes with gestational weight gain was not significantly different between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (151 ± 33 vs. 129 ± 36 kcal/d; p=.66). Activity energy expenditure decreased throughout pregnancy in both groups (low + ideal gainers: −150 ± 70 kcal/d; p=.04 and high gainers: −230 ± 92 kcal/day; p=.01), but there was no difference between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (p=.49). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase adherence to the IOM guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy may have increased efficacy if focused on limiting energy intake while increasing nutrient density and maintaining levels of physical activity. PMID:27054928

  1. Magnitudes and seasonal patterns of energy, water, and carbon exchanges at a boreal young jack pine forest in the BOREAS northern study area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Lafleur, Peter M.; Joiner, David W.; Bartlett, Paul A.; Costello, Andrew M.; Jelinski, Dennis E.; Ryan, Michael G.

    1997-12-01

    Seasonal patterns of the energy balance of a young jack pine site near Thompson, Manitoba, in the summer of 1994 are reported. The experiment was part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), and it ran from May 24 to September 19. The average tree density was 4.4 trees m-2, but there was substantial spatial variation associated with three primary vegetation patterns: dense cover of short trees, sparse cover of tall trees, and a mixture of short and tall trees. The frequency distribution of tree heights was bimodal with peaks at 1 and 2 m and a range from 0.3 to 5.7 m. The average tree height was 2.3 m. The daily average photosynthetically active radiation albedo was conservative, varying from 0.054 under clear-sky conditions to 0.051 under cloudy skies. The shortwave albedo was 0.136 under clear-sky conditions and decreased by 1% following rain; the presence of smoke over the site increased it by 1%. Heat storage in the soil, trees, and air was an important component of the energy balance throughout the season with soil heat flux comprising the bulk of the total storage. On the average, for the whole experimental period, the sensible heat flux was approximately twice the latent heat flux (Bowen ratio ≈2). The average daily energy balance closure varied from 85% before day-of-year (DOY) 200 to 95% after DOY 200. As a result of problems with the measurement of the net CO2 flux above the canopy under stable nighttime conditions, all nighttime values were modeled. The typical diurnal pattern of net CO2 flux shows maximum uptake by the surface in the morning and a gradual decrease through the afternoon. For the whole field season of 118 days, the site fixed 224 g m-2 of carbon.

  2. Determination of selenium in biological samples with an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Zhaoshui

    2016-05-01

    Selenium is both a nutrient and a toxin. Selenium-especially organic selenium-is a core component of human nutrition. Thus, it is very important to measure selenium in biological samples. The limited sensitivity of conventional XRF hampers its widespread use in biological samples. Here, we describe the use of high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) in tandem with a three-dimensional optics design to determine 0.1-5.1μgg(-1) levels of selenium in biological samples. The effects of various experimental parameters such as applied voltage, acquisition time, secondary target and various filters were thoroughly investigated. The detection limit of selenium in biological samples via high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was decreased by one order of magnitude versus conventional XRF (Paltridge et al., 2012) and found to be 0.1μg/g. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe EDXRF measurements of Se in biological samples with important implications for the nutrition and analytical chemistry communities.

  3. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Sá, E; Carvalho, D; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of +200Wm(-2)) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of -62.8 and -35Wm(-2), respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age determines the magnitudes of angiotensin II-induced contractions, mRNA, and protein expression of angiotensin type 1 receptors in rat carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Zoltan; Cseplo, Peter; Ivic, Ivan; Matics, Robert; Hamar, Janos; Koller, Akos

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that aging alters angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasomotor responses and expression of vascular mRNA and protein angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). Thus, carotid arteries were isolated from the following age groups of rats: 8 days, 2-9 months, 12-20 months, and 20-30 months, and their vasomotor responses were measured in a myograph after repeated administrations of Ang II. Vascular relative AT1R mRNA level was determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the AT1R protein density was measured by Western blot. Contractions to the first administration of Ang II increased from 8 days to 6 months and then they decreased to 30 months. In general, second administration of Ang II elicited reduced contractions, but they also increased from 8 days until 2 months and then they decreased to 30 months. Similarly the AT1R mRNA level increased from 8 days to 12 months and then decreased to 30 months. Similarly the AT1R protein density increased from 8 days until 16 months and then they decreased to 30 months. The pattern of these changes correlated with functional vasomotor data. We conclude that aging (newborn to senescence) has substantial effects on Ang II-induced vasomotor responses and AT1R signaling suggesting the importance of genetic programs.

  5. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius.

    PubMed

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-08-08

    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules.

  6. Limiting magnitude of hypertelescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, Arun

    Optical stellar interferometers have demonstrated milli-arcsecond resolution with few apertures spaced hundreds of meters apart. To obtain rich direct images, many apertures will be needed, for a better sampling of the incoming wavefront. The coherent imaging thus achievable improves the sensitivity with respect to the incoherent combination of successive fringed exposures, heretofore achieved in the form of optical aperture synthesis. For efficient use of highly diluted apertures, this can be done with pupil densification, a technique also called ``Hypertelescope Imaging". Using numerical simulations we have found out the limiting magnitude of hypertelescopes over different baselines and pupil densifications. Here we discuss the advantages of using hypertelescope systems over classical pairwise optical interferometry.

  7. Final rotational state distributions from NO(vi = 11) in collisions with Au(111): the magnitude of vibrational energy transfer depends on orientation in molecule-surface collisions.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Bastian C; Bartels, Nils; Wodtke, Alec M; Schäfer, Tim

    2016-06-01

    When NO molecules collide at a Au(111) surface, their interaction is controlled by several factors; especially important are the molecules' orientation with respect to the surface (N-first vs. O-first) and their distance of closest approach. In fact, the former may control the latter as N-first orientations are attractive and O-first orientations are repulsive. In this work, we employ electric fields to control the molecules' incidence orientation in combination with rotational rainbow scattering detection. Specifically, we report final rotational state distributions of oriented NO(vi = 11) molecules scattered from Au(111) for final vibrational states between vf = 4 and 11. For O-first collisions, the interaction potential is highly repulsive preventing the close approach and scattering results in high-J rainbows. By contrast, these rainbows are not seen for the more intimate collisions possible for attractive N-first orientations. In this way, we reveal the influence of orientation and the distance of closest approach on vibrational relaxation of NO(vi = 11) in collisions with a Au(111) surface. We also elucidate the influence of steering forces which cause the O-first oriented molecules to rotate to an N-first orientation during their approach to the surface. The experiments show that when NO collides at the surface with the N-atom first, on average more than half of the initial vibrational energy is lost; whereas O-first oriented collisions lose much less vibrational energy. These observations qualitatively confirm theoretical predictions of electronically non-adiabatic NO interactions at Au(111).

  8. Determination of the NNLO low-energy constant C93

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golterman, Maarten; Maltman, Kim; Peris, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data from hadronic τ decays allow for a precision determination of the slope of the I =1 vacuum polarization at zero momentum. We use this information to provide a value for the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) low-energy constant C93 in chiral perturbation theory. The largest systematic error in this determination results from the neglect of terms NNNLO (and higher) in the effective chiral Lagrangian, whose presence in the data will, in general, make the effective C93 determined in an NNLO analysis mass dependent. We estimate the size of this effect by using strange hadronic τ -decay data to perform an alternate C93 determination based on the slope of the strange vector polarization at zero momentum, which differs from that of the I =1 vector channel only through S U (3 ) flavor-breaking effects. We also comment on the impact of such higher order effects on ChPT-based estimates for the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

  9. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.502...

  10. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.602...

  11. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy use. 434.603 Section 434.603 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  12. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  13. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  14. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  15. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy use. 434.603 Section 434.603 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  16. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy use. 434.603 Section 434.603 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  17. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy use. 434.603 Section 434.603 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  18. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  19. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  20. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  1. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  2. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  3. Magnitude and nature of carbohydrate-aromatic interactions in fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes: CCSD(T) level interaction energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2011-10-20

    The CH/π contact structures of the fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes and the stabilization energies by formation of the complexes (E(form)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The three types of interactions (CH/π and OH/π interactions and OH/O hydrogen bonds) were compared and evaluated in a single molecular system and at the same level of theory. The E(form) calculated for the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-phenol complex at the CCSD(T) level (-4.9 kcal/mol) is close to that for the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-benzene complex (-4.5 kcal/mol). On the other hand the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-indole complex has substantially larger E(form) (-6.5 kcal/mol). The dispersion interaction is the major source of the attraction in the CH/π contact structures of the fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes as in the case of the fucose-benzene complex. The electrostatic interactions in the CH/π contact structures are small (less than 1.5 kcal/mol). The nature of the interactions between the nonpolar surface of the carbohydrate and aromatic rings is completely different from that of the conventional hydrogen bonds where the electrostatic interaction is the major source of the attraction. The distributed multipole analysis and DFT-SATP analysis show that the dispersion interactions in the CH/π contact structure of fucose-indole complex are substantially larger than those in the CH/π contact structures of fucose-benzene and fucose-phenol complexes. The large dispersion interactions are responsible for the large E(form) for the fucose-indole complex.

  4. Determination of anharmonic free energy contributions: Low temperature phases of the Lennard-Jones system

    DOE PAGES

    Calero, C.; Knorowski, C.; Travesset, A.

    2016-03-22

    We investigate a general method to calculate the free energy of crystalline solids by considering the harmonic approximation and quasistatically switching the anharmonic contribution. The advantage of this method is that the harmonic approximation provides an already very accurate estimate of the free energy, and therefore the anharmonic term is numerically very small and can be determined to high accuracy. We further show that the anharmonic contribution to the free energy satisfies a number of exact inequalities that place constraints on its magnitude and allows approximate but fast and accurate estimates. The method is implemented into a readily available generalmore » software by combining the code HOODLT (Highly Optimized Object Oriented Dynamic Lattice Theory) for the harmonic part and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package HOOMD-blue for the anharmonic part. We use the method to calculate the low temperature phase diagram for Lennard-Jones particles. We demonstrate that hcp is the equilibrium phase at low temperature and pressure and obtain the coexistence curve with the fcc phase, which exhibits reentrant behavior. Furthermore, several implications of the method are discussed.« less

  5. Determination of anharmonic free energy contributions: Low temperature phases of the Lennard-Jones system

    SciTech Connect

    Calero, C.; Knorowski, C.; Travesset, A.

    2016-03-22

    We investigate a general method to calculate the free energy of crystalline solids by considering the harmonic approximation and quasistatically switching the anharmonic contribution. The advantage of this method is that the harmonic approximation provides an already very accurate estimate of the free energy, and therefore the anharmonic term is numerically very small and can be determined to high accuracy. We further show that the anharmonic contribution to the free energy satisfies a number of exact inequalities that place constraints on its magnitude and allows approximate but fast and accurate estimates. The method is implemented into a readily available general software by combining the code HOODLT (Highly Optimized Object Oriented Dynamic Lattice Theory) for the harmonic part and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package HOOMD-blue for the anharmonic part. We use the method to calculate the low temperature phase diagram for Lennard-Jones particles. We demonstrate that hcp is the equilibrium phase at low temperature and pressure and obtain the coexistence curve with the fcc phase, which exhibits reentrant behavior. Furthermore, several implications of the method are discussed.

  6. Determination of anharmonic free energy contributions: Low temperature phases of the Lennard-Jones system.

    PubMed

    Calero, C; Knorowski, C; Travesset, A

    2016-03-28

    We investigate a general method to calculate the free energy of crystalline solids by considering the harmonic approximation and quasistatically switching the anharmonic contribution. The advantage of this method is that the harmonic approximation provides an already very accurate estimate of the free energy, and therefore the anharmonic term is numerically very small and can be determined to high accuracy. We further show that the anharmonic contribution to the free energy satisfies a number of exact inequalities that place constraints on its magnitude and allows approximate but fast and accurate estimates. The method is implemented into a readily available general software by combining the code HOODLT (Highly Optimized Object Oriented Dynamic Lattice Theory) for the harmonic part and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package HOOMD-blue for the anharmonic part. We use the method to calculate the low temperature phase diagram for Lennard-Jones particles. We demonstrate that hcp is the equilibrium phase at low temperature and pressure and obtain the coexistence curve with the fcc phase, which exhibits reentrant behavior. Several implications of the method are discussed.

  7. Sexually transmitted diseases: magnitude, determinants and consequences.

    PubMed

    Aral, S O

    2001-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infections constitute a major reproductive health burden for sexually-active individuals. The short-term and long-term consequences of STD have been well documented and include genital and other cancers, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and adverse outcomes of pregnancy including pre-term delivery and low birth weight. The burden of sexually transmitted infections falls disproportionately on the young, the poor, minorities and women. At the societal level, there is a continuing need to educate people, particularly adolescents, about their risk for STDs and their sequelae and to increase the use of barrier methods including condoms. Policy decisions that facilitate more open discussion of sexuality and STDs, and that expand the accessibility and acceptability of sexual risk assessment, STD screening and treatment services would help decrease STD rates in the United States to levels similar to those observed in other industrialized countries.

  8. Determination of equivalent amounts of kinetic energy, work, and heat energy in the human body.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Yildirim

    2002-07-01

    The goal of this study is determine the mechanical equivalent of heat and the functional capacity of metabolism of walking at a slow pace (velocity = 4022m/hour, length of a step=75cm, energy utilization of a 70 kg person is 200kcal/hour). 50 healthy physicians were chosen randomly, and up and down motion of the body were determined as 6cm while stepping. Based on these, the heat equivalent is 37.5kcal/hour for horizontal motion and 52.7kcal/hour for 6cm up-and-down bobbing motions of body, and the functional capacity of metabolism is at least 45% ([37.5+52.7]/200=45%) for slow walking state, that this capacity is twofold more than earlier information. Muscle converts kinetic energy (work) to heat via friction, and heat sources of the body, and the concepts of thermogenesis and the functional capacity of metabolism should be revised.

  9. Determination of Endpoint Energy and Bremsstrahlung Spectra for High-Energy Radiation-Therapy Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Danny Joe

    Few attempts have been made to experimentally determine thick-target bremsstrahlung spectra of megavoltage therapy beams. For spectral studies using the Compton scattering technique, sodium iodine (NaI) detectors with relatively poor energy resolution have been used. Other experimental techniques for determining spectra are generally not suited for a clinical environment with the inherent time and space constraints. To gather more spectral information than previously obtained in the region near the endpoint energy, the use of a high-resolution intrinsic-germanium (Ge) detector was proposed. A response function matrix was determined from experimentally obtained pulse height distributions on the multichannel analyzer. The distributions were for nine various monoenergetic sources between 280 adn 1525 keV. The response function was used to convert the measured pulse height distributions to photon flux spectra using an iterative approximation technique with a computer. Photon flux spectra from the Sagittaire Linear Accelerator were obtained at average-electron endpoint energies of 15, 20, and 25 MeV. Two spectra were measured at the 25 MeV setting; one spectrum was measured along the central axis and one spectrum at 4(DEGREES) off axis. Photon spectra were also obtained for a Van de Graaff generator at the nominal endpoint energies of 2.2, 2.35, and 2.5 MeV. The results for both the linac and the Van de Graaff generator were compared with theoretical spectra and previously measured spectra where available. Also, photon spectra from a Theratron-80 (('60)Co) unit were determined for three field sizes and for a 10 x 10 cm. field with a lucite tray or a 45(DEGREES) wedge in the beam. The resulting spectra were compared to previously measured ('60)Co spectra.

  10. Determination of Dark Matter Properties at High-Energy Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Battaglia, Marco; Peskin, Michael E.; Wizansky, Tommer

    2006-02-24

    If the cosmic dark matter consists of weakly-interacting massive particles, these particles should be produced in reactions at the next generation of high-energy accelerators. Measurements at these accelerators can then be used to determine the microscopic properties of the dark matter. From this, we can predict the cosmic density, the annihilation cross sections, and the cross sections relevant to direct detection. In this paper, we present studies in supersymmetry models with neutralino dark matter that give quantitative estimates of the accuracy that can be expected. We show that these are well matched to the requirements of anticipated astrophysical observations of dark matter. The capabilities of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) are expected to play a particularly important role in this study.

  11. Determination of Dark Matter Properties at High-Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Battaglia, Marco; Peskin, Michael E.; Wizansky, Tommer

    2006-11-05

    If the cosmic dark matter consists of weakly-interacting massive particles, these particles should be produced in reactions at the nextgeneration of high-energy accelerators. Measurements at these accelerators can then be used to determine the microscopic properties of the dark matter. From this, we can predict the cosmic density, the annihilation cross sections, and the cross sections relevant to direct detection. In this paper, we present studies in supersymmetry models with neutralino dark matter that give quantitative estimates of the accuracy that can be expected. We show that these are well matched to the requirements of anticipated astrophysical observations of dark matter. The capabilities of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) are expected to play a particularly important role in this study.

  12. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  13. Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, Frank; Burnett, Daniel J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2007-11-01

    Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution.

  14. Quantitative Analyses of the Influence of Parameters Governing Rate-Determining Process of Hepatic Elimination of Drugs on the Magnitudes of Drug-Drug Interactions via Hepatic OATPs and CYP3A Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, Takashi; Maeda, Kazuya; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Ken-Ichi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were constructed for hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrates (bosentan, repaglinide, clarithromycin, and simeprevir), a CYP3A probe substrate (midazolam), and selective inhibitors for OATPs (rifampicin) and CYP3A (itraconazole), although the role of OATPs in the hepatic uptake of clarithromycin is unclear. The pharmacokinetic data were obtained from our previous clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) study. Parameters optimized from clinical PK data were confirmed to reproduce their blood concentrations in control phase. DDIs with rifampicin and itraconazole were simulated using in vivo Rdif (ratio of diffusional uptake to active uptake) and β (the fraction of the sum of intrinsic clearances for metabolism and biliary excretion in all possible itineraries of intracellular drugs including basolateral efflux) estimated by static analyses based on the extended clearance concept, in vivo inhibition constant (Ki) for hepatic OATPs reported previously, and in vivo Ki for CYP3A determined from DDI data with midazolam and itraconazole. Sensitivity analyses showed the magnitudes of DDIs largely depended on Rdif and β. In conclusion, our approach using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling showed that the rational estimation of parameters governing rate-determining process of hepatic elimination is critical to accurately predict DDI magnitudes involving OATPs/CYP3A inhibition. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Beta shapefactor determinations by the cutoff energy yield method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau Carles, A.

    2005-10-01

    The measurement of spectral deformations due to the forbiddenness of β transitions is commonly resolved by fitting a Kurie plot to experimental data. However, the autoabsorption of the sample and the presence of electromagnetic interferences frequently modify the expected spectral shape, making the determination of the shapefactor function inaccurate in semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. Although the problem of autoabsorption is not present in liquid-scintillation samples, the sum-coincidence process for pulses and the poor resolution of scintillation spectrometers complicate the deconvolution of the spectra. The goal of this paper is to measure shapefactor functions by making use of observables, such as the maximum point or the cutoff energy yield, which are invariant under resolution changes. As a test of the method, the shapefactor coefficients of the six β-emitters, 36Cl, 204Tl, 210Bi, 89Sr, 90Y and 32P are determined from the analysis of the liquid-scintillation pulse-height spectra. Although the results for 210Bi, 89Sr and 90Y are in good agreement with theory, the measured shapefactors for 36Cl and 204Tl exhibit similar deviations from theory than those referenced in the literature for the Kurie plots.

  16. Determination of turbulent energy dissipation rate directly from MF-radar determined velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. M.; Nozawa, S.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    2000-02-01

    MF radar systems are able to determine horizontal neutral winds in the mesosphere and, to some extent in the lower thermosphere by cross-correlations of signals received at spaced antennas. Essentially, by also computing auto-correlations, signal fading may be measured which in turn is thought to be largely attributable to turbulence. Hitherto, estimates of upper limits for the turbulent energy dissipation rate have been derived from the characteristic fading times. In this paper, we propose that power spectra of the velocity components themselves may be used to yield estimates of turbulent energy dissipation rate. 2-minute resolution velocities from the Universities of Saskatchewan, Tromsø and Nagoya joint MF radar at 69°N, 19°E are used in a pilot analysis to illustrate and ratify the method.

  17. Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

  18. Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

  19. Determining Marine Renewable Energy Areas in the Bay of Fundy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, R.; Roc, T.; O'Flaherty-Sproul, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Bay of Fundy has the world's highest tides and several excellent sites for the development of in-stream tidal energy. In particular, Minas Passage in the upper Bay of Fundy has been identified as a site with the theoretical potential to produce over 2000 MW of power. Recently, the Nova Scotia government has enacted legislation to define Marine Renewable Energy Areas where tidal energy will be developed. As part of this process, the practical potential of the regions in the upper Bay of Fundy must be accurately quantified. To assist in this process, we have conducted a practical resource assement of the region. The resource asssesment includes an analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the region. The assessment uses the simulations data from a high-resolution, multi-layered, unstructured-grid, coastal-ocean model (FVCOM). The numerical model has been validated through comparison to numerous measurements of tdial flow from ADCPs, surface drifters and X-band radar. The simulations data is used to estimate the power production of different turbine technologies across the study area. The technologies will have varying hub-height and power curves. Other characteristics of the flow (i.e., water depth, variation in flow) will be used to determine if sites are more or less suitable for turbine deployment. As well, the numerical data will be used to design practical layouts for turbine farms, that have suitable spacing of turbines to allow deployment and minimize the interaction of wakes. The final output will be a prediction of the number of turbines and the power production of an array for a given region. The results of the analysis of the simulation data will be processed into a series of GIS layers. These will be combined with other indications of suitability for deployment of a turbine array: for example, geo-technical, marine conditions, environmental factors, social factors, proximity to on-shore infrastructure etc. The final GIS tool will allow the user

  20. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.

  1. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.

  2. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  3. Determination of enzyme mechanisms by radiationless energy transfer kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lobb, R R; Auld, D S

    1979-06-01

    Rigorous definition of the elementary steps of an enzymatic reaction requires visualization of transient enzyme-substrate (ES) complexes. Measurement of radiationless energy transfer (RET) between enzyme tryptophan residues and a fluorescent dansyl (5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) substrate provides a sensitive means to observe ES complexes directly. Analysis of the rate of formation and breakdown of ES complexes by RET can serve as the basis of a rapid kinetic approach to enzyme mechanisms. Both pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetics can be performed in the same RET experiment. Analysis at steady state precisely determines k(cat) and K(m) values by multiple means. Analysis at pre-steady state determines the number of intermediates, the type of reaction mechanism, and all the individual binding and rate constants. Chymotrypsin was chosen as a standard of reference for RET kinetics because extensive investigations have established both the existence of transient intermediates in the course of its catalytic process and the range of values to be expected for pertinent kinetic constants. As predicted, RET kinetics readily detects the two known intermediates in the alpha-chymotrypsincatalyzed hydrolysis of specific ester substrates. The results are both qualitatively and quantitatively in accord with data derived for this enzyme from classical kinetics. Hence, this experimental study both validates and demonstrates the theoretical advantages and potential of RET kinetics. The generality of the approach has been investigated by synthesizing a family of dansyl-labeled substrates designed to meet the specificity requirements of a number of metallo- and nonmetallo- exo- and endopeptidases. In all cases, the ES complex is observed readily at micromolar or lower concentrations of enzyme under stopped-flow conditions. The success of the RET kinetic approach on proteolytic enzymes shows its broad utility.

  4. Analytic energy gradients with frozen molecular orbitals in coupled-cluster and many-body perturbation theory methods: Systematic study of the magnitude and trends of the effects of frozen molecular orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeck, Kyoung K.; Watts, John D.; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    1997-09-01

    Analytic coupled-cluster (CC) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) energy gradient methods with restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF), unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF), restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF), and quasi-RHF(QRHF) reference functions are extended to permit dopping core and excited orbitals. By using the canonical property of the semicanonical ROHF orbitals and the RHF orbitals from which the QRHF reference function is constructed, it is shown that a general procedure can be established not only for RHF and UHF, but also for ROHF and QRHF reference functions. The basic theory and implementation are reported. To provide a systematic study of the trends and magnitudes of the effects of dropped molecular orbitals (MOs) on the structures, harmonic frequencies, and ir intensities, we study HCN, C2H2, CO2, HO2, and C2H4 at increasing levels of correlation and basis sets. The effects of the dropped MOs with the largest basis sets are about 0.003 Å and 0.1° in structures and about 1% on harmonic frequencies and ir intensities. The magnitude and the direction of the drop-MO effect tend to be almost constant from MBPT(2) to CCSD(T) methods. The two isomers of S3 are studied by the drop-MO-method, yielding very accurate results.

  5. 77 FR 32038 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429, 430, and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department...

  6. Determining Energy Use Volatility for Commercial Mortgage Valuation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul; Pang, XiuFeng; Wang, Liping

    2012-06-01

    Commercial mortgage contracts currently do not fully account for the risks inherent in the level and volatility of energy use in commercial buildings. As a result, energy efficiency is not explicitly included in the valuation process for commercial mortgage underwriting. In particular, there is limited if any consideration of the volatility of energy use and price, which is critical to evaluate the impact of extreme events and default risk. Explicit inclusion of energy use and volatility in commercial mortgage underwriting can send a strong “price signal” that financially rewards and values energy efficiency in commercial properties. This report presents the results of a technical analysis of and a proposed protocol to assess energy use volatility for the purposes of commercial mortgage valuation.

  7. Determination of the jet energy scale at the collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, A.; Canelli, Florencia; Heinemann, B.; Adelman, J.; Ambrose, D.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Budd, H.; Chung, Y.S.; Chung, K.; Cooper, B.; Currat, C.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, T.; Erbacher, R.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Gibson, A.; Hatakeyama, K.; Happacher, F.; Hoffman, D.; /Argonne /UCLA /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., EFI /Fermilab /Florida U. /Frascati /Geneva U. /LBL, Berkeley /Liverpool U. /University Coll. London /Michigan State U. /Toronto U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2005-10-01

    A precise determination of the energy scale of jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider is described. Jets are used in many analyses to estimate the energies of partons resulting from the underlying physics process. Several correction factors are developed to estimate the original parton energy from the observed jet energy in the calorimeter. The jet energy response is compared between data and Monte Carlo simulation for various physics processes, and systematic uncertainties on the jet energy scale are determined. For jets with transverse momenta above 50 GeV the jet energy scale is determined with a 3% systematic uncertainty.

