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Sample records for energy magnitude determinations

  1. Suitability of rapid energy magnitude determinations for emergency response purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Bormann, Peter; Grosser, Helmut; Saul, Joachim; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in the seismological community to use, especially for large earthquakes, the moment magnitude Mw as a unique magnitude parameter to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, as a static measure of earthquake size, Mw does not provide direct information about the released seismic wave energy and its high frequency content, which is the more interesting information both for engineering purposes and for a rapid assessment of the earthquake's shaking potential. Therefore, we recommend to provide to disaster management organizations besides Mw also sufficiently accurate energy magnitude determinations as soon as possible after large earthquakes. We developed and extensively tested a rapid method for calculating the energy magnitude Me within about 10-15 min after an earthquake's occurrence. The method is based on pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions obtained from numerical simulations of Green's functions. After empirical validation, the procedure has been applied offline to a large data set of 767 shallow earthquakes that have been grouped according to their type of mechanism (strike-slip, normal faulting, thrust faulting, etc.). The suitability of the proposed approach is discussed by comparing our rapid Me estimates with Mw published by GCMT as well as with Mw and Me reported by the USGS. Mw is on average slightly larger than our Me for all types of mechanisms. No clear dependence on source mechanism is observed for our Me estimates. In contrast, Me from the USGS is generally larger than Mw for strike-slip earthquakes and generally smaller for the other source types. For ~67 per cent of the event data set our Me differs <= +/-0.3 magnitude units (m.u.) from the respective Me values published by the USGS. However, larger discrepancies (up to 0.8 m.u.) may occur for strike-slip events. A reason of that may be the overcorrection of the energy flux applied by the USGS for this type of earthquakes. We follow the original

  2. Fast Regional Magnitude Determination at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.; Lomax, A.; Bono, A.; Amato, A.

    2006-12-01

    The recent, very large earthquakes in the Indian Ocean and Indonesia have shown the importance of rapid magnitude determination for tsunami warning. In the Mediterranean region, destructive tsunamis have occurred repeatedly in the past; however, because of the proximity of the tsunami sources to populated coasts, very rapid analysis is necessary for effective warning. Reliable estimates of the earthquake location and size should be available within tens of seconds after the first arriving P-waves are recorded at local and regional distances. Currently in Europe there is no centralized agency such as the PTWC for the Pacific Ocean dedicated to issue tsunami warnings, though, recent initiatives, such as the NEAMTWS (North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System), aim toward the establishment of such an agency. Thus established seismic monitoring centers, such as INGV, Rome, are currently relied upon for rapid earthquake analysis and information dissemination. In this study, we describe the recent, experimental implementation at the INGV seismic center of a procedure for rapid magnitude determination at regional distances based on the Mwp methodology (Tsuboi et al., 1995), which exploits information in the P-wave train. For our Mwp determinations, we have implemented an automatic procedure that windows the relevant part of the seismograms and picks the amplitudes of the first two largest peaks, providing within seconds after each P arrival an estimate of earthquake size. Manual revision is completed using interactive software that presents an analysis with the seismograms, amplitude picks and magnitude estimates. We have compared our Mwp magnitudes for recent earthquakes within the Mediterranean region with Mw determined through the Harvard CMT procedure. For the majority of the events, the Mwp and Mw magnitudes agree closely, indicating that the rapid Mwp estimates forms a useful tool for effective tsunami warning on a regional scale.

  3. Determination of the Meteor Limiting Magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The limiting meteor magnitude of a meteor camera system will depend on the camera hardware and software, sky conditions, and the location of the meteor radiant. Some of these factors are constants for a given meteor camera system, but many change between meteor shower or sporadic source and on both long and short timescales. Since the limiting meteor magnitude ultimately gets used to calculate the limiting meteor mass for a given data set, it is important to have an understanding of these factors and to monitor how they change throughout the night, as a 0.5 magnitude uncertainty in limiting magnitude translates to a uncertainty in limiting mass by a factor of two.

  4. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-06-20

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance ({Delta}) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log {Delta}+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  5. A method for determining the magnitude of Earth's gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A. G.

    1984-02-01

    An improved method is described that directly and continuously determines the magnitude of the earth's gravity in relation to a user platform at one or more selected points on or above the Earth's surface. An improved Global Positioning System (GPS) is used to carry out the method and is made up of a plurality of (24) continuously orbiting GPS satellites that are arranged into 3 groups of 8 satellites with each group or constellation being disposed in its respective plane of a series of 3 longitudinal planes. Each plane is arranged in predetermined angular and spatial relation to the Earth's equatorial plane and the other planes of the series. Any GPS satellite continuously transmits a pair of encoded RF signals at predetermined L-band frequencies. By virtue of this global arrangement of the 24 satellites, the antenna field of view of a user platform is capable of receiving at any time the encoded signals of at least six satellites. A geodetic receiver on the platform together with a receiver microprocessor, a navigation microprocessor, and a microcomputer progressively and continuously process signals received from the satellites for the ultimate purpose of comparing GPS determined vertical acceleration (that is normal to the Earth's modeled ellipsoid) with its platform-measured gravimeter acceleration (that is normal to the Earth's geoid) so as to determine, with greater accuracy, the gravity at one or more selected points.

  6. Metal-Organic Coordination Number Determined Charge Transfer Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Chu, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Chun-I.; Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Kai-Jheng; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Hoffmann, Germar; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-03-01

    By the appropriate choice of head groups and molecular ligands, various metal-organic coordination geometries can be engineered. Such metal-organic structures provide different chemical environments for molecules and give us templates to study the charge redistribution within the metal-organic interface. We created various metal-organic bonding environment by growing self-assembly nanostructures of Fe-PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride) chains and networks on a Au(111) surface. Bonding environment dependent frontier molecular orbital energies are acquired by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By comparing the frontier energies with the molecular coordination environments, we conclude that the specific coordination affects the magnitude of charge transfer onto each PTCDA in the Fe-PTCDA hybridization system. H.-H. Yang, Y.-H. Chu, C.-I Lu, T.-H. Yang, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Kaun, G. Hoffmann, and M.-T. Lin, ACS Nano 7, 2814 (2013).

  7. Determining the Inception and Magnitude of Subsurface Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deol, P. K.; Heitman, J.; Amoozegar, A.; Clayton Field Study Team

    2011-12-01

    Evaporation from an initially wet soil occurs at the soil surface but further drying of surface soil with time results in the formation of a dry surface layer. At this stage, the evaporation front moves from the surface to the subsurface. This phenomenon occurs in a highly dynamic near-surface zone making it very challenging to know the location/depth of the evaporation front and to quantify the subsurface evaporation rate. Recent studies show that subsurface evaporation can be measured using a sensible heat balance approach by accounting for the latent heat flux originating below soil surface which is not taken into account in the traditional surface energy balance equation. The soil sensible energy balance approach has been successfully tested against mass balance for estimating evaporation under steady-state controlled lab conditions, as well as to a limited extent in the field. Limitations of the approach for field conditions include inability of instrumentation to quantify evaporation during the initial shift between surface and subsurface evaporation (i.e. when evaporation occurs at depths shallower than approximately 3 mm). The objectives of this study are to 1) find indicators of the change in the location of the evaporation front from surface to subsurface, and 2) test the sensible heat balance approach for quantifying evaporation from the inception of the subsurface evaporation zone. Recently introduced multi-needle heat pulse probes were used to make continuous soil temperature and thermal property measurements in the near-surface zone at the mm scale in a bare surface soil. Preliminary results from this investigation will be presented.

  8. The Magnitude, Destinations, and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. The data are from the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey. Over the past two decades, rates of mathematics and science teacher turnover have increased but, contrary to conventional…

  9. The Magnitude, Destinations, and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover. CPRE Research Report # RR-66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of the departures of mathematics and science teachers from public schools. The data are from the National Center for Education Statistics' nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-up Survey. Our analyses show that…

  10. Automatic detection and rapid determination of earthquake magnitude by wavelet multiscale analysis of the primary arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Frederik J.; Dando, Ben D. E.; Allen, Richard M.

    2006-10-01

    Earthquake early warning systems must save lives. It is of great importance that networked systems of seismometers be equipped with reliable tools to make rapid determinations of earthquake magnitude in the few to tens of seconds before the damaging ground motion occurs. A new fully automated algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform detects as well as analyzes the incoming first arrival with great accuracy and precision, estimating the final magnitude to within a single unit from the first few seconds of the P wave.

  11. Automatic detection and rapid determination of earthquake magnitude by wavelet multiscale analysis of the primary arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, B.; Simons, F. J.; Allen, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake early warning systems save lives. It is of great importance that networked systems of seismometers be equipped with reliable tools to make rapid determinations of earthquake magnitude in the few to tens of seconds before the damaging ground motion occurs. A new fully automated algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform detects as well as analyzes the incoming first arrival with unmatched accuracy and precision, estimating the final magnitude to within a single unit from the first few seconds of the P wave. The curious observation that such brief segments of the seismogram may contain information about the final magnitude even of very large earthquakes, which occur on faults that may rupture over tens of seconds, is central to a debate in the seismological community which we hope to stimulate but cannot attempt to address within the scope of this paper. Wavelet coefficients of the seismogram can be determined extremely rapidly and efficiently by the fast lifting wavelet transform. Extracting amplitudes at individual scales is a very simple procedure, involving a mere handful of lines of computer code. Scale-dependent thresholded amplitudes derived from the wavelet transform of the first 3--4 seconds of an incoming seismic P arrival are predictive of earthquake magnitude, with errors of one magnitude unit for seismograms recorded up to 150 km away from the earthquake source. Our procedure is a simple yet extremely efficient tool for implementation on low-power recording stations. It provides an accurate and precise method of autonomously detecting the incoming P wave and predicting the magnitude of the source from the scale-dependent character of its amplitude well before the arrival of damaging ground motion. Provided a dense array of networked seismometers exists, our procedure should become the tool of choice for earthquake early warning systems worldwide.

  12. Doing more with short period data: Determining magnitudes from clipped and over-run seismic data at Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellik, John J., II

    How can we calculate earthquake magnitudes when the signal is clipped and over-run? When a volcano is very active, the seismic record may saturate (i.e., the full amplitude of the signal is not recorded) or be over-run (i.e., the end of one event is covered by the start of a new event). The duration, and sometimes the amplitude, of an earthquake signal are necessary for determining event magnitudes; thus, it may be impossible to calculate earthquake magnitudes when a volcano is very active. This problem is most likely to occur at volcanoes with limited networks of short period seismometers. This study outlines two methods for calculating earthquake magnitudes when events are clipped and over-run. The first method entails modeling the shape of earthquake codas as a power law function and extrapolating duration from the decay of the function. The second method draws relations between clipped duration (i.e., the length of time a signal is clipped) and the full duration. These methods allow for magnitudes to be determined within 0.2 to 0.4 units of magnitude. This error is within the range of analyst hand-picks and is within the acceptable limits of uncertainty when quickly quantifying volcanic energy release during volcanic crises. Most importantly, these estimates can be made when data are clipped or over-run. These methods were developed with data from the initial stages of the 2004-2008 eruption at Mount St. Helens. Mount St. Helens is a well-studied volcano with many instruments placed at varying distances from the vent. This fact makes the 2004-2008 eruption a good place to calibrate and refine methodologies that can be applied to volcanoes with limited networks.

  13. Determining Sliding Velocity and Shear-Strain Magnitude From Basal Sediments of Past Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Thomason, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Ice sheets slide over their basal sediments and commonly deform them. Despite meticulous description of such sediments, they have not been used to estimate rates or magnitudes of basal motion. Thus, although a common assertion is that modeling of past ice sheets can benefit from studies of basal sediments, their actual utility in modeling studies has been minimal. We have developed methods for estimating sliding velocity and till shear-strain magnitude from basal sediments of past ice sheets. The first method involves balancing shear traction on clasts that have plowed through the bed surface with resistance to plowing provided by the bed. The shear traction on clasts is provided by the sliding theory of Lliboutry, and plowing resistance is estimated using a geotechnical theory of cone penetration. The result is an expression for sliding speed of a past ice sheet that depends only on the size distribution of clasts that plowed and the thermomechanical properties of ice and clasts. This method was applied to sizes of clasts that plowed through outwash near Peoria, Illinois, to estimate the sliding speed of the Illinoian ice sheet in that area: 60-170 m/a. The second method involves shearing till in laboratory experiments to study the evolution of till microstructural properties as a function of shear-strain magnitude. Microstructural anisotropy is quantified by collecting multiple intact samples (20 mm cubes) and determining the strength of fabric defined by principal directions of magnetic susceptibility. These directions depend on alignment of needle-shaped magnetite grains. Fabrics formed by directions of maximum susceptibility do not become steady until shear strains of 20-50. Therefore, laboratory calibrations of fabric strength to shear-strain magnitude allow the extent of bed deformation to be determined from susceptibility fabrics of basal till. These studies can provide quantitative inputs to ice-sheet models that have been unavailable previously.

  14. Local magnitude determinations for intermountain seismic belt earthquakes from broadband digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pechmann, J.C.; Nava, S.J.; Terra, F.M.; Bernier, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) earthquake catalogs for the Utah and Yellowstone National Park regions contain two types of size measurements: local magnitude (ML) and coda magnitude (MC), which is calibrated against ML. From 1962 through 1993, UUSS calculated ML values for southern and central Intermountain Seismic Belt earthquakes using maximum peak-to-peak (p-p) amplitudes on paper records from one to five Wood-Anderson (W-A) seismographs in Utah. For ML determinations of earthquakes since 1994, UUSS has utilized synthetic W-A seismograms from U.S. National Seismic Network and UUSS broadband digital telemetry stations in the region, which numbered 23 by the end of our study period on 30 June 2002. This change has greatly increased the percentage of earthquakes for which ML can be determined. It is now possible to determine ML for all M ???3 earthquakes in the Utah and Yellowstone regions and earthquakes as small as M <1 in some areas. To maintain continuity in the magnitudes in the UUSS earthquake catalogs, we determined empirical ML station corrections that minimize differences between MLs calculated from paper and synthetic W-A records. Application of these station corrections, in combination with distance corrections from Richter (1958) which have been in use at UUSS since 1962, produces ML values that do not show any significant distance dependence. ML determinations for the Utah and Yellowstone regions for 1981-2002 using our station corrections and Richter's distance corrections have provided a reliable data set for recalibrating the MC scales for these regions. Our revised ML values are consistent with available moment magnitude determinations for Intermountain Seismic Belt earthquakes. To facilitate automatic ML measurements, we analyzed the distribution of the times of maximum p-p amplitudes in synthetic W-A records. A 30-sec time window for maximum amplitudes, beginning 5 sec before the predicted Sg time, encompasses 95% of the

  15. Pole coordinates of the asteroid 511 Davida as determined via the amplitude-magnitude method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappala, V.; Knezevic, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The Amplitude-Magnitude method is used for the pole determination of the asteroid 511 Davida, using observations from six oppositions. The possible north poles are found to be λ1 = 92°±7°; β1 = 33°±6°, and λ2 = 303°±4°; β2 = 34°±5°, when scattering effect is not taken into account. When scattering is accounted for, solutions not significantly different from (λ1, β1) and (λ2, β2) are obtained. The moderately eccentric and inclined orbit of 511 Davida does not allow the authors to distinguish between the two pole solutions.

  16. HYPOELLIPSE; a computer program for determining local earthquake hypocentral parameters, magnitude, and first-motion pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides Fortran source code and program manuals for HYPOELLIPSE, a computer program for determining hypocenters and magnitudes of near regional earthquakes and the ellipsoids that enclose the 68-percent confidence volumes of the computed hypocenters. HYPOELLIPSE was developed to meet the needs of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studying crustal and sub-crustal earthquakes recorded by a sparse regional seismograph network. The program was extended to locate hypocenters of volcanic earthquakes recorded by seismographs distributed on and around the volcanic edifice, at elevations above and below the hypocenter. HYPOELLIPSE was used to locate events recorded by the USGS southern Alaska seismograph network from October 1971 to the early 1990s. Both UNIX and PC/DOS versions of the source code of the program are provided along with sample runs.

  17. What determines the magnitude of climate change commitment after cessation of emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, D.; Zickfeld, K.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies show that climate change persists for several centuries after CO2 emissions cease. For example, global mean warming stays approximately constant after CO2 emissions stop, i.e., CO2 forcing levels decline. Thermosteric sea level rise continues after emissions stop. The question thus arises: what determines the magnitude of these committed climate changes? This study focuses on the timing at which emissions cease. One would assume that given a constant forcing level, the earlier emissions cease, the further the system is away from equilibrium, i.e., the larger the expected residual change. We will investigate this question by using a climate model of intermediate complexity, version 2.9 of the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (Uvic ESCM 2.9). The simulations follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their extensions to the year 2300 for CO2 and non-CO2 GHG forcings. After 2300 the CO2 concentrations are set at a constant level. Starting from different points along the RCP trajectories CO2 emissions are set to preindustrial levels and the atmospheric CO2 concentrations are allowed to evolve freely. By comparing these different simulations we will gain improved understanding of the role of the forcing level and the timing of emission cessation for climate change commitment.

  18. Determining the magnitude, frequency and source of prehistoric events - Is there a Holy Grail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Strotz, Luke; Anning, David; Bird, Deanne; Calgaro, Emma; Courtney, Claire

    2010-05-01

    palaeotsunami sources, we need to be able to compare and contrast between national databases. This can only happen if databases exist and are compatible - for example, are the criteria used for palaeotsunami interpretations consistent? Similarly, to be able to start commenting on the magnitude and frequency of palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources there need to be regional and national databases to refer to. Surprisingly, this is rarely the case. We highlight this issue with reference to palaeotsunami data from the Pacific Ocean. Palaeotsunami magnitude, frequency and source (PMFS) modelling can be and has been achieved albeit with some caution. While it is acknowledged that any single palaeotsunami database will never be entirely complete and we may therefore never be fully able to determine the PMFS for any one region, this does not mean that is has no value. Far from it, after all every single historical database is also incomplete and they are regularly used for probabilistic tsunami hazard modelling. Is there a Holy Grail? In many ways it largely depends upon whether you think the cup is half full or half empty.

  19. Preliminary determination of the interdependence among strong-motion amplitude, earthquake magnitude and hypocentral distance for the Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Panza, Giuliano F.; Petukhin, Anatoly G.

    2001-03-01

    Since the installation of three limited-aperture strong-motion networks in the Himalayan region in 1986, six earthquakes with Mw=5.2-7.2 have been recorded up to 1991. The data set of horizontal peak accelerations and velocities consists of 182-component data for the hypocentral distance range 10-400km. This data set is limited in volume and coverage and, worst of all, it is highly inhomogeneous. Thus, we could not determine regional trends for amplitudes by means of the traditional approach of empirical multiple regression. Instead, we perform the reduction of the observations to a fixed distance and magnitude using independently defined distance and magnitude trends. To determine an appropriate magnitude-dependent distance attenuation law, we use the spectral energy propagation/random function approach of Gusev (1983) and adjust its parameters based on the residual variance. In doing so we confirm the known, rather gradual mode of decay of amplitudes with distance in the Himalayas; this seems to be caused by the combination of high Qs and crustal waveguide effects for high frequencies. The data are then reduced with respect to magnitude. The trend of peak acceleration versus magnitude cannot be determined from observations, and we assume that it coincides with that of abundant Japanese data. For the resulting set of reduced log10 (peak acceleration) data, the residual variance is 0.372, much above commonly found values. However, dividing the data into two geographical groups, western with two events and eastern with four events, reduces the residual variance to a more usual level of 0.272 (a station/site component of 0.222 and an event component of 0.162). This kind of data description is considered acceptable. A similar analysis is performed with velocity data, and again we have to split the data into two subregional groups. With our theoretically grounded attenuation laws we attempt a tentative extrapolation of our results to small distances and large

  20. Prefusion F-specific antibodies determine the magnitude of RSV neutralizing activity in human sera.

    PubMed

    Ngwuta, Joan O; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Joyce, M Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kumar, Azad; Yassine, Hadi M; Moin, Syed M; Killikelly, April M; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Rundlet, Emily J; Sastry, Mallika; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B E; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Nason, Martha C; Capella, Cristina; Peeples, Mark E; Ledgerwood, Julie E; McLellan, Jason S; Kwong, Peter D; Graham, Barney S

    2015-10-14

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly neutralization-sensitive epitope, antigenic site Ø, is found only on pre-F. We determined what fraction of neutralizing (NT) activity in human sera is dependent on antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø or other antigenic sites on F in healthy subjects from ages 7 to 93 years. Adsorption of individual sera with stabilized pre-F protein removed >90% of NT activity and depleted binding antibodies to both F conformations. In contrast, adsorption with post-F removed ~30% of NT activity, and binding antibodies to pre-F were retained. These findings were consistent across all age groups. Protein competition neutralization assays with pre-F mutants in which sites Ø or II were altered to knock out binding of antibodies to the corresponding sites showed that these sites accounted for ~35 and <10% of NT activity, respectively. Binding competition assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated that the amount of site Ø-specific antibodies correlated with NT activity, whereas the magnitude of binding competed by site II mAbs did not correlate with neutralization. Our results indicate that RSV NT activity in human sera is primarily derived from pre-F-specific antibodies, and therefore, inducing or boosting NT activity by vaccination will be facilitated by using pre-F antigens that preserve site Ø.