  8. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    Two different methods are applied to the earthquake catalogue for Greece (Makropoulos and Burton, 1981), MB catalogue, to evaluate Greek seismic hazard in terms of magnitude: earthquake strain energy release and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values. It is found that there is a close relationship between results from the two methods. In places where the cumulative strain energy release graphs include at least one well defined cycle of periodicity of strain release, then the parameters of the third type asymptote are well defined with small uncertainties. In almost all cases the magnitude distribution shows a remarkably good third type asymptotic behaviour. The results are presented in the form of graphs and contour maps of annual and 80-year modes, and magnitudes with 70% probability of not being exceeded in the next 50 and 100 years. For six of the most heavily industrial and highly populated centres of Greece magnitude hazard parameters are also derived and examined in more detail, thereby illustrating the direct applicability of the methods in terms of zoning. The close agreement between observed and predicted extreme magnitudes shows that the sample period considered (1900-1978), is long enough to obtain statistically stable estimates. For Athens the upper bound magnitude is found to be 6.7 ± 0.3 (within 100 km) and 6.8 ± 0.4 (100 km) from the two methods respectively, whereas for Corinth an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 has a mean return period of 43 years. Greece as a whole has an upper bound magnitude 8.7 ± 0.6 and earthquakes of a size similar to the 1903 Kithira event ( M ≈ 8.0) have a mean return period of about 200 years. The significantly different maps contouring magnitudes of the annual and 80-year modes result from the fact that each place has its own distribution curvature for magnitude occurrence, and thus they are not a linear extrapolation of each other. However, as longer return periods are considered, these differences

  9. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation.

  10. Determination of kinetic energy applied by center pivot sprinklers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kinetic energy of discrete drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development can...

  11. Determination of stepsize parameters for intermolecular vibrational energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tardy, D.C.

    1992-03-01

    Intermolecular energy transfer of highly excited polyatomic molecules plays an important role in many complex chemical systems: combustion, high temperature and atmospheric chemistry. By monitoring the relaxation of internal energy we have observed trends in the collisional efficiency ({beta}) for energy transfer as a function of the substrate's excitation energy and the complexities of substrate and deactivator. For a given substrate {beta} increases as the deactivator's mass increase to {approximately}30 amu and then exhibits a nearly constant value; this is due to a mass mismatch between the atoms of the colliders. In a homologous series of substrate molecules (C{sub 3}{minus}C{sub 8}) {beta} decreases as the number of atoms in the substrate increases; replacing F with H increases {beta}. All substrates, except for CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 2}HCl below 10,000 cm{sup {minus}1}, exhibited that {beta} is independent of energy, i.e. <{Delta}E>{sub all} is linear with energy. The results are interpreted with a simple model which considers that {beta} is a function of the ocillators energy and its vibrational frequency. Limitations of current approximations used in high temperature unimolecular reactions were evaluated and better approximations were developed. The importance of energy transfer in product yields was observed for the photoactivation of perfluorocyclopropene and the photoproduction of difluoroethyne. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG <3.1, special attention is paid to the non-unity slope of the relation between the local magnitudes and M w. All M w determined during the SI-Hex project is calibrated according to reference M w of recent events. As for some small events, no M L-LDG has been determined; local magnitudes issued by other French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  13. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  14. Determination of Resting Energy Expenditure After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    equation. In a recent survey of 65 burn centers, Graves et al10 discovered that the most commonly used for- mulas include the Harris -Benedict formula11...accuracy by Table 1. Equations for estimating daily energy expenditure for subjects with burns Predictive Equations for Energy Expenditure Harris -Benedict...predicted by using nine pre- dictive equations including 30 kcal/kg, 35 kcal/kg, 40 kcal/kg, the Harris -Benedict equation multiplied by an injury factor

  15. Determination of the internal chemical energy of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, E S; Curtis, T P; Dolfing, J

    2011-01-15

    The wastewater industry is facing a paradigm shift, learning to view domestic wastewater not as a waste stream which needs to be disposed of but as a resource from which to generate energy. The extent of that resource is a strategically important question. The only previous published measurement of the internal chemical energy of wastewater measured 6.3 kJ/L. It has long been assumed that the energy content in wastewater relates directly to chemical oxygen demand (COD). However there is no standard relationship between COD and energy content. In this study a new methodology of preparing samples for measuring the internal chemical energy in wastewater is developed, and an analysis is made between this and the COD measurements taken. The mixed wastewater examined, using freeze-drying of samples to minimize loss of volatiles, had 16.8 kJ/L, while the domestic wastewater tested had 7.6 kJ/L nearly 20% higher than previously estimated. The size of the resource that wastewater presents is clearly both complex and variable but is likely to be significantly greater than previously thought. A systematic evaluation of the energy contained in wastewaters is warranted.

  16. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  17. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  18. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation of water: Determining the sticking probability and formation energy of a cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Kawano, Akio; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-03-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation of water vapor in order to test nucleation theories. Simulations were performed for a wide range of supersaturation ratios (S = 3-25) and water temperatures (Tw = 300-390 K). We obtained the nucleation rates and the formation free energies of a subcritical cluster from the cluster size distribution. The classical nucleation theory and the modified classical nucleation theory (MCNT) overestimate the nucleation rates in all cases. The semi-phenomenological model, which corrects the MCNT prediction using the second virial coefficient of a vapor, reproduces the formation free energy of a cluster with the size ≲20 to within 10% and the nucleation rate and cluster size distributions to within one order of magnitude. The sticking probability of the vapor molecules to the clusters was also determined from the growth rates of the clusters. The sticking probability rapidly increases with the supersaturation ratio S, which is similar to the Lennard-Jones system.

  20. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  1. Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-09-26

    Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

  2. Amplitude-dependent station magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzyner, Yael; Ben Horin, Yochai; Steinberg, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Magnitude, a concept first presented by Gutenberg and Richter, adjusts measurements of ground motion for epicentral distance and source depth. Following this principle, the IDC defines the j'th station body wave magnitude for event i as mb(stai,j) = log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i) + V C(Δj,i,hi) , where VC is the Veith-Clawson (VC) correction to compensate for the epicentral distance of the station and the depth of the source. The network magnitude is calculated as the average of station magnitudes. The IDC magnitude estimation is used for event characterization and discrimination and it should be as accurate as possible. Ideally, the network magnitude should be close in value to the station magnitudes. In reality, it is observed that the residuals range between -1 and 1 mu or ±25% of a given mb(neti) value. We show that the residual, mb(neti) -mb(staj,i), depends linearly on log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i), and we correct for this dependence using the following procedure: Calculate a "jackknifed" network magnitude, mbj,n(neti), i.e. an average over all participating stations except station n. Using all measurements at station n, calculate the parameters an, bn of the linear fit of the residual mbj,n(neti) - mb(stan,i to log 10(An,i/Tn,i). For each event i at station n calculate the new station magnitude mbnew(stan,i) = (an + 1)log(An,i/Tn,i) + V C(Δn,i,hi) + bn Calculate the new network magnitude: mbnew(neti) = 1N- ∑ n=1nmbnew(stan,i) The procedure was used on more than two million station-event pairs. Correcting for the station-specific dependence on log amplitude reduces the residuals by roughly a third. We have calculated the spread of the distributions, and compared the original values and those for the corrected magnitudes. The spread is the ratio between the variance of the network magnitudes, and the variance of the residual. Calculations show an increase in the ratio of the variance, meaning that the correction process presented in this document did not lead to loss of variance

  3. The development of a rotational magnitude scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Bryant; Simonelli, Andrea; Hadziiannou, Celine; Donner, Stefanie; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    Current surface wave magnitude equations normally take into account only the vertical component of peak ground displacement, and therefore only contributions from Rayleigh waves. Horizontal components contain both Rayleigh and Love waves, which potentially obscure attenuation characteristics. With the advent of rotational ground motion observations from instruments such as ring laser gyroscopes and fibre-optic gyroscopes, it is now possible to determine peak amplitudes of rotations about the vertical axis. At teleseismic distances, these are dominated by Love waves and are in principle unaffected by Rayleigh waves. We aim to use this concept to determine a Love wave based surface wave magnitude equation; with a large database of rotational ground motion events of varying source parameters, we intend to empirically define a rotational magnitude scale and consequently an amplitude decay law for Love waves.

  4. Neutron energy determination with a high-purity germanium detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Gene A.

    1992-01-01

    Two areas that are related to planetary gamma-ray spectrometry are investigated. The first task was the investigation of gamma rays produced by high-energy charged particles and their secondaries in planetary surfaces by means of thick target bombardments. The second task was the investigation of the effects of high-energy neutrons on gamma-ray spectral features obtained with high-purity Ge-detectors. For both tasks, as a function of the funding level, the experimental work was predominantly tied to that of other researchers, whenever there was an opportunity to participate in bombardment experiments at large or small accelerators for charged particles.

  5. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time.

  6. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  7. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  8. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  9. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  10. DETERMINATION OF LOW-ENERGY CUTOFFS AND TOTAL ENERGY OF NONTHERMAL ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR FLARE ON 2002 APRIL 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Linhui; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The determination of the low-energy cutoff to the spectrum of accelerated electrons is decisive for the estimation of the total nonthermal energy in solar flares. Because thermal bremsstrahlung dominates the low-energy part of flare X-ray spectra, this cutoff energy is difficult to determine with spectral fitting alone. We have used anew method that combines spatial, spectral, and temporal analysis to determine the cutoff energy for the M1.2 flare observed with RHESSI on 2002 April 15. A low-energy cutoff of 24 +/- 2 keV is required to ensure that the assumed thermal emissions always dominate over nonthermal emissions at low energies (<20 keV) and that the spectral fitting results are consistent with the RHESSI light curves and images. With this cutoff energy, we obtain a total nonthermal energy in electrons of (1.6 +/- 1) x 10(exp 30) ergs that is comparable to the peak energy in the thermal plasma, estimated from RHESSI observations to be (6 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp 29) ergs assuming a filling factor of 1.

  11. DETERMINATION OF LOW-ENERGY CUTOFFS AND TOTAL ENERGY OF NONTHERMAL ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR FLARE ON 2002 APRIL 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Linhui; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The determination of the low-energy cutoff to the spectrum of accelerated electrons is decisive for the estimation of the total nonthermal energy in solar flares. Because thermal bremsstrahlung dominates the low-energy part of flare X-ray spectra, this cutoff energy is difficult to determine with spectral fitting alone. We have used anew method that combines spatial, spectral, and temporal analysis to determine the cutoff energy for the M1.2 flare observed with RHESSI on 2002 April 15. A low-energy cutoff of 24 +/- 2 keV is required to ensure that the assumed thermal emissions always dominate over nonthermal emissions at low energies (<20 keV) and that the spectral fitting results are consistent with the RHESSI light curves and images. With this cutoff energy, we obtain a total nonthermal energy in electrons of (1.6 +/- 1) x 10(exp 30) ergs that is comparable to the peak energy in the thermal plasma, estimated from RHESSI observations to be (6 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp 29) ergs assuming a filling factor of 1.

  12. Solar energy microclimate as determined from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for determining solar insolation at the earth's surface using satellite broadband visible radiance and cloud imagery data, along with conventional in situ measurements. Conventional measurements are used to both tune satellite measurements and to develop empirical relationships between satellite observations and surface solar insolation. Cloudiness is the primary modulator of sunshine. The satellite measurements as applied in this method consider cloudiness both explicitly and implicitly in determining surface solar insolation at space scales smaller than the conventional pyranometer network.

  13. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-06-01

    Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is measured with accelerometers, was conducted in healthy subjects under daily living conditions over intervals of one or more weeks. Activity energy expenditure as a fraction of daily energy expenditure is highest in adults at the reproductive age. Then, activity energy expenditure is a function of fat-free mass. Excess body mass as fat does not affect daily activity energy expenditure, but body movement decreases with increasing fatness. Overweight and obesity possibly affect daily physical activity energy expenditure through endurance. Physical activity is affected by energy availability; a negative energy balance induces a reduction of activity expenditure. Optimal performance and health require prevention of excess body fat and maintenance of energy balance, where energy balance determines physical activity rather than physical activity affecting energy balance.

  14. An accurate determination of the surface energy of solid selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisbiers, G.; Arscott, S.; Snyders, R.

    2012-12-01

    Selenium is currently a key element for developing nano and micro-technologies. Nevertheless, the surface energy of solid selenium (γSe) reported in the literature is still questionable. In this work, we have measured γSe = 0.291 ± 0.025 J/m2 at 293 K using the sessile drop technique with different probe liquids, namely ethylene glycol, de-ionized water, mercury, and gallium. This value is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R E; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2016-05-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes.

  16. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R. E.; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes. PMID:26879093

  17. An approach to an accurate determination of the energy spectrum of high-energy electron beams using magnetic spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, F.; Schwab, A.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Makowski, Ch; Jannek, D.

    2014-03-01

    At the national metrology institute of Germany, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, a research accelerator for dosimetry in radiation therapy has been installed. Magnetic spectrometry is used to determine the spectrum of high-energy electrons generated by this accelerator. Regarding the intended experiments at the accelerator, a high accuracy for the energy determination of the electron beam is required. For this purpose, an experimental setup is used that has a number of additional devices assembled around the spectrometer to determine geometric characteristics of the electron beam, which influence the energy analysis. For the analysis of the acquired data, a software was developed which meets specific needs. One important aspect is that the software is based on an algorithm for energy determination which considers the measured magnetic flux density of the spectrometer and geometric details of the beam and the spectrometer. The software also meets the demand that it can be used to estimate the uncertainty assigned to the energy. This paper covers the experimental and analytical background of magnetic spectrometry at the high-energy beamline of PTB's research accelerator. A comparison of results calculated with the specific algorithm for energy determination which was developed for this experimental setup and with well-known algorithms is given to show the advantage of the specific method. Results of measurements and their analysis with the algorithm are presented as well.

  18. Theoretical determination of the alkali-metal superoxide bond energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies for the alkali-metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional level. Our computed D0 values are 61.4, 37.2, 40.6, and 38.4 kcal/mol for LiO2, NaO2, KO2, and RbO2, respectively. These values, which are expected to be lower bounds and accurate to 2 kcal/mol, agree well with some of the older flame data, but rule out several recent experimental measurements.

  19. Theoretical determination of the alkali-metal superoxide bond energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies for the alkali-metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional level. Our computed D0 values are 61.4, 37.2, 40.6, and 38.4 kcal/mol for LiO2, NaO2, KO2, and RbO2, respectively. These values, which are expected to be lower bounds and accurate to 2 kcal/mol, agree well with some of the older flame data, but rule out several recent experimental measurements.

  20. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  1. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  2. Determination of the Surface Energy of Sand Using Adsorption Isotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lianxi; Holste, James; Hall, Kenneth

    2003-03-01

    The BET isotherm equation for multiplayer adsorption was applied to hexane, methyl propyl ketone, and water adsorption by sand (particle size > 75 mm) at 25¡ãC and accordingly, specific surface area of sand was obtained. Spreading pressures and surface energies of sand were calculated from adsorption isotherms. Hysteresis loops were observed in all isotherms but desorption isotherms approach to original points at low vapor pressure. A modified Toth-Freundlich equation was developed, which agrees with experimental data well over a wider p/p0 range. Plots of Dubinin-Radushkevich show that at low-pressure linear relation was obtained therefore our sand sample can be treated as microporous materials.

  3. Computational Approach in Determination of {sup 233}U and {sup 233}Th Fermi Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniadi, R.; Perkasa, Y. S.; Waris, A.

    2010-12-23

    There are several methods to get Fermi energy such as hermit polynomial expansion and Wigner-Kirkwood expansion, these are analytical method. In this paper will be discussed numerical approach of calculating Fermi energy of {sup 233}Th and {sup 233}U nuclei. Our work demonstrates the simple technique of determining Fermi energy.

  4. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF THE...

  5. 18 CFR 11.11 - Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges. 11.11 Section 11.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF THE FEDERAL...

  6. A terrain-dependent reference atmosphere determination method for available potential energy calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    An iterative technique that determines the reference atmosphere which incorporates the effects of uneven surface topography is presented. This method has been successfully applied in several available potential energy studies. An alternative method due to Taylor is also evaluated. While Taylor presented excellent continuous formulations of the available potential energy that include topography, his method for determining the reference atmosphere distributions failed to provide the accuracy needed to produce reliable available potential energy estimates. Since topography has a significant influence on the general circulation, it is important to employ techniques that incorporate its effects in the determination of available potential energy.

  7. The determinants and trends in household energy consumption in United States during 2001-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, Sadasivan

    Objective: The focus of this study is a broad examination of household energy consumption for appliance use, space heating, space cooling, and water heating in United States over the period 2001-2009 using Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) from the years 2001 and 2009. Methods: Linear Regression Analysis is used to identfy determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Regression based decomposition analysis is used to identify trends in residential energy consumption for each of the end uses. Results: The study identified current determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. These determinants are employed in the study to predict trends in household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Based on the results policy interventions at local and federal level for energy conservation are suggested.

  8. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  9. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  10. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code.

  11. On the determination of curvature and dynamical dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Virey, J-M; Taxil, P; Talon-Esmieu, D; Ealet, A; Tilquin, A E-mail: talon@cppm.in2p3.fr E-mail: taxil@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2008-12-15

    Constraining simultaneously the dark energy (DE) equation of state and the curvature of the universe is difficult due to strong degeneracies. To circumvent this problem when analyzing data it is usual to assume flatness to constrain the DE or, conversely, to assume that the DE is a cosmological constant to constrain the curvature. In this paper, we quantify the impact of such assumptions with an eye to future large surveys. We simulate future data for type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations for a large range of fiducial cosmologies allowing a small spatial curvature. We take into account a possible time evolution of DE through a parameterized equation of state: w(a) = w{sub 0}+(1-a)w{sub a}. We then fit the simulated data with a wrong assumption on the curvature or on the DE parameters. For a fiducial {Lambda}CDM cosmology, if flatness is incorrectly assumed in the fit and if the true curvature is within the ranges 0.01<{Omega}{sub k}<0.03 and -0.07<{Omega}{sub k}<-0.01, one will be led to conclude erroneously that an evolving DE is present, even with high statistics. On the other hand, models with curvature and dynamical DE can be confused with a flat {Lambda}CDM model when the fit ignores a possible DE evolution. We find that, in the future, with high statistics, such risks of confusion should be limited, but they are still possible, and biases in the cosmological parameters might be important. We conclude by recalling that, in the future, it will be mandatory to perform some complete multi-probe analyses, leaving the DE parameters as well as the curvature as free parameters.

  12. Relativistic effect on total energies for determination of correlation energies of atoms from their experimental total energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, Tosinobu; Teruya, Hirohide

    1989-10-01

    Relativistic effect Erel upon the total electronic energy of an atom is discussed with particular reference to obtaining the nonrelativistic total energy Eexact from the experimental total energy. Numerical values of this effect obtained by various authors by different nonempirical methods are compared for neutral atoms of rare-gas elements. It is shown that methods either of a Hartree-Fock-type or of a Dirac-Hartree-Fock-type give much the same Erel value for He through Ar. It is pointed out that Erel calculated with Hartree-Fock wave functions is not adequate for use in obtaining Eexact from the experimental total energy and that the Erel value calculated with wave functions including electron correlation should work well, although an actual demonstration can be done only for two-electron systems for lack of data. A semiempirical formula is therefore proposed, which is useful for least-squares fit of experimental total energies of isoelectronic series of atoms to extract nonrelativistic total energies along with the relativistic effect. From nonrelativistic energies thus derived, semiempirical values of correlation energies of atoms are obtained. The results thus obtained are in reasonable agreement with correlation energies derived by Clementi along somewhat different lines. The power series expansion in Z of the fitted formula for the He series shows that numerical values of expansion coefficients agree reasonably well with the corresponding values obtained by accurate relativistic and nonrelativistic Z expansion-type calculations.

  13. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  14. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  15. Determination of residual stress in a microtextured α titanium component using high-energy synchrotron X-rays

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Jun -Sang; Ray, Atish K.; Dawson, Paul R.; ...

    2016-05-02

    A shrink-fit sample is manufactured with a Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy to introduce a multiaxial residual stress field in the disk of the sample. A set of strain and orientation pole figures are measured at various locations across the disk using synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction. Two approaches—the traditional sin2Ψ method and the bi-scale optimization method—are taken to determine the stresses in the disk based on the measured strain and orientation pole figures, to explore the range of solutions that are possible for the stress field within the disk. While the stress components computed using the sin2Ψ method and the bi-scale optimization methodmore » have similar trends, their magnitudes are significantly different. Lastly, it is suspected that the local texture variation in the material is the cause of this discrepancy.« less

  16. Determination of residual stress in a microtextured α titanium component using high-energy synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jun -Sang; Ray, Atish K.; Dawson, Paul R.; Lienert, Ulrich; Miller, Matthew P.

    2016-05-02

    A shrink-fit sample is manufactured with a Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy to introduce a multiaxial residual stress field in the disk of the sample. A set of strain and orientation pole figures are measured at various locations across the disk using synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction. Two approaches—the traditional sin2Ψ method and the bi-scale optimization method—are taken to determine the stresses in the disk based on the measured strain and orientation pole figures, to explore the range of solutions that are possible for the stress field within the disk. While the stress components computed using the sin2Ψ method and the bi-scale optimization method have similar trends, their magnitudes are significantly different. Lastly, it is suspected that the local texture variation in the material is the cause of this discrepancy.

  17. Determination of residual stress in a microtextured α titanium component using high-energy synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jun -Sang; Ray, Atish K.; Dawson, Paul R.; Lienert, Ulrich; Miller, Matthew P.

    2016-05-02

    A shrink-fit sample is manufactured with a Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy to introduce a multiaxial residual stress field in the disk of the sample. A set of strain and orientation pole figures are measured at various locations across the disk using synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction. Two approaches—the traditional sin2Ψ method and the bi-scale optimization method—are taken to determine the stresses in the disk based on the measured strain and orientation pole figures, to explore the range of solutions that are possible for the stress field within the disk. While the stress components computed using the sin2Ψ method and the bi-scale optimization method have similar trends, their magnitudes are significantly different. Lastly, it is suspected that the local texture variation in the material is the cause of this discrepancy.

  18. Acylation Type Determines Ghrelin's Effects on Energy Homeostasis in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Kristy M.; Chaudhary, Nilika; Müller, Timo D.; Kirchner, Henriette; Habegger, Kirk M.; Ottaway, Nickki; Smiley, David L.; DiMarchi, Richard; Hofmann, Susanna M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Holst, Birgitte; Pfluger, Paul T.; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal polypeptide that acts through the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) to promote food intake and increase adiposity. Activation of GHSR requires the presence of a fatty-acid (FA) side chain on amino acid residue serine 3 of the ghrelin molecule. However, little is known about the role that the type of FA used for acylation plays in the biological action of ghrelin. We therefore evaluated a series of differentially acylated peptides to determine whether alterations in length or stability of the FA side chain have an impact on the ability of ghrelin to activate GHSR in vitro or to differentially alter food intake, body weight, and body composition in vivo. Fatty acids principally available in the diet (such as palmitate C16) and therefore representing potential substrates for the ghrelin-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) were used for dose-, time-, and administration/route-dependent effects of ghrelin on food intake, body weight, and body composition in rats and mice. Our data demonstrate that altering the length of the FA side chain of ghrelin results in the differential activation of GHSR. Additionally, we found that acylation of ghrelin with a long-chain FA (C16) delays the acute central stimulation of food intake. Lastly, we found that, depending on acylation length, systemic and central chronic actions of ghrelin on adiposity can be enhanced or reduced. Together our data suggest that modification of the FA side-chain length can be a novel approach to modulate the efficacy of pharmacologically administered ghrelin. PMID:22865372

  19. Acylation type determines ghrelin's effects on energy homeostasis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Kristy M; Chaudhary, Nilika; Müller, Timo D; Kirchner, Henriette; Habegger, Kirk M; Ottaway, Nickki; Smiley, David L; Dimarchi, Richard; Hofmann, Susanna M; Woods, Stephen C; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Holst, Birgitte; Pfluger, Paul T; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2012-10-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal polypeptide that acts through the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) to promote food intake and increase adiposity. Activation of GHSR requires the presence of a fatty-acid (FA) side chain on amino acid residue serine 3 of the ghrelin molecule. However, little is known about the role that the type of FA used for acylation plays in the biological action of ghrelin. We therefore evaluated a series of differentially acylated peptides to determine whether alterations in length or stability of the FA side chain have an impact on the ability of ghrelin to activate GHSR in vitro or to differentially alter food intake, body weight, and body composition in vivo. Fatty acids principally available in the diet (such as palmitate C16) and therefore representing potential substrates for the ghrelin-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) were used for dose-, time-, and administration/route-dependent effects of ghrelin on food intake, body weight, and body composition in rats and mice. Our data demonstrate that altering the length of the FA side chain of ghrelin results in the differential activation of GHSR. Additionally, we found that acylation of ghrelin with a long-chain FA (C16) delays the acute central stimulation of food intake. Lastly, we found that, depending on acylation length, systemic and central chronic actions of ghrelin on adiposity can be enhanced or reduced. Together our data suggest that modification of the FA side-chain length can be a novel approach to modulate the efficacy of pharmacologically administered ghrelin.

  20. Determination of the mean solid-liquid interface energy of pivalic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Gliksman, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A high-confidence solid-liquid interfacial energy is determined for an anisotropic material. A coaxial composite having a cylindrical specimen chamber geometry provides a thermal gradient with an axial heating wire. The surface energy is derived from measurements of grain boundary groove shapes. Applying this method to pivalic acid, a surface energy of 2.84 erg/sq cm was determined with a total systematic and random error less than 10 percent. The value of interfacial energy corresponds to 24 percent of the latent heat of fusion per molecule.

  1. Determination of the mean solid-liquid interface energy of pivalic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Gliksman, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A high-confidence solid-liquid interfacial energy is determined for an anisotropic material. A coaxial composite having a cylindrical specimen chamber geometry provides a thermal gradient with an axial heating wire. The surface energy is derived from measurements of grain boundary groove shapes. Applying this method to pivalic acid, a surface energy of 2.84 erg/sq cm was determined with a total systematic and random error less than 10 percent. The value of interfacial energy corresponds to 24 percent of the latent heat of fusion per molecule.

  2. Development of an Empirical Local Magnitude Formula for Northern Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spriggs, N.; Karimi, S.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we focus on determining a local magnitude formula for northern Oklahoma that is unbiased with distance by empirically constraining the attenuation properties within the region of interest based on the amplitude of observed seismograms. For regional networks detecting events over several hundred kilometres, distance correction terms play an important role in determining the magnitude of an event. Standard distance correction terms such as Hutton and Boore (1987) may have a significant bias with distance if applied in a region with different attenuation properties, resulting in an incorrect magnitude. We have presented data from a regional network of broadband seismometers installed in bedrock in northern Oklahoma. The events with magnitude in the range of 2.0 and 4.5, distributed evenly across this network are considered. We find that existing models show a bias with respect to hypocentral distance. Observed amplitude measurements demonstrate that there is a significant Moho bounce effect that mandates the use of a trilinear attenuation model in order to avoid bias in the distance correction terms. We present two different approaches of local magnitude calibration. The first maintains the classic definition of local magnitude as proposed by Richter. The second method calibrates local magnitude so that it agrees with moment magnitude where a regional moment tensor can be computed. To this end, regional moment tensor solutions and moment magnitudes are computed for events with magnitude larger than 3.5 to allow calibration of local magnitude to moment magnitude. For both methods the new formula results in magnitudes systematically lower than previous values computed with Eaton's (1992) model. We compare the resulting magnitudes and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each method. Our results highlight the importance of correct calibration of the distance correction terms for accurate local magnitude assessment in regional networks.

  3. Tectonic stress - Models and magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Bergman, E. A.; Richardson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that global data on directions of principal stresses in plate interiors can serve as a test of possible plate tectonic force models. Such tests performed to date favor force models in which ridge pushing forces play a significant role. For such models the general magnitude of regional deviatoric stresses is comparable to the 200-300 bar compressive stress exerted by spreading ridges. An alternative approach to estimating magnitudes of regional deviatoric stresses from stress orientations is to seek regions of local stress either demonstrably smaller than or larger than the regional stresses. The regional stresses in oceanic intraplate regions are larger than the 100-bar compression exerted by the Ninetyeast Ridge and less than the bending stresses (not less than 1 kbar) beneath Hawaii.

  4. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  5. Subject position affects EEG magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Rice, Justin K; Rorden, Christopher; Little, Jessica S; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-01-01

    EEG (electroencephalography) has been used for decades in thousands of research studies and is today a routine clinical tool despite the small magnitude of measured scalp potentials. It is widely accepted that the currents originating in the brain are strongly influenced by the high resistivity of skull bone, but it is less well known that the thin layer of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) has perhaps an even more important effect on EEG scalp magnitude by spatially blurring the signals. Here it is shown that brain shift and the resulting small changes in CSF layer thickness, induced by changing the subject's position, have a significant effect on EEG signal magnitudes in several standard visual paradigms. For spatially incoherent high-frequency activity the effect produced by switching from prone to supine can be dramatic, increasing occipital signal power by several times for some subjects (on average 80%). MRI measurements showed that the occipital CSF layer between the brain and skull decreases by approximately 30% in thickness when a subject moves from prone to supine position. A multiple dipole model demonstrated that this can indeed lead to occipital EEG signal power increases in the same direction and order of magnitude as those observed here. These results suggest that future EEG studies should control for subjects' posture, and that some studies may consider placing their subjects into the most favorable position for the experiment. These findings also imply that special consideration should be given to EEG measurements from subjects with brain atrophy due to normal aging or neurodegenerative diseases, since the resulting increase in CSF layer thickness could profoundly decrease scalp potential measurements.

  6. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  7. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-01

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO3, Li2CO3, and SiO2) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5-40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO2, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E - Egap)1.5. For CaCO3, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li2CO3 (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  8. Hydrophobic ion hydration and the magnitude of the dipole potential.

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Jens; Clarke, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    The magnitude of the dipole potential of lipid membranes is often estimated from the difference in conductance between the hydrophobic ions, tetraphenylborate, and tetraphenylarsonium or tetraphenylphosphonium. The calculation is based on the tetraphenylarsonium-tetraphenylborate hypothesis that the magnitude of the hydration energies of the anions and cations are equal (i.e., charge independent), so that their different rates of transport across the membrane are solely due to differential interactions with the membrane phase. Here we investigate the validity of this assumption by quantum mechanical calculations of the hydration energies. Tetraphenylborate (Delta G(hydr) = -168 kJ mol(-1)) was found to have a significantly stronger interaction with water than either tetraphenylarsonium (Delta G(hydr) = -145 kJ mol(-1)) or tetraphenylphosphonium (Delta G(hydr) = -157 kJ mol(-1)). Taking these differences into account, literature conductance data were recalculated to yield values of the dipole potential 57 to 119 mV more positive in the membrane interior than previous estimates. This may partly account for the discrepancy of at least 100 mV generally observed between dipole potential values calculated from lipid monolayers and those determined on bilayers. PMID:12023231

  9. Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

  10. Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

  11. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  12. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  13. 76 FR 142 - Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... AGENCY Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy... Petitions for Review of a Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit issued to Russell... agreement dated February 4, 2008, issued a PSD permit to Russell City Energy Center, LLC, on February...

  14. Determination of Total Daily Energy Requirements and Activity Patterns of Service Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    military settings, and activity patterns. This is crucial information needed not only for determination of nutritional requirements for energy balance, but...specific nutrient density standards for servicewomen. Total daily energy expenditure is measured using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Activity

  15. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  16. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  17. High Latitude Precipitating Energy Flux and Joule Heating During Geomagnetic Storms Determined from AMPERE Field-aligned Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. M.; Zanetti, L. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Hampton, D. L.; Dropulic, A.

    2016-12-01

    A high latitude conductivity model based on field-aligned currents measured by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) provides the means for complete specification of electric fields and currents at high latitudes. Based on coordinated measurements made by AMPERE and the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, the model determines the most likely value of the ionospheric conductance from the direction, magnitude, and magnetic local time of the field-aligned current. A conductance model driven by field-aligned currents ensures spatial and temporal consistency between the calculated electrodynamic parameters. To validate the results, the Pedersen and Hall conductances were used to calculate the energy flux associated with the energetic particle precipitation. When integrated over the entire hemisphere, the total energy flux compares well with the Hemispheric Power Index derived from the OVATION-PRIME model. The conductances were also combined with the field-aligned currents to calculate the self-consistent electric field, which was then used to compute horizontal currents and Joule heating. The magnetic perturbations derived from the currents replicate most of the variations observed in ground-based magnetograms. The model was used to study high latitude particle precipitation, currents, and Joule heating for 24 magnetic storms. In most cases, the total energy input from precipitating particles and Joule heating exhibits a sharply-peaked maximum at the times of local minima in Dst, suggesting a close coupling between the ring current and the high latitude currents driven by the Region 2 field-aligned currents. The rapid increase and decrease of the high latitude energy deposition suggests an explosive transfer of energy from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere just prior to storm recovery.

  18. Absolute magnitudes and kinematic properties of Cepheids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. D.; Jefferys, W. H.; Barnes, T. G., III; Hawley, S. L.

    A maximum-likelihood statistical parallax analysis of classical Cepheids has been performed to determine the relative solar motion, Oort constants, velocity ellipsoid parameters, and zero points of the PL and PLC relations. The analysis is based upon 90 proper motions drawn from the list of Karimova and Pavlovskaya 1981 and upon the analytical approach of Hawley et al. 1986. The authors' results give a best estimate for the mean absolute magnitude of Cepheids at log P = 0.8 of = -3.46±0.33 mag. This estimate for the Cepheid absolute magnitude zero point is highly stable against refinements in the mathematical technique and against additional Cepheid proper motion data of quality similar to the existing proper motions. Improvement in this value will likely come only from a marked improvement in the quality of the Cepheid proper motions.

  19. The representation of numerical magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    The combined efforts of many fields are advancing our understanding of how number is represented. Researchers studying numerical reasoning in adult humans, developing humans and non-human animals are using a suite of behavioral and neurobiological methods to uncover similarities and differences in how each population enumerates and compares quantities to identify the neural substrates of numerical cognition. An important picture emerging from this research is that adult humans share with non-human animals a system for representing number as language-independent mental magnitudes and that this system emerges early in development. PMID:16546373

  20. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the basic model's efficiency either at the voltage at which the highest losses occur or at each... in accordance with paragraph (d)(3) of this section, and calculate the power loss for each of these... applicable test procedure and § 429.47, and determine the power loss for each of these basic models; (iii...

  1. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the basic model's efficiency either at the voltage at which the highest losses occur or at each... in accordance with paragraph (d)(3) of this section, and calculate the power loss for each of these... applicable test procedure and § 429.47, and determine the power loss for each of these basic models; (iii...

  2. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  3. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  4. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gravitation model for the magnitude of migration and its application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Q

    1997-01-01

    "The magnitude of migration is one part of the feasibility study on migration, its result being critical to the yield of positive or negative effect.... The key to the success of migration is that the magnitude of migration must be limited within the capacity of the place of destination with generous room for flexibility. It is therefore necessary to determine the appropriate magnitude by scientific methods." The geographical focus is on China. excerpt

  6. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  7. Precise Determination of the Lyman-1 Transition Energy in Hydrogen-like Gold Ions with Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Kiselev, O.; McCammon, D.; Scholz, P.

    2014-09-01

    The precise determination of the transition energy of the Lyman-1 line in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. We report the determination of the Lyman-1 transition energy of gold ions (Au) with microcalorimeters at the experimental storage ring at GSI. X-rays produced by the interaction of 125 MeV/u Au ions with an internal argon gas-jet target were detected. The detector array consisted of 14 pixels with silicon thermistors and Sn absorbers, for which an energy resolution of 50 eV for an X-ray energy of 59.5 keV was obtained in the laboratory. The Lyman-1 transition energy was determined for each pixel in the laboratory frame, then transformed into the emitter frame and averaged. A Dy-159 source was used for energy calibration. The absolute positions of the detector pixels, which are needed for an accurate correction of the Doppler shift, were determined by topographic measurements and by scanning a collimated Am-241 source across the cryostat window. The energy of the Lyman-1 line in the emitter frame is eV, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the position of the cryostat relative to the interaction region of beam and target.

  8. Ginzburg-Landau free energy for molecular fluids: Determination and coarse-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2017-02-01

    Using molecular simulation, we determine Ginzburg-Landau free energy functions for molecular fluids. To this aim, we extend the Expanded Wang-Landau method to calculate the partition functions, number distributions and Landau free energies for Ar,CO2 and H2O . We then parametrize a coarse-grained free energy function of the density order parameter and assess the performance of this free energy function on its ability to model the onset of criticality in these systems. The resulting parameters can be readily used in hybrid atomistic/continuum simulations that connect the microscopic and mesoscopic length scales.

  9. Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber.

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, E; Lillioja, S; Anderson, T E; Christin, L; Bogardus, C

    1986-01-01

    Daily human energy requirements calculated from separate components of energy expenditure are inaccurate and usually in poor agreement with measured energy intakes. Measurement of energy expenditure over periods of 24 h or longer is needed to determine more accurately rates of daily energy expenditure in humans. We provide a detailed description of a human respiratory chamber and methods used to determine rates of energy expenditure over 24-h periods in 177 subjects. The results show that: fat-free mass (FFM) as estimated by densitometry is the best available determinant of 24-h energy expenditures (24EE) and explains 81% of the variance observed between individuals (24EE [kcal/d] = 597 + 26.5 FFM); 24EE in an individual is very reproducible (coefficient of variation = 2.4%); and even when adjusted for differences in FFM, there is still considerable interperson variability of the daily energy expenditure. A large portion of the variability of 24EE among individuals, independent of differences in body size, was due to variability in the degree of spontaneous physical activity, i.e., "fidgeting," which accounted for 100-800 kcal/d in these subjects. Images PMID:3782471

  10. Rapid spectrophotometric method for determining surface free energy of microalgal cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Jiang, Zeyi; Li, Mengyin; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Ge; Chou, Aihui; Chen, Liang; Yan, Hai; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-02

    Microalgae are one of the most promising renewable energy sources with environmental sustainability. The surface free energy of microalgal cells determines their biofouling and bioflocculation behavior and hence plays an important role in microalgae cultivation and harvesting. To date, the surface energetic properties of microalgal cells are still rarely studied. We developed a novel spectrophotometric method for directly determining the surface free energy of microalgal cells. The principles of this method are based on analyzing colloidal stability of microalgae suspensions. We have shown that this method can effectively differentiate the surface free energy of four microalgal strains, i.e., marine Chlorella sp., marine Nannochloris oculata, freshwater autotrophic Chlorella sp., and freshwater heterotrophic Chlorella sp. With advantages of high-throughput and simplicity, this new spectrophotometric method has the potential to evolve into a standard method for measuring the surface free energy of cells and abiotic particles.

  11. A method for determining d-D neutron energies in a large sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua

    2015-09-01

    The energy of monoenergetic neutrons generated by the D(d,n)3He reaction was determined as a function of emergent angle and incidence energy of d+-beam, En(θ,Ed). Based on the geometric size of the experimental sample, position of the sample relative to the Ti-D solid or D2 gas targets, volume distribution of D2 gas targets, theoretical formulas were obtained for calculating the mean neutron energy required to irradiate a large sample. Using these formulas, the mean neutron energies of the Ti-D solid and D2 gas targets irradiating a large sample were calculated under various conditions. The results were compared to those reported in the literature. The formulas obtained in this study were found to be applicable for the determination of mean neutron energy irradiating a large sample for the Ti-D solid and D2 gas targets.

  12. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures.

  13. The binding energies of NO-Rg (Rg = He, Ne, Ar) determined by velocity map imaging.

    PubMed

    Holmes-Ross, Heather L; Lawrance, Warren D

    2011-07-07

    We report velocity map imaging measurements of the binding energies, D(0), of NO-Rg (Rg = He, Ne, Ar) complexes. The X state binding energies determined are 3.0 ± 1.8, 28.6 ± 1.7, and 93.5 ± 0.9 cm(-1) for NO-He, -Ne, and -Ar, respectively. These values compare reasonably well with ab initio calculations. Because the Ã-X transitions were unable to be observed for NO-He and NO-Ne, values for the binding energies in the à state of these complexes have not been determined. Based on our X state value and the reported Ã-X origin band position, the à state binding energy for NO-Ar was determined to be 50.6 ± 0.9 cm(-1).

  14. Low energy determination of the QCD strong coupling constant on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Maezawa, Yu; Petreczky, Peter

    2016-09-28

    Here we present a determination of the strong coupling constant from lattice QCD using the moments of pseudo-scalar charmonium correlators calculated using highly improved staggerered quark action. We obtain a value αs( μ = mc) = 0.3397(56), which is the lowest energy determination of the strong coupling constant so far.

  15. Low energy determination of the QCD strong coupling constant on the lattice

    DOE PAGES

    Maezawa, Yu; Petreczky, Peter

    2016-09-28

    Here we present a determination of the strong coupling constant from lattice QCD using the moments of pseudo-scalar charmonium correlators calculated using highly improved staggerered quark action. We obtain a value αs( μ = mc) = 0.3397(56), which is the lowest energy determination of the strong coupling constant so far.

  16. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummans, J.E.; Collings, Michael R.; Nasser, Edmund George

    1975-01-01

    Relations are provided to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods on Washington streams. Annual-peak-flow data from stream gaging stations on unregulated streams having 1 years or more of record were used to determine a log-Pearson Type III frequency curve for each station. Flood magnitudes having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, i0, 25, 50, and 10years were then related to physical and climatic indices of the drainage basins by multiple-regression analysis using the Biomedical Computer Program BMDO2R. These regression relations are useful for estimating flood magnitudes of the specified recurrence intervals at ungaged or short-record sites. Separate sets of regression equations were defined for western and eastern parts of the State, and the State was further subdivided into 12 regions in which the annual floods exhibit similar flood characteristics. Peak flows are related most significantly in western Washington to drainage-area size and mean annual precipitation. In eastern Washington-they are related most significantly to drainage-area size, mean annual precipitation, and percentage of forest cover. Standard errors of estimate of the estimating relations range from 25 to 129 percent, and the smallest errors are generally associated with the more humid regions.

  17. Application of Energy Processor Model for Diagnostic Symptom Limit Value Determination in Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galka, Tomasz

    1999-09-01

    With growing importance of quantitative technical condition assessment in critical machinery, the need for adequate determination of diagnostic symptom limit values is becoming vital. Such determination may be based on the energy processor model of a machine [1]. The general model should, for each specific case, be developed in order to account for unique features of machine design and operation. The paper describes such an approach for large steam turbines, operated by utility power stations. The energy processor model, adopted for these machines, is described and its mathematical description is presented, based on resonable simplifying assumptions. Possibilities of the determination of model parameters from data obtained during normal operation are outlined and discussed.

  18. Determination of the interatomic potential from elastic differential cross sections at fixed energy: Functional sensitivity analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.; Rabitz, H.

    1989-02-01

    Elastic differential cross sections in atomic crossed beam experiments contain detailed information about the underlying interatomic potentials. The functional sensitivity density of the cross sections with respect to the potential deltasigma(theta)/deltaV(R) reveals such information and has been implemented in an iterative inversion procedure, analogous to that of the Newton--Raphson technique. The stability of the inversion is achieved with the use of the regularization method of Tikhonov and Miller. It is shown that given a set of well resolved and noise-free differential cross section data within a limited angular range and given a reasonable starting reference potential, the recovered potential accurately resembles the desired one in the important region, i.e., the region to which the scattering data are sensitive. The region of importance depends upon the collision energy relative to the well depth of the potential under study; usually a higher collision energy penetrates deeper into the repulsive part of the potential and thus accordingly yields a more accurate potential in that part. The inversion procedure produces also a quality function indicating the well determined radial region. Moreover, the extracted potential is quite independent of the functional form of the reference potential in contrast to curve fitting approaches. As illustrations, the model inert gas systems He--Ne and Ne--Ar have been considered. For collision energies within an order of magnitude of the associated potential well depth, the attractive part of the potential can be determined to high precision provided that scattering data at small enough angles are available.

  19. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union

    PubMed Central

    Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field. PMID:28301505

  20. Determining Linac Beam Energy from C-11/O-15 Activity Ratios in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardman, Ryan; Shepherd, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A method for precisely measuring the beam energy of 20-25 MeV electron linear accelerator was developed. Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (acrylic) samples were irradiated with an electron linac at several energy settings of the accelerator simultaneously producing C-11 and O-15 via photonuclear reactions within each of the polymers. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy the activity ratios of C-11/O-15 were measured by analyzing the decay of activity vs. time. The C-11/O-15 ratio exhibits an energy dependence due to differences in the production cross section vs. energy. The observed dependence can be matched to predictions of the activity ratio vs. energy, developed from GEANT4 Monte Carlo models of an electromagnetic shower and knowledge of the cross sections, in order to determine the energy of the beam at a sub-MeV level of precision. National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates.

  1. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Jean Vasile; Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  2. Comparison of local magnitude scales in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Cipciar, Andrej; Csicsay, Kristian; Srbecky, Miroslav; Kristekova, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Efficient monitoring of earthquakes and determination of their magnitudes are necessary for developing earthquake catalogues at a regional and national levels. Unification and homogenization of the catalogues in terms of magnitudes has great importance for seismic hazard assessment. Calibrated local earthquake magnitude scales are commonly used for determining magnitudes of regional earthquakes by all national seismological services in the Central Europe. However, at the local scale, each seismological service uses its own magnitude determination procedure. There is no systematic comparison of the approaches and there is no unified procedure. We present a comparison of the local magnitude scales used by the national seismological services of Slovakia (Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Austria (ZAMG), Hungary (Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and Poland (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences), and by the local network of seismic stations located around the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. The comparison is based on the national earthquake catalogues and annually published earthquake bulletins for the period from 1985 to 2011. A data set of earthquakes has been compiled based on identification of common events in the national earthquake catalogues and bulletins. For each pair of seismic networks, magnitude differences have been determined and investigated as a function of time. The mean and standard deviations of the magnitude differences as well as regression coefficients between local magnitudes from the national seismological networks have been computed. Results show relatively big scatter between different national local magnitudes and its considerable time variation. A conversion between different national local magnitudes in a scale 1:1 seems inappropriate, especially for the compilation of the

  3. High-energy water sites determine peptide binding affinity and specificity of PDZ domains.

    PubMed

    Beuming, Thijs; Farid, Ramy; Sherman, Woody

    2009-08-01

    PDZ domains have well known binding preferences for distinct C-terminal peptide motifs. For most PDZ domains, these motifs are of the form [S/T]-W-[I/L/V]. Although the preference for S/T has been explained by a specific hydrogen bond interaction with a histidine in the PDZ domain and the (I/L/V) is buried in a hydrophobic pocket, the mechanism for Trp specificity at the second to last position has thus far remained unknown. Here, we apply a method to compute the free energies of explicit water molecules and predict that potency gained by Trp binding is due to a favorable release of high-energy water molecules into bulk. The affinities of a series of peptides for both wild-type and mutant forms of the PDZ domain of Erbin correlate very well with the computed free energy of binding of displaced waters, suggesting a direct relationship between water displacement and peptide affinity. Finally, we show a correlation between the magnitude of the displaced water free energy and the degree of Trp-sensitivity among subtypes of the HTRA PDZ family, indicating a water-mediated mechanism for specificity of peptide binding.

  4. Methods to determine neutrino flux at low energies. Investigation of the low ν method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, A.; Sarica, U.; Naples, D.; Ren, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the "low- ν" method (developed by the CCFR/NUTEV collaborations) to determine the neutrino flux in a wide band neutrino beam at very low energies, a region of interest to neutrino oscillations experiments. Events with low hadronic final state energy ν<ν_{cut} (of 1, 2 and 5 GeV) were used by the MINOS collaboration to determine the neutrino flux in their measurements of neutrino ( ν μ ) and antineutrino (bar{ν}_{μ}) total cross sections. The lowest ν μ energy for which the method was used in MINOS is 3.5 GeV, and the lowest bar {ν}_{μ} energy is 6 GeV. At these energies, the cross sections are dominated by inelastic processes. We investigate the application of the method to determine the neutrino flux for ν μ , bar{ν}_{μ} energies as low as 0.7 GeV where the cross sections are dominated by quasielastic scattering and Δ(1232) resonance production. We find that the method can be extended to low energies by using ν_{cut} values of 0.25 and 0.50 GeV, which are feasible in fully active neutrino detectors such as MINERvA.

  5. Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence determination of thorium in phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirashi, N. N.; Dhara, Sangita; Kumar, S. Sanjay; Chaudhury, Satyajeet; Misra, N. L.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2010-07-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence studies on determination of thorium (in the range of 7 to 137 mg/mL) in phosphoric acid solutions obtained by dissolution of thoria in autoclave were made. Fixed amounts of Y internal standard solutions, after dilution with equal amount of phosphoric acid, were added to the calibration as well as sample solutions. Solution aliquots of approximately 2-5 µL were deposited on thick absorbent sheets to absorb the solutions and the sheets were presented for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements. A calibration plot was made between intensity ratios (Th Lα/Y Kα) against respective amounts of thorium in the calibration solutions. Thorium amounts in phosphoric acid samples were determined using their energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra and the above calibration plot. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence results, thus obtained, were compared with the corresponding gamma ray spectrometry results and were found to be within average deviation of 2.6% from the respective gamma ray spectrometry values. The average precision obtained in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence determinations was found to be 4% (1 σ). The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method has an advantage over gamma ray spectrometry for thorium determination as the amount of sample required and measurement time is far less compared to that required in gamma ray spectrometry.

  6. Defining Tsunami Magnitude as Measure of Potential Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Tang, L.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of tsunami forecast, as a system for predicting potential impact of a tsunami at coastlines, requires quick estimate of a tsunami magnitude. This goal has been recognized since the beginning of tsunami research. The work of Kajiura, Soloviev, Abe, Murty, and many others discussed several scales for tsunami magnitude based on estimates of tsunami energy. However, difficulties of estimating tsunami energy based on available tsunami measurements at coastal sea-level stations has carried significant uncertainties and has been virtually impossible in real time, before tsunami impacts coastlines. The slow process of tsunami magnitude estimates, including collection of vast amount of available coastal sea-level data from affected coastlines, made it impractical to use any tsunami magnitude scales in tsunami warning operations. Uncertainties of estimates made tsunami magnitudes difficult to use as universal scale for tsunami analysis. Historically, the earthquake magnitude has been used as a proxy of tsunami impact estimates, since real-time seismic data is available of real-time processing and ample amount of seismic data is available for an elaborate post event analysis. This measure of tsunami impact carries significant uncertainties in quantitative tsunami impact estimates, since the relation between the earthquake and generated tsunami energy varies from case to case. In this work, we argue that current tsunami measurement capabilities and real-time modeling tools allow for establishing robust tsunami magnitude that will be useful for tsunami warning as a quick estimate for tsunami impact and for post-event analysis as a universal scale for tsunamis inter-comparison. We present a method for estimating the tsunami magnitude based on tsunami energy and present application of the magnitude analysis for several historical events for inter-comparison with existing methods.

  7. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustes, A. W., III; Bridgford, E.; Tischler, A.; Wilcox, B. H.

    2000-01-01

    An in-depth look at percussive drilling shows that the transmission efficiency is very important; however, data for percussive drilling in hard rock or permafrost is rarely available or the existing data are very old. Transmission efficiency can be used as a measurement of the transmission of the energy in the piston to the drill steel or bit and from the bit to the rock. Having a plane and centralized impact of the piston on the drill steel can optimize the transmission efficiency from the piston to the drill steel. A transmission efficiency of near 100% between piston and drill steel is possible. The transmission efficiency between bit and rock is dependent upon the interaction within the entire system. The main factors influencing this transmission efficiency are the contact area between cutting structure and surrounding rock (energy loss due to friction heat), damping characteristics of the surrounding rock (energy dampening), and cuttings transport. Some of these parameters are not controllable. To solve the existing void regarding available drilling data, an experiment for gathering energy data in permafrost for percussive drilling was designed. Fifteen artificial permafrost samples were prepared. The samples differed in the grain size distribution to observe a possible influence of the grain size distribution on the drilling performance. The samples were then manually penetrated (with a sledge-hammer) with two different spikes.

  8. [Poverty in Mexico. II. Magnitude].

    PubMed

    Boltvinik, J

    1995-01-01

    This is the second part of a research report on the evolution and magnitude of poverty in Mexico. Application of the Integrated Poverty Measurement Method, explained in the first part of this report, shows a poverty headcount ratio (H) of 70.6% and an extreme poverty H of 44.7%. H turns out higher by the UBN (Unsatisfied Basic Needs) method than by the PLT (Poverty Line plus working time) approach. The poverty gap or poverty intensity (I), is for all poor 0.44 but reaches 0.58 for the extremely poor. Both H and I are substantially higher in the rural than in the urban areas. UBN poverty gap is bigger than the PLT gap. When UBN is disaggregated into its components, deprivation turns out the highest in health care and social security. Degree of poverty calculations (HI), the product of H and I, which constitute a good basis for anti-poverty expenditures allocation, show that despite the fact that a larger number of poor persons live in the urban areas, the number of equivalent poor people is higher in the rural areas.

  9. Rank distributions: Frequency vs. magnitude.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between two different types of ranked data, frequencies and magnitudes. We consider data that can be sorted out either way, through numbers of occurrences or size of the measures, as it is the case, say, of moon craters, earthquakes, billionaires, etc. We indicate that these two types of distributions are functional inverses of each other, and specify this link, first in terms of the assumed parent probability distribution that generates the data samples, and then in terms of an analog (deterministic) nonlinear iterated map that reproduces them. For the particular case of hyperbolic decay with rank the distributions are identical, that is, the classical Zipf plot, a pure power law. But their difference is largest when one displays logarithmic decay and its counterpart shows the inverse exponential decay, as it is the case of Benford law, or viceversa. For all intermediate decay rates generic differences appear not only between the power-law exponents for the midway rank decline but also for small and large rank. We extend the theoretical framework to include thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical concepts, such as entropies and configuration.