  1. Prefusion F–specific antibodies determine the magnitude of RSV neutralizing activity in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuta, Joan O.; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Joyce, M. Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kumar, Azad; Yassine, Hadi M.; Moin, Syed M.; Killikelly, April M.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Rundlet, Emily J.; Sastry, Mallika; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Nason, Martha C.; Capella, Cristina; Peeples, Mark E.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; McLellan, Jason S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Graham, Barney S.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly neutralization-sensitive epitope, antigenic site Ø, is found only on pre-F. We determined what fraction of neutralizing (NT) activity in human sera is dependent on antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø or other antigenic sites on F in healthy subjects from ages 7 to 93 years. Adsorption of individual sera with stabilized pre-F protein removed >90% of NT activity and depleted binding antibodies to both F conformations. In contrast, adsorption with post-F removed ~30% of NT activity, and binding antibodies to pre-F were retained. These findings were consistent across all age groups. Protein competition neutralization assays with pre-F mutants in which sites Ø or II were altered to knock out binding of antibodies to the corresponding sites showed that these sites accounted for ~35 and <10% of NT activity, respectively. Binding competition assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated that the amount of site Ø–specific antibodies correlated with NT activity, whereas the magnitude of binding competed by site II mAbs did not correlate with neutralization. Our results indicate that RSV NT activity in human sera is primarily derived from pre-F–specific antibodies, and therefore, inducing or boosting NT activity by vaccination will be facilitated by using pre-F antigens that preserve site Ø. PMID:26468324

  2. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  3. A comparison of methods to determine locations and magnitudes of groundwater influx to rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    2010-05-01

    There are currently several methods available for determining both the spatial distribution and magnitude of groundwater inputs to rivers and streams. Methods range from physical flow gauging to introduced and natural tracers, all of which have varied levels of resolution and suitability to specific system conditions. We compared the results of tracer analyses (using fluorescent dye, heat, and geochemical end-members) to physical flow measurements along 900 m of Ninemile Creek in Syracuse, New York, USA during summer low-flow conditions (discharge = 1.4 m3/s). Temperature measurements were made using an Agilent Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) which recorded temperature at 1.5 m increments over the length of a fiber optic cable installed along the thalweg at the sediment-water interface. The 24 hr mean and standard deviation of these measurements indicated one region of focused groundwater input to the river of ~ 0.07 m3/s. A constant rate injection of Rhodamine WT dye also identified an influx of groundwater over the same region of ~ 0.07 m3/s. Geochemical samples were collected every 50 m along the reach, and the groundwater end-member, which is highly saline, was sampled from shallow piezometers installed in the stream bed and bank. End-member mixing models between stream and groundwater using calcium and chloride also generated estimated gains of ~ 0.07 m3/s over the same reach location. In contrast to these results, physical flow measurements made approximately every 100 m using a handheld FlowTracker acoustic Doppler velocimeter failed to identify, much less quantify, the focused groundwater input. The failure of the physical flow measurements was attributed to the high variability in discharge estimates, which had a standard deviation of 0.13 m3/s. The measurement variability likely resulted from stream turbulence due to high velocities, extensive macrophyte growth and non-ideal channel bedform. These results indicate that the use of natural tracers such

  4. The energy-magnitude scaling law for M s ≤ 5.5 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    The scaling law of seismic radiation energy, E s , versus surface-wave magnitude, M s , proposed by Gutenberg and Richter (1956) was originally based on earthquakes with M s > 5.5. In this review study, we examine if this law is valid for 0 < M s ≤ 5.5 from earthquakes occurring in different regions. A comparison of the data points of log( E s ) versus M s with Gutenberg and Richter's law leads to a conclusion that the law is still valid for earthquakes with 0 < M s ≤ 5.5.

  5. Coda-derived source spectra, moment magnitudes, and energy-moment scaling in the western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasca, P.; Mayeda, K.; Malagnini, L.

    2003-04-01

    the obtained source spectra validate our path and site corrections and also shows that the coda is effectively averaging over any source radiation pattern as well as any lateral crustal heterogeneity. These source spectra were then used to estimate stable MW for the entire dataset. Furthermore, we tied our coda-derived source amplitude at 2-3 Hz with the RSNI averaged ML. As expected, plotting our MW versus our ML, we show that the coda-moment magnitude scales with 2/3 slope for small events (less than ML ~3) and scales 1-to-1 for the intermediate magnitude events. The coda methodology can extend the network's capability in measuring stable MW and ML. In addition to magnitude, we studied the effect of dynamic stress drop scaling by computing the radiated S-wave energy from the source spectra. We first extrapolated the observed spectra to both high and low frequency limits, converted to velocity, squared the spectra and then integrated to obtain the radiated S-wave energy. Using these estimates, we show that the dynamic stress-drop has a non-constant trend in this region, and increases with increasing seismic moment, in good agreement with results from the western United States (e.g., Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda &Walter, 1996).

  6. Determining Distances for Active Galactic Nuclei using an Optical and Near-Infrared Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Gorjian, V.; Richter, K. L.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN, are extremely luminous bodies that emit large quantities of light via accretion onto supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. This project investigated the relationship between color (ratio of dust emission to accretion disk emission) and magnitude of AGN in order to establish a predictive correlation between the two, similar to the relationship between the color and magnitude of stars seen in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This relationship will prove beneficial in creating a standard candle for determining interstellar distances between AGN bodies. Photometry data surrounding Type 1 Seyferts and quasars from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) were studied. Using this data, color-magnitude diagrams comparing the ratio of two wavelengths to the absolute magnitude of another were created. Overall, many of the diagrams created indicated a clear correlation between color and luminosity of AGN. Several of the diagrams, focused on portions of the visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelength bands, showed the strongest correlations. When the z-k bands were plotted against the absolute magnitude of the k band, specifically surrounding the bodies with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.15, a strong predictive relationship was seen, with a high slope (0.75) and R2 close to 1 (0.69). Additionally, the diagram comparing the i-j bands to the absolute magnitude of the j band, specifically surrounding the bodies with redshifts between 0.05 and 0.1, also demonstrated a strong predictive relationship with a high slope (0.64) and R2 close to 1 (0.58). These correlations have several real-world applications, as they help determine cosmic distances, and, resultantly, age of the bodies in the universe.

  7. Determining the Location and Magnitude of Basin and Range and Laramide Faulting, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundrett, C. E.; Lamb, M. A.; Beard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Southern Nevada records two recent periods of deformation; the Laramide orogeny and Basin and Range extension. Our research focuses on these events to understand the history of faulting in this area and the resulting landscape. First, we have advanced an on-going research project in the Lake Mead region of Nevada, which was deformed by extension that began around 17 Ma. We are currently working in the White Basin, near Lake Mead. The White Basin is comprised of the Lovell Wash Member, ~14-12 Ma, of the Horse Spring Formation. The Lovell Wash Member contains siliciclastic and carbonate units that vary laterally and vertically throughout this area. This is a change from the fairly homogenous Bitter Ridge Limestone Member below and suggests a change in the style of faulting. To determine the faulting history, we mapped out marker beds, focusing on tuffs and limestone beds that form continuous, well-exposed outcrops in the area. We found abrupt stratigraphic thickening of ~50% across faults, documenting syndepositional faulting. We used dated tuffs to determine that this faulting developed from ~13.7-13.2 Ma. Secondly, we are working on a Laramide uplift project. We are testing the hypothesis that an area in the Kingman Uplift region was deformed by a Laramide age fault, prior to Miocene extensional deformation. We are using U-Th/He Apatite and K-Spar Multiple Diffusion Domain thermochronology, to determine the cooling histories of rocks on either side of the proposed fault. Both of these on-going research projects highlight the complex geology that is found in the Basin and Range province in the United States. Understanding this complex geology will help answer questions about the timing, driving forces, and processes associated with extensional and compressional events.

  8. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    PubMed

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm. PMID:26968495

  9. Surface brightness, standard candles and q/0/. [universe deceleration parameter determination by redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The most direct way to determine the deceleration parameter, q(0), of the universe is through the study of the redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources. Progress has been slow because the necessary sources for this study must be standard candles, which have identical absolute total luminosity (balometric or monochromatic). The present paper shows, first of all, that, although necessary, this is not a sufficient condition for nonpoint-like (or resolved) sources. A modification of the redshift-magnitude relation is then described for a certain class of nonstandard candles using measurements of isophotal surface brightness. It is noted that such measurements can be used to standardize the central surface brightness of galaxies, but the standardization of the scale parameter remains beyond observations.

  10. Determination of the magnitude and sign of the 185,187Re nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constants using nuclear acoustic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundfors, R. K.

    1990-08-01

    Acoustic nuclear electric quadrupole resonance spectra and the magnitude and sign of the coupling constants for 185Re and 187Re in rhenium-metal single crystals have been measured using nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) in a small magnetic field. These measurements were carried out using a NAR reflection bridge spectrometer in the 37-41 MHz frequency range and at 4.2 and 77.8 K. In this hexagonal crystal, the dynamic coupling between acoustic waves and the Re nuclear spin systems is shown to be via the dynamic quadrupole interaction, which is responsible for the observation of both Δm=+/-1 and +/-2 transitions between the +/-3/2 energy levels and the mixed +/-1/2 energy levels. Magnetic-resonance second moments for angular-independent indirect exchange broadening and angular-dependent static electric quadrupole broadening (from a spread in the electric quadrupole coupling constant value) are determined from the measured linewidths.

  11. Magnitude of daily energy deficit predicts frequency but not severity of menstrual disturbances associated with exercise and caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Heather J.; Hill, Brenna R.; Lieberman, Jay L.; Legro, Richard S.; Souza, Mary Jane De

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the impact of energy deficiency on menstrual function using controlled feeding and supervised exercise over four menstrual cycles (1 baseline and 3 intervention cycles) in untrained, eumenorrheic women aged 18–30 yr. Subjects were randomized to either an exercising control (EXCON) or one of three exercising energy deficit (ED) groups, i.e., mild (ED1; −8 ± 2%), moderate (ED2; −22 ± 3%), or severe (ED3; −42 ± 3%). Menstrual cycle length and changes in urinary concentrations of estrone-1-glucuronide, pregnanediol glucuronide, and midcycle luteinizing hormone were assessed. Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Weight loss occurred in ED1 (−3.8 ± 0.2 kg), ED2 (−2.8 ± 0.6 kg), and ED3 (−2.6 ± 1.1 kg) but was minimal in EXCON (−0.9 ± 0.7 kg). The overall sum of disturbances (luteal phase defects, anovulation, and oligomenorrhea) was greater in ED2 compared with EXCON and greater in ED3 compared with EXCON AND ED1. The average percent energy deficit was the main predictor of the frequency of menstrual disturbances (f = 10.1, β = −0.48, r2 = 0.23, P = 0.003) even when weight loss was included in the model. The estimates of the magnitude of energy deficiency associated with menstrual disturbances ranged from −22 (ED2) to −42% (ED3), reflecting an energy deficit of −470 to −810 kcal/day, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the magnitude of energy deficiency and the frequency of exercise-related menstrual disturbances; however, the severity of menstrual disturbances was not dependent on the magnitude of energy deficiency. PMID:25352438

  12. Redox state and energetic equilibrium determine the magnitude of stress in Hydrilla verticillata upon exposure to arsenate.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Suprasanna, Penna; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis

    2011-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a potential hazard to plants' health, however the mechanisms of its toxicity are yet to be properly understood. To determine the impact of redox state and energetic in stress imposition, plants of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, which are known to be potential accumulator of As, were exposed to 100 and 500 μM arsenate (AsV) for 4 to 96 h. Plants demonstrated significant As accumulation with the maximum being at 500 μM after 96 h (568 μg g(-1) dry weight, dw). The accumulation of As led to a significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, carbonyl, malondialdehyde, and percentage of DNA degradation. In addition, the activity of pro-oxidant enzymes like NADPH oxidase and ascorbate oxidase also showed significant increases. These parameters collectively indicated oxidative stress, which in turn caused an increase in percentage of cell death. These negative effects were seemingly linked to an altered energetic and redox equilibrium [analyzed in terms of ATP/ADP, NADH/NAD, NADPH/NADP, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione, and ascorbate/dehydroascobate ratios]. Although there was significant increase in the levels of phytochelatins, the As chelating ligands, a large amount of As was presumably present as free ion particularly at 500 μM AsV, which supposedly produced toxic responses. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the magnitude of disturbance to redox and energetic equilibrium of plants upon AsV exposure determines the extent of toxicity to plants.

  13. Fuzzy Discrimination Analysis Method for Earthquake Energy K-Class Estimation with respect to Local Magnitude Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumladze, T.; Gachechiladze, J.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to establish relation between earthquake energy K-class (the relative energy characteristic) defined as logarithm of seismic waves energy E in joules obtained from analog stations data and local (Richter) magnitude ML obtained from digital seismograms. As for these data contain uncertainties the effective tools of fuzzy discrimination analysis are suggested for subjective estimates. Application of fuzzy analysis methods is an innovative approach to solving a complicated problem of constracting a uniform energy scale through the whole earthquake catalogue, also it avoids many of the data collection problems associated with probabilistic approaches; and it can handle incomplete information, partial inconsistency and fuzzy descriptions of data in a natural way. Another important task is to obtain frequency-magnitude relation based on K parameter, calculation of the Gutenberg-Richter parameters (a, b) and examining seismic activity in Georgia. Earthquake data files are using for periods: from 1985 to 1990 and from 2004 to 2009 for area j=410 - 430.5, l=410 - 470.

  14. Perinatal Mortality Magnitude, Determinants and Causes in West Gojam: Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yirgu, Robel; Molla, Mitike; Sibley, Lynn; Gebremariam, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia, even if a significant reduction in child mortality is recorded recently, perinatal mortality rate is still very high. This study assessed the magnitude, determinants and causes of perinatal death in West Gojam zone, Ethiopia. Methods and materials A nested case control study was conducted on 102 cases (mothers who lost their newborns for perinatal death) and 204 controls (mothers who had live infants in the same year) among a cohort of 4097 pregnant mothers in three districts of the West Gojam zone, from Feb 2011 to Mar 2012. Logistic regression models were used to identify the independent determinant factors for perinatal mortality. The World Health Organization verbal autopsy instrument for neonatal death was used to collect mortality data and cause of death was assigned by a pediatrician and a neonatologist. Result Perinatal mortality rate was 25.1(95% CI 20.3, 29.9) per 1000 live and stillbirths. Primiparous mothers had a higher risk of losing their newborn babies for perinatal death than mothers who gave birth to five or more children (AOR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.03–9.60). Babies who were born to women who had a previous history of losing their baby to perinatal death during their last pregnancy showed higher odds of perinatal death than their counterparts (AOR = 9.55, 95% CI 4.67–19.54). Preterm newborns were more at risk for perinatal death (AOR = 9.44, 95%CI 1.81–49.22) than term babies. Newborns who were born among a household of more than two had a lesser risk of dying during the perinatal period as compared to those who were born among a member of only two. Paradoxically, home delivery was found to protect against perinatal death (AOR = 0.07 95% CI, 0.02–0.24) in comparison to institutional delivery. Bacterial sepsis, birth asphyxia and obstructed labour were among the leading causes of perinatal death. Conclusion Perinatal mortality rate remains considerably high, but proper maternal and child health care services can

  15. Initial viral load determines the magnitude of the human CD8 T cell response to yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Akondy, Rama S; Johnson, Philip L F; Nakaya, Helder I; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J; Lawson, Benton; Miller, Joseph D; Pulendran, Bali; Antia, Rustom; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-03-10

    CD8 T cells are a potent tool for eliminating intracellular pathogens and tumor cells. Thus, eliciting robust CD8 T-cell immunity is the basis for many vaccines under development. However, the relationship between antigen load and the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response is not well-described in a human immune response. Here we address this issue by quantifying viral load and the CD8 T-cell response in a cohort of 80 individuals immunized with the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV-17D) by sampling peripheral blood at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 30, and 90. When the virus load was below a threshold (peak virus load < 225 genomes per mL, or integrated virus load < 400 genome days per mL), the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell response correlated strongly with the virus load (R(2) ∼ 0.63). As the virus load increased above this threshold, the magnitude of the CD8 T-cell responses saturated. Recent advances in CD8 T-cell-based vaccines have focused on replication-incompetent or single-cycle vectors. However, these approaches deliver relatively limited amounts of antigen after immunization. Our results highlight the requirement that T-cell-based vaccines should deliver sufficient antigen during the initial period of the immune response to elicit a large number of CD8 T cells that may be needed for protection.

  16. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores. PMID:26620189

  17. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

  18. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

  19. How Are the Form and Magnitude of DIF Effects in Multiple-Choice Items Determined by Distractor-Level Invariance Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how the magnitude and form of differential item functioning (DIF) effects in multiple-choice items are determined by the underlying differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects, as modeled under the nominal response model. The results of a numerical investigation indicated that (a) the presence of one or more nonzero DDF…

  20. A theoretical study of correlation between scaled energy and earthquake magnitude based on two source displacement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2013-12-01

    The correlation of the scaled energy, ê = E s/ M 0, versus earthquake magnitude, M s, is studied based on two models: (1) Model 1 based on the use of the time function of the average displacements, with a ω -2 source spectrum, across a fault plane; and (2) Model 2 based on the use of the time function of the average displacements, with a ω -3 source spectrum, across a fault plane. For the second model, there are two cases: (a) As τ ≒ T, where τ is the rise time and T the rupture time, lg( ê) ~ - M s; and (b) As τ ≪ T, lg( ê) ~ -(1/2) M s. The second model leads to a negative value of ê. This means that Model 2 cannot work for studying the present problem. The results obtained from Model 1 suggest that the source model is a factor, yet not a unique one, in controlling the correlation of ê versus M s.

  1. The magnitude, share and determinants of unpaid care costs for home-based palliative care service provision in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chai, Huamin; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care in Canada, economic evaluation is warranted, given its tremendous demands on family caregivers. Despite this, very little is known about the economic outcomes associated with home-based unpaid care-giving at the end of life. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the magnitude and share of unpaid care costs in total healthcare costs for home-based palliative care patients, from a societal perspective and (ii) examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that account for variations in this share. One hundred and sixty-nine caregivers of patients with a malignant neoplasm were interviewed from time of referral to a home-based palliative care programme provided by the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, until death. Information regarding palliative care resource utilisation and costs, time devoted to care-giving and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was collected between July 2005 and September 2007. Over the last 12 months of life, the average monthly cost was $14 924 (2011 CDN$) per patient. Unpaid care-giving costs were the largest component - $11 334, accounting for 77% of total palliative care expenses, followed by public costs ($3211; 21%) and out-of-pocket expenditures ($379; 2%). In all cost categories, monthly costs increased exponentially with proximity to death. Seemingly unrelated regression estimation suggested that the share of unpaid care costs of total costs was driven by patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Results suggest that overwhelming the proportion of palliative care costs is unpaid care-giving. This share of costs requires urgent attention to identify interventions aimed at alleviating the heavy financial burden and to ultimately ensure the viability of home-based palliative care in future. PMID:23758771

  2. Role of the spin magnitude of the magnetic ion in determining the frustration and low-temperature properties of kagome lattices.