  10. Predicted magnitudes and colors from cool-star model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.; Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    An intercomparison of model stellar atmospheres and observations of real stars can lead to a better understanding of the relationship between the physical properties of stars and their observed radiative flux. In this spirit we have determined wide-band and narrow-band magnitudes and colors for a subset of models of K and M giant and supergiant stars selected from the grid of 40 models by Johnson, Bernat and Krupp (1980) (hereafter referred to as JBK). The 24 models selected have effective temperatures of 4000, 3800, 3600, 3400, 3200, 3000, 2750 and 2500 K and log g = 0, 1 or 2. Emergent energy fluxes (erg/ sq cm s A) were calculated at 9140 wavelengths for each model. These computed flux curves were folded through the transmission functions of Wing's 8-color system (Wing, 1971; White and Wing, 1978) and through Johnson's (1965) wide-band (BVRIJKLM) system. The calibration of the resultant magnitudes was made by using the absolute calibration of the flux curve of Vega by Schild, et al. (1971).

  11. 25 CFR 224.73 - How will the scope of energy resource development affect the Secretary's determination of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy resource development under the TERA will include a determination as to each type of energy... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will the scope of energy resource development affect... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE...

  12. Polynomial dual energy inverse functions for bone Calcium/Phosphorus ratio determination and experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, P; Fountos, G; Martini, N; Koukou, V; Michail, C; Kandarakis, I; Nikiforidis, G

    2016-12-01

    An X-ray dual energy (XRDE) method was examined, using polynomial nonlinear approximation of inverse functions for the determination of the bone Calcium-to-Phosphorus (Ca/P) mass ratio. Inverse fitting functions with the least-squares estimation were used, to determine calcium and phosphate thicknesses. The method was verified by measuring test bone phantoms with a dedicated dual energy system and compared with previously published dual energy data. The accuracy in the determination of the calcium and phosphate thicknesses improved with the polynomial nonlinear inverse function method, introduced in this work, (ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%), compared to the corresponding linear inverse function method (ranged from 1.4% to 19.5%).

  13. Determination and Finite Element Validation of the WYPIWYG Strain Energy of Superficial Fascia from Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Marcos; Peña, Estefanía; Montáns, Francisco J

    2017-03-01

    What-You-Prescribe-Is-What-You-Get (WYPIWYG) procedures are a novel and general phenomenological approach to modelling the behavior of soft materials, applicable to biological tissues in particular. For the hyperelastic case, these procedures solve numerically the nonlinear elastic material determination problem. In this paper we show that they can be applied to determine the stored energy density of superficial fascia. In contrast to the usual approach, in such determination no user-prescribed material parameters and no optimization algorithms are employed. The strain energy densities are computed solving the equilibrium equations of the set of experiments. For the case of superficial fascia it is shown that the mechanical behavior derived from such strain energies is capable of reproducing simultaneously the measured load-displacement curves of three experiments to a high accuracy.

  14. Social Determinants and Poor Diet Quality of Energy-Dense Diets of Australian Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Grech, Amanda; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to determine the diet quality and socio-demographic determinants by level of energy-density of diets of Australian young adults. Secondary analysis of the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey-2011/2012 for adults aged 18-34 years (n = 2397) was conducted. Diet was assessed by 24-h recalls. Dietary energy-density was calculated as dietary energy/grams of food (kJ/g) and the Healthy-Eating-Index-for-Australians (HEIFA-2013) was used to assess diet quality (highest score = 100). Dietary energy-density was examined with respect to diet quality and sociodemographic determinants including gender, highest tertiary-education attainment, country-of-birth, age, income, and socio-economic-index-for-area (SEIFA). Higher dietary energy-density was associated with lower diet quality scores (β = -3.71, t (2394) = -29.29, p < 0.0001) and included fewer fruits and vegetables, and more discretionary foods. The mean dietary energy-density was 7.7 kJ/g and 7.2 kJ/g for men and women, respectively. Subpopulations most at risk of consuming high energy-dense diets included those with lower education, Australian and English-speaking countries of birth, and men with low income and women from areas of lower socio-economic status. Young adults reporting low energy-dense diets had higher quality diets. Intensive efforts are needed to reduce the high energy-density of young adults' diets, and should ensure they include populations of lower socio-economic status.

  15. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  16. Definition and determination of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Felipe; Marazzi, Marco; Castaño, Obis; Acuña, A Ulises; Frutos, Luis Manuel

    2014-01-21

    A definition of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate within the very weak electronic coupling limit is proposed, and a novel theoretical formalism is developed for its quantitative determination in terms of internal coordinates The present formalism permits (i) the separation of donor and acceptor contributions to the reaction coordinate, (ii) the identification of the intrinsic role of donor and acceptor in the triplet energy transfer process, and (iii) the quantification of the effect of every internal coordinate on the transfer process. This formalism is general and can be applied to classical as well as to nonvertical triplet energy transfer processes. The utility of the novel formalism is demonstrated here by its application to the paradigm of nonvertical triplet-triplet energy transfer involving cis-stilbene as acceptor molecule. In this way the effect of each internal molecular coordinate in promoting the transfer rate, from triplet donors in the low and high-energy limit, could be analyzed in detail.

  17. Definition and determination of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Felipe; Marazzi, Marco; Castaño, Obis; Frutos, Luis Manuel; Acuña, A. Ulises

    2014-01-21

    A definition of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate within the very weak electronic coupling limit is proposed, and a novel theoretical formalism is developed for its quantitative determination in terms of internal coordinates The present formalism permits (i) the separation of donor and acceptor contributions to the reaction coordinate, (ii) the identification of the intrinsic role of donor and acceptor in the triplet energy transfer process, and (iii) the quantification of the effect of every internal coordinate on the transfer process. This formalism is general and can be applied to classical as well as to nonvertical triplet energy transfer processes. The utility of the novel formalism is demonstrated here by its application to the paradigm of nonvertical triplet-triplet energy transfer involving cis-stilbene as acceptor molecule. In this way the effect of each internal molecular coordinate in promoting the transfer rate, from triplet donors in the low and high-energy limit, could be analyzed in detail.

  18. Determination of the absolute jet energy scale in the DØ calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; De, K.; Del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; , R. J. Genik, II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; GonzálezSolís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L. T.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V. D.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1999-03-01

    The DØ detector is used to study pp¯ collisions at the 1800 and 630 GeV center-of-mass energies available at the Fermilab Tevatron. To measure jets, the detector uses a sampling calorimeter composed of uranium and liquid argon as the passive and active media, respectively. Understanding the jet energy calibration is not only crucial for precision tests of QCD, but also for the measurement of particle masses and the determination of physics backgrounds associated with new phenomena. This paper describes the energy calibration of jets observed with the DØ detector at the two pp¯ center-of-mass energies in the transverse energy and pseudorapidity range ET>8 GeV and | η|<3.

  19. Determination of thickness and composition of high-k dielectrics using high-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Grande, P. L.; Vos, M.; Venkatachalam, D. K.; Elliman, R. G.; Nandi, S. K.

    2013-08-12

    We demonstrate the application of high-energy elastic electron backscattering to the analysis of thin (2–20 nm) HfO{sub 2} overlayers on oxidized Si substrates. The film composition and thickness are determined directly from elastic scattering peaks characteristic of each element. The stoichiometry of the films is determined with an accuracy of 5%–10%. The experimental results are corroborated by medium energy ions scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements, and clearly demonstrate the applicability of the technique for thin-film analysis. Significantly, the presented technique opens new possibilities for nm depth profiling with high spatial resolution in scanning electron microscopes.

  20. Adhesion determination of dental porcelain to zirconia using the Schwickerath test: strength vs. fracture energy approach.

    PubMed

    Kosyfaki, P; Swain, M V

    2014-11-01

    Two approaches to measure the fracture energy to delaminate four different porcelains from zirconia substrates are compared using Schwickerath adhesion strength test specimens. In all instances it was possible to stably extend the crack along or adjacent to the porcelain-zirconia interface. The fracture energy expended to delaminate the porcelain was found by determining the work of fracture upon loading to 12 N and then unloading. Additional tests were undertaken on specimens notched along the interface, which enabled the compliance of the cracked Schwickerath specimens to be calibrated. The strain energy and deflection of the Schwickerath specimen as a function of crack length were derived. On this basis a simple expression was determined for the strain energy release rate or interfacial fracture toughness from the minima in the force-displacement curves. Consequently two measures of the adhesion energy were determined, the work of fracture and the strain energy release rate. It was found that the ranking for the four porcelains bonded to zirconia differed depending upon the approach. The work of fracture was substantially different from the strain energy release rate for three of the porcelain-zirconia systems and appears to be directly related to the residual stresses present in the bonded structures. The relative merits of the strain energy release rate, work of fracture vs. the stress to initiate cracking in the case of the Schwickerath adhesion test, are discussed. The advantage of this test is that it enables three estimates of the adhesion for porcelain veneers bonded to zirconia. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the role of energy barriers in determining contact angle hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Long, J; Chen, P

    2006-11-30

    The thermodynamic model of contact angles on rough, heterogeneous surfaces developed by Long et al. [J. Long, M.N. Hyder, R.Y.M. Huang and P. Chen, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 118 (2005) 173] was employed to study the role of energy barriers in determining contact angle hysteresis. Major energy barriers corresponding to metastable states and minor energy barriers corresponding to secondary metastable states were defined. Distributions of major and/or minor energy barriers as a function of apparent contact angle for various surfaces were obtained. The reproducibility of contact angle measurement, the effect of vibrational energy on contact angle hysteresis and the "stick-slip" phenomenon were discussed. Quantitative relations between contact angles and vibrational energy were obtained. It was found that receding contact angles are normally poorly reproducible for hydrophilic surfaces, but for extremely hydrophobic surfaces, advancing contact angles may have a poor reproducibility. When the vibrational energy available to a system increases, the measured advancing contact angle will decrease while the receding angle will increase until both reach a common value: the system equilibrium angle. This finding not only agrees well with the experimental observations in system equilibrium contact angle measurements, but also lays a theoretical foundation for such measurements. A small vibrational energy may result in a "stick-slip" phenomenon.

  2. Towards Reconciling Magnitude-Invariant Stress Drops with Dynamic Weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S. M.; Lapusta, N.

    2014-12-01

    The energy budget of earthquakes is a question of significant fundamental and practical interest. Using rate-and-state fault models that produce earthquake sequences, we focus on exploring the breakdown energy portion G of this budget and its relation to stress drop in events over a range of magnitudes. We focus on understanding which models can reproduce the observation that breakdown energy increases with increasing magnitude, but stress drop appears to be magnitude-invariant. We begin with simulations with pure rate-and-state friction and study how breakdown energy changes with characteristic slip distance L of rate-and-state friction, a parameter often selected based on numerical tractability. We explore values of L ranging two orders of magnitude and calculate breakdown energy G for events with various amounts of slip. The values of G in our simulations are similar to those of natural earthquakes. However, we find nearly-constant values of G across a range of slips for a given L, as well as decreasing G with smaller values of L, as expected based on prior studies. Hence simulations with laboratory-like values of L (0.01-0.1 mm), necessary for producing microseismicity, would result in breakdown energies too small for large events, compared with observations. We then proceed to a model utilizing dynamic weakening due to thermal pressurization of pore fluid within the fault core. Co-seismic weakening through mechanisms such as thermal pressurization can explain the trend of increasing breakdown energy with magnitude as shown by Rice (JGR, 2006) in a simplified slip model. Our goal is to explore this result in fully dynamic simulations that produce a series of seismic events of different sizes, and investigate whether it can be reconciled with the magnitude-invariant stress drop. We find that our sequences are able to capture the trend of increasing breakdown energy with increasing magnitude while also displaying roughly magnitude-invariant stress drops for a

  3. Determination of energy density threshold for laser ablation of bacteria. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, D W; Cobb, C M; MacNeill, S; Rapley, J W; Killoy, W J

    1997-01-01

    The Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers have been shown to be bactericidal at relative low energy densities. However, at energy densities exceeding 120 J/cm2 (CO2) and 200 J/cm2 (Nd:YAG), laser irradiation also causes irreparable root surface damage. The purpose of this study was to determine, in vitro, the energy density threshold at which microbial ablation could be achieved while inflicting the least amount of damage to the root surfaces of human teeth. Pairs of Escherichia coli colonies cultured on broth agar were treated with a CO2 laser using a pulsed waveform at approximate energy densities ranging from 3 to 110 J/cm2. One of each colony-pair was then examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the other subcultured for viable microbes. Roots of extracted teeth were lightly scaled and treated by CO2 laser, again with pulsed beam using approximate energy densities of 3 to 110 J/cm2: and examined by SEM. Regardless of the level of energy density, residual bacteria could be subcultured from all laser treated microbial colonies. The inability of the laser to completely obliterate microbial colonies was likely due to: depth of energy penetration, difficulty in precisely overlapping beam focal spots, irregular beam profile, and presence of microbes at the periphery of the beam focal spot. The threshold energy density for bacterial obliteration was determined to be 11 J/cm2 and that for root damage was 41 J/cm2. Root damage was evident by charring, crater formation, melt-down and resolidification surface mineral, and increasing surface porosity. The results of this in vitro study indicate that when used at an energy density between 11 and 41 J/cm2 the CO2 laser may destroy microbial colonies without inflicting undue damage to the tooth root surface.

  4. Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.

  5. Determination of energies and sites of binding of PFOA and PFOS to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Muscionico, Isabella; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2010-11-25

    Structure and energies of the binding sites of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to human serum albumin (HSA) were determined through molecular modeling. The calculations consisted of a compound approach based on docking, followed by molecular dynamics simulations and by the estimation of the free binding energies adopting WHAM-umbrella sampling and semiempirical methodologies. The binding sites so determined are common either to known HSA fatty acids sites or to other HSA sites known to bind to pharmaceutical compounds such as warfarin, thyroxine, indole, and benzodiazepin. Among the PFOA binding sites, five have interaction energies in excess of -6 kcal/mol, which become nine for PFOS. The calculated binding free energy of PFOA to the Trp 214 binding site is the highest among the PFOA complexes, -8.0 kcal/mol, in good agreement with literature experimental data. The PFOS binding site with the highest energy, -8.8 kcal/mol, is located near the Trp 214 binding site, thus partially affecting its activity. The maximum number of ligands that can be bound to HSA is 9 for PFOA and 11 for PFOS. The calculated data were adopted to predict the level of complexation of HSA as a function of the concentration of PFOA and PFOS found in human blood for different levels of exposition. The analysis of the factors contributing to the complex binding energy permitted to outline a set of guidelines for the rational design of alternative fluorinated surfactants with a lower bioaccumulation potential.

  6. Direct determination of resonance energy transfer in photolyase: structural alignment for the functional state.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chuang; Guo, Lijun; Ai, Yuejie; Li, Jiang; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Luo, Yi; Zhong, Dongping

    2014-11-13

    Photoantenna is essential to energy transduction in photoinduced biological machinery. A photoenzyme, photolyase, has a light-harvesting pigment of methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) that transfers its excitation energy to the catalytic flavin cofactor FADH¯ to enhance DNA-repair efficiency. Here we report our systematic characterization and direct determination of the ultrafast dynamics of resonance energy transfer from excited MTHF to three flavin redox states in E. coli photolyase by capturing the intermediates formed through the energy transfer and thus excluding the electron-transfer quenching pathway. We observed 170 ps for excitation energy transferring to the fully reduced hydroquinone FADH¯, 20 ps to the fully oxidized FAD, and 18 ps to the neutral semiquinone FADH(•), and the corresponding orientation factors (κ(2)) were determined to be 2.84, 1.53 and 1.26, respectively, perfectly matching with our calculated theoretical values. Thus, under physiological conditions and over the course of evolution, photolyase has adopted the optimized orientation of its photopigment to efficiently convert solar energy for repair of damaged DNA.

  7. Spectroscopic determination of ground and excited state vibrational potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laane, Jaan

    Far-infrared spectra, mid-infrared combination band spectra, Raman spectra, and dispersed fluorescence spectra of non-rigid molecules can be used to determine the energies of many of the quantum states of conformationally important vibrations such as out-of-plane ring modes, internal rotations, and molecular inversions in their ground electronic states. Similarly, the fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled molecules, together with electronic absorption spectra, provide the information for determining the vibronic energy levels of electronic excited states. One- or two-dimensional potential energy functions, which govern the conformational changes along the vibrational coordinates, can be determined from these types of data for selected molecules. From these functions the molecular structures, the relative energies between different conformations, the barriers to molecular interconversions, and the forces responsible for the structures can be ascertained. This review describes the experimental and theoretical methodology for carrying out the potential energy determinations and presents a summary of work that has been carried out for both electronic ground and excited states. The results for the out-of-plane ring motions of four-, five-, and six-membered rings will be presented, and results for several molecules with unusual properties will be cited. Potential energy functions for the carbonyl wagging and ring modes for several cyclic ketones in their S1(n,pi*) states will also be discussed. Potential energy surfaces for the three internal rotations, including the one governing the photoisomerization process, will be examined for trans-stilbene in both its S0 and S1(pi,pi*) states. For the bicyclic molecules in the indan family, the two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the highly interacting ring-puckering and ring-flapping motions in both the S0 and S1(pi,pi*) states have also been determined using all of the spectroscopic methods mentioned above

  8. Determination of nuclear symmetry energy in the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long

    2008-05-15

    Within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) approach a general formalism is established for the study of asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) described by the four-nucleon interactions. Restricting ourselves to the double-bubble approximation (DBA), we determine the bulk properties of ANM, in particular, the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, which is in good agreement with data of recent analyses.

  9. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  10. Primary electron spectrometer, 18:63 UE: Electrostatic analyzer description and energy spectrum determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The primary electron spectrometer used to detect auroral electrons on sounding rocket 18:63 UE is described. The spectrometer used exponentially decaying positive and negative voltages applied to spherical deflection plates for energy analysis. A method for determining the analyzer response which does not require the assumptions that the ratio of plate separation to mean radius, the entrance or the exit apertures are small is described. By comparison with experiment it is shown that the effect of neither entrance nor exit collimation can be ignored. The experimental and calculated values of the limiting orbits agree well. A non-iterative technique of unfolding the electron differential energy spectrum is described. This method does not require the usual assumption of a flat or histogram-type energy spectrum. The unfolded spectra using both this technique and one which assumes a flat spectrum are compared to actual input spectra. This technique is especially useful in analyzing peaked auroral electron energy spectra.

  11. Spectroscopic determination of the ground-state dissociation energy and isotopic shift of NaD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; He, Wei-Fung; Lin, Rong-Sin; Li, Yin-Ji; Whang, Thou-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Stimulated emission pumping with fluorescence depletion spectroscopy is used to determine the NaD X 1Σ+ ground-state dissociation energy and its isotopic shift. A total of 230 rovibrational levels in the range 9 ≤ v″ ≤ 29 and 1 ≤ J″ ≤ 11 are observed, where v″ = 29 is about 50 cm-1 below the dissociation limit. Analysis of the highest five vibrational levels yields the dissociation energy De = 15 822 ± 5 cm-1 with a vibrational quantum number at dissociation vD = 31.2 ± 0.1. The energy difference in the well depth of this isotopologue with respect to that of NaH is δDe = De(NaH) - De(NaD) = -7 cm-1. A new set of Dunham coefficients is derived to fit all the observed energy levels to within the experimental uncertainty.

  12. Determination of the Exciton Binding Energy in CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R; Lee, J; Wolcott, A; Zhang, J; Terminello, L; van Buuren, T

    2009-10-27

    The exciton binding energy (EBE) in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been determined using x-ray spectroscopy. Using x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy, the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edge shifts as a function of particle size have been determined and combined to obtain the true band gap of the QDs (i.e. without and exciton). These values can be compared to the excitonic gap obtained using optical spectroscopy to determine the EBE. The experimental EBE results are compared with theoretical calculations on the EBE and show excellent agreement.

  13. A comparison of methods for determining neutron detector efficiencies at medium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Anderson, B. D.; Baldwin, A. R.; Lebo, C.; Flanders, B.; Pairsuwan, W.; Madey, R.; Foster, C. C.

    1983-10-01

    We compare the "Lithium Activation" (LiA) method and the "Isospin Clebsch-Gordan Ratio" (ICGR) method for determining detection efficiencies of neutrons between 100 and 160 MeV. Each method was used to determine the efficiency by relating a measured neutron yield to a cross section measured in another way: γ-ray activation cross sections for LiA; (p, p') cross sections from experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for ICGR. Efficiencies determined by the two methods disagree substantially. Efficiencies calculated with the Monte Carlo code of Cecil et al. agree with the ICGR results. We conclude that the Lithium Activation method is inconsistent at these energies.

  14. The Effects Of Reinforcement Magnitude On Functional Analysis Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The duration or magnitude of reinforcement has varied and often appears to have been selected arbitrarily in functional analysis research. Few studies have evaluated the effects of reinforcement magnitude on problem behavior, even though basic findings indicate that this parameter may affect response rates during functional analyses. In the current study, 6 children with autism or developmental disabilities who engaged in severe problem behavior were exposed to three separate functional analyses, each of which varied in reinforcement magnitude. Results of these functional analyses were compared to determine if a particular reinforcement magnitude was associated with the most conclusive outcomes. In most cases, the same conclusion about the functions of problem behavior was drawn regardless of the reinforcement magnitude. PMID:16033163

  15. Total Galaxy Magnitudes and Effective Radii from Petrosian Magnitudes and Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Driver, Simon P.; Petrosian, Vahé; Conselice, Christopher J.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Crawford, Steven M.; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2005-10-01

    Petrosian magnitudes were designed to help with the difficult task of determining a galaxy's total light. Although these magnitudes [taken here as the flux within 2RP, with the inverted Petrosian index 1/η(RP)=0.2] can represent most of an object's flux, they do of course miss the light outside the Petrosian aperture (2RP). The size of this flux deficit varies monotonically with the shape of a galaxy's light profile, i.e., its concentration. In the case of a de Vaucouleurs R1/4 profile, the deficit is 0.20 mag; for an R1/8 profile this figure rises to 0.50 mag. Here we provide a simple method for recovering total (Sérsic) magnitudes from Petrosian magnitudes using only the galaxy concentration (R90/R50 or R80/R20) within the Petrosian aperture. The corrections hold to the extent that Sérsic's model provides a good description of a galaxy's luminosity profile. We show how the concentration can also be used to convert Petrosian radii into effective half-light radii, enabling a robust measure of the mean effective surface brightness. Our technique is applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2) Petrosian parameters, yielding good agreement with the total magnitudes, effective radii, and mean effective surface brightnesses obtained from the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalog Sérsic R1/n fits by Blanton and coworkers. Although the corrective procedure described here is specifically applicable to the SDSS DR2 and DR3, it is generally applicable to all imaging data where any Petrosian index and concentration can be constructed.

  16. Accuracy of Dietary Reference Intakes for determining energy requirements in girls.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Linda G; Lividini, Keith; Phillips, Sarah M; Must, Aviva

    2013-09-01

    The most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) (2002) for energy were based on pooled data from convenience samples of individuals with energy expenditure determined by using doubly labeled water (DLW). To our knowledge, the accuracy of these intake estimates has not been assessed in children. We assessed the accuracy of DRI prediction equations for determining daily energy needs in girls by comparing the individual-level prediction of estimated energy requirements with the measured value of total energy expenditure (TEE) from DLW, which is considered the gold standard. In this cross-sectional analysis, we measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by using indirect calorimetry and TEE by using DLW in 161 nonobese premenarcheal girls aged 8-12 y. The activity factor TEE/RMR was used to categorize the physical activity level used in DRI equations. We observed a strong linear relation between TEE by using DLW and estimated energy requirements predicted from DRI equations (Pearson's r = 0.78, P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0. 61). The DRI-predicted energy requirements underestimated measured TEE by ~120 kcal on average. The overall mean (±SD) error in the sample was -121.3 ± 163.9 kcal. The average (±SD) percentage error in the sample was -5.8 ± 7.9%. Seventy percent of participants had predicted TEE values ≤10% of measured TEE. DRI equations for girls predict well for the group. The use of these equations for individuals may result in the underestimation of energy requirements for a significant percentage of girls.

  17. Determination of the Critical Buckling Pressure of Blood Vessels Using the Energy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hai-Chao

    2011-01-01

    The stability of blood vessels under lumen blood pressure is essential to the maintenance of normal vascular function. Differential buckling equations have been established recently for linear and nonlinear elastic artery models. However, the strain energy in bent buckling and the corresponding energy method have not been investigated for blood vessels under lumen pressure. The purpose of this study was to establish the energy equation for blood vessel buckling under internal pressure. A buckling equation was established to determine the critical pressure based on the potential energy. The critical pressures of blood vessels with small tapering along their axis were estimated using the energy approach. It was demonstrated that the energy approach yields both the same differential equation and critical pressure for cylindrical blood vessel buckling as obtained previously using the adjacent equilibrium approach. Tapering reduced the critical pressure of blood vessels compared to the cylindrical ones. This energy approach provides a useful tool for studying blood vessel buckling and will be useful in dealing with various imperfections of the vessel wall. PMID:21116846

  18. Determination of the critical buckling pressure of blood vessels using the energy approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Hai-Chao

    2011-03-01

    The stability of blood vessels under lumen blood pressure is essential to the maintenance of normal vascular function. Differential buckling equations have been established recently for linear and nonlinear elastic artery models. However, the strain energy in bent buckling and the corresponding energy method have not been investigated for blood vessels under lumen pressure. The purpose of this study was to establish the energy equation for blood vessel buckling under internal pressure. A buckling equation was established to determine the critical pressure based on the potential energy. The critical pressures of blood vessels with small tapering along their axis were estimated using the energy approach. It was demonstrated that the energy approach yields both the same differential equation and critical pressure for cylindrical blood vessel buckling as obtained previously using the adjacent equilibrium approach. Tapering reduced the critical pressure of blood vessels compared to the cylindrical ones. This energy approach provides a useful tool for studying blood vessel buckling and will be useful in dealing with various imperfections of the vessel wall.

  19. Determination of lipid asymmetry in human red cells by resonance energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.; Schroit, A.J.

    1987-08-11

    This report describes the application of a resonance energy transfer assay to determine the transbilayer distribution of /sup 125/I-labelled 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD)-labelled lipid analogues. The validity of this technique was established by determining the relationship between the distance of separation of lissamine rhodamine B labeled phosphatidylethanolamine (N-Rho-PE) acceptor lipid and NBD-labeled donor lipid and energy transfer efficiency. By determination of the distance between probes at 50% transfer efficiency (R/sub 0/), the distance between fluorophores distributed symmetrically (outer leaflet label) and asymmetrically in artificially generated vesicles was determined. Calculation of the average distance between probes revealed a 14-A difference between NBD-lipid and N-Rho-PE localized in the same leaflet and in opposing leaflets, respectively. Application of this technique to the study of the transbilayer distribution of NBD-lipid in human red blood cells (RBC) showed that exogenously supplied NBD-phosphatidylserine (NBD-PS) was selectively transported to the inner leaflet, whereas NBD-phosphatidylcholine remained in outer leaflet. In contrast, pretreatment of the RBC with diamide (a SH cross-linking reagent) blocked the transport of NBD-PS. The absence or presence of NBD-PS in the outer leaflet was independently verified by employing back-exchange, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid derivatization, and decarboxylation with PS decarboxylase experiments. These control experiments yielded results which confirmed the lipid distributions determined by the resonance energy transfer assay.

  20. Simultaneous determination of defect distributions and energies near InGaN/GaN quantum wells by capacitance–voltage measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Soo; Lim, Seung-Young; Jung, Gunwoo; Moon, Youngboo; Hong, Soon-Ku; Song, Jung-Hoon

    2017-10-01

    The distributions, densities and energies of defects near InGaN/GaN quantum wells in blue light-emitting diodes were simultaneously determined by utilizing capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements. By combining the modulation frequency dependency, temperature dependency and C–V depth profiling with additional laser illumination, the densities and the locations of the defective layers could be determined. The relative defect densities of the devices were directly compared by monitoring the magnitude of the frequency dependence. This frequency dependency varies distinctly as the sample temperature changes. The activation energies of defects are then determined by analyzing the frequency dependency of C–V with temperature. We found that three different defects states were formed in a low-temperature-grown un-doped GaN (LT-GaN) layer inserted under the active layer. The activation energies of those defects were determined to be 3.96, 12.1 and 45.9 meV. The formation of additional defects states in the active layers induced by the insertion of LT-GaN layer was also observed.

  1. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune, as determined from Voyager data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Voyager infrared spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) investigation are used in determining the albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune. From broadband radiometric observations made at phase angles of 14 deg and 134 deg, together with measurements at intermediate phase angles from the literature, an orbital mean value of 0.290 +/-0.067 is obtained for the bolometric Bond albedo. This yields an equilibrium temperature Teq = 46.6 +/-1.1 K. From thermal spectra obtained over latitudes from pole to pole an effective temperature Teff = 59.3 +/-0.8 K is derived. This represents a substantial improvement over previously determined values. The energy balance of Neptune is therefore E = 2.61 +/-0.28, which is in agreement with previous results. The reduced uncertainty in this value is due to the improved determination of the effective temperature.

  2. Novel validated spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and human urine.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El Din, M K; Wahba, M E K

    2015-03-01

    Two sensitive, selective, economic and validated spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine. Method Ι is based on fluorimetric determination of the amino acid through its reaction with Hantzsch reagent to form a highly fluorescent product measured at 490 nm after excitation at 419 nm. Method ΙΙ is based on the reaction of taurine with tetracyanoethylene yielding a fluorescent charge transfer complex, which was measured at λex /em of (360 nm/450 nm). The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedures, and were statistically compared with the reference method, where the results obtained were in good agreement. Method Ι was further applied to determine taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine giving promising results. Moreover, the stoichiometry of the reactions was studied, and reaction mechanisms were postulated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune, as determined from Voyager data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Voyager infrared spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) investigation are used in determining the albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune. From broadband radiometric observations made at phase angles of 14 deg and 134 deg, together with measurements at intermediate phase angles from the literature, an orbital mean value of 0.290 +/-0.067 is obtained for the bolometric Bond albedo. This yields an equilibrium temperature Teq = 46.6 +/-1.1 K. From thermal spectra obtained over latitudes from pole to pole an effective temperature Teff = 59.3 +/-0.8 K is derived. This represents a substantial improvement over previously determined values. The energy balance of Neptune is therefore E = 2.61 +/-0.28, which is in agreement with previous results. The reduced uncertainty in this value is due to the improved determination of the effective temperature.

  4. Determination of the Solar Energy Microclimate of the United States Using Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderharr, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of total solar energy reaching the ground over the United States using measurements from meteorological satellites as the basic data set is examined. The methods of satellite data processing are described. Uncertainty analysis and comparison of results with well calibrated surface pyranometers are used to estimate the probable error in the satellite-based determination of ground insolation. It is 10 to 15 percent for daily information, and about 5 percent for monthly values. However, the natural space and time variability of insolation is much greater than the uncertainty in the method. The most important aspect of the satellite-based technique is the ability to determine the solar energy reaching the ground over small areas where no other measurements are available. Thus, it complements the widely spaced solar radiation measurement network of ground stations.

  5. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  6. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  7. THE AGE OF ELLIPTICALS AND THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; Rakos, Karl E-mail: karl.rakos@chello.at

    2009-07-10

    Using new narrowband color observations of early-type galaxies in clusters, we reconstruct the color-magnitude relation (CMR) with a higher degree of accuracy than previous work. We then use the spectroscopically determined ages and metallicities from three samples, combined with multimetallicity spectral energy distribution models, to compare predicted colors for galaxies with young ages (less than 8 Gyr) with the known CMR. We find that the CMR cannot by reproduced by the spectroscopically determined ages and metallicities in any of the samples despite the high internal accuracies to the spectroscopic indices. In contrast, using only the (Fe) index to determine [Fe/H], and assuming a mean age of 12 Gyr for a galaxy's stellar population, we derive colors that exactly match not only the color zero point of the CMR but also its slope. We consider the source of young age estimates, the H{beta} index, and examine the conflict between red continuum colors and large H{beta} values in galaxy spectra. We conclude that our current understanding of stellar populations is insufficient to correctly interpret H{beta} values.

  8. Evaporation determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Likens, G.E.; Sturrock, A.M.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation was determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake during the open water periods of 1982-1987. For all years, evaporation rates were low in spring and fall and highest during the summer. However, the times of highest evaporation rates varied during the 6 yr. Evaporation reached maximum rates in July for three of the years, in June for two of the years, and in August for one of the years. The highest evaporation rate during the 6-yr study was 0.46 cm d-1 during 27 May-4 June 1986 and 15-21 July 1987. Solar radiation and atmospheric radiation input to the lake and long-wave radiation emitted from the lake were by far the largest energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water, and ground water had little effect on evaporation rates. In the energy-budget method, average evaporation rates are determined for energy-budget periods, which are bounded by the dates of thermal surveys of the lake. Our study compared evaporation rates calculated for short periods, usually ???1 week, with evaporation rates calculated for longer periods, usually ???2 weeks. The results indicated that the shorter periods showed more variability in evaporation rates, but seasonal patterns, with few exceptions, were similar.

  9. Determination and correction of distortions and systematic errors in low-energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, Falko; Meissner, Matthias; Zwick, Christian; Forker, Roman; Fritz, Torsten

    2013-01-15

    We developed and implemented an algorithm to determine and correct systematic distortions in low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) images. The procedure is in principle independent of the design of the apparatus (spherical or planar phosphorescent screen vs. channeltron detector) and is therefore applicable to all device variants, known as conventional LEED, micro-channel plate LEED, and spot profile analysis LEED. The essential prerequisite is a calibration image of a sample with a well-known structure and a suitably high number of diffraction spots, e.g., a Si(111)-7×7 reconstructed surface. The algorithm provides a formalism which can be used to rectify all further measurements generated with the same device. In detail, one needs to distinguish between radial and asymmetric distortion. Additionally, it is necessary to know the primary energy of the electrons precisely to derive accurate lattice constants. Often, there will be a deviation between the true kinetic energy and the value set in the LEED control. Here, we introduce a method to determine this energy error more accurately than in previous studies. Following the correction of the systematic errors, a relative accuracy of better than 1% can be achieved for the determination of the lattice parameters of unknown samples.

  10. Determination and correction of distortions and systematic errors in low-energy electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Sojka, Falko; Meissner, Matthias; Zwick, Christian; Forker, Roman; Fritz, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    We developed and implemented an algorithm to determine and correct systematic distortions in low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) images. The procedure is in principle independent of the design of the apparatus (spherical or planar phosphorescent screen vs. channeltron detector) and is therefore applicable to all device variants, known as conventional LEED, micro-channel plate LEED, and spot profile analysis LEED. The essential prerequisite is a calibration image of a sample with a well-known structure and a suitably high number of diffraction spots, e.g., a Si(111)-7×7 reconstructed surface. The algorithm provides a formalism which can be used to rectify all further measurements generated with the same device. In detail, one needs to distinguish between radial and asymmetric distortion. Additionally, it is necessary to know the primary energy of the electrons precisely to derive accurate lattice constants. Often, there will be a deviation between the true kinetic energy and the value set in the LEED control. Here, we introduce a method to determine this energy error more accurately than in previous studies. Following the correction of the systematic errors, a relative accuracy of better than 1% can be achieved for the determination of the lattice parameters of unknown samples.

  11. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Channel Electrostatics Determined by Diffusion-Enhanced Luminescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Robert H.; Lurtz, Monica M.; Wensel, Theodore G.; Pedersen, Steen E.

    2006-01-01

    The electrostatic potentials within the pore of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) were determined using lanthanide-based diffusion-enhanced fluorescence energy transfer experiments. Freely diffusing Tb3+-chelates of varying charge constituted a set of energy transfer donors to the acceptor, crystal violet, a noncompetitive antagonist of the nAChR. Energy transfer from a neutral Tb3+-chelate to nAChR-bound crystal violet was reduced 95% relative to the energy transfer to free crystal violet. This result indicated that crystal violet was strongly shielded from solvent when bound to the nAChR. Comparison of energy transfer from positively and negatively charged chelates indicate negative electrostatic potentials of −25 mV in the channel, measured in low ionic strength, and −10 mV measured in physiological ionic strength. Debye-Hückel analyses of potentials determined at various ionic strengths were consistent with 1–2 negative charges within 8 Å of the crystal violet binding site. To complement the energy transfer experiments, the influence of pH and ionic strength on the binding of [3H]phencyclidine were determined. The ionic strength dependence of binding affinity was consistent with −3.3 charges within 8 Å of the binding site, according to Debye-Hückel analysis. The pH dependence of binding had an apparent pKa of 7.2, a value indicative of a potential near −170 mV if the titratable residues are constituted of aspartates and glutamates. It is concluded that long-range potentials are small and likely contribute little to selectivity or conductance whereas close interactions are more likely to contribute to electrostatic stabilization of ions and binding of noncompetitive antagonists within the channel. PMID:16751249

  12. Tactical approach for determining impact of energy development on wildlife in Wyoming: special report number 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keenlyne, Kent D.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, within the Department of Interior, is responsible for providing national leadership in the management and protection of the nation's fish and wildlife resources, their habitat, and environment. Specifically, the Office of Biological Services obtains and assimilates biological and environmental data and identifies additional informational needs and means necessary to provide biological input into major natural resource decisions. The Wyoming Coal Coordinator for the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service is assigned the duty of becoming attuned to the ramifications of energy development within the State and its potential impact upon wildlife. In order for the Coal Coordinator to fulfill his obligations in becoming an "energy expert" for the Fish and Wildlife Service in Wyoming, it will be necessary for him to develop a means of obtaining an overview of the energy development situation. Similarly, in order for him to identify those area of critical concern to wildlife resources, it will be necessary that he determine or predict where energy development will occur, the nature of this development, and the cumulative effects of energy development upon wildlife. Likewise, in order to identify where wildlife data gaps occur and to determine future wildlife information needs, it will be necessary for him to compile and synthesize relevant existing data resources. It therefore becomes apparent that a need exists for him to gather and interpret pertinent information in a systematic way to meet these ends. The following is an account of the tactical number in which the Wyoming Coal Coordinator intends to approach the duties outlined above the rationale to be followed in meeting these needs. First, a general discussion on assessing impacts on wildlife is provided to form a basis for obtaining an overview. Secondly, a series of reports which will be generated to summarize existing information and to help identify potential problem areas is outlined

  13. The Ages of 55 Globular Clusters as Determined Using an Improved \\Delta V^HB_TO Method along with Color-Magnitude Diagram Constraints, and Their Implications for Broader Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R.; Casagrande, L.

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the "fitting" of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ~ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] <~ - 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] >~ -1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ~ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R G) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and M13, subtle variations have

  14. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  15. Determining the energy distribution of traps in insulating thin films using the thermally stimulated current technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. L.; Fleetwood, D. M.; McWhorter, P. J.

    1992-08-01

    We have developed a simple method to analyze and predict the thermally stimulated current (TSC) of charged insulating thin films experiencing arbitrary time-dependent thermal environments and high electric fields. The method allows greater flexibility in experimental conditions than previous work, and includes the effect of field-induced barrier lowering on the trap energy scale. Trap distributions for irradiated metal-SiO2-Si capacitors were accurately determined from TSC measurements spanning a factor of 50 in heating rate, providing an improved estimate of trapped-hole energies in SiO2 (peak ~1.8 eV).

  16. Households' pro-environmental habits and investments in water and energy consumption: determinants and relationships.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; García-Valiñas, María A; Nauges, Céline

    2014-01-15

    Economic instruments have received a lot of attention in the literature dealing with water and energy demand management. However factors driving households' behaviour/habits and investment in water-saving and energy-saving equipment have been seldom studied. The main purpose of this article is to contribute to this literature by analysing the main determinants of a set of households' conservation habits and pro-environmental investment decisions. Using household-level data from Spain, we show that conservation habits and the purchase of resource-efficient appliances are not independent.

  17. Some energy considerations in gamma ray burst location determinations by an anisotropic array of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The anisotropic array of detectors to be used in the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) for locating gamma ray burst sources is examined with respect to its ability to locate those sources by means of the relative response of its eight detectors. It was shown that the energy-dependent attenuation effects of the aluminum window covering each detector has a significant effect on source location determinations. Location formulas were derived as a function of detector counts and gamma ray energies in the range 50 to 150 keV. Deviation formulas were derived and serve to indicate the location error that would be cuased by ignoring the influence of the passive absorber.

  18. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong; Xu, Jiayun; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  19. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  20. Proposed Molecular Beam Determination of Energy Partition in the Photodissociation of Polyatomic Molecules

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zare, P. N.; Herschbach, D. R.

    1964-01-29

    Conventional photochemical experiments give no information about the partitioning of energy between translational recoil and internal excitation of the fragment molecules formed in photodissociation of a polyatomic molecule. In a molecular beam experiment, it becomes possible to determine the energy partition from the form of the laboratory angular distribution of one of the photodissociation products. A general kinematic analysis is worked out in detail, and the uncertainty introduced by the finite angular resolution of the apparatus and the velocity spread in the parent beam is examined. The experimental requirements are evaluated for he photolysis of methyl iodide by the 2537 angstrom Hg line.

  1. Magnitude and sign correlations in heartbeat fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that signals with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We find that the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. We apply our approach to the heartbeat interval series and find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications.

  2. Magnitude and sign correlations in heartbeat fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that signals with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We find that the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. We apply our approach to the heartbeat interval series and find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications.

  3. Energy determination of gamma-ray induced air showers observed by an extensive air shower array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, K.; Sako, T. K.; Ohnishi, M.; Takita, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Munakata, K.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a new energy estimator to determine the energies of gamma-ray induced air showers based on the lateral distribution of extensive air showers in the energy range between 10 TeV and 1000 TeV. We carry out a detailed Monte Carlo simulation assuming the Tibet air shower array located at an altitude of 4,300 m above sea level. We define S50, which denotes the particle density at 50 m from the air shower axis, as a new energy estimator. Using S50, the energy resolution is estimated to be approximately 16 % at 100 TeV in the range of the zenith angle 𝜃 < 20∘. We find S50 giving a better energy resolution than 27 % for the air shower size ( N e) and 30 % for the sum of detected particles (\\sum ρ ), which have been used so far, at 100 TeV. We also compare the reconstructed age distributions of gamma-ray induced air showers and hadronic cosmic-ray induced air showers. The age parameter may help to discriminate between primary gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays.

  4. Energy determination of gamma-ray induced air showers observed by an extensive air shower array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, K.; Sako, T. K.; Ohnishi, M.; Takita, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Munakata, K.

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new energy estimator to determine the energies of gamma-ray induced air showers based on the lateral distribution of extensive air showers in the energy range between 10 TeV and 1000 TeV. We carry out a detailed Monte Carlo simulation assuming the Tibet air shower array located at an altitude of 4,300 m above sea level. We define S50, which denotes the particle density at 50 m from the air shower axis, as a new energy estimator. Using S50, the energy resolution is estimated to be approximately 16 % at 100 TeV in the range of the zenith angle 𝜃 < 20∘. We find S50 giving a better energy resolution than 27 % for the air shower size (N e) and 30 % for the sum of detected particles ( \\sum ρ ), which have been used so far, at 100 TeV. We also compare the reconstructed age distributions of gamma-ray induced air showers and hadronic cosmic-ray induced air showers. The age parameter may help to discriminate between primary gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays.

  5. CLUST - EVAP Monte Carlo Simulation Applications for Determining Effective Energy Deposition in Silicon by High Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, Pat M.

    2000-01-01

    The CLUST-EVAP is a Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of high energy (25 - 400 MeV) protons with silicon nuclei. The initial nuclear cascade stage is modeled using the CLUST model developed by Indiana University over 30 years ago. The second stage, in which the excited nucleus evaporates particles in random directions, is modeled according to the evaporation algorithm provided by H. H. K. Tang of IBM. Using the CLUST-EVAP code to model fragment produ6tion and the Vavilov-Landau theory to model fluctuations in direct ionization in thin silicon layers, we have predicted energy deposition in silicon components for various geometrical configurations. We have compared actual measurements with model predictions for geometry's such as single, thin silicon particle detectors, telescopic particle detectors flown in space to measure the environment, and thin sensitive volumes of modern micro-electronic components. We have recently compared the model predictions with actual measurements made by the DOSTEL spectrometer flown in the Shuttle payload bay on STS-84. The model faithfully reproduces the features and aids in interpretation of flight results of this instrument. We have also applied the CLUST-EVAP model to determine energy deposition in the thin sensitive volumes of modern micro-electronic components. We have accessed the ability of high energy (200 MeV) protons to induce latch-up in certain devices that are known to latch up in heavy ion environments. However, some devices are not nearly as susceptible to proton induced latch-up as expected according to their measured heavy ion latch-up cross sections. The discrepancy is believed to be caused by the limited range of the proton-silicon interaction fragments. The CLUST-EV AP model was used to determine a distribution of these fragments and their range and this is compared to knowledge of the ranges required based on the known device structure. This information is especially useful in accessing the risk to on

  6. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part II. Determining amount of energy lost or gained in a building

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. There are 3 parts to the training program. They are entitled: Understanding and Practicing Energy Conservation in Buildings; Determining Amount of Energy Lost or Gained in a Building; and Determining Which Practices Are Most Efficient and Installing Materials. For Part Two, it is recommended that cooling and heating load calculation manual (GRP 158) ASHRAE, 1979, be used. Specific subjects covered in Part II are: Terms Used to Measure Energy in Buildings; Understanding Heat Losses and Gains in Buildings; Estimating Heating Loads in Buildings; Special Applications for Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; and Determining Cost Benefits of Using Energy-Saving Practices.

  7. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations.

  8. Magnitude systems in old star catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Hitoshi

    2005-06-01

    The current system of stellar magnitudes originally introduced by Hipparchus was strictly defined by Norman Pogson in 1856. He based his system on Ptolemy's star catalogue, the Almagest, recorded in about AD137, and defined the magnitude-intensity relationship on a logarithmic scale. Stellar magnitudes observed with the naked eye recorded in seven old star catalogues were analyzed in order to examine the visual magnitude systems. Although psychophysicists have proposed that human visual sensitivity follows a power-law scale, it is shown here that the degree of agreement is far better for a logarithmic scale than for a power-law scale. It is also found that light ratios in each star catalogue are nearly equal to 2.512, if the brightest (1st magnitude) and the faintest (6th magnitude and dimmer) stars are excluded from the study. This means that the visual magnitudes in the old star catalogues agree fully with Pogson's logarithmic scale.

  9. On the Immersion Liquid Evaporation Method Based on the Dynamic Sweep of Magnitude of the Refractive Index of a Binary Liquid Mixture: A Case Study on Determining Mineral Particle Light Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Ilpo; Räty, Jukka; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This is a feasibility study of a modified immersion liquid technique for determining the refractive index of micro-sized particles. The practical challenge of the traditional liquid immersion method is to find or produce a suitable host liquid whose refractive index equals that of a solid particle. Usually, the immersion liquid method uses a set of immersion liquids with different refractive indices or continuously mixes two liquids with different refractive indices, e.g., using a pumping system. Here, the phenomenon of liquid evaporation has been utilized in defining the time-dependent refractive index variation of the host liquid. From the spectral transmittance data measured during the evaporation process, the refractive index of a solid particle in the host liquid can be determined as a function of the wavelength. The method was tested using calcium fluoride (CaF2) particles with an immersion liquid mixed from diethyl ether and diffusion pump fluid. The dispersion data obtained were consistent with the literature values thus indicating the proper functioning of the proposed procedure.

  10. Determination of the shape factor of (90)Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method.

    PubMed

    Grau Carles, A; Kossert, K; Grau Malonda, A

    2008-01-01

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of (90)Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of (90)Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition.

  11. Evaluation on determination of iodine in coal by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Jackson, J.C.; Palmer, C.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quick and inexpensive method of relative high iodine determination from coal samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provided a detection limit of about 14 ppm (3 times of standard deviations of the blank sample), without any complex sample preparation. An analytical relative standard deviation of 16% was readily attainable for coal samples. Under optimum conditions, coal samples with iodine concentrations higher than 5 ppm can be determined using this EDXRF method. For the time being, due to the general iodine concentrations of coal samples lower than 5 ppm, except for some high iodine content coal, this method can not effectively been used for iodine determination. More work needed to meet the requirement of determination of iodine from coal samples for this method. Copyright ?? 2005 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.

  12. Determining Regional Sensitivity to Energy-Related Water Withdrawals in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A.; Brauman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Minnesota has abundant freshwater resources, yet concerns about water-impacts of energy and mining development are increasing. Statewide, total annual water withdrawals have increased, and, in some watersheds, withdrawals make up a large fraction of available water. The energy and mining sectors play a critical role in determining water availability, as water is used to irrigate biofuel feedstock crops, cool thermoelectric plants, and process and transport fuels and iron ore. We evaluated the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Water and Reporting System (MPARS) dataset (1988-2014) to identify regions where energy and mining-related water withdrawals are high or where they are increasing. The energy and mining sectors account for over 65 percent of total water extractions in Minnesota, but this percentage is greater in some regions. In certain southern and northeastern Minnesota watersheds, these extractions account for 90 percent of total water demand. Sensitivity to these demands is not dependent on total water demand alone, and is also not uniform among watersheds. We identified and evaluated factors influencing sensitivity, including population, extraction type (surface water or groundwater), percentage of increased demand, and whether withdrawals are consumptive or not. We determined that southern Minnesota is particularly sensitive to increased water demands, because of growing biofuel and sand extraction industries (the products of which are used in hydraulic fracturing). In the last ten years, ethanol production in Minnesota has increased by 440 percent, and over fifteen refineries (each with a capacity over 1.1 billion gallons), have been built. These users primarily extract from surface water bodies within a few watersheds, compromising local supplies. As these energy-related industries continue to grow, so will the demand for freshwater resources. Determining regional sensitivity to increased demands will allow policy-makers to manage the

  13. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  14. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Vicente; López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations.

  15. Determination of the QCD Λ Parameter and the Accuracy of Perturbation Theory at High Energies.

    PubMed

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer

    2016-10-28

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α_{MS[over ¯]}(m_{Z}) or, equivalently, the QCD Λ parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α_{s}(μ) in some scheme s and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ, the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme that allows us to nonperturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α_{s}=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a 3% error in the Λ parameter, while data around α_{s}≈0.2 are clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  16. Transition energy and half-life determinations of photonuclear reaction products of erbium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Tuncay; Akkoyun, Serkan; Uruk, Serhat; Dapo, Haris; Dulger, Fatih; Boztosun, Ismail

    Photon induced reactions are called as photonuclear reactions and used in many research fields of nuclear science and nuclear physics. The photonuclear data are used in many nuclear applications such as radiation shielding and protection, radiation transport analyses, reactor core design, activation analysis and nuclear waste transmutation. In the past, many studies had been devoted to extract photonuclear data covering the isotopic chart. However, there is still lack of existing data. In the present study, we have performed photonuclear reactions on erbium (Er) target by using clinical electron linear accelerators (cLINAC). By using measured residual activity of photonuclear reaction products of Er nuclei, we have determined the half-life of 161Er nucleus and transition energies of 161Ho nucleus. Also, new measurements on gamma-ray energies of the products have been determined accurately. Furthermore, this study shows that repurposed cLINAC with limited budget can contribute to the global nuclear science knowledge.

  17. Determination of the QCD Λ Parameter and the Accuracy of Perturbation Theory at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Alpha Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling αMS ¯(mZ) or, equivalently, the QCD Λ parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in αs(μ ) in some scheme s and at some energy scale μ . The higher the scale μ , the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme that allows us to nonperturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to αs=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a 3% error in the Λ parameter, while data around αs≈0.2 are clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  18. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  19. Electrochemical considerations for determining absolute frontier orbital energy levels of conjugated polymers for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Claudia M; Li, Wei; Kaifer, Angel E; Stockdale, David; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2011-05-24

    Narrow bandgap conjugated polymers in combination with fullerene acceptors are under intense investigation in the field of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The open circuit voltage, and thereby the power conversion efficiency, of the devices is related to the offset of the frontier orbital energy levels of the donor and acceptor components, which are widely determined by cyclic voltammetry. Inconsistencies have appeared in the use of the ferrocenium/ferrocene (Fc + /Fc) redox couple, as well as the values used for the absolute potentials of standard electrodes, which can complicate the comparison of materials properties and determination of structure/property relationships.

  20. Metal-Sulfur Valence Orbital Interaction Energies in Metal–Dithiolene Complexes: Determination of Charge and Overlap Interaction Energies by Comparison of Core and Valence Ionization Energy Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Wiebelhaus, Nicholas J.; Cranswick, Matthew A.; Klein, Eric L.; Lockett, L. Tori; Lichtenberger, Dennis L.; Enemark, John H.

    2011-01-01

    The electronic interactions between metals and dithiolenes are important in the biological processes of many metalloenzymes as well as in diverse chemical and material applications. Of special note is the ability of the dithiolene ligand to support metal centers in multiple coordination environments and oxidation states. To better understand the nature of metal-dithiolene electronic interactions, new capabilities in gas-phase core photoelectron spectroscopy for molecules with high sublimation temperatures have been developed and applied to a series of molecules of the type Cp2M(bdt) (Cp = η5-cyclopentadienyl, M = Ti, V, Mo, and bdt = benzenedithiolato). Comparison of the gas-phase core and valence ionization energy shifts provides a unique quantitative energy measure of valence orbital overlap interactions between the metal and sulfur orbitals that is separated from the effects of charge redistribution. The results explain the large amount of sulfur character in the redox-active orbitals and the ‘leveling’ of oxidation state energies in metal-dithiolene systems. The experimentally-determined orbital interaction energies reveal a previously unidentified overlap interaction of the predominantly sulfur HOMO of the bdt ligand with filled π orbitals of the Cp ligands, suggesting that direct dithiolene interactions with other ligands bound to the metal could be significant for other metal-dithiolene systems in chemistry and biology. PMID:21988484

  1. Determination of Energy Band Alignment in Ultrathin Hf-based Oxide/Pt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, A.; Murakami, H.; Higashi, S.; Miyazaki, S.