    PubMed

    Pati, Swapan K; Rao, C N R

    2005-12-15

    In view of the variety of low-temperature magnetic properties reported recently for kagome lattices with transition-metal ions in different oxidation states, we have investigated the low-energy spectrum and low-temperature thermodynamic properties of antiferromagnetic kagome lattices with varying magnitudes of site spins, employing quantum many-body Heisenberg models. The ground state and the low-lying excitation spectrum are found to depend strongly on the nature of the spin magnitude of the magnetic ions. The system remains highly frustrated if spins are half-odd-integer in magnitude, while the frustration is very weak or almost absent for integer spins or mixed-spin systems. In fact, for a mixed-spin kagome system with a certain magnitude, the whole system behaves as a classical magnet with a ferrimagnetic ground state without any frustration. These theoretical findings are consistent with a few experimental observations recently reported in the literature and would be of value in designing new kagome systems with unusual and interesting low-temperature magnetic properties.

  3. Methods for determining magnitude and frequency of floods in California, based on data through water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Parrett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in California that are not substantially affected by regulation or diversions have been updated. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2006 were analyzed for 771 streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) in California having 10 or more years of data. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for the streamgages by using the expected moments algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to logarithms of annual peak flows for each streamgage. Low-outlier and historic information were incorporated into the flood-frequency analysis, and a generalized Grubbs-Beck test was used to detect multiple potentially influential low outliers. Special methods for fitting the distribution were developed for streamgages in the desert region in southeastern California. Additionally, basin characteristics for the streamgages were computed by using a geographical information system. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least squares regression, was used to develop a set of equations for estimating flows with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities for ungaged basins in California that are outside of the southeastern desert region. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 630 streamgages were combined to form the final database used in the regional regression analysis. Five hydrologic regions were developed for the area of California outside of the desert region. The final regional regression equations are functions of drainage area and mean annual precipitation for four of the five regions. In one region, the Sierra Nevada region, the final equations are functions of drainage area, mean basin elevation, and mean annual precipitation. Average standard errors of prediction for the regression equations in all five regions range from 42.7 to 161.9 percent. For the desert region of California, an analysis of 33 streamgages was used to develop regional estimates

  4. Moments, magnitudes, and radiated energies of non-volcanic tremor near Cholame, CA, from ground motion spectra at UPSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; McGarr, A.

    2011-01-01

    By averaging the spectra of events within two episodes of tremor (on Jan. 21 and 24, 2005) across the 12 stations of UPSAR, we improved the S/N sufficiently to define source spectra. Analysis of eleven impulsive events revealed attenuation-corrected spectra of displacement similar to those of earthquakes, with a low-frequency plateau, a corner frequency, and a high frequency decay proportional to f−2. Seismic moments, M0, estimated from these spectra range from about 3 to 10 × 1011 N-m or moment magnitudes in the range 1.6 to 1.9. The corner frequencies range from 2.6 to 7.2 Hz and, if interpreted in the same way as for earthquakes, indicate low stress drops that vary from 0.001 to 0.04 MPa. Seismic energies, estimated from the ground motion spectra, vary from 0.2 × 105 to 4.4 × 105 J, or apparent stresses in the range 0.002 to 0.02 MPa. The low stress parameters are consistent with a weak fault zone in the lower crust at the depth of tremor. In contrast, the same analysis on a micro-earthquake, located near Cholame (depth = 10.3 km), revealed a stress drop of 0.5 MPa and an apparent stress of 0.02 MPa. Residual spectra from ω−2 model fits to the displacement spectra of the non-volcanic tremor events show peaks near 4 Hz that are not apparent in the spectra for the microearthquake nor for the spectrum of earth noise. These spectral peaks may indicate that tremor entails more than shear failure reminiscent of mechanisms, possibly entailing fluid flow, associated with volcanic tremor or deep volcanic earthquakes.

  5. Heterogeneity in the Energy Cost of Posture Maintenance during Standing Relative to Sitting: Phenotyping According to Magnitude and Time-Course

    PubMed Central

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.; Sarafian, Delphine; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background Reducing sitting-time may decrease risk of disease and increase life-span. In the search for approaches to reduce sitting-time, research often compares sitting to standing and ambulation, but the energetic cost of standing alone versus sitting is equivocal, with large variation in reported mean values (0% to >20% increase in energy expenditure (EE) during standing). Objective To determine the magnitude and time-course of changes in EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) during steady-state standing versus sitting. Design Min-by-min monitoring using a posture-adapted ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry system was conducted in 22 young adults with normal BMI during 10 min of steady-state standing versus sitting comfortably. Results This study reveals three distinct phenotypes based on the magnitude and time-course of the EE response to steady-state standing. One-third of participants (8/22) showed little or no change in EE during standing relative to sitting (ΔEE <5%; below first quartile). Of the 14 responders (ΔEE 7–21%), 4 showed sustained, elevated EE during standing, while 10 decreased their EE to baseline sitting values during the second half of the standing period. These EE phenotypes were systematically mirrored by alterations in RQ (a proxy of substrate oxidation), with ΔEE inversely correlated with ΔRQ (r = 0.6–0.8, p<0.01). Conclusion This study reveals different phenotypes pertaining to both energy cost and fuel utilization during standing, raising questions regarding standing as a strategy to increase EE and thermogenesis for weight control, and opening new avenues of research towards understanding the metabolic and psychomotor basis of variability in the energetics of standing and posture maintenance. PMID:23741514

  6. The 2011 Japanese 9.0 magnitude earthquake: Test of a kinetic energy wave model using coastal configuration and offshore gradient of Earth and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Dohm, James M.

    2011-07-01

    Based on geological investigations of coastal geometry and stratigraphy, offshore gradient variation, wave velocity/energy, and quartz grain microtexture analysis of key sites inundated by tsunamis during the Holocene, we have developed a postulated model that could be used to assess modern and ancient onshore environmental conditions during tsunami emplacement. Given that tsunami waves can travel up to ~ 900 km/h, the kinetic energy of the wave is determined by frictional release on the offshore slope to seabed, nearshore sand and sediment supply, and coastal geomorphology, specifically coast linearity or embayments that constrict wave energy. With gentle offshore gradients and relatively linear coastlines, the kinetic energy of the tsunami is decreased by friction with the seabed and radiated outward along the coast, thus producing reduced flooding of the affected coast and fewer collisions of entrained grains. In contrast, steep offshore gradients reduce friction to mere milliseconds of wave impact, and embayments, specifically narrow coastal constrictions, increase wave energy, both of which increase on land run-up heights, and importantly to our proposed model, grain collision effects. Damage to quartz grains deposited by tsunamis along coastal extents ranges from slight on linear coasts with gentle offshore gradients to highly resurfaced mineral surfaces on coasts with steep offshore gradients and narrow embayments. Our model can be further tested through collection, analyses, and comparison of quartz grains in relatively low- and high-energy environments of the recently tsunami-impacted northeastern coast of Japan. For example, the location of the Fukushima nuclear plant along a linear coastline with a less steep offshore gradient may have attenuated the energy of the incoming wave, and thus yielding less resurfaced grains when compared to the coastline located to the north of Sendai City where coastal embayments of variable size coupled with steep offshore

  7. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  8. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  9. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element V_{tb}.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Borysova, M; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brucken, E; Bu, X B; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Das, A; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; D'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Farrington, S; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernández Ramos, J P; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gogota, O; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kiselevich, I; Knoepfel, K; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurata, M; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lammers, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Limosani, A; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Luna-Garcia, R; Lungu, G; Lyon, A L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansour, J; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez-Ortega, J; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miao, T; Miconi, F; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondal, N K; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nagy, E; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Nunnemann, T; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Orduna, J; Ortolan, L; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pagliarone, C; Pal, A; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parker, W; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Pondrom, L; Popov, A V; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ripp-Baudot, I; Ristori, L; Rizatdinova, F; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Rominsky, M; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sajot, G; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santi, L; Santos, A S; Sato, K; Savage, G; Saveliev, V; Savitskyi, M; Savoy-Navarro, A; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwanenberger, C; Schwarz, T; Schwienhorst, R; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Sekaric, J; Semenov, A; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Shabalina, E; Shalhout, S Z; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simak, V; Simonenko, A; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, H; Sonnenschein, L; Sorin, V; Soustruznik, K; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stark, J; Stentz, D; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tokmenin, V V; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Verkheev, A Y; Vernieri, C; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vidal, M; Vilanova, D; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wahl, H D; Wallny, R; Wang, M H L S; Wang, S M; Warchol, J; Waters, D; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wobisch, M; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wood, D R; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, S; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Youn, S W; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, J M; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zucchelli, S

    2015-10-01

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb^{-1} per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σ_{t}=2.25_{-0.31}^{+0.29} pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σ_{s+t}=3.30_{-0.40}^{+0.52} pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σ_{s}/σ_{t}. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |V_{tb}|=1.02_{-0.05}^{+0.06}, corresponding to |V_{tb}|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  10. Tevatron combination of single-top-quark cross sections and determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $\\bf V_{tb}$

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt= 2.25-0.31+0.29 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t= 3.30-0.40+0.52 pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σst. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|= 1.02-0.05+0.06, corresponding to |Vtb| > 0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  11. Tevatron combination of single-top-quark cross sections and determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $$\\bf V_{tb}$$

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt= 2.25-0.31+0.29 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t= 3.30-0.40+0.52 pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt. The resulting valuemore » of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|= 1.02-0.05+0.06, corresponding to |Vtb| > 0.92 at the 95% C.L.« less

  12. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element Vt b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Borysova, M.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brucken, E.; Bu, X. B.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; D'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Farrington, S.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gogota, O.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ito, A. S.; Ivanov, A.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Jindariani, S.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, J.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, A. W.; Junk, T. R.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kiselevich, I.; Knoepfel, K.; Kohli, J. M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurata, M.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lammers, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Limosani, A.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipeles, E.; Lipton, R.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lungu, G.; Lyon, A. L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansour, J.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Mesropian, C.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miao, T.; Miconi, F.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Mulhearn, M.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nagy, E.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Nunnemann, T.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Orduna, J.; Ortolan, L.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pagliarone, C.; Pal, A.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parker, W.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pondrom, L.; Popov, A. V.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Ristori, L.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Rominsky, M.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sajot, G.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santi, L.; Santos, A. S.; Sato, K.; Savage, G.; Saveliev, V.; Savitskyi, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwarz, T.; Schwienhorst, R.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Sekaric, J.; Semenov, A.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Shabalina, E.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simak, V.; Simonenko, A.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Song, H.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sorin, V.; Soustruznik, K.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stark, J.; Stentz, D.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Titov, M.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vernieri, C.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vidal, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wallny, R.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wang, S. M.; Warchol, J.; Waters, D.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wobisch, M.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wood, D. R.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, J. M.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t -channel cross section is measured to be σt=2.2 5-0.31+0.29 pb . We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s - vs t -channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s +t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs +t=3.3 0-0.40+0.52 pb , without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt . The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vt b|=1.0 2-0.05+0.06 , corresponding to |Vt b|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  13. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element V_{tb}.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Borysova, M; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; 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Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; D'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Farrington, S; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernández Ramos, J P; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gogota, O; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kiselevich, I; Knoepfel, K; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurata, M; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lammers, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Limosani, A; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Luna-Garcia, R; Lungu, G; Lyon, A L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansour, J; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez-Ortega, J; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miao, T; Miconi, F; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondal, N K; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nagy, E; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Nunnemann, T; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Orduna, J; Ortolan, L; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pagliarone, C; Pal, A; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parker, W; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Pondrom, L; Popov, A V; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ripp-Baudot, I; Ristori, L; Rizatdinova, F; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Rominsky, M; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sajot, G; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santi, L; Santos, A S; Sato, K; Savage, G; Saveliev, V; Savitskyi, M; Savoy-Navarro, A; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwanenberger, C; Schwarz, T; Schwienhorst, R; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Sekaric, J; Semenov, A; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Shabalina, E; Shalhout, S Z; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simak, V; Simonenko, A; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, H; Sonnenschein, L; Sorin, V; Soustruznik, K; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stark, J; Stentz, D; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tokmenin, V V; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Verkheev, A Y; Vernieri, C; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vidal, M; Vilanova, D; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wahl, H D; Wallny, R; Wang, M H L S; Wang, S M; Warchol, J; Waters, D; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wobisch, M; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wood, D R; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, S; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Youn, S W; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, J M; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zucchelli, S

    2015-10-01

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb^{-1} per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σ_{t}=2.25_{-0.31}^{+0.29} pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σ_{s+t}=3.30_{-0.40}^{+0.52} pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σ_{s}/σ_{t}. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |V_{tb}|=1.02_{-0.05}^{+0.06}, corresponding to |V_{tb}|>0.92 at the 95% C.L. PMID:26550718

  14. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  15. Determination of focal mechanisms of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in Mexico, based on Greens functions calculated for a 3D Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2015-04-01

    One important ingredient in the study of the complex active tectonics in Mexico is the analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, or the seismic moment tensor. They can be determined trough the calculation of Green functions and subsequent inversion for moment-tensor parameters. However, this calculation is gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with laterally heterogeneities in the crust. For these earthquakes, using 1D velocity models to compute the Greens fucntions works well. The opposite occurs for smaller and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle and requires more specific or regional 3D models. In this study, we calculate Greens functions for earthquakes in Mexico using a laterally heterogeneous seismic wave speed model, comprised of mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al 2008) and crustal model CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al 1990). Subsequently, we invert the observed seismograms for the seismic moment tensor using a method developed by Liu et al (2004) an implemented by Óscar de La Vega (2014) for earthquakes in Mexico. By following a brute force approach, in which we include all observed Rayleigh and Love waves of the Mexican National Seismic Network (Servicio Sismológico Naciona, SSN), we obtain reliable focal mechanisms for events that excite a considerable amount of low frequency waves (Mw > 4.8). However, we are not able to consistently estimate focal mechanisms for smaller events using this method, due to high noise levels in many of the records. Excluding the noisy records, or noisy parts of the records manually, requires interactive edition of the data, using an efficient tool for the editing. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI), based on python and the python library ObsPy, that allows the edition of observed and

  16. Comparison of TV magnitudes and visual magnitudes of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeno, Yoshihiko; Toda, Masayuki

    2008-08-01

    The generally accepted belief is that a meteor, with a large amount of infrared rays, can be captured brighter than it actually is by infrared-sensitive image intensifiers (I.I.) or CCD. We conducted observations of meteors using three methodologies: 1) I.I. with an attached filter that has the same spectral response as the human eye at night vision, 2) I.I. without the filter and 3) visually to determine meteor magnitudes. A total of 31 members of the astronomical club at Meiji University observed 50 Perseid meteors, 19 Geminid meteors as well as 44 sporadic meteors and the results were tabulated. The results helped us understand that on average I.I. can record meteors as brighter than visual observation by the magnitude equivalent of 0.5 for Perseids, 1.0 for Geminids and 0.5 for sporadic meteors. For I.I. with a filter that has the same spectral response the human eye at night vision, it turned out that we could obtain almost the same magnitude with observation by the human eye. We learned that a bright meteor with negative magnitude can be observed by I.I. brighter than the human eye. From several examples, we found I.I. could record a meteor with about -1 visual magnitude as brighter by about three magnitudes. We could probably do so because a bright meteor with negative magnitude may contain more infrared rays and the brightness could be amplified.

  17. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  18. Aspects of energy transitions: History and determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Peter A.

    Energy intensity in the U.S. from 1780 to 2010 shows a declining trend when traditional energy is included, in contrast to the "inverted U-curve" seen when only commercial energy is considered. The analysis quantifies use of human and animal muscle power, wind and water power, biomass, harvested ice, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. Historical prices are provided for many energy resources. The analysis reaffirms the importance of innovation in conversion technologies in energy transitions. An increase in energy intensity in the early 20th century is explained by diminishing returns to pre-electric manufacturing systems, which produced a transformation in manufacturing. In comparison to similar studies for other countries, the U.S. has generally higher energy intensity. A population-weighted series of heating degree days and cooling degree days partially explains differences in energy intensity. Series are developed for 231 countries and territories with multiple reference temperatures, with a "wet-bulb" series accounting for the effects of humidity. Other variables considered include energy prices, income per capita, and governance indices. A panel regression of thirty-two countries from 1995 to 2010 establishes GDP per capita and share of primary energy as determinants of energy intensity, but fails to establish statistical significance of the climate variables. A group mean regression finds average heating and cooling degree days to be significant predictors of average energy intensity over the study period, increasing energy intensity by roughly 1.5 kJ per 2005 international dollar for each annual degree day. Group mean regression results explain differences in countries' average energy intensity, but not changes within a country over time. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) influences the economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of an energy resource and is one driver of energy transitions. The EROI of U.S. petroleum production has declined since 1972

  19. Associations between Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Adjustment: Using a Genetically Controlled Design to Determine the Direction and Magnitude of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Laursen, Brett; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study used a genetically controlled design to examine the direction and the magnitude of effects in the over-time associations between perceived relationship quality with mothers and adolescent maladjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency). A total of 163 monozygotic (MZ) twins pairs (85 female pairs, 78 male pairs) completed…

  20. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  1. Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

    1997-10-01

    The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

  2. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  3. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  4. Should Astronomy Abolish Magnitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy is riddled with a number of anachronistic and counterintuitive practices. Among these are: plotting increasing stellar temperature from right to left in the H-R diagram; giving the distances to remote astronomical objects in parsecs; and reporting the brightness of astronomical objects in magnitudes. Historical accident and observational technique, respectively, are the bases for the first two practices, and they will undoubtedly persist in the future. However, the use of magnitudes is especially egregious when essentially linear optical detectors like CCDs are used for measuring brightness, which are then reported in a logarithmic (base 2.512 deg!) scale. The use of magnitudes has its origin in three historical artifacts: Ptolemy's method of reporting the brightness of stars in the "Almagest"; the 19th century need for a photographic photometry scale; and the 19th century studies by psychophysicists E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner on the response of the human eye to light. The latter work sought to uncover the relationship between the subjective response of the human eye and brain to the objective brightness of external optical stimuli. The resulting Fechner-Weber law states that this response is logarithmic: that is, that the eye essentially takes the logarithm of the incoming optical signal. However, after more than a century of perceptual studies, most intensively by S. S. Stevens, it is now well established that this relation is not logarithmic. For naked eye detection of stars from the first to sixth magnitudes, it can be reasonably well fit by a power law with index of about 0.3. Therefore, the modern experimental studies undermine the physiological basis for the use of magnitudes in astronomy. Should the historical origins of magnitudes alone be reason enough for their continued use? Probably not, since astronomical magnitudes are based on outdated studies of human perception; make little sense in an era of linear optical detection; and provide a

  5. Regression problems for magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellaro, S.; Mulargia, F.; Kagan, Y. Y.

    2006-06-01

    Least-squares linear regression is so popular that it is sometimes applied without checking whether its basic requirements are satisfied. In particular, in studying earthquake phenomena, the conditions (a) that the uncertainty on the independent variable is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the one on the dependent variable, (b) that both data and uncertainties are normally distributed and (c) that residuals are constant are at times disregarded. This may easily lead to wrong results. As an alternative to least squares, when the ratio between errors on the independent and the dependent variable can be estimated, orthogonal regression can be applied. We test the performance of orthogonal regression in its general form against Gaussian and non-Gaussian data and error distributions and compare it with standard least-square regression. General orthogonal regression is found to be superior or equal to the standard least squares in all the cases investigated and its use is recommended. We also compare the performance of orthogonal regression versus standard regression when, as often happens in the literature, the ratio between errors on the independent and the dependent variables cannot be estimated and is arbitrarily set to 1. We apply these results to magnitude scale conversion, which is a common problem in seismology, with important implications in seismic hazard evaluation, and analyse it through specific tests. Our analysis concludes that the commonly used standard regression may induce systematic errors in magnitude conversion as high as 0.3-0.4, and, even more importantly, this can introduce apparent catalogue incompleteness, as well as a heavy bias in estimates of the slope of the frequency-magnitude distributions. All this can be avoided by using the general orthogonal regression in magnitude conversions.