    2013-03-01

    Effect of incorporating a third element into HfO2 on the electronic structures has been studied by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Hf-IIIa (La, Y, Gd, and Dy) oxide and Hf-Ti oxide films were deposited on a Pt layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and co-sputtering and followed by post-deposition annealing in O2 ambience at 500°C. The energy bandgap (Eg) of these Hf-based oxide films was determined by analyzing the energy loss spectra of O 1s photoelectrons in consideration of the overlap with Hf 4s core-line signals. From analyses of the valence band signals and the cut-off energy for photoelectrons, the valence band offset between the Hf based-oxide, and the Pt electrode and the work function value of the Pt layer were evaluated. By combining the oxide bandgap values, the valence band line-ups, and the Pt work function value, the energy band profile of the Hf-based oxide/Pt has been determined.

  2. Adsorption energies and prefactor determination for CH3OH adsorption on graphite.

    PubMed

    Doronin, M; Bertin, M; Michaut, X; Philippe, L; Fillion, J-H

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we have studied adsorption and thermal desorption of methanol CH3OH on graphite surface, with the specific aim to derive from experimental data quantitative parameters that govern the desorption, namely, adsorption energy Eads and prefactor ν of the Polanyi-Wigner law. In low coverage regime, these two values are interconnected and usually the experiments can be reproduced with any couple (Eads, ν), which makes intercomparison between studies difficult since the results depend on the extraction method. Here, we use a method for determining independently the average adsorption energy and a prefactor value that works over a large range of incident methanol coverage, from a limited set of desorption curves performed at different heating rates. In the low coverage regime the procedure is based on a first order kinetic law, and considers an adsorption energy distribution which is not expected to vary with the applied heating rate. In the case of CH3OH multilayers, Eads is determined as 430 meV with a prefactor of 5 × 10(14) s(-1). For CH3OH submonolayers on graphite, adsorption energy of 470 ± 30 meV and a prefactor of (8 ± 3) × 10(16) s(-1) have been found. These last values, which do not change between 0.09 ML and 1 ML initial coverage, suggest that the methanol molecules form island-like structure on the graphite even at low coverage.

  3. What are the clinical determinants of early energy expenditure in critically injured adults?

    PubMed

    Boulanger, B R; Nayman, R; McLean, R F; Phillips, E; Rizoli, S B

    1994-12-01

    The clinical determinants of energy expenditure in critically injured adults require definition. Among adult blunt trauma victims who required mechanical ventilation, the resting energy expenditure was calculated with the Harris-Benedict equation (HBEE) and the early (< or = 5 days postinjury) energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry (MEE) (n = 115). The MEE was 2052 +/- 531 kcal/day and MEE/HBEE ("stress factor") was 1.24 +/- 0.2. The MEE was correlated with HBEE, age, height, weight, sex, temperature, and paralytic agents (p < 0.01). However, MEE did not correlate with ISS, admission GCS score, admission base deficit, initial systolic blood pressure, or the number of units of packed red blood cells transfused in the first 24 hours after injury (p = NS). Temperature and paralysis correlated with MEE/HBEE (p < 0.01). A regression model of MEE was developed with the clinical variables HBEE, temperature, and the presence or absence of paralytic agents (r2 = 0.62; p < 0.001): MEE (kcal/d) = 1.4(HBEE) + 71.4(temperature) + 274(paralytics; + = 1, - = 2) - 3485. In mechanically ventilated trauma victims, both the early energy expenditure and the stress factor are determined by host factors but are independent of the severity of the anatomic and physiologic insult. The degree of hypermetabolism observed in this population was less than previously reported.

  4. Moment Magnitude ( M W) and Local Magnitude ( M L) Relationship for Earthquakes in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Bora, P. K.; Duarah, R.; Kalita, Aditya; Biswas, Rajib; Gogoi, N.; Kayal, J. R.

    2012-11-01

    An attempt has been made to examine an empirical relationship between moment magnitude ( M W) and local magnitude ( M L) for the earthquakes in the northeast Indian region. Some 364 earthquakes that were recorded during 1950-2009 are used in this study. Focal mechanism solutions of these earthquakes include 189 Harvard-CMT solutions ( M W ≥ 4.0) for the period 1976-2009, 61 published solutions and 114 solutions obtained for the local earthquakes (2.0 ≤ M L ≤ 5.0) recorded by a 27-station permanent broadband network during 2001-2009 in the region. The M W- M L relationships in seven selected zones of the region are determined by linear regression analysis. A significant variation in the M W- M L relationship and its zone specific dependence are reported here. It is found that M W is equivalent to M L with an average uncertainty of about 0.13 magnitude units. A single relationship is, however, not adequate to scale the entire northeast Indian region because of heterogeneous geologic and geotectonic environments where earthquakes occur due to collisions, subduction and complex intra-plate tectonics.

  5. Weighing the evidence: energy determinations across the spectrum of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Byham-Gray, Laura D

    2006-01-01

    Evidence based guidelines for medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend a range of caloric levels, dependent on age and level of kidney function. Recent literature has explored whether current research findings still support these earlier conclusions, and if new energy determinations for CKD are warranted. This review will take a brief look at the history of the controversy, examine the research evidence at the time of practice guideline development, investigate emerging research, and discuss implications for additional scientific inquiry.

  6. Determining the Importance of Energy Transfer between Magnetospheric Regions via MHD Waves using Constellations of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    This grant was focused on research in two specific areas: (1) development of new techniques and software for assimilation, analysis and visualization of data from multiple satellites making in-situ measurements; and (2) determination of the role of MHD waves in energy transport during storms and substorms. Results were obtained in both areas and presented at national meetings and in publications. The talks and papers that were supported in part or fully by this grant are listed in this paper.

  7. Determining the Magnitude of Neutron and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Fluxes at the Moon using the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector during the Historic Space-Age Era of High GCR Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Milikh, G. M.; Su, J. J.; Livengood, T. A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Evans, L.; Starr, R. D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched June 18, 2009 during an historic space-age era of minimum solar activity [1]. The lack of solar sunspot activity signaled a complex set of heliospheric phenomena [2,3,4] that also gave rise to a period of unprecedentedly high Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux [5]. These events coincided with the primary mission of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND, [6]), onboard LRO in a nominal 50-km circular orbit of the Moon [7]. Methods to calculate the emergent neutron albedo population using Monte Carlo techniques [8] rely on an estimate of the GCR flux and spectra calibrated at differing periods of solar activity [9,10,11]. Estimating the actual GCR flux at the Moon during the LEND's initial period of operation requires a correction using a model-dependent heliospheric transport modulation parameter [12] to adjust the GCR flux appropriate to this unique solar cycle. These corrections have inherent uncertainties depending on model details [13]. Precisely determining the absolute neutron and GCR fluxes is especially important in understanding the emergent lunar neutrons measured by LEND and subsequently in estimating the hydrogen/water content in the lunar regolith [6]. LEND is constructed with a set of neutron detectors to meet differing purposes [6]. Specifically there are two sets of detector systems that measure the flux of epithermal neutrons: a) the uncollimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (SETN) and b) the Collimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (CSETN). LEND SETN and CSETN observations form a complementary set of simultaneous measurements that determine the absolute scale of emergent lunar neutron flux in an unambiguous fashion and without the need for correcting to differing solar-cycle conditions. LEND measurements are combined with a detailed understanding of the sources of instrumental back-ground, and the performance of CSETN and SETN. This comparison allows us to calculate a constant scale factor

  8. Developmental Foundations of Children's Fraction Magnitude Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yi; Li, Yaoran; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara D; Chu, Felicia W; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual insight that fractions represent magnitudes is a critical yet daunting step in children's mathematical development, and the knowledge of fraction magnitudes influences children's later mathematics learning including algebra. In this study, longitudinal data were analyzed to identify the mathematical knowledge and domain-general competencies that predicted 8(th) and 9(th) graders' (n=122) knowledge of fraction magnitudes and its cross-grade gains. Performance on the fraction magnitude measures predicted 9(th) grade algebra achievement. Understanding and fluently identifying the numerator-denominator relation in 7(th) grade emerged as the key predictor of later fraction magnitudes knowledge in both 8(th) and 9(th) grades. Competence at using fraction procedures, knowledge of whole number magnitudes, and the central executive contributed to 9(th) but not 8(th) graders' fraction magnitude knowledge, and knowledge of whole number magnitude contributed to cross-grade gains. The key results suggest fluent processing of numerator-denominator relations presages students' understanding of fractions as magnitudes and that the integration of whole number and fraction magnitudes occurs gradually.

  9. Determination of Wetting Behavior, Spread Activation Energy, and Quench Severity of Bioquenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Fernandes, Peter

    2007-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils such as sunflower, coconut, groundnut, castor, cashewnut shell (CNS), and palm oils as quench media (bioquenchants) for industrial heat treatment by assessing their wetting behavior and severity of quenching. The relaxation of contact angle was sharp during the initial stages, and it became gradual as the system approached equilibrium. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with increase in the temperature of the substrate and decrease in the viscosity of the quench medium. A comparison of the relaxation of the contact angle at various temperatures indicated the significant difference in spreading of oils having varying viscosity. The spread activation energy was determined using the Arrhenius type of equation. Oils with higher viscosity resulted in lower cooling rates. The quench severity of various oil media was determined by estimating heat-transfer coefficients using the lumped capacitance method. Activation energy for spreading determined using the wetting behavior of oils at various temperatures was in good agreement with the severity of quenching assessed by cooling curve analysis. A high quench severity is associated with oils having low spread activation energy.

  10. To determine the end point of wet granulation by measuring powder energies and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rutesh H; Wu, Stephen H; Contractor, Labdhi D

    2012-04-01

    Wet granulation has been widely used in pharmaceutical industry as a tablet manufacturing process. However, end-point determination of wet granulation process has always remained a challenge. Many traditional methods are available for end-point determination, yet accuracy and reproducibility still remain a challenge. Microcrystalline cellulose, widely used as an excipient in pharmaceutical industry, was granulated using water. Wet mass was passed through sieve # 12 and dried till constant percentage loss on drying was obtained and dried granules were obtained. Wet and dried granules collected were subjected to basic flow energy, specific energy, bulk density, pressure drop, differential scanning calorimetry and effusivity measurements. Analysis of data revealed various stages of granule growth from initial seed formation by adding 200-400 g of water, granule growth was observed by adding 600-800 g of water and over wetting was observed at 1155 g of water. In this work, we have justified our work to properly identify and utilize this technique for practical purpose to correctly identify the end-point determination of microcrystalline cellulose and explain various principles underlying energies associated with powder and thermal measurements.

  11. Microscopic energy transfer spectroscopy to determine mitochondrial malfunction in human myotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwend, Michael H.; Strauss, Wolfgang S. L.; Brinkmeier, H.; Ruedel, R.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1996-12-01

    A microscopic equipment is reported for examination of cellular autofluorescence and determination of energy transfer in vitro, which is proposed to be an appropriate tool to investigate mitochondrial malfunction. The method includes fluorescence microscopy combined with time-gated (nanosecond) fluorescence emission spectroscopy and is presently used to study mitochondrial metabolism of human myotube primary cultures Enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, located at the inner mitochondrial membrane, were inhibited by various drugs, and fluorescence of the mitochondrial coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as well as of the mitochondrial marker rhodamine 123 (R123) was examined. After inhibition of enzyme complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) by rotenone or enzyme complex III (coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase) by antimycin a similar or increased NADH fluorescence was observed. In addition, energy transfer from excited states of NADH (energy donor) to R123 (energy acceptor) was deduced from a decrease of NADH fluorescence after coincubation with these inhibitors and R123. Application of microscopic energy transfer spectroscopy for diagnosis of congenital mitochondrial deficiencies is currently in preparation.

  12. Absolute dose determination in high-energy electron beams: Comparison of IAEA dosimetry protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyan, S.; Ravikumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, absorbed doses were measured and compared for high-energy electrons (6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV) using International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS), TRS 381, and TRS 398 dosimetry protocols. Absolute dose measurements were carried out using FC65-G Farmer chamber and Nordic Association of Clinical Physicists (NACP) parallel plate chamber with DOSE1 electrometer in WP1-D water phantom for reference field size of 15 × 15 cm2 at 100 cm source-to-surface distance. The results show that the difference between TRS 398 and TRS 381 was about 0.24% to 1.3% depending upon the energy, and the maximum difference between TRS 398 and TRS 277 was 1.5%. The use of cylindrical chamber in electron beam gives the maximum dose difference between the TRS 398 and TRS 277 in the order of 1.4% for energies above 10 MeV (R50 > 4 g/cm2). It was observed that the accuracy of dose estimation was better with the protocols based on the water calibration procedures, as no conversion quantities are involved for conversion of dose from air to water. The cross-calibration procedure of parallel plate chamber with high-energy electron beams is recommended as it avoids pwall correction factor entering into the determination of kQ,Qo. PMID:19893700

  13. Electrochromic Asymmetric Supercapacitor Windows Enable Direct Determination of Energy Status by the Naked Eye.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ying; Chai, Zhisheng; Liang, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Xie, Weiguang; Zhao, Chuanxi; Mai, Wenjie

    2017-10-04

    Because of the popularity of smart electronics, multifunctional energy storage devices, especially electrochromic supercapacitors (SCs), have attracted tremendous research interest. Herein, a solid-state electrochromic asymmetric SC (ASC) window is designed and fabricated by introducing WO3 and polyaniline as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. The two complementary materials contribute to the outstanding electrochemical and electrochromic performances of the fabricated device. With an operating voltage window of 1.4 V and an areal capacitance of 28.3 mF cm(-2), the electrochromic devices show a high energy density of 7.7 × 10(-3) mW h cm(-2). Meanwhile, they exhibit an obvious and reversible color transition between light green (uncharged state) and dark blue (charged state), with an optical transmittance change between 55 and 12% at a wavelength of 633 nm. Hence, the energy storage level of the ASC is directly related to its color and can be determined by the naked eye, which means it can be incorporated with other energy cells to visual display their energy status. Particularly, a self-powered and color-indicated system is achieved by combining the smart windows with commercial solar cell panels. We believe that the novel electrochromic ASC windows will have great potential application for both smart electronics and smart buildings.

  14. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

    2013-09-01

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  15. Influence of drying method on the surface energy of cellulose nanofibrils determined by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yucheng; Gardner, Douglas J; Han, Yousoo; Cai, Zhiyong; Tshabalala, Mandla A

    2013-09-01

    Research and development of the renewable nanomaterial cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) has received considerable attention. The effect of drying on the surface energy of CNFs was investigated. Samples of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were each subjected to four separate drying methods: air-drying, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and supercritical-drying. The surface morphology of the dried CNFs was examined using a scanning electron microscope. The surface energy of the dried CNFs was determined using inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution and column temperatures: 30, 40, 50, 55, and 60 °C. Surface energy measurements of supercritical-dried NFCs were performed also at column temperatures: 70, 75, and 80 °C. Different drying methods produced CNFs with different morphologies which in turn significantly influenced their surface energy. Supercritical-drying resulted in NFCs having a dispersion component of surface energy of 98.3±5.8 mJ/m(2) at 30 °C. The dispersion component of surface energy of freeze-dried NFCs (44.3±0.4 mJ/m(2) at 30 °C) and CNCs (46.5±0.9 mJ/m(2) at 30 °C) were the lowest among all the CNFs. The pre-freezing treatment during the freeze-drying process is hypothesized to have a major impact on the dispersion component of surface energy of the CNFs. The acid and base parameters of all the dried CNFs were amphoteric (acidic and basic) although predominantly basic in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

    2013-09-28

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  17. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the ENERGY-child questionnaire on energy balance-related behaviours and their potential determinants: the ENERGY-project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insight in children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) and their determinants is important to inform obesity prevention research. Therefore, reliable and valid tools to measure these variables in large-scale population research are needed. Objective To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the child questionnaire used in the ENERGY-project, measuring EBRBs and their potential determinants among 10-12 year old children. Methods We collected data among 10-12 year old children (n = 730 in the test-retest reliability study; n = 96 in the construct validity study) in six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and percentage agreement comparing scores from two measurements, administered one week apart. To assess construct validity, the agreement between questionnaire responses and a subsequent face-to-face interview was assessed using ICC and percentage agreement. Results Of the 150 questionnaire items, 115 (77%) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. Test-retest reliability was moderate for 34 items (23%) and poor for one item. Construct validity appeared to be good to excellent for 70 (47%) of the 150 items, as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. From the other 80 items, construct validity was moderate for 39 (26%) and poor for 41 items (27%). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ENERGY-child questionnaire, assessing EBRBs of the child as well as personal, family, and school-environmental determinants related to these EBRBs, has good test-retest reliability and moderate to good construct validity for the large majority of items. PMID:22152048

  18. What Is the Meaning of the Physical Magnitude "Work"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanderakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Usually, in physics textbooks, the physical magnitude "work" is introduced as the product of a force multiplied by its displacement, in relation to the transfer of energy. In other words, "work" is presented as an internal affair of physics theory, while its relation to the world of experience, that is its empirical meaning, is…

  19. What Is the Meaning of the Physical Magnitude "Work"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanderakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Usually, in physics textbooks, the physical magnitude "work" is introduced as the product of a force multiplied by its displacement, in relation to the transfer of energy. In other words, "work" is presented as an internal affair of physics theory, while its relation to the world of experience, that is its empirical meaning, is…

  20. Multiscale mapping of completeness magnitude of earthquake catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieva, Inessa; Narteau, Clement; Shebalin, Peter; Beauducel, François; Nercessian, Alexandre; Clouard, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Paule

    2013-04-01

    We propose a multiscale method to map spatial variations in completeness magnitude Mc of earthquake catalogs. The Mc value may significantly vary in space due to the change of the seismic network density. Here we suggest a way to use only earthquake catalogs to separate small areas of higher network density (lower Mc) and larger areas of smaller network density (higher Mc). We reduce the analysis of the FMDs to the limited magnitude ranges, thus allowing deviation of the FMD from the log-linearity outside the range. We associate ranges of larger magnitudes with increasing areas for data selection based on constant in average number of completely recorded earthquakes. Then, for each point in space, we document the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution at all length scales within the corresponding earthquake magnitude ranges. High resolution of the Mc-value is achieved through the determination of the smallest space-magnitude scale in which the Gutenberg-Richter law (i. e. an exponential decay) is verified. The multiscale procedure isolates the magnitude range that meets the best local seismicity and local record capacity. Using artificial catalogs and earthquake catalogs of the Lesser Antilles arc, this Mc mapping method is shown to be efficient in regions with mixed types of seismicity, a variable density of epicenters and various levels of registration.

  1. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Page, Morgan T.; Weiser, Deborah A.; Goebel, Thomas H. W.; Hosseini, S. Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A major question for the hazard posed by injection-induced seismicity is how large induced earthquakes can be. Are their maximum magnitudes determined by injection parameters or by tectonics? Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution for tectonic earthquakes, assuming no upper magnitude bound. The data pass three specific tests: (1) the largest observed earthquake at each site scales with the log of the total number of induced earthquakes, (2) the order of occurrence of the largest event is random within the induced sequence, and (3) the injected volume controls the total number of earthquakes rather than the total seismic moment. All three tests point to an injection control on earthquake nucleation but a tectonic control on earthquake magnitude. Given that the largest observed earthquakes are exactly as large as expected from the sampling statistics, we should not conclude that these are the largest earthquakes possible. Instead, the results imply that induced earthquake magnitudes should be treated with the same maximum magnitude bound that is currently used to treat seismic hazard from tectonic earthquakes.

  2. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Page, Morgan T.; Weiser, Deborah A.; Goebel, Thomas; Hosseini, S. Mehran

    2016-01-01

    A major question for the hazard posed by injection-induced seismicity is how large induced earthquakes can be. Are their maximum magnitudes determined by injection parameters or by tectonics? Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution for tectonic earthquakes, assuming no upper magnitude bound. The data pass three specific tests: (1) the largest observed earthquake at each site scales with the log of the total number of induced earthquakes, (2) the order of occurrence of the largest event is random within the induced sequence, and (3) the injected volume controls the total number of earthquakes rather than the total seismic moment. All three tests point to an injection control on earthquake nucleation but a tectonic control on earthquake magnitude. Given that the largest observed earthquakes are exactly as large as expected from the sampling statistics, we should not conclude that these are the largest earthquakes possible. Instead, the results imply that induced earthquake magnitudes should be treated with the same maximum magnitude bound that is currently used to treat seismic hazard from tectonic earthquakes.

  3. A Bayesian perspective on magnitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Petzschner, Frederike H; Glasauer, Stefan; Stephan, Klaas E

    2015-05-01

    Our representation of the physical world requires judgments of magnitudes, such as loudness, distance, or time. Interestingly, magnitude estimates are often not veridical but subject to characteristic biases. These biases are strikingly similar across different sensory modalities, suggesting common processing mechanisms that are shared by different sensory systems. However, the search for universal neurobiological principles of magnitude judgments requires guidance by formal theories. Here, we discuss a unifying Bayesian framework for understanding biases in magnitude estimation. This Bayesian perspective enables a re-interpretation of a range of established psychophysical findings, reconciles seemingly incompatible classical views on magnitude estimation, and can guide future investigations of magnitude estimation and its neurobiological mechanisms in health and in psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia.

  4. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Campos, M M; Machado, F S; Filho, S C Valadares; Castro, M M D; Dijkstra, J

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were slaughtered at 4 d of life to estimate the animals' initial body composition (reference group). The remaining 34 calves were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of life, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces (for 72 h) and urine (for 24 h). At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered, their gastro-intestinal tract was washed to determine the empty body weight (EBW; kg), and their body tissues were sampled for subsequent analyses. The net energy requirement for maintenance was estimated using an exponential regression between metabolizable energy intake and heat production (both in Mcal/EBW(0.75) per d) and was 74.3 ± 5.7 kcal/EBW(0.75) per d, and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed in the diet. The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was determined at the point of zero energy retention in the body and was 105.2 ± 5.8 kcal/EBW(0.75) per d. The net energy for gain was estimated using the EBW and the empty body gain (EBG; kg/d) as 0.0882 ± 0.0028 × EBW(0.75) × EBG(0.9050±0.0706). The metabolizable energy efficiency for gain (kg) of the milk was 57.4 ± 3.45%, and the kg of the starter feed was 39.3 ± 2.09%. The metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance was 3.52 ± 0.34 g/BW(0.75) per d. The net protein required for each kilogram gained was estimated as 119.1 ± 32.9 × EBW(0.0663±0.059). The metabolizable protein efficiency for gain was 77 ± 8.5% and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed

  5. Determination of high-energy x-ray spectra by photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Nath, R; Schulz, R J

    1976-01-01

    The determination of high-energy x-ray spectra has required scintillation spectrometers with massive shielding, neutron time-of-flight spectrometers, or the tedious counting of electron tracks in nuclear emulsions. A new approach has been developed which takes advantage of the energy dependence of photoactivation cross sections. Radioactivity is produced in a small packet of C, Cu, Co, Y, Zr, and Au foils by approximately 5000 rad (tissue). Since the amount of radioactivity produced in each foil is given by the integral of the product of photonuclear cross section and differential photon fluence, a numerical method for unfolding the spectrum is required, and the orthonormal expansion has been employed for this purpose. The photoactivation method has been used to determine the x-ray spectra produced by 30-MeV electrons incident upon thin and thick tungsten targets, and filtered by equivalent amounts of lead and aluminum. These spectra have been compared to calculated thin-target spectra as well as to those determined by a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The central-axis and off-axis x-ray spectra produced by a 33-MeV betatron have also been determined.

  6. Determination of charge transport activation energy and injection barrier in organic semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Züfle, S.; Altazin, S.; Hofmann, A.; Jäger, L.; Neukom, M. T.; Brütting, W.; Ruhstaller, B.

    2017-09-01

    Charge carrier transport in organic semiconductor devices is thermally activated with characteristic activation energies in the range of 0.2-0.6 eV, leading to strongly temperature-dependent behaviour. For designing efficient organic semiconductor materials and devices, it is therefore indispensable to understand the origin of these activation energies. We propose that in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing a polar electron transport layer, as well as in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices, the hole injection barrier Einj and the hole mobility activation energy Eμ can be decoupled from each other if temperature-dependent capacitance-frequency (C-f-T) and MIS-CELIV (charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage) experiments are combined. While the C-f-T signal contains information of both injection and transport, the CELIV current is expected to be insensitive to the electrode injection properties. We employ numerical drift-diffusion simulations to investigate the accuracy of this analytical parameter extraction approach and to develop criteria for its validity. We show that the implicit assumption of constant charge density and field profiles leads to systematic errors in determining the activation energies. Thus, one should be aware of the intrinsic limitations of the analytical Arrhenius fit, and for more accurate parameter determination a full drift-diffusion modelling is advised. Applying the analytical method to a standard bilayer OLED, we find that the total activation energy of 0.5 eV for the hole current can be split into contributions of ≈0.25 eV each for injection barrier and mobility. Finally, we also discuss the broader applicability of this method for other device stacks and material combinations.

  7. Polynomial potentials determined from the energy spectrum and transition dipole moments that give the largest hyperpolarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Nathan J.; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2016-12-01

    We attempt to get a polynomial solution to the inverse problem, that is, to determine the form of the mechanical Hamiltonian when given the energy spectrum and transition dipole moment matrix. Our approach is to determine the potential in the form of a polynomial by finding an approximate solution to the inverse problem, then to determine the hyperpolarizability for that system's Hamiltonian. We find that the largest hyperpolarizabilities approach the apparent limit of previous potential optimization studies, but we do not find real potentials for the parameter values necessary to exceed this apparent limit. We also explore half potentials with positive exponent, which cannot be expressed as a polynomial except for integer powers. This yields a simple closed potential with only one parameter that scans nearly the full range of the intrinsic hyperpolarizability. The limiting case of vanishing exponent yields the largest intrinsic hyperpolarizability.

  8. Pitch-angle Scattering of Energetic Charged Particles in Nearly Constant Magnitude Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, P.; Jokipii, J. R.; Giacalone, J.

    2016-08-01

    We use a method developed by Roberts that optimizes the phase angles of an ensemble of plane waves with amplitudes determined from a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum, to construct magnetic field vector fluctuations having nearly constant magnitude and large variances in its components. This is a representation of the turbulent magnetic field consistent with that observed in the solar wind. Charged-particle pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are determined by integrating the equations of motion for a large number of charged particles moving under the influence of forces from our predefined magnetic field. We tested different cases by varying the kinetic energy of the particles (E p) and the turbulent magnetic field variance ({σ }B2). For each combination of E p and {σ }B2, we tested three different models: (1) the so-called “slab” model, where the turbulent magnetic field depends on only one spatial coordinate and has significant fluctuations in its magnitude (b=\\sqrt{δ {B}x2(z)+δ {B}y2(z)+{B}02}) (2) the slab model optimized with nearly constant magnitude b; and (3) the slab model turbulent magnetic field with nearly constant magnitude plus a “variance-conserving” adjustment. In the last case, this model attempts to conserve the variance of the turbulent components ({σ }{Bx}2+{σ }{By}2), which is found to decrease during the optimization with nearly constant magnitude. We found that there is little or no effect on the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient {D}μ μ between models 1 and 2. However, the result from model 3 is significantly different. We also introduce a new method to accurately determine the pitch-angle diffusion coefficients as a function of μ.