  6. Determining groundwater Ra end-member values for the estimation of the magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-04-01

    Radium isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra) are excellent tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). To estimate SGD magnitudes, information on the end-member values of Ra concentrations in groundwater is critical; however, the distribution characteristics of Ra in coastal aquifers are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Ra concentrations in coastal groundwater are primarily dependent on salinity based on the data (n > 500) obtained from global coastal aquifers, although previous end-member calculations averaged all Ra concentrations without considering salinity. If we assume that SGD is composed mainly of seawater infiltrating the aquifer, previous estimates of SGD for the Atlantic Ocean and the global ocean were overestimated twofold to threefold. This may be similar for other applications using different Ra isotopes. Our study highlights that the end-members of Ra isotopes in groundwater should be carefully considered when estimating SGD using Ra isotope mass balances in the ocean.

  7. Magnitude And Distance Determination From The First Few Seconds Of One Three Components Seismological Station Signal Using Support Vector Machine Regression Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Vargas Jimenez, C. A.; Niño Vasquez, L. F.

    2011-12-01

    The "Sabana de Bogota" (Bogota Savannah) is the most important social and economical center of Colombia. Almost the third of population is concentrated in this region and generates about the 40% of Colombia's Internal Brute Product (IBP). According to this, the zone presents an elevated vulnerability in case that a high destructive seismic event occurs. Historical evidences show that high magnitude events took place in the past with a huge damage caused to the city and indicate that is probable that such events can occur in the next years. This is the reason why we are working in an early warning generation system, using the first few seconds of a seismic signal registered by three components and wide band seismometers. Such system can be implemented using Computational Intelligence tools, designed and calibrated to the particular Geological, Structural and environmental conditions present in the region. The methods developed are expected to work on real time, thus suitable software and electronic tools need to be developed. We used Support Vector Machines Regression (SVMR) methods trained and tested with historic seismic events registered by "EL ROSAL" Station, located near Bogotá, calculating descriptors or attributes as the input of the model, from the first 6 seconds of signal. With this algorithm, we obtained less than 10% of mean absolute error and correlation coefficients greater than 85% in hypocentral distance and Magnitude estimation. With this results we consider that we can improve the method trying to have better accuracy with less signal time and that this can be a very useful model to be implemented directly in the seismological stations to generate a fast characterization of the event, broadcasting not only raw signal but pre-processed information that can be very useful for accurate Early Warning Generation.

  8. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  9. Arterial input functions determined from MR signal magnitude and phase for quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the human pelvis.

    PubMed

    Cron, Greg O; Foottit, Claire; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Avruch, Leonard I; Schweitzer, Mark E; Cameron, Ian

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is often used to measure the transfer constant (Ktrans) and distribution volume (ve) in pelvic tumors. For optimal accuracy and reproducibility, one must quantify the arterial input function (AIF). Unfortunately, this is challenging due to inflow and signal saturation. A potential solution is to use MR signal phase (ϕ), which is relatively unaffected by these factors. We hypothesized that phase-derived AIFs (AIFϕ) would provide more reproducible Ktrans and ve values than magnitude-derived AIFs (AIF|S|). We tested this in 27 prostate dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies (echo time=2.56 ms, temporal resolution=13.5 s), using muscle as a standard. AIFϕ peak amplitude varied much less as a function of measurement location (inferior-superior) than AIF|S| (5.6±0.6 mM vs. 2.6±1.5 mM), likely as a result of ϕ inflow insensitivity. However, our main hypothesis was not confirmed. The best AIF|S| provided similar reproducibility versus AIFϕ (interpatient muscle Ktrans=0.039±0.021 min(-1) vs. 0.037±0.025 min(-1), ve=0.090±0.041 vs. 0.062±0.022, respectively).

  10. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The Design... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  11. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The Design... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  12. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1 The Design... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  13. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The Design... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  14. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The Design... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  15. Accelerated autoantibody clearance by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: studies in experimental models to determine the magnitude and time course of the effect.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, W K; Teeling, J L; Hack, C E

    2001-11-15

    Recently, it has been postulated that the beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) in antibody-mediated autoimmune disorders is based on accelerated catabolism of autoantibodies. In the current study, in vivo experiments were performed with mice in which autoantibody production was mimicked by continuous infusion of monoclonal antibodies. In this model, a single dose of IVIG reduced the plasma concentrations of the infused immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) by approximately 40% after 3 days, whereas the concentration of an IgA mAb was not affected. To extrapolate these findings to humans, a computational model for IgG clearance was established that accurately predicted the time course and magnitude of the decrease in IgG plasma levels observed in mice. Adapted for humans, this model predicted a gradually occurring decrease in autoantibody levels after IVIG administration (2 g/kg), with a maximum reduction of approximately 25% after 3 to 4 weeks and a continued decrease of several months. In conclusion, a single high dose of IVIG induces a relatively small but long-lasting reduction of autoantibody levels by accelerated IgG clearance. This mechanism has clinical relevance in the sense that it can fully explain, as the sole mechanism, the gradual decrease in autoantibody levels observed in several patient studies. However, in some clinical studies, larger or more rapid effects have been observed that cannot be explained by accelerated clearance. Hence, IVIG can also reduce autoantibody levels through mechanisms such as down-regulation of antibody production or neutralization by anti-idiotypic antibodies.

  16. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  17. Magnitude and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross - sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adequate antiretroviral drug potency is essential for obtaining therapeutic benefit, however, the behavioral aspects of proper adherence and readiness to medication, often determine therapeutic outcome. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at Gondar University Teaching Hospital and Felege Hiwot Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and September 2008 using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. All consecutive adult outpatients who were receiving antiretroviral treatment for at least three months, seen at both hospitals during the study period and able to give informed consent were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with nonadherence and nonreadiness. Results A total of 504 study subjects were included in this study. The prevalence rates of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART were 87 (17.3%) and 70 (13.9%) respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that medication adverse effects, nonreadiness to HAART, contact with psychiatric care service and having no goal had statistically significant association with nonadherence. Moreover, unwillingness to disclose HIV status was significantly associated with nonreadiness to HAART. Conclusions In this study the level of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART seems to be encouraging. Several factors associated with nonadherance and nonreadiness to HAART were identified. Efforts to minimize nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART should be integrated in to regular clinical follow up of patients. PMID:20180959

  18. Magnitude correlations in global seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarlis, N. V.

    2011-08-15

    By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than M{sub w}6.5.

  19. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  20. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... alternative method for determining energy efficiency or energy use (AEDM) to the basic model, in...

  1. Application of static and dynamic enclosures for determining dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide exchange in Sphagnum peatlands: Implications for the magnitude and direction of flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, William Z.; Hines, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic (flow through) enclosure measurements with sulfur-free air used as sweep gas. This latter technique has been used to acquire the majority of available data on the exchange of S gases between the atmosphere and the continental surfaces and has been criticized because it is thought to overestimate the true flux of gases by disrupting natural S gas gradients. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were not statistically different between 4 and greater than 400 nmol/sq m/h, indicating that previous data on emissions of at least DMS are probably valid. However, the increase in DMS in static enclosures was not linear, indicating the potential for a negative feedback of enlosure DMS concentrations on efflux. The dynamic enclosure method measured positive OCS flux rates (emission) at all sites, while data using static enclosures indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere at these same sites at rates of 3.7 to 55 nmol/sq m/h. Measurements using both enclosure techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat was a source of both DMS and OCS. However, the rate of OCS efflux from decomposing peat was more than counterbalanced by OCS consumption by vegetation, including Sphagnum mosses, and net OCS uptake occurred at all sites. We propose that all wetlands are net sinks for OCS.

  2. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  3. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  4. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  5. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  6. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  7. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  8. Cosmic ray spectral deformation caused by energy determination errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per; Wannemark, Conny

    2005-08-01

    Using simulation methods, distortion effects on energy spectra caused by errors in the energy determination have been investigated. For cosmic ray proton spectra falling steeply with kinetic energy E as E-2.7, significant effects appear. When magnetic spectrometers are used to determine the energy, the relative error increases linearly with the energy and distortions with a sinusoidal form appear starting at an energy that depends significantly on the error distribution but at an energy lower than that corresponding to the maximum detectable rigidity of the spectrometer. The effect should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different experiments, often having different error distributions.

  9. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. Link to an amendment... model, either from testing the basic model or from applying an alternative method for determining...

  10. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  11. 75 FR 54117 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... 1904-AC18 Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency..., (Standard 90.1-2007) would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code, than the 2004... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Forrestal Building, Mail Station......

  12. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  13. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  14. Amplitude-dependent station magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzyner, Yael; Ben Horin, Yochai; Steinberg, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Magnitude, a concept first presented by Gutenberg and Richter, adjusts measurements of ground motion for epicentral distance and source depth. Following this principle, the IDC defines the j'th station body wave magnitude for event i as mb(stai,j) = log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i) + V C(Δj,i,hi) , where VC is the Veith-Clawson (VC) correction to compensate for the epicentral distance of the station and the depth of the source. The network magnitude is calculated as the average of station magnitudes. The IDC magnitude estimation is used for event characterization and discrimination and it should be as accurate as possible. Ideally, the network magnitude should be close in value to the station magnitudes. In reality, it is observed that the residuals range between -1 and 1 mu or ±25% of a given mb(neti) value. We show that the residual, mb(neti) -mb(staj,i), depends linearly on log 10(Aj,i/Tj,i), and we correct for this dependence using the following procedure: Calculate a "jackknifed" network magnitude, mbj,n(neti), i.e. an average over all participating stations except station n. Using all measurements at station n, calculate the parameters an, bn of the linear fit of the residual mbj,n(neti) - mb(stan,i to log 10(An,i/Tn,i). For each event i at station n calculate the new station magnitude mbnew(stan,i) = (an + 1)log(An,i/Tn,i) + V C(Δn,i,hi) + bn Calculate the new network magnitude: mbnew(neti) = 1N- ∑ n=1nmbnew(stan,i) The procedure was used on more than two million station-event pairs. Correcting for the station-specific dependence on log amplitude reduces the residuals by roughly a third. We have calculated the spread of the distributions, and compared the original values and those for the corrected magnitudes. The spread is the ratio between the variance of the network magnitudes, and the variance of the residual. Calculations show an increase in the ratio of the variance, meaning that the correction process presented in this document did not lead to loss of variance

  15. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Sá, E; Carvalho, D; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of +200Wm(-2)) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of -62.8 and -35Wm(-2), respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers.

  16. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Sá, E; Carvalho, D; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of +200Wm(-2)) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of -62.8 and -35Wm(-2), respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. PMID:27317136

  17. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  18. Final rotational state distributions from NO(vi = 11) in collisions with Au(111): the magnitude of vibrational energy transfer depends on orientation in molecule-surface collisions.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Bastian C; Bartels, Nils; Wodtke, Alec M; Schäfer, Tim

    2016-06-01

    When NO molecules collide at a Au(111) surface, their interaction is controlled by several factors; especially important are the molecules' orientation with respect to the surface (N-first vs. O-first) and their distance of closest approach. In fact, the former may control the latter as N-first orientations are attractive and O-first orientations are repulsive. In this work, we employ electric fields to control the molecules' incidence orientation in combination with rotational rainbow scattering detection. Specifically, we report final rotational state distributions of oriented NO(vi = 11) molecules scattered from Au(111) for final vibrational states between vf = 4 and 11. For O-first collisions, the interaction potential is highly repulsive preventing the close approach and scattering results in high-J rainbows. By contrast, these rainbows are not seen for the more intimate collisions possible for attractive N-first orientations. In this way, we reveal the influence of orientation and the distance of closest approach on vibrational relaxation of NO(vi = 11) in collisions with a Au(111) surface. We also elucidate the influence of steering forces which cause the O-first oriented molecules to rotate to an N-first orientation during their approach to the surface. The experiments show that when NO collides at the surface with the N-atom first, on average more than half of the initial vibrational energy is lost; whereas O-first oriented collisions lose much less vibrational energy. These observations qualitatively confirm theoretical predictions of electronically non-adiabatic NO interactions at Au(111). PMID:27193070

  19. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R E; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2016-05-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes.

  20. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R E; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2016-05-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes. PMID:26879093

  1. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R. E.; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes. PMID:26879093

  2. Magnitude and nature of carbohydrate-aromatic interactions in fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes: CCSD(T) level interaction energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2011-10-20

    The CH/π contact structures of the fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes and the stabilization energies by formation of the complexes (E(form)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The three types of interactions (CH/π and OH/π interactions and OH/O hydrogen bonds) were compared and evaluated in a single molecular system and at the same level of theory. The E(form) calculated for the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-phenol complex at the CCSD(T) level (-4.9 kcal/mol) is close to that for the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-benzene complex (-4.5 kcal/mol). On the other hand the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-indole complex has substantially larger E(form) (-6.5 kcal/mol). The dispersion interaction is the major source of the attraction in the CH/π contact structures of the fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes as in the case of the fucose-benzene complex. The electrostatic interactions in the CH/π contact structures are small (less than 1.5 kcal/mol). The nature of the interactions between the nonpolar surface of the carbohydrate and aromatic rings is completely different from that of the conventional hydrogen bonds where the electrostatic interaction is the major source of the attraction. The distributed multipole analysis and DFT-SATP analysis show that the dispersion interactions in the CH/π contact structure of fucose-indole complex are substantially larger than those in the CH/π contact structures of fucose-benzene and fucose-phenol complexes. The large dispersion interactions are responsible for the large E(form) for the fucose-indole complex.

  3. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  4. The intensities and magnitudes of volcanic eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since 1935, when C.F Richter devised the earthquake magnitude scale that bears his name, seismologists have been able to view energy release from earthquakes in a systematic and quantitative manner. The benefits have been obvious in terms of assessing seismic gaps and the spatial and temporal trends of earthquake energy release. A similar quantitative treatment of volcanic activity is of course equally desirable, both for gaining a further understanding of the physical principles of volcanic eruptions and for volcanic-hazard assessment. A systematic volcanologic data base would be of great value in evaluating such features as volcanic gaps, and regional and temporal trends in energy release.  

  5. 76 FR 43287 - Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... 1904-AC18 Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in...) would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code, than the 2004 edition... Conservation and Production Act, as amended (ECPA), establishes requirements for the Building Energy...

  6. Using Polarimetry to Determine the CEBAF Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2014-06-01

    As Jefferson Lab begins operations with its upgraded CEBAF a ccelerator, the lab once again needs to experimentally determine the absolute beam energy of the machine. Previously, the CE- BAF beam energy was determined using precision measurement s of the bending magnet integral fields along with beam position information. The result obta ined from this technique was cross- checked with elastic scattering from hydrogen where knowle dge of the scattering angles of the electron and proton allow the beam energy to be determined. Wh ile the field integral method will still work with the upgraded machine, the elastic cross sect ion becomes too small to make preci- sion measurements at angles that are large enough to be easil y accessible; thus a new technique for energy determination has been sought. It will be shown th at by making use of polarimetry, one can use CEBAF’s polarized electrons’ g-2 spin precessio n to determine the absolute beam energy. This can be done in a single hall if the parameters of t he machine, such as the injector energy and linac imbalance, are known or with two halls witho ut any knowledge of the machine parameters

  7. Calibration de la magnitude absolue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, A. E.; Mennessier, M. O.

    Les parallaxes mesurées par Hipparcos permettront d'obtenir des magnitudes absolues individuelles meilleures que ±0m4 pour les étoiles placées dans un volume de rayon inférieur à 150 pc environ autour du soleil. Les algorithmes développés dans le cadre de l'exploitation des données d'Hipparcos, basés sur la méthode de maximum de vraisemblance, permettent non seulement de faire une estimation de la magnitude absolue moyenne d'un groupe physiquement homogène d'étoiles, de son comportement cinématique et de sa distribution spatiale mais aussi d'estimer une magnitude absolue individuelle pour chaque étoile de l'échantillon considéré.

  8. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs.

    PubMed

    Moses, Melanie; Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-08-19

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy-time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431524

  9. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  10. Using rf impedance probe measurements to determine plasma potential and the electron energy distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D. N.; Fernsler, R. F.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2010-11-15

    Earlier work has demonstrated the usefulness of a network analyzer in plasma diagnostics using spherical probes in the thin sheath limit. The rf signal applied to the probe by the network analyzer is small in magnitude compared to probe bias voltages, and the instrument returns both real and imaginary parts of the complex plasma impedance as a function of frequency for given bias voltages. This information can be used to determine sheath resistance, sheath density profiles, and a technique for measuring electron temperature. The present work outlines a method for finding plasma potential and the electron energy distribution within a limited energy range. The results are compared to those using conventional Langmuir probe techniques. The rf method has general application to diverse areas of plasma investigations when the plasma is uniform and probe dimensions are much less than the size of the plasma. These applications include laboratory and space environments.

  11. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  12. Precise determination of neutron binding energy of 64Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telezhnikov, S. A.; Granja, C.; Honzatko, J.; Pospisil, S.; Tomandl, I.

    2016-05-01

    The neutron binding energy in 64Cu has been accurately measured in thermal neutron capture. A composite target of natural Cu and NaCl was used on a high flux neutron beam using a large measuring time. The γ-ray spectrum emitted in the ( n, γ) reaction was measured with a HPGe detector in large statistics (up to 106 events per channel). Intrinsic limitations of HPGe detectors, which restrict the accuracy of energy calibration, were determined. The value B n of 64Cu was determined as 7915.867(24) keV.

  13. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  14. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1 Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  15. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  16. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  17. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  18. Determining aerodynamic conductance of spar chambers from energy balance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerodynamic conductance (gA) of SPAR chambers was determined from measurements of energy balance and canopy temperature over a peanut canopy. gA was calculated from the slope of sensible heat flux (H) versus canopy-to-air temperature difference. H and the canopy-to-air temperature were varied by...

  19. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  20. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-12-01

    Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001), Chem. Rev. 101, 1569-1581; Schmidt et al. (2005), Methods Mol. Biol. 305, 115-154; Schmidt (2008), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallography, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010), Acta Cryst. A66, 198-206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallographic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes.

  1. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-12-01

    Barriers of activation within the photocycle of a photoactive protein were extracted from comprehensive time courses of time resolved crystallographic data collected at multiple temperature settings. Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev.101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol.305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallography, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallographic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes.

  2. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-01-01

    Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev. 101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol. 305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallo­graphy, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallo­graphic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes. PMID:24311594

  3. Neutron absorbed dose determination by calculations of recoil energy.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, F; Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Lapraz, D

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to calculate the absorbed dose to matter due to neutrons in the 5-150 MeV energy range. Materials involved in the calculations are Al2O3, CaSO4 and CaS, which may be used as dosemeters and have already been studied for their luminescent properties. The absorbed dose is assumed to be mainly due to the energy deposited by the recoils. Elastic reactions are treated with the ECIS code while for the non-elastic ones, a Monte Carlo code has been developed and allowed to follow the nucleus decay and to determine its characteristics (nature and energy). Finally, the calculations show that the absorbed dose is mainly due to non-elastic process and that above 20 MeV this dose decreases slightly with the neutron energy. PMID:15353750

  4. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  5. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  6. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  7. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  8. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  9. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  10. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1 Each floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  11. A determination of Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations employing large basis sets and including correlation are carried out for Mg(+) with methanol, water, and formaldehyde. For Mg(+) with ethanol and acetaldehyde, the trends in the binding energies are studied at the self-consistent-field level. The predictions for the binding energy of Mg(+) to methanol and water of 41 + or - 5 and 36 + or - 5 kcal/mol, respectively, are much less than the experimental upper bounds, of 61 + or - 5 and 60 + or - 5 kcal mol, determined by using photodissociation techniques. The theoretical results are inconsistent with the onset of Mg(+) production observed in the photodissociation experiments, as the smallest absorptions are calculated at about 80 kcal/mol for both Mg(+)-CH3OH and Mg(+)-H2O, and these transitions are to bound excited states. The binding energy for Mg(+) with formaldehyde is predicted to be similar to Mg(+)-H2O. The relative binding energies are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The binding energy of a second water molecule to Mg(+) is predicted to be similar to the first. This suggests that the reduced reaction rate observed for the second ligand is not a consequence of a significantly smaller binding energy, at least for the smaller ligards such as those considered in this work.

  12. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  13. Determination of selenium in biological samples with an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Zhaoshui

    2016-05-01

    Selenium is both a nutrient and a toxin. Selenium-especially organic selenium-is a core component of human nutrition. Thus, it is very important to measure selenium in biological samples. The limited sensitivity of conventional XRF hampers its widespread use in biological samples. Here, we describe the use of high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) in tandem with a three-dimensional optics design to determine 0.1-5.1μgg(-1) levels of selenium in biological samples. The effects of various experimental parameters such as applied voltage, acquisition time, secondary target and various filters were thoroughly investigated. The detection limit of selenium in biological samples via high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was decreased by one order of magnitude versus conventional XRF (Paltridge et al., 2012) and found to be 0.1μg/g. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe EDXRF measurements of Se in biological samples with important implications for the nutrition and analytical chemistry communities. PMID:26922394

  14. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummans, J.E.; Collings, Michael R.; Nasser, Edmund George

    1975-01-01

    Relations are provided to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods on Washington streams. Annual-peak-flow data from stream gaging stations on unregulated streams having 1 years or more of record were used to determine a log-Pearson Type III frequency curve for each station. Flood magnitudes having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, i0, 25, 50, and 10years were then related to physical and climatic indices of the drainage basins by multiple-regression analysis using the Biomedical Computer Program BMDO2R. These regression relations are useful for estimating flood magnitudes of the specified recurrence intervals at ungaged or short-record sites. Separate sets of regression equations were defined for western and eastern parts of the State, and the State was further subdivided into 12 regions in which the annual floods exhibit similar flood characteristics. Peak flows are related most significantly in western Washington to drainage-area size and mean annual precipitation. In eastern Washington-they are related most significantly to drainage-area size, mean annual precipitation, and percentage of forest cover. Standard errors of estimate of the estimating relations range from 25 to 129 percent, and the smallest errors are generally associated with the more humid regions.

  15. Determining production policies for crops to maximize net energy return

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, H.E.; Frisby, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    In this simulation study, energy consumption in production of corn, soybeans, wheat and alfalfa was evaluated under different levels of production constraints. A synthetic farm located in central Missouri was developed using data from previous studies. Only 150 hectares of the total cropland (350 ha) were irrigated using sprinkler irrigation. A linear programming model was used to select the crops and their respective areas. A first solution for a selected set of initial conditions resulted in partial utilization of total available cropland because of constraints reaching their upper limits. By a series of additional runs, suggested policies for full utilization of cropland and effects of policy changes on net energy return of the farm were determined. It was discovered that the initial conditions of the farm could be revised to increase the net energy return by 30 percent.

  16. Comparison of local magnitude scales in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Cipciar, Andrej; Csicsay, Kristian; Srbecky, Miroslav; Kristekova, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Efficient monitoring of earthquakes and determination of their magnitudes are necessary for developing earthquake catalogues at a regional and national levels. Unification and homogenization of the catalogues in terms of magnitudes has great importance for seismic hazard assessment. Calibrated local earthquake magnitude scales are commonly used for determining magnitudes of regional earthquakes by all national seismological services in the Central Europe. However, at the local scale, each seismological service uses its own magnitude determination procedure. There is no systematic comparison of the approaches and there is no unified procedure. We present a comparison of the local magnitude scales used by the national seismological services of Slovakia (Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Austria (ZAMG), Hungary (Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and Poland (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences), and by the local network of seismic stations located around the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. The comparison is based on the national earthquake catalogues and annually published earthquake bulletins for the period from 1985 to 2011. A data set of earthquakes has been compiled based on identification of common events in the national earthquake catalogues and bulletins. For each pair of seismic networks, magnitude differences have been determined and investigated as a function of time. The mean and standard deviations of the magnitude differences as well as regression coefficients between local magnitudes from the national seismological networks have been computed. Results show relatively big scatter between different national local magnitudes and its considerable time variation. A conversion between different national local magnitudes in a scale 1:1 seems inappropriate, especially for the compilation of the

  17. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    PubMed

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  18. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory†

    PubMed Central

    Vilseck, Jonah Z.; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood–Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm3 mol−1. The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  19. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustes, A. W., III; Bridgford, E.; Tischler, A.; Wilcox, B. H.

    2000-01-01

    An in-depth look at percussive drilling shows that the transmission efficiency is very important; however, data for percussive drilling in hard rock or permafrost is rarely available or the existing data are very old. Transmission efficiency can be used as a measurement of the transmission of the energy in the piston to the drill steel or bit and from the bit to the rock. Having a plane and centralized impact of the piston on the drill steel can optimize the transmission efficiency from the piston to the drill steel. A transmission efficiency of near 100% between piston and drill steel is possible. The transmission efficiency between bit and rock is dependent upon the interaction within the entire system. The main factors influencing this transmission efficiency are the contact area between cutting structure and surrounding rock (energy loss due to friction heat), damping characteristics of the surrounding rock (energy dampening), and cuttings transport. Some of these parameters are not controllable. To solve the existing void regarding available drilling data, an experiment for gathering energy data in permafrost for percussive drilling was designed. Fifteen artificial permafrost samples were prepared. The samples differed in the grain size distribution to observe a possible influence of the grain size distribution on the drilling performance. The samples were then manually penetrated (with a sledge-hammer) with two different spikes.

  20. Determination of anharmonic free energy contributions: Low temperature phases of the Lennard-Jones system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Calero, C.; Knorowski, C.; Travesset, A.

    2016-03-22

    We investigate a general method to calculate the free energy of crystalline solids by considering the harmonic approximation and quasistatically switching the anharmonic contribution. The advantage of this method is that the harmonic approximation provides an already very accurate estimate of the free energy, and therefore the anharmonic term is numerically very small and can be determined to high accuracy. We further show that the anharmonic contribution to the free energy satisfies a number of exact inequalities that place constraints on its magnitude and allows approximate but fast and accurate estimates. The method is implemented into a readily available generalmore » software by combining the code HOODLT (Highly Optimized Object Oriented Dynamic Lattice Theory) for the harmonic part and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package HOOMD-blue for the anharmonic part. We use the method to calculate the low temperature phase diagram for Lennard-Jones particles. We demonstrate that hcp is the equilibrium phase at low temperature and pressure and obtain the coexistence curve with the fcc phase, which exhibits reentrant behavior. Furthermore, several implications of the method are discussed.« less

  1. Determination of resting energy expenditure after severe burn.

    PubMed

    Shields, Beth A; Doty, Kevin A; Chung, Kevin K; Wade, Charles E; Aden, James K; Wolf, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of nine predictive equations for calculating energy expenditure in severely burned adult subjects. The selected equations have been reported as commonly used or determined to be the most accurate. This prospective, observational study was conducted on adult subjects admitted between October 2007 and July 2010 with ≥ 20% TBSA full-thickness burns (excluding electrical burns or severe head injury). Indirect calorimetry measurements were conducted as a convenience sample during the first 30 days after injury. Demographic data were collected, and resting energy expenditure was calculated using the nine selected predictive equations and compared to measured energy expenditure (MEE) using descriptive and comparative statistics. Data were collected on 31 subjects with an average age of 46 ± 19 years and %TBSA burn of 48 ± 21%. For all equations, slopes and intercepts were significantly different from the line of identity when compared with MEE. A calorie-dependent bias was present for all equations, in that lower calorie range was overestimated and the higher calorie range was underestimated. Only the Carlson and Milner equations had results that were not significantly different from the MEE and mean differences that were not significant in all burn size ranges. None of the equations had a strong correlation with MEE. Of the equations available, the Milner and Carlson equations are the most satisfactory in predicting resting energy expenditure in severely burned adults when indirect calorimetry is unavailable. PMID:22868454

  2. Photodisintegration of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: A New Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Salamon, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a new calculation of the photodisintegration of ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for energy loss and photodisintegration of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the 2.73 K cosmic background radiation (CBR) and with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, consistent with direct measurements and upper limits from TeV gamma-ray observations. We have also improved the calculation by including the specific threshold energies for the various photodisintegration interactions in our Monte Carlo calculation. With the new smaller IBR flux, the steepness of the Wien side of the now relatively more important CBR makes their inclusion essential for more accurate results. Our results indicate a significant increase in the propagation time of UHCR nuclei of a given energy over previous results. We discuss the possible significance of this for UHCR origin theory.

  3. Fast self-attenuation determination of low energy gamma lines.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Kh

    2016-09-01

    Linear correlation between self-attenuation factor of 46.5keV ((210)Pb) and the 1764keV, 46.5 counts ratio has been developed in this work using triple superphosphate fertilizer samples. Similar correlation has been also developed for 63.3keV ((238)U). This correlation offers simple, fast, and accurate technique for self-attenuation determination of low energy gamma lines. Utilization of 46.5keV in the ratio has remarkably improved the technique sensitivity in comparison with other work, which used similar concept. The obtained results were used to assess the validity of transmission technique. PMID:27337648

  4. Common Enzymological Experiments Allow Free Energy Profile Determination

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The determination of a complete set of rate constants (free energy profiles; FEPs) for a complex kinetic mechanism is challenging. Enzymologists have devised a variety of informative steady-state kinetic experiments (e.g., Michaelis-Menten kinetics, viscosity dependence of kinetic parameters, KIEs, etc.) that each provide distinct information regarding a particular kinetic system. A simple method for combining steady-state experiments in a single analysis is presented here, which allows microscopic rate constants and intrinsic kinetic isotope effects to be determined. It is first shown that Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (kcat and KM values), kinetic isotope efffets, solvent viscosity effects, and intermediate partitioning measurements are sufficient to define the rate constants for a reversible uni-uni mechanism with an intermediate, EZ, between the ES and EP complexes. Global optimization provides the framework to combine the independent experimental measurements, and the search for rate constants is performed using algorithms implemented in the biochemical software COPASI. This method is applied to the determination of FEPs for both alanine racemase and triosephosphate isomerase. The FEPs obtained from global optimization agree with those in the literature, with important exceptions. The method opens the door to routine and large-scale determination of FEPs for enzymes. PMID:23906433

  5. Predicted magnitudes and colors from cool-star model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. R.; Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.

    1982-02-01

    An intercomparison of model stellar atmospheres and observations of real stars can lead to a better understanding of the relationship between the physical properties of stars and their observed radiative flux. In this spirit we have determined wide-band and narrow-band magnitudes and colors for a subset of models of K and M giant and supergiant stars selected from the grid of 40 models by Johnson, Bernat and Krupp (1980) (hereafter referred to as JBK). The 24 models selected have effective temperatures of 4000, 3800, 3600, 3400, 3200, 3000, 2750 and 2500 K and log g = 0, 1 or 2. Emergent energy fluxes (erg/ sq cm s A) were calculated at 9140 wavelengths for each model. These computed flux curves were folded through the transmission functions of Wing's 8-color system (Wing, 1971; White and Wing, 1978) and through Johnson's (1965) wide-band (BVRIJKLM) system. The calibration of the resultant magnitudes was made by using the absolute calibration of the flux curve of Vega by Schild, et al. (1971).

  6. Predicted magnitudes and colors from cool-star model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.; Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    An intercomparison of model stellar atmospheres and observations of real stars can lead to a better understanding of the relationship between the physical properties of stars and their observed radiative flux. In this spirit we have determined wide-band and narrow-band magnitudes and colors for a subset of models of K and M giant and supergiant stars selected from the grid of 40 models by Johnson, Bernat and Krupp (1980) (hereafter referred to as JBK). The 24 models selected have effective temperatures of 4000, 3800, 3600, 3400, 3200, 3000, 2750 and 2500 K and log g = 0, 1 or 2. Emergent energy fluxes (erg/ sq cm s A) were calculated at 9140 wavelengths for each model. These computed flux curves were folded through the transmission functions of Wing's 8-color system (Wing, 1971; White and Wing, 1978) and through Johnson's (1965) wide-band (BVRIJKLM) system. The calibration of the resultant magnitudes was made by using the absolute calibration of the flux curve of Vega by Schild, et al. (1971).

  7. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  8. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  9. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  10. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  11. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  12. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  13. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  14. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  15. Using a delta-doped CCD to determine the energy of a low-energy particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Croley, Donald R. (Inventor); Murphy, Gerald B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The back surface of a thinned charged-coupled device (CCD) is treated to eliminate the backside potential well that appears in a conventional thinned CCD during backside illumination. The backside of the CCD includes a delta layer of high-concentration dopant confined to less than one monolayer of the crystal semiconductor. The thinned, delta-doped CCD is used to determine the energy of a very low-energy particle that penetrates less than 1.0 nm into the CCD, such as a proton having energy less than 10 keV.

  16. Interaction Determined Electron Energy Levels in One-Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thomas, Kalarikad; Smith, Luke; Creeth, Graham; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Jones, Geraint; Jonathan, Griffiths; UCL Collaboration; Cavendish Laboratory Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated electron transport in a quasi-one dimensional electron gas in the GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure designed so that the confinement potential can be progressively weakened. This causes the energy levels to decrease in energy relative to each other, however this decrease occurs at different rates, a feature attributed to the energy being determined by both confinement and the electron-electron repulsion which varies with the shape of the wavefunction. It is found that the initial ground state crosses the higher levels so resulting in missing plateaux of quantised conductance. A change in the nature of the ground state to a more extended form causes an increase in the capacitance between the confining gates and the electrons. Both crossings and anti-crossings of the levels are found and these will be discussed along with other consequences of the form of the level interactions. The effects of level crossing on the spin dependent 0.7 structure will be presented. Supported by EPSRC (UK).

  17. Magnitude correlations and dynamical scaling for seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Godano, Cataldo; Lippiello, Eugenio; De Arcangelis, Lucilla

    2007-12-06

    We analyze the experimental seismic catalog of Southern California and we show the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We propose a dynamical scaling hypothesis relating time and magnitude as the physical mechanism responsible of the observed magnitude correlations. We show that experimental distributions in size and time naturally originate solely from this scaling hypothesis. Furthermore we generate a synthetic catalog reproducing the organization in time and magnitude of experimental data.

  18. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius.

    PubMed

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-08-01

    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules. PMID:23848436

  19. Definition, epidemiology and magnitude of alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Basra, Sarpreet; Anand, Bhupinderjit S

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Its presentation ranges from fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the amount and pattern of alcohol consumption is a well recognized predisposing factor for the development of serious liver pathology, environmental factors and the host’s genetic make-up may also play significant roles that have not yet been entirely explored. Continuing alcohol consumption is a major factor that influences the survival of patients with AH. The presence of cirrhosis at presentation or its development on follow up is a major factor determining the outcome in the long run. This chapter deals with the epidemiology and magnitude of ALD in general and AH in particular. PMID:21731902

  20. Determination of Dark Matter Properties at High-Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Battaglia, Marco; Peskin, Michael E.; Wizansky, Tommer

    2006-11-05

    If the cosmic dark matter consists of weakly-interacting massive particles, these particles should be produced in reactions at the nextgeneration of high-energy accelerators. Measurements at these accelerators can then be used to determine the microscopic properties of the dark matter. From this, we can predict the cosmic density, the annihilation cross sections, and the cross sections relevant to direct detection. In this paper, we present studies in supersymmetry models with neutralino dark matter that give quantitative estimates of the accuracy that can be expected. We show that these are well matched to the requirements of anticipated astrophysical observations of dark matter. The capabilities of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) are expected to play a particularly important role in this study.

  1. Quantitative determination of activation energies in mechanochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Franziska; Wenzel, Klaus-Jürgen; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-08-17

    Mechanochemical reactions often result in 100% yields of single products, making purifying procedures obsolete. Mechanochemistry is also a sustainable and eco-friendly method. The ever increasing interest in this method is contrasted by a lack in mechanistic understanding of the mechanochemical reactivity and selectivity. Recent in situ investigations provided direct insight into formation pathways. However, the currently available theories do not predict temperature T as an influential factor. Here, we report the first determination of an apparent activation energy for a mechanochemical reaction. In a temperature-dependent in situ study the cocrystallisation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide was investigated as a model system. These experiments provide a pivotal step towards a comprehensive understanding of milling reaction mechanisms.

  2. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  3. Magnitude and sign correlations in heartbeat fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that signals with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We find that the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. We apply our approach to the heartbeat interval series and find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications.

  4. Jet Performance and Jet Energy Scale Determination at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Anwar A.

    2006-10-27

    We describe the jet response of the CMS calorimeter which will be used to study pp collisions at Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland at {radical}(s) = 14 TeV. The electromagnetic section of calorimeter consists of lead tungstate crystals which gives an excellent resolution for electrons. The hadron section is brass-scintillator sampling calorimeter read by wavelength shifting fibers in the central region (vertical bar {eta} vertical bar < 3.0) and steel/quartz-fibers in the forward (3.0 < vertical bar {eta} vertical bar < 5.0) region. Extensive test beam calibration data has been collected. A GEANT-based calorimeter simulation has been tuned to reproduce the test beam measurements. The calorimeter response to jets has been determined using this tuned simulation. We describe the calorimeter response to jets, the jet energy resolution, and the procedure we plan to use to establish the jet energy scale from a combination of test beam and pp data when we start taking data in September 2007.

  5. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations.

  6. Magnitude systems in old star catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Hitoshi

    2005-06-01

    The current system of stellar magnitudes originally introduced by Hipparchus was strictly defined by Norman Pogson in 1856. He based his system on Ptolemy's star catalogue, the Almagest, recorded in about AD137, and defined the magnitude-intensity relationship on a logarithmic scale. Stellar magnitudes observed with the naked eye recorded in seven old star catalogues were analyzed in order to examine the visual magnitude systems. Although psychophysicists have proposed that human visual sensitivity follows a power-law scale, it is shown here that the degree of agreement is far better for a logarithmic scale than for a power-law scale. It is also found that light ratios in each star catalogue are nearly equal to 2.512, if the brightest (1st magnitude) and the faintest (6th magnitude and dimmer) stars are excluded from the study. This means that the visual magnitudes in the old star catalogues agree fully with Pogson's logarithmic scale.

  7. Beta shapefactor determinations by the cutoff energy yield method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau Carles, A.

    2005-10-01

    The measurement of spectral deformations due to the forbiddenness of β transitions is commonly resolved by fitting a Kurie plot to experimental data. However, the autoabsorption of the sample and the presence of electromagnetic interferences frequently modify the expected spectral shape, making the determination of the shapefactor function inaccurate in semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. Although the problem of autoabsorption is not present in liquid-scintillation samples, the sum-coincidence process for pulses and the poor resolution of scintillation spectrometers complicate the deconvolution of the spectra. The goal of this paper is to measure shapefactor functions by making use of observables, such as the maximum point or the cutoff energy yield, which are invariant under resolution changes. As a test of the method, the shapefactor coefficients of the six β-emitters, 36Cl, 204Tl, 210Bi, 89Sr, 90Y and 32P are determined from the analysis of the liquid-scintillation pulse-height spectra. Although the results for 210Bi, 89Sr and 90Y are in good agreement with theory, the measured shapefactors for 36Cl and 204Tl exhibit similar deviations from theory than those referenced in the literature for the Kurie plots.