  9. Threshold magnitude for Ionospheric TEC response to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevalova, N. P.; Sankov, V. A.; Astafyeva, E. I.; Zhupityaeva, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    We have analyzed ionospheric response to earthquakes with magnitudes of 4.1-8.8 which occurred under quiet geomagnetic conditions in different regions of the world (the Baikal region, Kuril Islands, Japan, Greece, Indonesia, China, New Zealand, Salvador, and Chile). This investigation relied on measurements of total electron content (TEC) variations made by ground-based dual-frequency GPS receivers. To perform the analysis, we selected earthquakes with permanent GPS stations installed close by. Data processing has revealed that after 4.1-6.3-magnitude earthquakes wave disturbances in TEC variations are undetectable. We have thoroughly analyzed publications over the period of 1965-2013 which reported on registration of wave TIDs after earthquakes. This analysis demonstrated that the magnitude of the earthquakes having a wave response in the ionosphere was no less than 6.5. Based on our results and on the data from other researchers, we can conclude that there is a threshold magnitude (near 6.5) below which there are no pronounced earthquake-induced wave TEC disturbances. The probability of detection of post-earthquake TIDs with a magnitude close to the threshold depends strongly on geophysical conditions. In addition, reliable identification of the source of such TIDs generally requires many GPS stations in an earthquake zone. At low magnitudes, seismic energy is likely to be insufficient to generate waves in the neutral atmosphere which are able to induce TEC disturbances observable at the level of background fluctuations.

  10. A probabilistic neural network for earthquake magnitude prediction.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Hojjat; Panakkat, Ashif

    2009-09-01

    A probabilistic neural network (PNN) is presented for predicting the magnitude of the largest earthquake in a pre-defined future time period in a seismic region using eight mathematically computed parameters known as seismicity indicators. The indicators considered are the time elapsed during a particular number (n) of significant seismic events before the month in question, the slope of the Gutenberg-Richter inverse power law curve for the n events, the mean square deviation about the regression line based on the Gutenberg-Richter inverse power law for the n events, the average magnitude of the last n events, the difference between the observed maximum magnitude among the last n events and that expected through the Gutenberg-Richter relationship known as the magnitude deficit, the rate of square root of seismic energy released during the n events, the mean time or period between characteristic events, and the coefficient of variation of the mean time. Prediction accuracies of the model are evaluated using three different statistical measures: the probability of detection, the false alarm ratio, and the true skill score or R score. The PNN model is trained and tested using data for the Southern California region. The model yields good prediction accuracies for earthquakes of magnitude between 4.5 and 6.0. The PNN model presented in this paper complements the recurrent neural network model developed by the authors previously, where good results were reported for predicting earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.0.

  11. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the "mitosis" or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  12. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George; Hunt, Patricia A.; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-12-28

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the “mitosis” or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  13. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Gabriel V; Hunt, Patricia A; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George; Ford, Ian J

    2015-12-28

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the "mitosis" or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  14. Determination of Interfacial Free Energy of Goethite Nanoparticles using Diffraction-based Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fernando, S.; Baynes, M.; Chen, B.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Goethite nanoparticles with equivalent crystal sizes of ~ 9 - 38 nm were synthesized via reactions of ferric nitrate with potassium / sodium hydroxide in aqueous solutions. Silicon internal standard was used in determination of the lattice parameters of the synthesized samples at ambient conditions. The lattice parameters were derived from Rietveld analyses. Synchrotron high-pressure XRD (HPXRD) was used to determine the bulk modulus of selected goethite samples. Size-dependent bulk modulus is used for deduction of size-dependent surface stress and surface free energy. A sample was loaded into a diamond anvil cell and compressed to a required pressure (up to tens of GPa) for XRD at ALS 12.2.2 synchrotron beamline station. Data were collected and analyzed to get the lattice parameters of nano-goethite at different pressures. From fits to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the bulk modulus of nano-goethite was obtained. Ambient XRD shows that as the particle size decreases, the goethite unit cell (Pnma space group) contracts in the two long sides a and c, but expands in the short side b. Overall, the unit cell volume decreases with decreasing particle size. The higher surface stress exerting on smaller nanoparticles causes the larger shrink in the unit cell, which is used for derivation of the surface stress. HPXRD measurements showed that the bulk modulus of nano-goethite increases as the particle size decreases, probably due to pressure-induced enhancement of dislocation contents in fine nanoparticles. Intervene of dislocations near nanoparticle surface and gain boundaries can make the nanoparticles stiffer. From the determined unit cell volume and bulk modulus as a function of particle size, both the surface stress and the surface free energy of goethite nanoparticles as a function of particle size were derived using equations derived previously (Zhang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2009, 11, 2553). The two quantities exhibit maximum at a certain size. Above

  15. First determination of the (re)crystallization activation energy of an irradiated olivine-type silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, Z.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Leroux, H.; Jones, A. P.; Borg, J.; Deboffle, D.; Chauvin, N.

    2005-09-01

    To study the evolution of silicate dust in different astrophysical environments we simulate, in the laboratory, interstellar and circumstellar ion irradiation and thermal annealing processes. An experimental protocol that follows different steps in the dust life-cycle was developed. Using the silicate 10 μm band as an indicator, the evolution of the structural properties of an ion-irradiated olivine-type silicate sample, as a function of temperature, is investigated and an activation energy for crystallization is determined. The obtained value of {E_a}/k = 41 700 ± 2400 K is in good agreement with previous determinations of the activation energies of crystallization reported for non-ion-irradiated, amorphous silicates. This implies that the crystallization process is independent of the history of the dust. In particular, the defect concentration due to irradiation appears not to play a major role in stimulating, or hindering, crystallization at a given temperature. This activation energy is an important thermodynamical parameter that must be used in theoretical models which aim to explain the dust evolution from its place of birth in late type stars to its incorporation into young stellar environments, proto-stellar discs and proto-planetary systems after long passage through the interstellar medium.

  16. Experimental determination of the deuterium binding energy with vacancies in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, M.; Ryabtsev, S.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Pisarev, A.

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) interaction with vacancies in tungsten (W) was studied using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In order to obtain a TDS spectrum with a prominent peak corresponding to D release from vacancies, a special procedure comprising damaging of a recrystallized W sample by low fluences of 10 keV/D ions, its annealing, and subsequent low-energy ion implantation, was utilized. This experimental sequence was performed several times in series; the only difference was the TDS heating rate that varied in the range of 0.15-4 K/s. The sum of the D binding energy (Eb) with vacancies and the activation energy for D diffusion (ED) in W was then directly determined from the slope of the Arrhenius-like plot ln(β / Tm2) versus 1/Tm, where β - heating rate and Tm - position of the respective peak in the TDS spectrum. The determined value of Eb + ED was 1.56 ± 0.06 eV.

  17. Determination of Duty Cycle for Energy Storage Systems in a PV Smoothing Application

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, David A.; Ellison, James

    2016-04-01

    This report supplements the document, "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems," issued in a revised version in April 2016 (see [4]), which will include the photovoltaic (PV) smoothing application for an energy storage system (ESS). This report provides the background and documentation associated with the determination of a duty cycle for an ESS operated in a PV smoothing application for the purpose of measuring and expressing ESS performance in accordance with the ESS performance protocol. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Dr. Imre Gyuk, program manager for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program. The authors would also like to express their appreciation to all the stakeholders who participated as members of the PV Smoothing Subgroup. Without their thoughtful input and recommendations, the definitions, metrics, and duty cycle provided in this report would not have been possible. A complete listing of members of the PV Smoothing Subgroup appears in the first chapter of this report. Special recognition should go to the staffs at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in collaborating on this effort. In particular, Mr. David Conover and Dr. Vish Viswanathan of PNNL and Dr. Summer Ferreira of SNL were especially helpful in their suggestions for the determination of a duty cycle for the PV Smoothing application.

  18. Quantum Mechanical Determination of Potential Energy Surfaces for TiO and H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss current ab initio methods for determining potential energy surfaces, in relation to the TiO and H2O molecules, both of which make important contributions to the opacity of oxygen-rich stars. For the TiO molecule we discuss the determination of the radiative lifetimes of the excited states and band oscillator strengths for both the triplet and singlet band systems. While the theoretical radiative lifetimes for TiO agree well with recent measurements, the band oscillator strengths differ significantly from those currently employed in opacity calculations. For the H2O molecule we discuss the current results for the potential energy and dipole moment ground state surfaces generated at NASA Ames. We show that it is necessary to account for such effects as core-valence Correlation energy to generate a PES of near spectroscopic accuracy. We also describe how we solve the ro-vibrational problem to obtain the line positions and intensities that are needed for opacity sampling.

  19. Macro creatine kinase: determination and differentiation of two types by their activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W.; Bohner, J.; Steinhart, R.; Eggstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction may be disturbed by the presence of macro creatine kinase. The relative molecular mass of this form of creatine kinase in human serum is at least threefold that of the ordinary enzyme, and it is more thermostable. Here we describe our method for determination of macro creatine kinases and an easy-to-perform test for differentiating two forms of macro creatine kinase, based on their distinct activation energies. The activation energies of serum enzymes are mostly in the range of 40-65 kJ/mol of substrate. Unlike normal cytoplasmatic creatine kinases and IgG-linked CK-BB (macro creatine kinase type 1) a second form of macro creatine kinase (macro creatine kinase type 2) shows activation energies greater than 80 kJ/mol of substrate. The exact composition of macro creatine kinase type 2 is still unknown, but there is good reason to believe that it is of mitochondrial origin.

  20. Quantum Mechanical Determination of Potential Energy Surfaces for TiO and H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss current ab initio methods for determining potential energy surfaces, in relation to the TiO and H2O molecules, both of which make important contributions to the opacity of oxygen-rich stars. For the TiO molecule we discuss the determination of the radiative lifetimes of the excited states and band oscillator strengths for both the triplet and singlet band systems. While the theoretical radiative lifetimes for TiO agree well with recent measurements, the band oscillator strengths differ significantly from those currently employed in opacity calculations. For the H2O molecule we discuss the current results for the potential energy and dipole moment ground state surfaces generated at NASA Ames. We show that it is necessary to account for such effects as core-valence Correlation energy to generate a PES of near spectroscopic accuracy. We also describe how we solve the ro-vibrational problem to obtain the line positions and intensities that are needed for opacity sampling.

  1. Estimation of the magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine historical earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Maria Leonila P.; Oike, Kazuo

    2000-02-01

    The magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine earthquakes from 1589 to 1895 are estimated based on the review, evaluation and interpretation of historical accounts and descriptions. The first step involves the determination of magnitude-felt area relations for the Philippines for use in the magnitude estimation. Data used were the earthquake reports of 86, recent, shallow events with well-described effects and known magnitude values. Intensities are assigned according to the modified Mercalli intensity scale of I to XII. The areas enclosed by Intensities III to IX [ A(III) to A(IX)] are measured and related to magnitude values. The most robust relations are found for magnitudes relating to A(VI), A(VII), A(VIII) and A(IX). Historical earthquake data are obtained from primary sources in libraries in the Philippines and Spain. Most of these accounts were made by Spanish priests and officials stationed in the Philippines during the 15th to 19th centuries. More than 3000 events are catalogued, interpreted and their intensities determined by considering the possible effects of local site conditions, type of construction and the number and locations of existing towns to assess completeness of reporting. Of these events, 485 earthquakes with the largest number of accounts or with at least a minimum report of damage are selected. The historical epicenters are estimated based on the resulting generalized isoseismal maps augmented by information on recent seismicity and location of known tectonic structures. Their magnitudes are estimated by using the previously determined magnitude-felt area equations for recent events. Although historical epicenters are mostly found to lie on known tectonic structures, a few, however, are found to lie along structures that show not much activity during the instrumented period. A comparison of the magnitude distributions of historical and recent events showed that only the period 1850 to 1900 may be considered well-reported in terms of

  2. Determination of the Solid-Liquid Interface Energy in the Al-Cu-Ag System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, A.; Carreno-Bodensiek, C.; Pustal, B.; Berger, R.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.; Ludwig, A.

    2007-09-01

    The solid-liquid interface energy, σ SL , is of major importance during phase transformation. It has a strong influence on solidification morphologies and the final grain structure. The “grain boundary groove in an applied temperature gradient” method developed by Gündüz et al.[6] was found to be suitable for measuring the solid-liquid interface energy in ternary alloy systems (e.g., Al-Cu-Ag). In order to measure the solid-liquid interface energy, a radial heat flow apparatus was constructed and assembled. This apparatus ensures a stable temperature gradient for hours and leads to grain boundary grooves in chemical equilibrium. After rapid quenching, the samples were metallographically prepared and the local curvature of the grooves was analyzed. To determine the interface energy, the Gibbs Thomson equation was used, which requires the local curvature of the grain boundary grooves and the adherent local undercooling obtained from heat flux simulations on the scale of the grooves.

  3. A classical determination of vibrationally adiabatic barriers and wells of a collinear potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, Eli

    1981-05-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a classical vibrationally adiabatic barrier or well in collinear systems is the existence of periodic orbit dividing surfaces. Knowledge of all pods immediately provides all adiabatic barriers and wells. Furthermore, the classical equation connecting the barriers and wells to the masses and potential energy surface of the system is shown, under mild conditions, to be identical in form to the corresponding quantal equation. The only difference is in the determination of the vibrational state which is obtained by WKB quantization classically. The classical barriers and wells can therefore be used to analyze quantal computations. Such analysis is provided for the hydrogen exchange reaction and the F+HH system. A novel result is the existence of vibrationally adiabatic barriers even where no saddle point exists on the static potential energy surface. These barriers are an outcome of competition between the increase of potential energy and decrease of vibrational force constant along the reaction coordinate. Their existence is therefore of general nature — not limited to the specific structure of a given potential energy surface. The experimental significance of these barriers is discussed. The implications on the use of forward or reverse quasiclassical computations is analyzed. A definite conclusion is that one should not average over initial vibrational action in such calculations.

  4. Determination of the displacement energy of O, Si and Zr under electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Philip D; Weber, William J; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-01-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 22} e m{sup -2} has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electron-solid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be {approx}400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  5. Determination of the Displacement Energies of O, Si and Zr Under Electron Beam Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-03-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to ~1.5 x 10²²e m² has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electron–solid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be ~400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  6. Lateral distribution and the energy determination of showers along the ankle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, G.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; De Donato, C.; del Peral, L.; Rodríguez-Frías, D.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Valdés-Galicia, J.F.; Arqueros, F.

    The normalization constant of the lateral distribution function (LDF) of an extensive air shower is a monotonous (almost linear) increasing function of the energy of the primary, as well as a monotonous decreasing function of the distance from the shower core. Therefore, the interpolated signal at some fixed distance from the core can be calibrated to estimate the energy of the shower. There is, somehow surprisingly, a reconstructed optimal distance, r_opt, at which the effects on the inferred signal, S(r_opt), of the uncertainties on true core location, LDF functional form and shower-to-shower fluctuations are minimized. We calculate the value of r_opt and study the robustness of the method as a function of surface detector separation (400 m to 1500 m), energy (0.1 EeV to 10 EeV) and zenith angle (0 to 60 deg) for a realistic distribution of core determination errors along the space parameter used. We also investigate the effects of silent and saturated stations and give a rough estimate of the systematic errors introduced by varying cosmic ray composition inside the considered energy range.

  7. B1-based specific energy absorption rate determination for nonquadrature radiofrequency excitation.

    PubMed

    Katscher, Ulrich; Findeklee, Christian; Voigt, Tobias

    2012-12-01

    The current gold standard to estimate local and global specific energy absorption rate for MRI involves numerically modeling the patient and the transmit radiofrequency coil. Recently, a patient-individual method was presented, which estimated specific energy absorption rate from individually measured B(1) maps. This method, however, was restricted to quadrature volume coils due to difficulties distinguishing phase contributions from radiofrequency transmission and reception. In this study, a method separating these two phase contributions by comparing the electric conductivity reconstructed from different transmit channels of a parallel radiofrequency transmission system is presented. This enables specific energy absorption rate estimation not only for quadrature excitation but also for the nonquadrature excitation of the single elements of the transmit array. Though the contributions of the different phases are known, unknown magnetic field components and tissue boundary artifacts limit the technique. Nevertheless, the high agreement between simulated and experimental results found in this study is promising. B(1)-based specific energy absorption rate determination might become possible for arbitrary radiofrequency excitation on a patient-individual basis.

  8. Structure of a micropipette-aspirated vesicle determined from the bending-energy model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeff Z Y

    2012-10-01

    The structure of the system consisting of an aspirating pipette and an aspirated vesicle is investigated with fixed total vesicle volume, total vesicle surface area, and aspirated volume fraction, based on the bending-energy model. Through an energetic consideration, the usage of an aspirated volume fraction can be converted to the aspirating pressure for the determination of a phase diagram; the procedure identifies a first-order transition, between a weakly aspirated state and the strongly aspirated state, as the pressure increases. The physical properties of the system are obtained from minimization of the bending energy by an implementation of the simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure, which searches for a minimum in a multivariable space. An analysis of the hysteresis effects indicates that the experimentally observed aspirating and releasing critical pressures are related to the location of the spinodal points.

  9. Determination of pulse energy dependence for skin denaturation from 585nm fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujica-Ascencio, S.; Velazquez-Gonzalez, J. S.; Mujica-Ascencio, C.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis for the determination of pulse energy from a Q-switched Yb3+-doped fibre laser is required in Port Wine Stain (PWS) treatment. The pulse energy depends on average power, gain, volume, repetition rate and pulse duration. In some treatments such as Selective Photothermolysis (SP), the peak power at the end of the optical fibre and pulse duration can be obtained and modified via a cavity design. For that purpose, a 585nm optical fibre laser full design which considers all of the above besides the average losses through the optical devices proposed for the design and the Ytterbium optical fibre overall gain will be presented.

  10. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.; Hanel, R. A.; Pirraglia, J. A.; Coustenis, A.

    1990-01-01

    The albedo, T(eff), and energy balance of Uranus are presently derived from Voyager IR Spectrometer and Radiometer data. By obtaining the absolute phase curve of Uranus, it has become possible to evaluate the Bond albedo without making separate determinations of the geometric albedo and phase integral. An orbital mean value for the bolometric Bond albedo of 0.3 + or - 0.049 yields an equilibrium temperature of 58.2 + or - 1.0 K. Thermal spectra from pole-to-pole latitude coverage establish a T(eff) of 59.1 + or - 0.3 K, leading to an energy balance of 1.06 + or - 0.08 for Uranus.

  11. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Annecke, W.

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  12. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, J.C.; Conrath, B.J.; Hanel, R.A.; Pirraglia, J.A.; Coustenis, A. Paris, Observatoire, Meudon )

    1990-03-01

    The albedo, T(eff), and energy balance of Uranus are presently derived from Voyager IR Spectrometer and Radiometer data. By obtaining the absolute phase curve of Uranus, it has become possible to evaluate the Bond albedo without making separate determinations of the geometric albedo and phase integral. An orbital mean value for the bolometric Bond albedo of 0.3 + or - 0.049 yields an equilibrium temperature of 58.2 + or - 1.0 K. Thermal spectra from pole-to-pole latitude coverage establish a T(eff) of 59.1 + or - 0.3 K, leading to an energy balance of 1.06 + or - 0.08 for Uranus. 39 refs.

  13. Determination of energy dissipation of a spider silk structure under impulsive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencastre, Jorge; Mago, Carlos; Rivera, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Various researches and studies have demonstrated that spider silk is much stronger and more deformable than a steel string of the same diameter from a mechanical approach. These excellent properties have caused many scientific disciplines to get involved, such as bio-mechanics, bio-materials and bio-mimetics, in order to create a material of similar properties and characteristics. It should be noted that the researches and studies have been oriented mainly as a quasi-static model. For this research, the analysis has taken a dynamic approach and determined the dissipation energy of a structure which is made of spider silk "Dragline" and produced by the Argiope-Argentata spider, through an analytical-experimental way, when being subjected to impulsive loading. Both experimental and analytical results, the latter obtained by using adjusted models, have given high levels of dissipation energy during the first cycle of vibration, which are consistent with the values suggested by other authors.

  14. Improved morphed potentials for Ar-HBr including scaling to the experimentally determined dissociation energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; McIntosh, A L; McElmurry, B A; Walton, J R; Lucchese, R R; Bevan, J W

    2005-09-15

    A lead salt diode infrared laser spectrometer has been employed to investigate the rotational predissociation in Ar-HBr for transitions up to J' = 79 in the v(1) HBr stretching vibration of the complex using a slit jet and static gas phase. Line-shape analysis and modeling of the predissociation lifetimes have been used to determine a ground-state dissociation energy D(0) of 130(1) cm(-1). In addition, potential energy surfaces based on ab initio calculations are scaled, shifted, and dilated to generate three-dimensional morphed potentials for Ar-HBr that reproduce the measured value of D(0) and that have predictive capabilities for spectroscopic data with nearly experimental uncertainty. Such calculations also provide a basis for making a comprehensive comparison of the different morphed potentials generated using the methodologies applied.

  15. The energy landscape of modular repeat proteins: topology determines folding mechanism in the ankyrin family.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Diego U; Cho, Samuel S; Komives, Elizabeth A; Wolynes, Peter G

    2005-12-02

    Proteins consisting of repeating amino acid motifs are abundant in all kingdoms of life, especially in higher eukaryotes. Repeat-containing proteins self-organize into elongated non-globular structures. Do the same general underlying principles that dictate the folding of globular domains apply also to these extended topologies? Using a simplified structure-based model capturing a perfectly funneled energy landscape, we surveyed the predicted mechanism of folding for ankyrin repeat containing proteins. The ankyrin family is one of the most extensively studied classes of non-globular folds. The model based only on native contacts reproduces most of the experimental observations on the folding of these proteins, including a folding mechanism that is reminiscent of a nucleation propagation growth. The confluence of simulation and experimental results suggests that the folding of non-globular proteins is accurately described by a funneled energy landscape, in which topology plays a determinant role in the folding mechanism.

  16. Log-Gamma Polymer Free Energy Fluctuations via a Fredholm Determinant Identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Remenik, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    We prove that under n 1/3 scaling, the limiting distribution as n → ∞ of the free energy of Seppäläinen’s log-Gamma discrete directed polymer is GUE Tracy-Widom. The main technical innovation we provide is a general identity between a class of n-fold contour integrals and a class of Fredholm determinants. Applying this identity to the integral formula proved in Corwin et al. (Tropical combinatorics and Whittaker functions. http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3489v3 [math.PR], 2012) for the Laplace transform of the log-Gamma polymer partition function, we arrive at a Fredholm determinant which lends itself to asymptotic analysis (and thus yields the free energy limit theorem). The Fredholm determinant was anticipated in Borodin and Corwin (Macdonald processes. http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.4408v3 [math.PR], 2012) via the formalism of Macdonald processes yet its rigorous proof was so far lacking because of the nontriviality of certain decay estimates required by that approach.

  17. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  18. Magnitude Anomalies and Propagation of Local Phases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    statistically significant variation of magnitude anomalies versus one of this above parameters. A contrario, we observed a significant dependance between...enough to demand a more detailed analysis. III - Local dependance of magnitude anomalies. A smoothing of our data on all quakes originating in the same

  19. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  20. Representations of the Magnitudes of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However,…

  1. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  2. Reward magnitude effects on temporal discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate a short (2 s) vs. a long (8 s) signal followed by testing with intermediate durations. Then, the reward on short or long trials was increased from 1 to 4 pellets in separate groups. Experiment 2 measured the effect of different reward magnitudes associated with the short vs. long signals throughout training. Finally, Experiment 3 controlled for satiety effects during the reward magnitude manipulation phase. A general flattening of the psychophysical function was evident in all three experiments, suggesting that unequal reward magnitudes may disrupt attention to duration. PMID:24965705

  3. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Ryan A; Rovey, Joshua L; Pommerenke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of [Formula: see text] probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two [Formula: see text] probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first [Formula: see text] probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% [Formula: see text] at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% [Formula: see text] at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface

  4. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The

  5. Spallation Neutron Energy Spectrum Determination with Yttrium as a Threshold Detector on U/Pb-assembly ``Energy plus Transmutation''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilim, S.; Bielewicz, M.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Szuta, M.; Wojciechowski, A.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Adam, I.; Krasa, A.; Majerle, M.; Wagner, V.

    Results of two experiments with Yttrium-89 samples on U/Pb-assembly “Energy plus Transmutation” [1] are presented. The assembly is a lead cylindrical target (8.4 cm diameter, 45.6 cm length) with natural uranium blanket (206.4 kg). The lead target was irradiated with JINR Dubna NUCLOTRON with 1.60 and 2.52 GeV deuteron beam. The final purpose of the experiments was to measure neutron field inside the assembly. Yttrium-89 activation detectors were located throughout the entire U/Pb-assembly. Irradiated sample gamma activity was measured with HPGe spectrometer. The gamma spectra were analyzed and the net peak areas were calculated using the DEIMOS program [2]. After short presentation of the activation results neutron spectrum determination method is proposed and its results presented. Assuming reaction model through compound nucleus and using some mathematical tricks Yttrium isotope “k ” production rate discrete formula I_k = Nintlimits_{E_{thr,k} }^infty {φ left( E right)σ _k left( {E,E_{thr} } right)} dE was transformed into Volterra's integral equation of the first kind and then solved. The method and its applicability still to be discussed. The results as the preliminary ones are for illustrative purpose only.

  6. Spallation Neutron Energy Spectrum Determination with Yttrium as a Threshold Detector on U/Pb-assembly "Energy plus Transmutation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilim, S.; Bielewicz, M.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Szuta, M.; Wojciechowski, A.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Adam, I.; Krasa, A.; Majerle, M.; Wagner, V.

    Results of two experiments with Yttrium-89 samples on U/Pb-assembly "Energy plus Transmutation" [1] are presented. The assembly is a lead cylindrical target (8.4 cm diameter, 45.6 cm length) with natural uranium blanket (206.4 kg). The lead target was irradiated with JINR Dubna NUCLOTRON with 1.60 and 2.52 GeV deuteron beam. The final purpose of the experiments was to measure neutron field inside the assembly. Yttrium-89 activation detectors were located throughout the entire U/Pb-assembly. Irradiated sample gamma activity was measured with HPGe spectrometer. The gamma spectra were analyzed and the net peak areas were calculated using the DEIMOS program [2]. After short presentation of the activation results neutron spectrum determination method is proposed and its results presented. Assuming reaction model through compound nucleus and using some mathematical tricks Yttrium isotope "k " production rate discrete formula I_k = Nintlimits_{E_{thr,k} }^infty {φ left( E right)σ _k left( {E,E_{thr} } right)} dE was transformed into Volterra's integral equation of the first kind and then solved. The method and its applicability still to be discussed. The results as the preliminary ones are for illustrative purpose only.