  8. Density-based Energy Decomposition Analysis for Intermolecular Interactions with Variationally Determined Intermediate State Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.; Ayers, P.W.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-10-28

    The first purely density-based energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for intermolecular binding is developed within the density functional theory. The most important feature of this scheme is to variationally determine the frozen density energy, based on a constrained search formalism and implemented with the Wu-Yang algorithm [Q. Wu and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2498 (2003) ]. This variational process dispenses with the Heitler-London antisymmetrization of wave functions used in most previous methods and calculates the electrostatic and Pauli repulsion energies together without any distortion of the frozen density, an important fact that enables a clean separation of these two terms from the relaxation (i.e., polarization and charge transfer) terms. The new EDA also employs the constrained density functional theory approach [Q. Wu and T. Van Voorhis, Phys. Rev. A 72, 24502 (2005)] to separate out charge transfer effects. Because the charge transfer energy is based on the density flow in real space, it has a small basis set dependence. Applications of this decomposition to hydrogen bonding in the water dimer and the formamide dimer show that the frozen density energy dominates the binding in these systems, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the interactions. A more detailed examination reveals how the interplay of electrostatics and the Pauli repulsion determines the distance and angular dependence of these hydrogen bonds.

  9. Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, Frank; Burnett, Daniel J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2007-11-01

    Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution. PMID:18058321

  10. THE AGES OF 55 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AS DETERMINED USING AN IMPROVED ΔV{sup HB}{sub TO} METHOD ALONG WITH COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM CONSTRAINTS, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR BROADER ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R.; Casagrande, L. E-mail: kfb@phys.au.dk E-mail: luca@mso.anu.edu.au

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the 'fitting' of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ∼ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼< – 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼> –1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ∼ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R{sub G}) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and M13

  11. Determination of Endpoint Energy and Bremsstrahlung Spectra for High-Energy Radiation-Therapy Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Danny Joe

    Few attempts have been made to experimentally determine thick-target bremsstrahlung spectra of megavoltage therapy beams. For spectral studies using the Compton scattering technique, sodium iodine (NaI) detectors with relatively poor energy resolution have been used. Other experimental techniques for determining spectra are generally not suited for a clinical environment with the inherent time and space constraints. To gather more spectral information than previously obtained in the region near the endpoint energy, the use of a high-resolution intrinsic-germanium (Ge) detector was proposed. A response function matrix was determined from experimentally obtained pulse height distributions on the multichannel analyzer. The distributions were for nine various monoenergetic sources between 280 adn 1525 keV. The response function was used to convert the measured pulse height distributions to photon flux spectra using an iterative approximation technique with a computer. Photon flux spectra from the Sagittaire Linear Accelerator were obtained at average-electron endpoint energies of 15, 20, and 25 MeV. Two spectra were measured at the 25 MeV setting; one spectrum was measured along the central axis and one spectrum at 4(DEGREES) off axis. Photon spectra were also obtained for a Van de Graaff generator at the nominal endpoint energies of 2.2, 2.35, and 2.5 MeV. The results for both the linac and the Van de Graaff generator were compared with theoretical spectra and previously measured spectra where available. Also, photon spectra from a Theratron-80 (('60)Co) unit were determined for three field sizes and for a 10 x 10 cm. field with a lucite tray or a 45(DEGREES) wedge in the beam. The resulting spectra were compared to previously measured ('60)Co spectra.

  12. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  13. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Page, Morgan T.; Weiser, Deborah A.; Goebel, Thomas H. W.; Hosseini, S. Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A major question for the hazard posed by injection-induced seismicity is how large induced earthquakes can be. Are their maximum magnitudes determined by injection parameters or by tectonics? Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution for tectonic earthquakes, assuming no upper magnitude bound. The data pass three specific tests: (1) the largest observed earthquake at each site scales with the log of the total number of induced earthquakes, (2) the order of occurrence of the largest event is random within the induced sequence, and (3) the injected volume controls the total number of earthquakes rather than the total seismic moment. All three tests point to an injection control on earthquake nucleation but a tectonic control on earthquake magnitude. Given that the largest observed earthquakes are exactly as large as expected from the sampling statistics, we should not conclude that these are the largest earthquakes possible. Instead, the results imply that induced earthquake magnitudes should be treated with the same maximum magnitude bound that is currently used to treat seismic hazard from tectonic earthquakes.

  14. Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

  15. Determining the Magnitude of Neutron and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Fluxes at the Moon using the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector during the Historic Space-Age Era of High GCR Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Milikh, G. M.; Su, J. J.; Livengood, T. A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Evans, L.; Starr, R. D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched June 18, 2009 during an historic space-age era of minimum solar activity [1]. The lack of solar sunspot activity signaled a complex set of heliospheric phenomena [2,3,4] that also gave rise to a period of unprecedentedly high Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux [5]. These events coincided with the primary mission of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND, [6]), onboard LRO in a nominal 50-km circular orbit of the Moon [7]. Methods to calculate the emergent neutron albedo population using Monte Carlo techniques [8] rely on an estimate of the GCR flux and spectra calibrated at differing periods of solar activity [9,10,11]. Estimating the actual GCR flux at the Moon during the LEND's initial period of operation requires a correction using a model-dependent heliospheric transport modulation parameter [12] to adjust the GCR flux appropriate to this unique solar cycle. These corrections have inherent uncertainties depending on model details [13]. Precisely determining the absolute neutron and GCR fluxes is especially important in understanding the emergent lunar neutrons measured by LEND and subsequently in estimating the hydrogen/water content in the lunar regolith [6]. LEND is constructed with a set of neutron detectors to meet differing purposes [6]. Specifically there are two sets of detector systems that measure the flux of epithermal neutrons: a) the uncollimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (SETN) and b) the Collimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (CSETN). LEND SETN and CSETN observations form a complementary set of simultaneous measurements that determine the absolute scale of emergent lunar neutron flux in an unambiguous fashion and without the need for correcting to differing solar-cycle conditions. LEND measurements are combined with a detailed understanding of the sources of instrumental back-ground, and the performance of CSETN and SETN. This comparison allows us to calculate a constant scale factor

  16. Determination of the jet energy scale at the collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, A.; Canelli, Florencia; Heinemann, B.; Adelman, J.; Ambrose, D.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Budd, H.; Chung, Y.S.; Chung, K.; Cooper, B.; Currat, C.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, T.; Erbacher, R.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Gibson, A.; Hatakeyama, K.; Happacher, F.; Hoffman, D.; /Argonne /UCLA /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., EFI /Fermilab /Florida U. /Frascati /Geneva U. /LBL, Berkeley /Liverpool U. /University Coll. London /Michigan State U. /Toronto U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2005-10-01

    A precise determination of the energy scale of jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider is described. Jets are used in many analyses to estimate the energies of partons resulting from the underlying physics process. Several correction factors are developed to estimate the original parton energy from the observed jet energy in the calorimeter. The jet energy response is compared between data and Monte Carlo simulation for various physics processes, and systematic uncertainties on the jet energy scale are determined. For jets with transverse momenta above 50 GeV the jet energy scale is determined with a 3% systematic uncertainty.

  17. 78 FR 79579 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final...

  18. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  19. Representations of the Magnitudes of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However,…

  20. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  1. Threshold magnitude for Ionospheric TEC response to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevalova, N. P.; Sankov, V. A.; Astafyeva, E. I.; Zhupityaeva, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    We have analyzed ionospheric response to earthquakes with magnitudes of 4.1-8.8 which occurred under quiet geomagnetic conditions in different regions of the world (the Baikal region, Kuril Islands, Japan, Greece, Indonesia, China, New Zealand, Salvador, and Chile). This investigation relied on measurements of total electron content (TEC) variations made by ground-based dual-frequency GPS receivers. To perform the analysis, we selected earthquakes with permanent GPS stations installed close by. Data processing has revealed that after 4.1-6.3-magnitude earthquakes wave disturbances in TEC variations are undetectable. We have thoroughly analyzed publications over the period of 1965-2013 which reported on registration of wave TIDs after earthquakes. This analysis demonstrated that the magnitude of the earthquakes having a wave response in the ionosphere was no less than 6.5. Based on our results and on the data from other researchers, we can conclude that there is a threshold magnitude (near 6.5) below which there are no pronounced earthquake-induced wave TEC disturbances. The probability of detection of post-earthquake TIDs with a magnitude close to the threshold depends strongly on geophysical conditions. In addition, reliable identification of the source of such TIDs generally requires many GPS stations in an earthquake zone. At low magnitudes, seismic energy is likely to be insufficient to generate waves in the neutral atmosphere which are able to induce TEC disturbances observable at the level of background fluctuations.

  2. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The

  3. What Is the Meaning of the Physical Magnitude "Work"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanderakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Usually, in physics textbooks, the physical magnitude "work" is introduced as the product of a force multiplied by its displacement, in relation to the transfer of energy. In other words, "work" is presented as an internal affair of physics theory, while its relation to the world of experience, that is its empirical meaning, is…

  4. Pitch-angle Scattering of Energetic Charged Particles in Nearly Constant Magnitude Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, P.; Jokipii, J. R.; Giacalone, J.

    2016-08-01

    We use a method developed by Roberts that optimizes the phase angles of an ensemble of plane waves with amplitudes determined from a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum, to construct magnetic field vector fluctuations having nearly constant magnitude and large variances in its components. This is a representation of the turbulent magnetic field consistent with that observed in the solar wind. Charged-particle pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are determined by integrating the equations of motion for a large number of charged particles moving under the influence of forces from our predefined magnetic field. We tested different cases by varying the kinetic energy of the particles (E p) and the turbulent magnetic field variance ({σ }B2). For each combination of E p and {σ }B2, we tested three different models: (1) the so-called “slab” model, where the turbulent magnetic field depends on only one spatial coordinate and has significant fluctuations in its magnitude (b=\\sqrt{δ {B}x2(z)+δ {B}y2(z)+{B}02}) (2) the slab model optimized with nearly constant magnitude b; and (3) the slab model turbulent magnetic field with nearly constant magnitude plus a “variance-conserving” adjustment. In the last case, this model attempts to conserve the variance of the turbulent components ({σ }{Bx}2+{σ }{By}2), which is found to decrease during the optimization with nearly constant magnitude. We found that there is little or no effect on the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient {D}μ μ between models 1 and 2. However, the result from model 3 is significantly different. We also introduce a new method to accurately determine the pitch-angle diffusion coefficients as a function of μ.

  5. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.

  6. Local magnitude calibration of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordilis, E. M.; Kementzetzidou, D.; Papazachos, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    A new relation is proposed for accurate determination of local magnitudes in Greece. This relation is based on a large number of synthetic Wood-Anderson (SWA) seismograms corresponding to 782 regional shallow earthquakes which occurred during the period 2007-2013 and recorded by 98 digital broad-band stations. These stations are installed and operated by the following: (a) the National Observatory of Athens (HL), (b) the Department of Geophysics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (HT), (c) the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens (HA), and (d) the Seismological Laboratory of the Patras University (HP). The seismological networks of the above institutions constitute the recently (2004) established Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN). These records are used to calculate a refined geometrical spreading factor and an anelastic attenuation coefficient, representative for Greece and surrounding areas, proper for accurate calculation of local magnitudes in this region. Individual station corrections depending on the crustal structure variations in their vicinity and possible inconsistencies in instruments responses are also considered in order to further ameliorate magnitude estimation accuracy. Comparison of such calculated local magnitudes with corresponding original moment magnitudes, based on an independent dataset, revealed that these magnitude scales are equivalent for a wide range of values.

  7. Determination of kinetic energy applied by center pivot sprinklers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kinetic energy of discrete drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development can...

  8. Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-09-26

    Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

  9. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Nero, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1/sup -1/ h/sup -1/. Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon.

  10. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation. PMID:10626652

  11. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  12. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market of allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  13. Nonlinear Susceptibility Magnitude Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R2 = 0.99, CNR = 84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R2 > 0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI. PMID:25505816

  14. Nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R2=0.99, CNR=84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R2>0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI.

  15. Determination of primary energy spectra from Maket Ani data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A. A.; Gharagyozyan, G. V.; Ghazaryan, S. S.; Hovsepyan, G. G.; Melkumyan, L. G.; Sokhoyan, S. H.; Ter-Antonyan, S. V.; Vardanyan, A. A.

    The unfolding of the primary energy spectra from size spectra measured by MAKET ANI installation is performed. The nonparametric regression method was used for estimation of energy of each detected shower. Simple method of the unfolding of size spectra was introduced as robust alternative to event-by-event analysis of EAS data. Both methods agree within experimental and methodical errors. The ways to utilize a priori knowledge for physical inference are discussed.

  16. Origin of limiting magnitude counting triangles and squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Meteor astronomers worldwide struggled for over a century with the problem of how to calibrate visual meteor counts. Although the effect of variable sky conditions was already recognized in the earliest studies of meteor counts, it took until the end of the 1940s before the limiting magnitude was commonly considered as the parameter to calibrate the sky conditions. The brilliant idea to use counting areas in the sky for limiting magnitude determination was proposed by Hugo van Woerden in the 1950s. This method is still used today and helped the IMO to fulfill the expectations of Hugo van Woerden many years after it was first published.

  17. Zero Magnitude Effect for the Productivity of Triggered Tsunami Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model is applied to tsunami events to explain previously observed temporal clustering of tsunami sources. Tsunami events are defined by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) tsunami database. For the ETAS analysis, the earthquake magnitude associated with each tsunami event in the NGDC database is replaced by the primary magnitude listed in the Centennial catalog up until 1976 and in the Global CMT catalog from 1976 through 2010. Tsunamis with a submarine landslide or volcanic component are included if they are accompanied by an earthquake, which is most often the case. Tsunami size is used as a mark for determining a tsunami-generating event, according to a minimum completeness level. The tsunami catalog is estimated to be complete for tsunami sizes greater than 1 m since 1900 and greater than 0.1 m since 1960. Of the five parameters in the temporal ETAS model (Ogata, 1988), the parameter that scales the magnitude dependence in the productivity of triggered events is the one that is most different from ETAS parameters derived from similar earthquake catalogs. Maximum likelihood estimates of this magnitude effect parameter is essentially zero, within 95% confidence, for both the 0.1 m and 1.0 m tsunami completeness levels. To explain this result, parameter estimates are determined for the Global CMT catalog under three tsunamigenic conditions: (1) M≥7 and focal depth ≤50 km, (2) submarine location, and (3) dominant component of dip slip. Successive subcatalogs are formed from the Global CMT catalog according to each of these conditions. The high magnitude threshold for tsunamigenesis alone (subcatalog 1) does not explain the zero magnitude effect. The zero magnitude effect also does not appear to be caused the smaller number of tsunamigenic events analyzed in comparison to earthquake catalogs with a similar magnitude threshold. ETAS parameter estimates from the subcatalog (3) with all three tsunamigenic conditions

  18. Solar energy microclimate as determined from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for determining solar insolation at the earth's surface using satellite broadband visible radiance and cloud imagery data, along with conventional in situ measurements. Conventional measurements are used to both tune satellite measurements and to develop empirical relationships between satellite observations and surface solar insolation. Cloudiness is the primary modulator of sunshine. The satellite measurements as applied in this method consider cloudiness both explicitly and implicitly in determining surface solar insolation at space scales smaller than the conventional pyranometer network.

  19. Neutron energy determination with a high-purity germanium detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Gene A.

    1992-01-01

    Two areas that are related to planetary gamma-ray spectrometry are investigated. The first task was the investigation of gamma rays produced by high-energy charged particles and their secondaries in planetary surfaces by means of thick target bombardments. The second task was the investigation of the effects of high-energy neutrons on gamma-ray spectral features obtained with high-purity Ge-detectors. For both tasks, as a function of the funding level, the experimental work was predominantly tied to that of other researchers, whenever there was an opportunity to participate in bombardment experiments at large or small accelerators for charged particles.

  20. Energy yield determination of concentrator solar cells using laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisz, John F.; García, Iván; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  1. Deep photometry and integral magnitudes of 8 nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Ts. B.

    2016-02-01

    We estimated integral magnitudes of galaxies trying to include the contribution of the brightest part of their halos. We performed surface photometry based on (i) concentric elliptical rims, corresponding to the peripheral ellipticity of the image, (ii) median estimation of the mean value of the rim pixels, (iii) apparent radial brightness profiles, corresponding to the rim medians, and (iv) magnitude curves of growth, derived by numerical integrations of the apparent rim profiles, without preliminary background estimation and removal. Furthermore, we used the magnitude curves of growth to determine the integral magnitudes (limited by size and deepness of our frames) and compared them with the total magnitudes in the data base HyperLeda. Also, we used the rim-profiles to estimate the background level far enough from the galaxy center and we build (here—only for trial) the intrinsic radial profiles (with background removal). We apply this photometry on 8 nearby galaxies, observed with CCD in the system BVRC IC by the 50 cm Schmidt telescope of the Rozhen NAO in 2003-2004. We build radial profiles which occur to be as average 1.8 times (1.2-2.5 times) larger than in data base NED and of integral brightness that occurs to be about 1.4 times (1.2-1.7 times) higher than in data base HyperLeda. The relative brightness additions, found here, correlate with the color index and anti-correlate with the luminosity of the galaxy.

  2. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  3. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  4. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time.

  5. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  6. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  7. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olin, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Methods are presented to estimate flood magnitude for selected recurrence intervals for urban and rural streams with drainage areas from 1 to 22,000 square miles. Seven hydrologic areas were delineated and regression equations were developed for six areas. Hydrologic data could not be regionalized for the seventh area. Drainage area was the only independent variable used in the equations for five hydrologic areas. Drainage area and a storage factor were used in the equations for the other area. One hydrologic area, located in the central part of the State, has flood runoffs two to four times greater than the other areas. It is recommended that the rural equations be used for estimates of flood magnitudes for both urban and rural streams in the hydrologic area. Rivers with drainage areas greater than 1,500 square miles could not be regionalized. Estimating methods for these rivers are shown graphically. Maximum flood magnitudes versus drainage area also are presented. (USGS)

  8. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Parts 429, 430, and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining...

  9. Energy Costs of Catfish Space Use as Determined by Biotelemetry

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Závorka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources. PMID:24896256

  10. Graphical methods for determining the maximum energy product of magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmaier, H. H.; Henig, E.-Th.

    1990-08-01

    The graphical construction in which an optimum load line B = ( {B r}/{H o}) H , Hc < 0, defines the maximum energy product of a permanent magnet, is rigorously correct when B( H) in the second quadrant fits the branch of a single hyperbola. It fails as an approximation for some magnets with square ( B - μ0H) vs. H loops, and alternative procedures for dealing with such magnets are described.

  11. A terrain-dependent reference atmosphere determination method for available potential energy calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    An iterative technique that determines the reference atmosphere which incorporates the effects of uneven surface topography is presented. This method has been successfully applied in several available potential energy studies. An alternative method due to Taylor is also evaluated. While Taylor presented excellent continuous formulations of the available potential energy that include topography, his method for determining the reference atmosphere distributions failed to provide the accuracy needed to produce reliable available potential energy estimates. Since topography has a significant influence on the general circulation, it is important to employ techniques that incorporate its effects in the determination of available potential energy.

  12. Magnitude Characterization Using Complex Networks in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, D.; Comte, D.; Munoz, V.

    2013-12-01

    Studies using complex networks are applied to many systems, like traffic, social networks, internet and earth science. In this work we make an analysis using complex networks applied to magnitude of seismicity in the central zone of Chile, we use the preferential attachment in order to construct a seismic network using local magnitudes and the hypocenters of a seismic data set in central Chile. In order to work with a complete catalogue in magnitude, the data associated with the linear part of the Gutenberg-Richter law, with magnitudes greater than 2.7, were taken. We then make a grid in space, so that each seismic event falls into a certain cell, depending on the location of its hypocenter. Now the network is constructed: the first node corresponds to the cell where the first seismic event occurs. The node has an associated number which is the magnitude of the event which occured in it, and a probability is assigned to the node. The probability is a nonlinear mapping of the magnitude (a Gaussian function was taken), so that nodes with lower magnitude events are more likely to be attached to. Each time a new node is added to the network, it is attached to the previous node which has the larger probability; the link is directed from the previous node to the new node. In this way, a directed network is constructed, with a ``preferential attachment''-like growth model, using the magnitudes as the parameter to determine the probability of attachment to future nodes. Several events could occur in the same node. In this case, the probability is calculated using the average of the magnitudes of the events occuring in that node. Once the directed network is finished, the corresponding undirected network is constructed, by making all links symmetric, and eliminating the loops which may appear when two events occur in the same cell. The resulting directed network is found to be scale free (with very low values of the power-law distribution exponent), whereas the undirected

  13. DETERMINATION OF LOW-ENERGY CUTOFFS AND TOTAL ENERGY OF NONTHERMAL ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR FLARE ON 2002 APRIL 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, Linhui; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The determination of the low-energy cutoff to the spectrum of accelerated electrons is decisive for the estimation of the total nonthermal energy in solar flares. Because thermal bremsstrahlung dominates the low-energy part of flare X-ray spectra, this cutoff energy is difficult to determine with spectral fitting alone. We have used anew method that combines spatial, spectral, and temporal analysis to determine the cutoff energy for the M1.2 flare observed with RHESSI on 2002 April 15. A low-energy cutoff of 24 +/- 2 keV is required to ensure that the assumed thermal emissions always dominate over nonthermal emissions at low energies (<20 keV) and that the spectral fitting results are consistent with the RHESSI light curves and images. With this cutoff energy, we obtain a total nonthermal energy in electrons of (1.6 +/- 1) x 10(exp 30) ergs that is comparable to the peak energy in the thermal plasma, estimated from RHESSI observations to be (6 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp 29) ergs assuming a filling factor of 1.

  14. The determinants and trends in household energy consumption in United States during 2001-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, Sadasivan

    Objective: The focus of this study is a broad examination of household energy consumption for appliance use, space heating, space cooling, and water heating in United States over the period 2001-2009 using Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) from the years 2001 and 2009. Methods: Linear Regression Analysis is used to identfy determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Regression based decomposition analysis is used to identify trends in residential energy consumption for each of the end uses. Results: The study identified current determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. These determinants are employed in the study to predict trends in household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Based on the results policy interventions at local and federal level for energy conservation are suggested.

  15. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  16. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  17. Delta Scorpii unusual brightening to first magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    The Be star delta Scorpii with a range of variability between 2.35 and 1.65 in visible light is having an unusual brightening to magnitude mV=0.8, as measured on 31 Jan 2016 at 3:56 UT and 5:36 UT from Lanciano, Italy.

  18. K Giant Magnitude Calibration from Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A.; Flynn, C.

    1992-02-01

    We test the Janes (1975, 1979) calibration of K giant magnitudes from DDO colours against a sample of 40 local parallax stars. These stars are taken from the sample analyzed by Egret, Keenan, and Heck (1982), but are further selected for Janes magnitude (0m.80 &le MJV ≤ 2m.2), colour (1.0 ≤ B-V ≤ 1.5), and metallicity (-0.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0.0). We find these stars to be on average very slightly brighter (δMJV = -0m.07±0m.10) than the Janes values. Our result is in agreement with a recent redetermination of the Janes magnitude offset by Flynn and Mermilliod (1991) (δMJV = 0m.07 ± 0m.09) on the basis of open-cluster stars. However, we disagree with the calibration of Egret, Keenan, and Heck by a full magnitude. Half of this difference is due to changes in the parallax catalog values and to slightly different selection criteria. We cannot account for the remaining half.

  19. Is there a magnitude effect in tipping?

    PubMed

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Schneider, Rachel

    2003-06-01

    The present study examined nearly 1,000 tips recorded for two taxicabs, two hair salons, and two restaurants. In each of the six cases, amount of tip increased linearly as a function of the amount of the bill. Contrary to standard microeconomic theory, there was a magnitude effect in that as the amount of the bill increased, the percent tip tended to decrease. The present results extend the findings of Chapman and Winquist (1998), obtained using hypothetical scenarios, to real-world tipping behavior. Chapman and Winquist argued that a magnitude effect in tipping reflects the shape of the utility function for money. We suggest, however, that the magnitude effect may be the mathematical consequence of replotting the fundamental relationship between tip and bill amounts in terms of percent tip, given that the observed linear relation between tip and bill amounts has a positive intercept. We suggest further that the positive intercept arises because a tip represents a judgment as to what constitutes a fair or equitable wage, and part of what constitutes a fair wage is independent of the amount of the bill, reflecting compensation for simply being there when needed. The present account implies that different explanations may be needed for magnitude effects observed in different domains.

  20. Color and magnitude dependence of galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Volker

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative study of the clustering properties of galaxies in the cosmic web as a function of absolute magnitude and colour is presented using the SDSS Data Release 7 galaxy redshift survey. We compare our results with mock galaxy samples obtained with four different semi-analytical models of galaxy formation imposed on the merger trees of the Millenium simulation.

  1. Determining the contribution of the energy systems during exercise.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C; Roschel, Hamilton; Mendes, Sandro H; Lancha, Antonio H; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the metabolic demand is the relative contribution of the energy systems to the total energy required for a given physical activity. Although some sports are relatively easy to be reproduced in a laboratory (e.g., running and cycling), a number of sports are much more difficult to be reproduced and studied in controlled situations. This method presents how to assess the differential contribution of the energy systems in sports that are difficult to mimic in controlled laboratory conditions. The concepts shown here can be adapted to virtually any sport. The following physiologic variables will be needed: rest oxygen consumption, exercise oxygen consumption, post-exercise oxygen consumption, rest plasma lactate concentration and post-exercise plasma peak lactate. To calculate the contribution of the aerobic metabolism, you will need the oxygen consumption at rest and during the exercise. By using the trapezoidal method, calculate the area under the curve of oxygen consumption during exercise, subtracting the area corresponding to the rest oxygen consumption. To calculate the contribution of the alactic anaerobic metabolism, the post-exercise oxygen consumption curve has to be adjusted to a mono or a bi-exponential model (chosen by the one that best fits). Then, use the terms of the fitted equation to calculate anaerobic alactic metabolism, as follows: ATP-CP metabolism = A(1;) (mL . s(-1)) x t(1;) (s). Finally, to calculate the contribution of the lactic anaerobic system, multiply peak plasma lactate by 3 and by the athlete's body mass (the result in mL is then converted to L and into kJ). The method can be used for both continuous and intermittent exercise. This is a very interesting approach as it can be adapted to exercises and sports that are difficult to be mimicked in controlled environments. Also, this is the only available method capable of distinguishing the contribution of three different energy systems. Thus, the method

  2. Theoretical determination of the alkali-metal superoxide bond energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies for the alkali-metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional level. Our computed D0 values are 61.4, 37.2, 40.6, and 38.4 kcal/mol for LiO2, NaO2, KO2, and RbO2, respectively. These values, which are expected to be lower bounds and accurate to 2 kcal/mol, agree well with some of the older flame data, but rule out several recent experimental measurements.

  3. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  4. Fluctuations in the energy input determine Kolmogorov constants in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewley, Gregory; Lachaussée, Florent; Kassel, Johannes; Voth, Greg; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2013-11-01

    Attention to turbulence is often focused, for good reason, on flows that either maintain a steady state or decay freely. But these conditions are not typical in natural or industrial flows. We ask what effect deviations from these conditions have on the turbulence itself. To answer the question, we employ a new active grid with many independently controllable degrees of freedom to generate turbulence in a wind tunnel. We find the following: The anisotropy in the flow can be set to various states, including an isotropic one, by adjusting the correlations between motions on the grid. Some part of the fluctuations in the flow can be attributed to the instantaneous configuration of the grid, in the sense that it is reproduced when the grid returns to the same configuration. The value of the Kolmogorov constants for the structure functions of different order can be adjusted by changing over time the degree to which the active grid agitates the flow. We interpret these variations in agitation as variations of the energy input rate. We then find that the Kolmogorov constants, in particular those of order higher than two, can be made to have universal values when the variation of the energy input rate is accounted for by a model based on the refined similarity theory.

  5. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code. PMID:27389881

  6. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code.

  7. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    N. Seth Carpenter; Suzette J. Payne; Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range, U.S.A. faults. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths (L{sub seg}) where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements (D) along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M {approx} L{sub seg}, should equal M {approx} D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating L{sub seg} with surface rupture length (SRL). Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M {approx} SRL relationship using L{sub seg} as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M {approx} L{sub seg} and M {approx} D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude (Mw) and length, where length is L{sub seg} instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw {approx} L{sub seg} results are strikingly consistent

  8. Subitizing, Magnitude Representation, and Magnitude Retrieval in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Blatto-Vallee, Gary; Fabich, Megan

    2006-01-01

    This study examines basic number processing (subitizing, automaticity, and magnitude representation) as the possible underpinning of mathematical difficulties often evidenced in deaf adults. Hearing and deaf participants completed tasks to assess the automaticity with which magnitude information was activated and retrieved from long-term memory…

  9. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  10. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  11. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  12. High magnitude head impacts experienced during youth football practices.

    PubMed

    Young, Tyler; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the risk of concussion in the 3.5 million youth athletes who participate in organized football leagues in the United States each year, practice structure can be modified to decrease impact frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study is to identify activities that result in high magnitude head impacts in youth football players during practice. The HIT System was used to record the head acceleration magnitude, impact location on the helmet, and time of each impact for each game and practice players participated in. These data were used to quantify the head impact exposure associated with players between the ages of 9 and 11 years. Video footage recorded during each practice and game session was used to identify the activity associated with any impact above 45 g. The incidence rate of high magnitude impacts in various activities were compared by normalizing by the amount of time associated with each activity. It was determined that scrimmages accounted for 0.094 impacts greater than 45 g per minute in practices while contact drills contributed to 0.102 impacts greater than 45 g per minute during practices. The results of this study indicate future youth football practice modifications should focus on both scrimmages and contact drills. PMID:25405410

  13. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  14. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  15. Application of potential constants: Empirical determination of molecular energy components for diatomic molecules—II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwada, Ken

    The harmonic and anharmonic potential (force) constants which are usually available from a normal coordinate analysis for a diatomic molecule are applied to determine the molecular energy components such as the electronic kinetic energy, the total electrostatic potential energy, the electron—nuclear attraction energy, the electron—electron repulsion energy, the nuclear—nuclear repulsion energy, and the Hartree—Fock eigen-value sum. The method developed here is based on an inhomogeneous linear third-order differential equation derived from the quantum mechanical virial theorem, and a homogeneity hypothesis of the molecular energy with respect to the atomic number. To confirm the utility of the method, the calculated molecular energy components of diatomic molecules are compared with available Hartree—Fock data. It is concluded from this data that the present method is simple and useful for evaluating the molecular energy components of various diatomic molecules.

  16. Calibration for Coda Derived Moment Magnitude Using Berkeley Complete Waveform Moment-Tensor Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, F.; Mayeda, K. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Wurman, G.

    2002-12-01

    The method of seismic moment-tensor determination using complete waveforms (Dreger and Helmberger, 1993; Pasyanos et al., 1996) provides stable solutions for local and regional events if the data propagation paths are well-calibrated to calculate Green's functions. However, this waveform modeling approach has a limitation to apply to smaller events with the cut-off magnitude of approximately 3.5 due to reduction of S/N ratios in the passband employed. We carried out an experiment to extend the moment magnitude scale to smaller events (M<3.5) in northern California using an empirical method of coda derived moment magnitude (Mw(coda)) calibration (Mayeda et al., 2002). The basic assumption of this approach is that the coda spectra are the results of scatters from randomly distributed inhomogeneities in the crust and represent seismic energy propagation, independent of the source radiation pattern, as a function of propagation distance with a specific attenuation rule. In practice we found that when the data propagation paths cross a wide range of different structural areas, the standard deviation of the parameters is large and the parameter estimation is less coherent. Thus, in the course of calibration the entire northern California is divided into several tectonic subregions, in each of which the calibration parameters are relatively coherent. The present study suggests a conservative application of the coda envelope calibration method to estimate Mw(coda) that avoids ambiguities.

  17. Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

  18. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  19. Orientation and Magnitude of Mars' Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows the orientation and magnitude of the magnetic field measured by the MGS magnetometer as it sped over the surface of Mars during an early aerobraking pass (Day of the year, 264; 'P6' periapsis pass). At each point along the spacecraft trajectory we've drawn vectors in the direction of the magnetic field measured at that instant; the length of the line is scaled to show the relative magnitude of the field. Imagine traveling along with the MGS spacecraft, holding a string with a magnetized needle on one end: this essentially a compass with a needle that is free to spin in all directions. As you pass over the surface the needle would swing rapidly, first pointing towards the planet and then rotating quickly towards 'up' and back down again. All in a relatively short span of time, say a minute or two, during which time the spacecraft has traveled a couple of hundred miles. You've just passed over one of many 'magnetic anomalies' thus far detected near the surface of Mars. A second major anomaly appears a little later along the spacecraft track, about 1/4 the magnitude of the first - can you find it? The short scale length of the magnetic field signature locates the source near the surface of Mars, perhaps in the crust, a 10 to 75 kilometer thick outer shell of the planet (radius 3397 km).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  20. Apparent magnitude of earthshine: a simple calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun’s rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck’s expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes.

  1. Precise Relative Earthquake Magnitudes from Cross Correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-04-21

    We present a method to estimate precise relative magnitudes using cross correlation of seismic waveforms. Our method incorporates the intercorrelation of all events in a group of earthquakes, as opposed to individual event pairings relative to a reference event. This method works well when a reliable reference event does not exist. We illustrate the method using vertical strike-slip earthquakes located in the northeast Pacific and Panama fracture zone regions. Our results are generally consistent with the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog, which we use to establish a baseline for the relative event sizes.

  2. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  3. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.603... analysis shall include the following steps: 603.2.2.1 Determine the feasible alternatives for energy... Proposed Design including the alternative HVAC and service water systems and conduct an annual...

  4. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.603... analysis shall include the following steps: 603.2.2.1 Determine the feasible alternatives for energy... Proposed Design including the alternative HVAC and service water systems and conduct an annual...

  5. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  6. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  7. Low energy determination of the QCD strong coupling constant on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Yu; Petreczky, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We present a determination of the strong coupling constant from lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) using the moments of pseudo-scalar charmonium correlators calculated using highly improved staggered quark action. We obtain a value αs(μ = mc) = 0.3397(56), which is the lowest energy determination of the strong coupling constant so far.

  8. Monte Carlo method for determining free-energy differences and transition state theory rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Voter, A.F.

    1985-02-15

    We present a new Monte Carlo procedure for determining the Helmholtz free-energy difference between two systems that are separated in configuration space. Unlike most standard approaches, no integration over intermediate potentials is required. A Metropolis walk is performed for each system, and the average Metropolis acceptance probability for a hypothetical step along a probe vector into the other system is accumulated. Either classical or quantum free energies may be computed, and the procedure is also ideally suited for evaluating generalized transition state theory rate constants. As an application we determine the relative free energies of three configurations of a tungsten dimer on the W(110) surface.

  9. Magnitudes and timescales of total solar irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to gigayears. Direct measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) show changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy on timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. Variations of ~0.01% over a few minutes are caused by the ever-present superposition of convection and oscillations with very large solar flares on rare occasion causing slightly-larger measurable signals. On timescales of days to weeks, changing photospheric magnetic activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle shows variations of comparable magnitude with irradiances peaking near solar maximum. Secular variations are more difficult to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Historical reconstructions of the Sun's irradiance based on indicators of solar-surface magnetic activity, such as sunspots, faculae, and cosmogenic isotope records, suggest solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitudes of these variations have high uncertainties due to the indirect historical records on which they rely. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities. In this manuscript I summarize the Sun's variability magnitudes over different temporal regimes and discuss the irradiance record's relevance for solar and climate studies as well as for detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  10. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China.

  11. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. PMID:24727398

  12. Precise Determination of the Lyman-1 Transition Energy in Hydrogen-like Gold Ions with Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Kiselev, O.; McCammon, D.; Scholz, P.

    2014-09-01

    The precise determination of the transition energy of the Lyman-1 line in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. We report the determination of the Lyman-1 transition energy of gold ions (Au) with microcalorimeters at the experimental storage ring at GSI. X-rays produced by the interaction of 125 MeV/u Au ions with an internal argon gas-jet target were detected. The detector array consisted of 14 pixels with silicon thermistors and Sn absorbers, for which an energy resolution of 50 eV for an X-ray energy of 59.5 keV was obtained in the laboratory. The Lyman-1 transition energy was determined for each pixel in the laboratory frame, then transformed into the emitter frame and averaged. A Dy-159 source was used for energy calibration. The absolute positions of the detector pixels, which are needed for an accurate correction of the Doppler shift, were determined by topographic measurements and by scanning a collimated Am-241 source across the cryostat window. The energy of the Lyman-1 line in the emitter frame is eV, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the position of the cryostat relative to the interaction region of beam and target.

  13. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures.

  14. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element Vtb

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Borysova, M.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brucken, E.; Bu, X. B.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; D’Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Farrington, S.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gogota, O.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ito, A. S.; Ivanov, A.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Jindariani, S.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, J.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, A. W.; Junk, T. R.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kiselevich, I.; Knoepfel, K.; Kohli, J. M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurata, M.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lammers, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Limosani, A.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipeles, E.; Lipton, R.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lungu, G.; Lyon, A. L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansour, J.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Mesropian, C.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miao, T.; Miconi, F.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Mulhearn, M.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nagy, E.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Nunnemann, T.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Orduna, J.; Ortolan, L.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pagliarone, C.; Pal, A.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parker, W.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pondrom, L.; Popov, A. V.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Ristori, L.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Rominsky, M.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sajot, G.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santi, L.; Santos, A. S.; Sato, K.; Savage, G.; Saveliev, V.; Savitskyi, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwarz, T.; Schwienhorst, R.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Sekaric, J.; Semenov, A.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Shabalina, E.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simak, V.; Simonenko, A.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Song, H.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sorin, V.; Soustruznik, K.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stark, J.; Stentz, D.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Titov, M.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vernieri, C.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vidal, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wallny, R.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wang, S. M.; Warchol, J.; Waters, D.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wobisch, M.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wood, D. R.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. -M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, J. M.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-10-01

    Here, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt=2.25+0.29-0.31 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t=3.30+0.52-0.40 pb , without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt. Moreover, the resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|=1.02+0.06-0.05, corresponding to |Vtb|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  15. Adhesion determination of dental porcelain to zirconia using the Schwickerath test: strength vs. fracture energy approach.

    PubMed

    Kosyfaki, P; Swain, M V

    2014-11-01

    Two approaches to measure the fracture energy to delaminate four different porcelains from zirconia substrates are compared using Schwickerath adhesion strength test specimens. In all instances it was possible to stably extend the crack along or adjacent to the porcelain-zirconia interface. The fracture energy expended to delaminate the porcelain was found by determining the work of fracture upon loading to 12 N and then unloading. Additional tests were undertaken on specimens notched along the interface, which enabled the compliance of the cracked Schwickerath specimens to be calibrated. The strain energy and deflection of the Schwickerath specimen as a function of crack length were derived. On this basis a simple expression was determined for the strain energy release rate or interfacial fracture toughness from the minima in the force-displacement curves. Consequently two measures of the adhesion energy were determined, the work of fracture and the strain energy release rate. It was found that the ranking for the four porcelains bonded to zirconia differed depending upon the approach. The work of fracture was substantially different from the strain energy release rate for three of the porcelain-zirconia systems and appears to be directly related to the residual stresses present in the bonded structures. The relative merits of the strain energy release rate, work of fracture vs. the stress to initiate cracking in the case of the Schwickerath adhesion test, are discussed. The advantage of this test is that it enables three estimates of the adhesion for porcelain veneers bonded to zirconia.

  16. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-01

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences. PMID:11955557

  17. Object file continuity predicts attentional blink magnitude.

    PubMed

    Kellie, Frances J; Shapiro, Kimron L

    2004-05-01

    When asked to identify targets embedded within a rapid consecutive stream of visual stimuli, observers are less able to identify the second target (T2) when it is presented within half a second of the first (T1); this deficit has been termed the attentional blink (AB). Rapid serial visual presentation methodology was used to investigate the relationship between the AB and object files (episodic representations implicated in object identification and perceptual constancy). An inverse linear relationship was found between the degree of object file continuity and AB magnitude. An important locus of object file continuity was the intervening stream items between T1 and T2. The results are discussed in terms of the heuristic of the object file to preserve limited attentional capacity.