  7. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  8. A new method to determine optimum temperature and activation energies for enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, M; Miłek, J

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of the optimum temperature and activation energies based on an idea of the average rate of enzymatic reaction has been developed. A mathematical model describing the effect of temperature on a dimensionless activity for enzyme deactivation following the first-order kinetics has been derived. The necessary condition for existence of the function extreme of the optimal temperature has been applied in the model. The developed method has been verified using the experimental data for inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus.

  9. Child prostitution: magnitude and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, T; Berhane, Y

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopia, very little is known about prostitution in general and about child prostitution in particular. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of child prostitution and to identify problems associated with it. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. A total of 650 commercial sex workers were interviewed. Eighty eight (13.5%) were below the age of 18 years at the time of data collection. At the time of joining prostitution 268 (41.2%) were under 18 years of age. Poverty, disagreement with family, and peer influence were the major reasons leading to prostitution. Child prostitutes were likely to be victim of physical violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 1.93(1.18,3.15)] and sexual violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 2.20(1.36,3.35)] compared to adult prostitutes. Child prostitutes were about five times more likely to desire rejoining their family than the adult prostitutes [OR = (95% C.I) = 5.47(3.01;9.93)]. Strategies need to be developed to rescue child prostitutes from on-job violence, and to establish a rehabilitation program for those interested to discontinue prostitution along with efforts to minimize entry into prostitution.

  10. Complete description of ionization energy and electron affinity in organic solids: Determining contributions from electronic polarization, energy band dispersion, and molecular orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuto; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Sato, Naoki

    2015-08-01

    Ionization energy and electron affinity in organic solids are understood in terms of a single molecule perturbed by solid-state effects such as polarization energy, band dispersion, and molecular orientation as primary factors. However, no work has been done to determine the individual contributions experimentally. In this work, the electron affinities of thin films of pentacene and perfluoropentacene with different molecular orientations are determined to a precision of 0.1 eV using low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy. Based on the precisely determined electron affinities in the solid state together with the corresponding data of the ionization energies and other energy parameters, we quantitatively evaluate the contribution of these effects. It turns out that the bandwidth as well as the polarization energy contributes to the ionization energy and electron affinity in the solid state while the effect of the surface dipole is at most a few eV and does not vary with the molecular orientation. As a result, we conclude that the molecular orientation dependence of the ionization energy and electron affinity of organic solids originates from the orientation-dependent polarization energy in the film.

  11. Apparatus and method for determining the position of a radiant energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, G. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The position of a terrestrial RF source is determined from a geostationary, synchronous satellite by scanning the beam of a narrow beam width antenna in first and second orthogonal directions over a region including the source. The peak level of energy transduced by the antenna in each of the scanning directions is detected and correlated with the scanning position of the beam by feeding the output of a detector responsive to the transduced signal to an indicator of an X-Y recorder. The X and Y axes of the recorder are scanned in synchronism with the beam being respectively scanned in the first and second directions to form X and Y traces on which are indicated the detected peak position in each of the scanning directions. The source position is determined from an intersection of lines drawn parallel to the X and Y axes and including the detected peak position of each trace.

  12. Local magnitude calibration of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordilis, E. M.; Kementzetzidou, D.; Papazachos, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    A new relation is proposed for accurate determination of local magnitudes in Greece. This relation is based on a large number of synthetic Wood-Anderson (SWA) seismograms corresponding to 782 regional shallow earthquakes which occurred during the period 2007-2013 and recorded by 98 digital broad-band stations. These stations are installed and operated by the following: (a) the National Observatory of Athens (HL), (b) the Department of Geophysics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (HT), (c) the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens (HA), and (d) the Seismological Laboratory of the Patras University (HP). The seismological networks of the above institutions constitute the recently (2004) established Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN). These records are used to calculate a refined geometrical spreading factor and an anelastic attenuation coefficient, representative for Greece and surrounding areas, proper for accurate calculation of local magnitudes in this region. Individual station corrections depending on the crustal structure variations in their vicinity and possible inconsistencies in instruments responses are also considered in order to further ameliorate magnitude estimation accuracy. Comparison of such calculated local magnitudes with corresponding original moment magnitudes, based on an independent dataset, revealed that these magnitude scales are equivalent for a wide range of values.

  13. Energy Loss Calculations for Target Thickness Determinations using SRIM and Excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, A. S.; Greene, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    The thickness of a thin target foil can be determined by measuring the energy loss of alpha particles that travel through it. In the Target Laboratory of the Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), this is accomplished by measuring the energy loss of the 5812 keV alpha particles emitted by a 2 49 Cf source using a silicon detector set-up. The energy loss is translated into the target foil thickness using the stopping power for 4He in the target material obtained from the stopping/range tables provided by SRIM. This calculation has until recently been carried out using a program developed for this purpose, ``ENELOSS.'' This program uses the stopping/range tables from the original work published by Ziegler. Additionally, due to its design, ENELOSS is unable to easily accommodate targets made from compounds. In order to perform theses measurements using the most recent SRIM data, and to better calculate the thickness of compound targets, we have developed a ``Thickness Calculation'' spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel. This spreadsheet approach is not limited to elemental targets and employs stopping/range tables from the most recent edition of SRIM available on the web. The calculations obtained allow for more accurate target thicknesses and automates the process conveniently for repetitive measurements. This work was supported by the U.S. DoE, Nuclear Physics Division, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38.

  14. Determination of the Activation Energy of Copper During In Situ Tension Testing by SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, D. Morán; Garfias-García, E.; Muñoz-Andrade, J. D.

    Following the polycrystalline flow study of a commercial copper during in situ tension testing was done with a special module coupled with SEM-SUPRA equipment and also by tension testing using an Instron machine. All the experiments were done with a constant crosshead velocity of V c = 0. 19 mm/min, at room temperature. The activation energy for plastic flow was obtained by using the quantum mechanics and relativistic model, proposed by Muñoz-Andrade. The true activation energy (Q ⊥ ) for plastic flow during axial tension testing at constant crosshead velocity, in a Universal Tension Machine, was calculated with an average value of 122.76 kJ/mol. Additionally, direct observation during five steps of deformation using a special Kammrath & Weiss Company module, coupled with SEM-SUPRA, with a total deformation of ɛ = 0. 0908, establishes that the trajectory of the crystals during the irreversible deformation process follows a hyperbolic motion. It was observed that the polycrystalline irreversible deformations are promoted by two coupled mechanisms, including dislocation dynamics at inner individual crystals and granular group movement, called cellular dislocations. The true activation energy related to the cellular dislocation dynamics was determinate with a value between 100.16 and 106.55 KJ/mol.

  15. Determining irrigation needs of sorghum from two-source energy balance and radiometric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, J. M.; López-Urrea, R.; Rubio, E.; Caselles, V.

    2011-04-01

    Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET) can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB) model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of ±0.14 mm h-1 and ±1.0 mm d-1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Accumulated crop water use during the campaign resulted 500 mm versus the total 524 mm measured by the lysimeter. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.

  16. Determining water use of sorghum from two-source energy balance and radiometric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, J. M.; López-Urrea, R.; Rubio, E.; Caselles, V.

    2011-10-01

    Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET) can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB) model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of ±0.14 mm h-1 and ±1.0 mm d-1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Total accumulated crop water use during the campaign was underestimated by 5%. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.

  17. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four (4) experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The identifica tion plate on the lower right corner of the experiment mounting plate identifies the experiments location and orientation in the experiment tray. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, consist of a primary experiment and three (3) sub experiments mounted on an aluminum mount ing plate. The primary experiment components include six (6) stacks of CR-39 passive detectors in individual aluminum housings and an aluminum mounting structure, configured to provide the desired exposure for the detector stacks. The secondary experiments consist of the Neutron and Proton Activation experiment that expose metal samples to the ambient flux throughout the mis sion, the Microsphere Dosimetry experiment housed in a cylindrical aluminum container and the Flux Measurement by Ion Trapping experiment consisting of a variety of sample materials that are exposed to the space environment for the total mission. The exterior surfaces of the mounting plate, the experiment housings and the support structure are coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint.The experiment is assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners and safety wire.

  18. Sample thickness determination by scanning transmission electron microscopy at low electron energies.

    PubMed

    Volkenandt, Tobias; Müller, Erich; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2014-02-01

    Sample thickness is a decisive parameter for any quantification of image information and composition in transmission electron microscopy. In this context, we present a method to determine the local sample thickness by scanning transmission electron microscopy at primary energies below 30 keV. The image intensity is measured with respect to the intensity of the incident electron beam and can be directly compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Screened Rutherford and Mott scattering cross-sections are evaluated with respect to fitting experimental data with simulated image intensities as a function of the atomic number of the sample material and primary electron energy. The presented method is tested for sample materials covering a wide range of atomic numbers Z, that is, fluorenyl hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (Z = 3.5), carbon (Z = 6), silicon (Z = 14), gallium nitride (Z = 19), and tungsten (Z = 74). Investigations were conducted for two primary energies (15 and 30 keV) and a sample thickness range between 50 and 400 nm.

  19. A novel determination of energy expenditure efficiency during a balance task using accelerometers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Caña-Pino, Alejandro; Apolo-Arenas, Maria Dolores; Moral-Blanco, Javier; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis

    2017-08-18

    The objectives of this study are to determine the displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and its association with the spectral energy density of the acceleration required for the maintenance of postural balance in different standing positions in healthy participants using design observational and setting laboratorial studies. Participants were 30 healthy university students aged between 18 and 32 years old (mean [M] ± standard deviation [SD] = 21,57 ± 3,31 years). Triaxial accelerometer and a pressure platform were used in order to obtain energy spectral density and CoP sway measurements during four balance tasks. Statistically significant differences were found for anteroposterior (p = 0.002) and mediolateral (p = 0.009) CoP displacement between the conditions eyes closed and stable surface and the conditions eyes closed and unstable surface. A statistically significant correlation was also observed between Z-axis (anterior-posterior) of the accelerometer and mediolateral axis of the CoP (r = 0.465; p = 0.01) and between Y-axis accelerometer (mediolateral) and displacement of the CoP in the anteroposterior axis (r = 0.413; p = 0.023). Spectral energy density appears to be associated with the displacement of CoP in healthy participants.

  20. Experimental determination of one- and two-neutron separation energies for neutron-rich copper isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mian; Wei, Hui-Ling; Song, Yi-Dan; Ma, Chun-Wang

    2017-09-01

    A method is proposed to determine the one-neutron Sn or two-neutron S2n separation energy of neutron-rich isotopes. Relationships between Sn (S2n) and isotopic cross sections have been deduced from an empirical formula, i.e., the cross section of an isotope exponentially depends on the average binding energy per nucleon B/A. The proposed relationships have been verified using the neutron-rich copper isotopes measured in the 64A MeV 86Kr + 9Be reaction. Sn, S2n, and B/A for the very neutron-rich 77,78,79Cu isotopes are determined from the proposed correlations. It is also proposed that the correlations between Sn, S2n and isotopic cross sections can be used to find the location of neutron drip line isotopes. Supported by Program for Science and Technology Innovation Talents at Universities of Henan Province (13HASTIT046), Natural and Science Foundation in Henan Province (162300410179), Program for the Excellent Youth at Henan Normal University (154100510007) and Y-D Song thanks the support from the Creative Experimental Project of National Undergraduate Students (CEPNU 201510476017)

  1. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources.

  2. Free energy for blue copper protein unfolding determined by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, V; Foti, S; La Rosa, C; Saletti, R; Canters, G W; Verbeet, M P

    2001-01-01

    An electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometric method for the determination of the free energy (DeltaG) of unfolding of proteins is described. The method was tested using three blue copper proteins: wild type azurin, Cys-3Ala/Cys-26Ala (C3A/C26A) azurin mutant and wild-type amicyanin. The time course of the denaturation process of the proteins dissolved in methanol/water (50:50, v/v, pH 3.5) was followed by recording ESI mass spectra at time intervals. The spectra showed two series of peaks, corresponding to the native holo-protein and the unfolded apo-protein. From the intensity ratio of these two series of peaks at increasing time and at equilibrium, the free energy for the unfolding process for the three proteins could be determined. To evaluate the reliability of the thermodynamic data obtained by the ESI mass spectrometric approach, the denaturation process was followed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. The two sets of data obtained by these independent methods were in good agreement indicating that the ESI-MS approach can be used to obtain reliable quantitative information about the protein unfolding process. In principle, this approach can be applied to other proteins and requires very low amounts of sample, due to the intrinsic sensitivity of mass spectrometry. This may prove particularly useful when the amount of sample available prevents the use of current methods.

  3. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria’s waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria’s waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap-1. In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap-1 a-1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita. PMID:27474393

  4. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    PubMed

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap(-1). In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap(-1) a(-1) for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  5. Quantitative determination and classification of energy drinks using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Anita; Héberger, Károly; Fodor, Marietta

    2016-09-01

    Almost a hundred commercially available energy drink samples from Hungary, Slovakia, and Greece were collected for the quantitative determination of their caffeine and sugar content with FT-NIR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calibration models were built with partial least-squares regression (PLSR). An HPLC-UV method was used to measure the reference values for caffeine content, while sugar contents were measured with the Schoorl method. Both the nominal sugar content (as indicated on the cans) and the measured sugar concentration were used as references. Although the Schoorl method has larger error and bias, appropriate models could be developed using both references. The validation of the models was based on sevenfold cross-validation and external validation. FT-NIR analysis is a good candidate to replace the HPLC-UV method, because it is much cheaper than any chromatographic method, while it is also more time-efficient. The combination of FT-NIR with multidimensional chemometric techniques like PLSR can be a good option for the detection of low caffeine concentrations in energy drinks. Moreover, three types of energy drinks that contain (i) taurine, (ii) arginine, and (iii) none of these two components were classified correctly using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Such classifications are important for the detection of adulterated samples and for quality control, as well. In this case, more than a hundred samples were used for the evaluation. The classification was validated with cross-validation and several randomization tests (X-scrambling). Graphical Abstract The way of energy drinks from cans to appropriate chemometric models.

  6. Determination of Radiation Energy Response for Thermoluminescent Dosimeter TLD-100: Determination of Organ Dose in Diagnostic Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Deda, Antoneta; Telhaj, Ervis

    2009-04-19

    TLD-100 (thermoluminescent dosimeter) cards (chips) were calibrated using X-rays with energies of 25-250 kV produced by a Cs-137 source. The energy responses of lithium fluoride crystals for different energies of X-rays were studied. QA/QC was then performed in the Albanian Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory. Based on the QA/QC results, the chips were used to study the doses to different organs in diagnostic radiology. Organ dose was evaluated after calculation of e dose in air (Kair), using an ionizing chamber.

  7. Measurement of continuous x-radiation and determination of the energy distribution function of high-energy electrons from an ECR plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardi, Karl

    1980-02-12

    Investigations were made on the x-radiation emitted by a plasma. The methods applied here represent a further development of experimental and numerical methods used hitherto for determining the bremsstrahlung emitted by a plasma, and makes possible a more precise determination of the high-energy electron component of a plasma.

  8. Timing and magnitude of peak height velocity and peak tissue velocities for early, average, and late maturing boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Iuliano-Burns, S; Mirwald, R L; Bailey, D A

    2001-01-01

    Height, weight, and tissue accrual were determined in 60 male and 53 female adolescents measured annually over six years using standard anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Annual velocities were derived, and the ages and magnitudes of peak height and peak tissue velocities were determined using a cubic spline fit to individual data. Individuals were rank ordered on the basis of sex and age at peak height velocity (PHV) and then divided into quartiles: early (lowest quartile), average (middle two quartiles), and late (highest quartile) maturers. Sex- and maturity-related comparisons in ages and magnitudes of peak height and peak tissue velocities were made. Males reached peak velocities significantly later than females for all tissues and had significantly greater magnitudes at peak. The age at PHV was negatively correlated with the magnitude of PHV in both sexes. At a similar maturity point (age at PHV) there were no differences in weight or fat mass among maturity groups in both sexes. Late maturing males, however, accrued more bone mineral and lean mass and were taller at the age of PHV compared to early maturers. Thus, maturational status (early, average, or late maturity) as indicated by age at PHV is inversely related to the magnitude of PHV in both sexes. At a similar maturational point there are no differences between early and late maturers for weight and fat mass in boys and girls.

  9. Quantitative Förster resonance energy transfer analysis for kinetic determinations of SUMO-specific protease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Song, Yang; Madahar, Vipul; Liao, Jiayu

    2012-03-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology has been widely used in biological and biomedical research, and it is a very powerful tool for elucidating protein interactions in either dynamic or steady state. SUMOylation (the process of SUMO [small ubiquitin-like modifier] conjugation to substrates) is an important posttranslational protein modification with critical roles in multiple biological processes. Conjugating SUMO to substrates requires an enzymatic cascade. Sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) act as an endopeptidase to process the pre-SUMO or as an isopeptidase to deconjugate SUMO from its substrate. To fully understand the roles of SENPs in the SUMOylation cycle, it is critical to understand their kinetics. Here, we report a novel development of a quantitative FRET-based protease assay for SENP1 kinetic parameter determination. The assay is based on the quantitative analysis of the FRET signal from the total fluorescent signal at acceptor emission wavelength, which consists of three components: donor (CyPet-SUMO1) emission, acceptor (YPet) emission, and FRET signal during the digestion process. Subsequently, we developed novel theoretical and experimental procedures to determine the kinetic parameters, k(cat), K(M), and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M)) of catalytic domain SENP1 toward pre-SUMO1. Importantly, the general principles of this quantitative FRET-based protease kinetic determination can be applied to other proteases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of the moments of the photon energy spectrum in B→Xsγ decays and determination of |Vcb| and mb at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanda, C.; Urquijo, P.; Barberio, E.; Limosani, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Aushev, T.; Bahinipati, S.; Bakich, A. M.; Balagura, V.; Bedny, I.; Belous, K.; Bitenc, U.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Chang, M.-C.; Chen, A.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Choi, Y.; Dalseno, J.; Dash, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Golob, B.; Ha, H.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kapusta, P.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Kozakai, Y.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuroki, Y.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Li, J.; Liu, C.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Matyja, A.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Moloney, G. R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Noguchi, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Palka, H.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Peak, L. S.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schümann, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiya, A.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Somov, A.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tikhomirov, I.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Wedd, R.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zupanc, A.

    2008-08-01

    Using the previous Belle measurement of the inclusive photon energy in B→Xsγ decays, we determine the first and second moments of this spectrum for minimum photon energies in the B meson rest frame ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 GeV. Combining these measurements with recent Belle data on the lepton energy and hadronic mass moments in B→Xcℓν decays, we perform fits to theoretical expressions derived in the 1S and kinetic mass schemes and extract the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element Vcb, the b-quark mass, and other nonperturbative parameters. In the 1S scheme analysis we find |Vcb|=(41.56±0.68(fit)±0.08(τB))×10-3 and mb1S=(4.723±0.055)GeV. In the kinetic scheme, we obtain |Vcb|=(41.58±0.69(fit)±0.08(τB)±0.58(th))×10-3 and mbkin=(4.543±0.075)GeV.

  11. Nonlinear Susceptibility Magnitude Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G

    2015-03-15

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R(2) = 0.99, CNR = 84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R(2) > 0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI.

  12. Origin of limiting magnitude counting triangles and squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Meteor astronomers worldwide struggled for over a century with the problem of how to calibrate visual meteor counts. Although the effect of variable sky conditions was already recognized in the earliest studies of meteor counts, it took until the end of the 1940s before the limiting magnitude was commonly considered as the parameter to calibrate the sky conditions. The brilliant idea to use counting areas in the sky for limiting magnitude determination was proposed by Hugo van Woerden in the 1950s. This method is still used today and helped the IMO to fulfill the expectations of Hugo van Woerden many years after it was first published.

  13. Probable Maximum Earthquake Magnitudes for the Cascadia Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Magistrale, H.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of maximum earthquake magnitude (mx) is widely used in seismic hazard and risk analysis. However, absolute mx lacks a precise definition and cannot be determined from a finite earthquake history. The surprising magnitudes of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes showed that most methods for estimating mx underestimate the true maximum if it exists. Thus, we introduced the alternate concept of mp(T), probable maximum magnitude within a time interval T. The mp(T) can be solved using theoretical magnitude-frequency distributions such as Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR) distribution. The two TGR parameters, β-value (which equals 2/3 b-value in the GR distribution) and corner magnitude (mc), can be obtained by applying maximum likelihood method to earthquake catalogs with additional constraint from tectonic moment rate. Here, we integrate the paleoseismic data in the Cascadia subduction zone to estimate mp. The Cascadia subduction zone has been seismically quiescent since at least 1900. Fortunately, turbidite studies have unearthed a 10,000 year record of great earthquakes along the subduction zone. We thoroughly investigate the earthquake magnitude-frequency distribution of the region by combining instrumental and paleoseismic data, and using the tectonic moment rate information. To use the paleoseismic data, we first estimate event magnitudes, which we achieve by using the time interval between events, rupture extent of the events, and turbidite thickness. We estimate three sets of TGR parameters: for the first two sets, we consider a geographically large Cascadia region that includes the subduction zone, and the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda plates; for the third set, we consider a narrow geographic region straddling the subduction zone. In the first set, the β-value is derived using the GCMT catalog. In the second and third sets, the β-value is derived using both the GCMT and paleoseismic data. Next, we calculate the corresponding mc

  14. Surface Energy Determined by Inverse Gas Chromatography as a Tool to Investigate Particulate Interactions in Dry Powder Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal C; Tucker, Ian G; Stewart, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) usually contain drug particles <6 µm which agglomerate and/ or adhere on the surfaces of large carriers particles. The detachment of drug particles from carriers and de-agglomeration of drug particles into primary particles is essential for drug deposition in the deep lung. These processes are influenced by the surface energy of particles. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been used to determine the surface energy of powder particles used in DPI to characterize materials and to understand aerosolization behaviour. Early studies used an infinite dilution technique to determine nonpolar surface energy and free energy of adsorption for polar interactions separately. Although some correlations were observed with the change in nonpolar surface energy before and after micronization, milling and storage, a lack of consistency in the change of free energy of adsorption was common. Moreover, a consistent relationship between complex de-agglomeration behaviour and surface energy has not been established and there are even some examples of negative correlation. In fact, nonpolar surface energy at infinite dilution is an incomplete representation of powder surface characteristics. The techniques for measuring polar surface energy, total surface energy and surface energy distribution have provided more revealing information about surface energetics of powders. Surface energy distributions determined by IGC or surface energy analyser have been successfully used to understand energetic heterogeneity of surfaces, characterize different polymorphs and understand changes due to micronization, structural relaxation, dry coating and storage. Efforts have been made to utilize surface energy distribution data to calculate powder strength distribution and to explain complex de-agglomeration behaviour of DPI formulations.

  15. Zero Magnitude Effect for the Productivity of Triggered Tsunami Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model is applied to tsunami events to explain previously observed temporal clustering of tsunami sources. Tsunami events are defined by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) tsunami database. For the ETAS analysis, the earthquake magnitude associated with each tsunami event in the NGDC database is replaced by the primary magnitude listed in the Centennial catalog up until 1976 and in the Global CMT catalog from 1976 through 2010. Tsunamis with a submarine landslide or volcanic component are included if they are accompanied by an earthquake, which is most often the case. Tsunami size is used as a mark for determining a tsunami-generating event, according to a minimum completeness level. The tsunami catalog is estimated to be complete for tsunami sizes greater than 1 m since 1900 and greater than 0.1 m since 1960. Of the five parameters in the temporal ETAS model (Ogata, 1988), the parameter that scales the magnitude dependence in the productivity of triggered events is the one that is most different from ETAS parameters derived from similar earthquake catalogs. Maximum likelihood estimates of this magnitude effect parameter is essentially zero, within 95% confidence, for both the 0.1 m and 1.0 m tsunami completeness levels. To explain this result, parameter estimates are determined for the Global CMT catalog under three tsunamigenic conditions: (1) M≥7 and focal depth ≤50 km, (2) submarine location, and (3) dominant component of dip slip. Successive subcatalogs are formed from the Global CMT catalog according to each of these conditions. The high magnitude threshold for tsunamigenesis alone (subcatalog 1) does not explain the zero magnitude effect. The zero magnitude effect also does not appear to be caused the smaller number of tsunamigenic events analyzed in comparison to earthquake catalogs with a similar magnitude threshold. ETAS parameter estimates from the subcatalog (3) with all three tsunamigenic conditions

  16. Estimation of continuous object distributions from limited Fourier magnitude measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles L.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    From finite complex spectral data one can construct a continuous object with a given support that is consistent with the data. Given Fourier magnitude data only, one can choose the phases arbitrarily in the above construction. The energy in the extrapolated spectrum is phase-dependent and provides a cost function to be used in phase retrieval. The minimization process is performed iteratively, using an algorithm that can be viewed as a combination of Gerchberg-Papoulis and Fienup error reduction.

  17. Limiting Maximum Magnitude by Fault Dimensions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    A standard practise of seismic hazard modeling is to combine fault and background seismicity sources to produce a multidisciplinary source model for a region. Background sources are typically modeled with a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency distribution developed from historical seismicity catalogs, and fault sources are typically modeled with earthquakes that are limited in size by the mapped fault rupture dimensions. The combined source model typically exhibits a Gutenberg-Richter-like distribution due to there being many short faults relative to the number of longer faults. The assumption that earthquakes are limited by the mapped fault dimensions therefore appears to be consistent with the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, one of the fundamental laws of seismology. Recent studies of magnitude-frequency distributions for California and New Zealand have highlighted an excess of fault-derived earthquakes relative to the log-linear extrapolation of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship from the smaller magnitudes (known as the “bulge”). Relaxing the requirement of maximum magnitude being limited by fault dimensions is a possible solution for removing the “bulge” to produce a perfectly log-linear Gutenberg-Richter distribution. An alternative perspective is that the “bulge” does not represent a significant departure from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, and may simply be an artefact of a small earthquake dataset relative to the more plentiful data at the smaller magnitudes. In other words the uncertainty bounds of the magnitude-frequency distribution at the moderate-to-large magnitudes may be far greater than the size of the “bulge”.

  18. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  19. Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Geier, E. B.; Green, R. N.; Wielicki, B. A.; Hinton, P. OR.; Nolan, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and window (W) radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype and whether or not cloud is present. Relative errors in insta.ntaneous unfiltered radiances from this method are generally well below 1% for SW radiances (approx. 0.4% 1(sigma) or approx.l W/sq m equivalent flux), < 0.2% for LW radiances (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) or approx.0.3 W/sq m equivalent flux) and < 0.2% (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) for window channel radiances.

  20. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less