  18. Evidence Accumulation in the Magnitude System

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Anna; Walsh, Vincent; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers) have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number) in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively) or after (retrospectively) a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules. PMID:24339998

  19. Relating Perturbation Magnitude to Temporal Gene Expression in Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Callister, Stephen J.; Parnell, John J.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Hashsham, Syed

    2009-03-19

    A method to quantitatively relate stress to response at the level of gene expression is described using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Stress was defined as the magnitude of perturbation and strain was defined as the magnitude of cumulative response in terms of gene expression. Expression patterns of sixty genes previously reported to be significantly impacted by osmotic shock or belonging to the high-osmotic glycerol, glycerolipid metabolism, and glycolysis pathways were determined following perturbations of increasing sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, and 1.4 M). Expression of these genes was quantified temporally using reverse transcriptase real time polymerase chain reaction. The magnitude of cumulative response was obtained by calculating the total moment of area of the temporal response envelope for all the 60 genes, either together or for the set of genes related to each pathway. A non-linear relationship between stress and response was observed for the range of stress studied. This study examines a quantitative approach to quantify the strain at the level of gene expression to relate stress to strain in biological systems. The approach should be generally applicable to quantitatively evaluate the response of organisms to environmental change.

  20. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  1. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝ J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  2. Coastal erosion: Processes, timing and magnitudes at the bluff toe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, C.H.; Guy, D.E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Five Lake Erie bluffs (one interlaminated clay and silt, three clay-rich diamicts and one shale) were surveyed at about 2-week intervals and after wind storms for up to 5 years. Erosion of the bluff toes along this low-energy coast occurred during northeast wind storms, which produced surges of up to 1 m and surf-zone waves of up to 1.2 m. Wave impact and/or uprush caused quarrying, which removed most of the toe material, and abrasion. There were from 1 to 23 erosion events/sites, with maximum magnitudes of erosion ranging from 12 to 55 cm/event. Timing and magnitude were linked to erodibility, maximum water level, storm surge, storm duration and beach width. A threshold maximum water level and a threshold surge were necessary for erosion. At these thresholds, the beach was submerged and wave energy was directly expended on the toe. Erosion did not take place when there was shorefast ice or when debris slopes shielded the toe from waves. The originally cohesive toe materials are easily eroded when they weather to an essentially noncohesive state. Wave erosion is the crucial erosion process; removal of material from the toe prevents the development of a stable slope. ?? 1988.

  3. Extended arrays for nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2016-01-01

    This study implements nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) with multifrequency intermodulation and phase encoding. An imaging grid was constructed of cylindrical wells of 3.5-mm diameter and 4.2-mm height on a hexagonal two-dimensional 61-voxel pattern with 5-mm spacing. Patterns of sample wells were filled with 40-μl volumes of Fe3O4 starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The imaging hardware was configured with three excitation coils and three detection coils in anticipation that a larger imaging system will have arrays of excitation and detection coils. Hexagonal and bar patterns of mNP were successfully imaged (R2 > 0.9) at several orientations. This SMI demonstration extends our prior work to feature a larger coil array, enlarged field-of-view, effective phase encoding scheme, reduced mNP sample size, and more complex imaging patterns to test the feasibility of extending the method beyond the pilot scale. The results presented in this study show that nonlinear SMI holds promise for further development into a practical imaging system for medical applications. PMID:26124044

  4. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  5. The magnitude distribution of dynamically triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Stephen

    Large dynamic strains carried by seismic waves are known to trigger seismicity far from their source region. It is unknown, however, whether surface waves trigger only small earthquakes, or whether they can also trigger large, societally significant earthquakes. To address this question, we use a mixing model approach in which total seismicity is decomposed into 2 broad subclasses: "triggered" events initiated or advanced by far-field dynamic strains, and "untriggered" spontaneous events consisting of everything else. The b-value of a mixed data set, b MIX, is decomposed into a weighted sum of b-values of its constituent components, bT and bU. For populations of earthquakes subjected to dynamic strain, the fraction of earthquakes that are likely triggered, f T, is estimated via inter-event time ratios and used to invert for bT. The confidence bounds on b T are estimated by multiple inversions of bootstrap resamplings of bMIX and fT. For Californian seismicity, data are consistent with a single-parameter Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis governing the magnitudes of both triggered and untriggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes therefore seem just as likely to be societally significant as any other population of earthquakes.

  6. Extended arrays for nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G

    2015-10-01

    This study implements nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) with multifrequency intermodulation and phase encoding. An imaging grid was constructed of cylindrical wells of 3.5-mm diameter and 4.2-mm height on a hexagonal two-dimensional 61-voxel pattern with 5-mm spacing. Patterns of sample wells were filled with 40-μl volumes of Fe3O4 starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The imaging hardware was configured with three excitation coils and three detection coils in anticipation that a larger imaging system will have arrays of excitation and detection coils. Hexagonal and bar patterns of mNP were successfully imaged (R2>0.9) at several orientations. This SMI demonstration extends our prior work to feature a larger coil array, enlarged field-of-view, effective phase encoding scheme, reduced mNP sample size, and more complex imaging patterns to test the feasibility of extending the method beyond the pilot scale. The results presented in this study show that nonlinear SMI holds promise for further development into a practical imaging system for medical applications. PMID:26124044

  7. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  8. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra.

    PubMed

    Vos, M; Marmitt, G G; Finkelstein, Y; Moreh, R

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO3, Li2CO3, and SiO2) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5-40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO2, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E - Egap)(1.5). For CaCO3, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li2CO3 (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  9. Statistical error analysis of surface-structure parameters determined by low-energy electron and positron diffraction: Data errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, C. B.; Lazarides, A.; Paton, A.; Wang, Y. R.

    1995-11-01

    An error-analysis procedure that gives statistically significant error estimates for surface-structure parameters extracted from analyses of measured low-energy electron and positron diffraction (LEED and LEPD) intensities is proposed. This procedure is applied to a surface-structure analysis of Cu(100) in which experimental data are simulated by adding Gaussian-distributed random errors to the calculated intensities for relaxed surface structures. Quantitative expressions for the variances in the surface-structural parameters are given and shown to obey the expected scaling laws for Gaussian errors in the experimental data. The procedure is shown to describe rigorously parameter errors in the limit that the errors in the measured intensities are described by uncorrelated Gaussian statistics. The analysis is valid for structure determinations that are of sufficient quality to admit errors that have magnitudes within the region of convergence of a linear theory that relates perturbations of diffracted intensities to perturbations in structural parameters. It is compared with previously proposed error-estimation techniques used in LEED, LEPD, and x-ray intensity analyses.

  10. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  11. Analysis of earthquake body wave spectra for potency and magnitude values: implications for magnitude scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Zachary E.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; White, Malcolm C.; Vernon, Frank L.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a simple methodology for reliable automated estimation of the low-frequency asymptote in seismic body wave spectra of small to moderate local earthquakes. The procedure corrects individual P- and S-wave spectra for propagation and site effects and estimates the seismic potency from a stacked spectrum. The method is applied to >11 000 earthquakes with local magnitudes 0 < ML < 4 that occurred in the Southern California plate-boundary region around the San Jacinto fault zone during 2013. Moment magnitude Mw values, derived from the spectra and the scaling relation of Hanks & Kanamori, follow a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with a larger b-value (1.22) from that associated with the ML values (0.93) for the same earthquakes. The completeness magnitude for the Mw values is 1.6 while for ML it is 1.0. The quantity (Mw - ML) linearly increases in the analysed magnitude range as ML decreases. An average earthquake with ML = 0 in the study area has an Mw of about 0.9. The developed methodology and results have important implications for earthquake source studies and statistical seismology.

  12. Understanding high magnitude flood risk: evidence from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, N.

    2009-04-01

    The average length of gauged river flow records in the UK is ~25 years, which presents a problem in determining flood risk for high-magnitude flood events. Severe floods have been recorded in many UK catchments during the past 10 years, increasing the uncertainty in conventional flood risk estimates based on river flow records. Current uncertainty in flood risk has implications for society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and water resource managers (flood/drought risk). An alternative approach is required which can improve current understanding of the flood frequency/magnitude relationship. Historical documentary accounts are now recognised as a valuable resource when considering the flood frequency/magnitude relationship, but little consideration has been given to the temporal and spatial distribution of these records. Building on previous research based on British rivers (urban centre): Ouse (York), Trent (Nottingham), Tay (Perth), Severn (Shrewsbury), Dee (Chester), Great Ouse (Cambridge), Sussex Ouse (Lewes), Thames (Oxford), Tweed (Kelso) and Tyne (Hexham), this work considers the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flooding. The selected sites provide a network covering many of the largest river catchments in Britain, based on urban centres with long detailed documentary flood histories. The chronologies offer an opportunity to assess long-term patterns of flooding, indirectly determining periods of climatic variability and potentially increased geomorphic activity. This research represents the first coherent large scale analysis undertaken of historical multi-catchment flood chronologies, providing an unparalleled network of sites, permitting analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flood patterns on a national scale.

  13. Two-Screen Method for Determining Electron Beam Energy and Deflection from Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Tynan, G R; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Leurent, V; Palastro, J P; Ralph, J E; Froula, D H; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Wang, T L; Joshi, C

    2009-04-24

    Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) experiments have been performed at the Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to unambiguously determine the output electron beam energy and deflection angle at the plasma exit, we have implemented a two-screen electron spectrometer. This system is comprised of a dipole magnet followed by two image plates. By measuring the electron beam deviation from the laser axis on each plate, both the energy and deflection angle at the plasma exit are determined through the relativistic equation of motion.

  14. AN ACCURATE NEW METHOD OF CALCULATING ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES AND K-CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO THE SLOAN FILTER SET

    SciTech Connect

    Beare, Richard; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin

    2014-12-20

    We describe an accurate new method for determining absolute magnitudes, and hence also K-corrections, that is simpler than most previous methods, being based on a quadratic function of just one suitably chosen observed color. The method relies on the extensive and accurate new set of 129 empirical galaxy template spectral energy distributions from Brown et al. A key advantage of our method is that we can reliably estimate random errors in computed absolute magnitudes due to galaxy diversity, photometric error and redshift error. We derive K-corrections for the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters and provide parameter tables for use by the astronomical community. Using the New York Value-Added Galaxy Catalog, we compare our K-corrections with those from kcorrect. Our K-corrections produce absolute magnitudes that are generally in good agreement with kcorrect. Absolute griz magnitudes differ by less than 0.02 mag and those in the u band by ∼0.04 mag. The evolution of rest-frame colors as a function of redshift is better behaved using our method, with relatively few galaxies being assigned anomalously red colors and a tight red sequence being observed across the whole 0.0 < z < 0.5 redshift range.

  15. An Experimental Study in Determining Energy Expenditure from Treadmill Walking using Hip-Worn Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vathsangam, Harshvardhan; Emken, Adar; Schroeder, E. Todd; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study in estimating energy expenditure from treadmill walking using a single hip-mounted triaxial inertial sensor comprised of a triaxial accelerometer and a triaxial gyroscope. Typical physical activity characterization using accelerometer generated counts suffers from two drawbacks - imprecison (due to proprietary counts) and incompleteness (due to incomplete movement description). We address these problems in the context of steady state walking by directly estimating energy expenditure with data from a hip-mounted inertial sensor. We represent the cyclic nature of walking with a Fourier transform of sensor streams and show how one can map this representation to energy expenditure (as measured by V O2 consumption, mL/min) using three regression techniques - Least Squares Regression (LSR), Bayesian Linear Regression (BLR) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). We perform a comparative analysis of the accuracy of sensor streams in predicting energy expenditure (measured by RMS prediction accuracy). Triaxial information is more accurate than uniaxial information. LSR based approaches are prone to outlier sensitivity and overfitting. Gyroscopic information showed equivalent if not better prediction accuracy as compared to accelerometers. Combining accelerometer and gyroscopic information provided better accuracy than using either sensor alone. We also analyze the best algorithmic approach among linear and nonlinear methods as measured by RMS prediction accuracy and run time. Nonlinear regression methods showed better prediction accuracy but required an order of magnitude of run time. This paper emphasizes the role of probabilistic techniques in conjunction with joint modeling of triaxial accelerations and rotational rates to improve energy expenditure prediction for steady-state treadmill walking. PMID:21690001

  16. Free-energy determinants of alpha-helix insertion into lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tal, N; Ben-Shaul, A; Nicholls, A; Honig, B

    1996-01-01

    A detailed treatment is provided of the various free-energy terms that contribute to the transfer of a polyalanine alpha-helix from the aqueous phase into lipid bilayers. In agreement with previous work, the hydrophobic effect is found to provide the major driving force for helix insertion. However, an opposing effect of comparable magnitude is also identified and is attributed to the large free-energy penalty associated with the desolvation of peptide hydrogen bonds on transfer to the low dielectric environment of the bilayer. Lipid perturbation effects as well as the entropy loss associated with helix immobilization in the bilayer are also evaluated. Two configurations of a membrane-bound 25mer polyalanine helix were found to be lower in free energy than the isolated helix in the aqueous phase. The first corresponds to the case of vertical insertion, in which a helix terminus protrudes from each side of the bilayer. The second minimum is for the case of horizontal insertion, for which the helix is adsorbed upon the surface of the bilayer. The calculated free-energy minima are found to be in good agreement with recent measurements of related systems. Large free-energy barriers resulting from desolvation of unsatisfied hydrogen-bonding groups at the helix termini are obtained for both insertion processes. The barriers for insertion are significantly reduced if the helix termini are assumed to be "capped" through the formation of hydrogen bonds with polar sidechains. For uncapped helices, our results support recently proposed models in which helices are inserted by first adsorbing on the membrane surface and then having one terminus "swing around" so as to penetrate the bilayer. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8785340

  17. Does low magnitude earthquake ground shaking cause landslides?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, Matthew; Rosser, Nick; Vann Jones, Emma; Tunstall, Neil

    2015-04-01

    displayed ductile behaviour under standard strain-controlled monotonic shear tests. We applied dynamic stresses of varying amplitude, frequency and sequence, and monitored the resultant strain response to determine which factors, when combined, create significant deviations from standard monotonic shear behaviour. Critically, we demonstrate that multiple dynamic stress/shaking events that are largely insufficient to cause permanent strain accumulation (and hence are conventionally deemed geomorphologically ineffective) can, under favourable though limited conditions, affect material stiffness such that the future behaviour of the sediment/landslide differs considerably from that observed in standard monotonic shear tests. In other words, low-magnitude ground shaking events can be effective precursory geomorphic processes. Our results have important implications for studies of long-term landscape evolution, in which modelled hillslopes are repeatedly subjected to multiple earthquake events but that currently lack appropriate empirically-constrained strength parameters.

  18. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  19. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) channels control energy expenditure determining body weight.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Alexey E; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A; Goldhamer, David J; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here, we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of K(ATP) channel function provoked, under conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in K(ATP) channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots, promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser body weight imposed by K(ATP) channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels govern muscle energy economy, and their downregulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an antiobesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise.

  20. Definition and determination of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Felipe; Marazzi, Marco; Castaño, Obis; Acuña, A Ulises; Frutos, Luis Manuel

    2014-01-21

    A definition of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate within the very weak electronic coupling limit is proposed, and a novel theoretical formalism is developed for its quantitative determination in terms of internal coordinates The present formalism permits (i) the separation of donor and acceptor contributions to the reaction coordinate, (ii) the identification of the intrinsic role of donor and acceptor in the triplet energy transfer process, and (iii) the quantification of the effect of every internal coordinate on the transfer process. This formalism is general and can be applied to classical as well as to nonvertical triplet energy transfer processes. The utility of the novel formalism is demonstrated here by its application to the paradigm of nonvertical triplet-triplet energy transfer involving cis-stilbene as acceptor molecule. In this way the effect of each internal molecular coordinate in promoting the transfer rate, from triplet donors in the low and high-energy limit, could be analyzed in detail.

  1. Membership probability via control-field colour-magnitude decontamination†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Wagner J. B.; Maia, Francisco F. S.; Santos, João F. C.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental physical parameters of open clusters are important tools to understand the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk and to test star-formation and evolution models. However, only a small fraction of the known open clusters in the Milky Way have precise determinations of distance, reddening, age, metallicity, radial velocity and proper motion. One of the major problems in determining these parameters lies in the difficulty to separate cluster members from field stars and to assign membership. We propose a decontamination method by employing 2mass data in the regions around the clusters NGC 1981, NGC 2516, NGC 6494 and M11. We present decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams of these objects showing the membership probabilities and structural parameters as derived from King-profile fitting.

  2. Determination of nuclear symmetry energy in the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long

    2008-05-15

    Within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) approach a general formalism is established for the study of asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) described by the four-nucleon interactions. Restricting ourselves to the double-bubble approximation (DBA), we determine the bulk properties of ANM, in particular, the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, which is in good agreement with data of recent analyses.

  3. 18 CFR 11.11 - Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... power generation is not a function of the headwater project, section 10(f) costs will be apportioned... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges. 11.11 Section 11.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  4. 18 CFR 11.11 - Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... power generation is not a function of the headwater project, section 10(f) costs will be apportioned... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges. 11.11 Section 11.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  5. 18 CFR 11.11 - Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... power generation is not a function of the headwater project, section 10(f) costs will be apportioned... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy gains method of determining headwater benefits charges. 11.11 Section 11.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  6. 75 FR 27170 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Determination Concerning the Potential for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FR 56928) and the accompanying technical support document (TSD), available from the Office of Energy... 2009 notice of proposed determination (NOPD). 74 FR 56928. This notice was accompanied by a technical... charge the batteries of products that are fully or primarily motor operated. 74 FR 56930. 1. DC-DC...

  7. A numerical method for determining highly precise electron energy distribution functions from Langmuir probe characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Jin-Young; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-12-15

    Electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) were determined from probe characteristics using a numerical ac superimposed method with a distortion correction of high derivative terms by varying amplitude of a sinusoidal perturbation voltage superimposed onto the dc sweep voltage, depending on the related electron energy. Low amplitude perturbation applied around the plasma potential represented the low energy peak of the EEDF exactly, and high amplitude perturbation applied around the floating potential was effective to suppress noise or distortion of the probe characteristic, which is fatal to the tail electron distribution. When a small random noise was imposed over the stabilized prove characteristic, the numerical differentiation method was not suitable to determine the EEDF, while the numerical ac superimposed method was able to obtain a highly precise EEDF.

  8. Automatic computation of moment magnitudes for small earthquakes and the scaling of local to moment magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Allmann, Bettina; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John

    2010-10-01

    Moment magnitudes (MW) are computed for small and moderate earthquakes using a spectral fitting method. 40 of the resulting values are compared with those from broadband moment tensor solutions and found to match with negligible offset and scatter for available MW values of between 2.8 and 5.0. Using the presented method, MW are computed for 679 earthquakes in Switzerland with a minimum ML = 1.3. A combined bootstrap and orthogonal L1 minimization is then used to produce a scaling relation between ML and MW. The scaling relation has a polynomial form and is shown to reduce the dependence of the predicted MW residual on magnitude relative to an existing linear scaling relation. The computation of MW using the presented spectral technique is fully automated at the Swiss Seismological Service, providing real-time solutions within 10 minutes of an event through a web-based XML database. The scaling between ML and MW is explored using synthetic data computed with a stochastic simulation method. It is shown that the scaling relation can be explained by the interaction of attenuation, the stress-drop and the Wood-Anderson filter. For instance, it is shown that the stress-drop controls the saturation of the ML scale, with low-stress drops (e.g. 0.1-1.0 MPa) leading to saturation at magnitudes as low as ML = 4.

  9. Contracted Schrödinger equation: Determining quantum energies and two-particle density matrices without wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazziotti, David A.

    1998-06-01

    The contracted Schrödinger equation (CSE) technique through its direct determination of the two-particle reduced density matrix (2RDM) without the wave function may offer a fresh alternative to traditional many-body quantum calculations. Without additional information the CSE, also known as the density equation, cannot be solved for the 2RDM because it also requires a knowledge of the 4RDM. We provide theoretical foundations through a reconstruction theorem for recent attempts at generating higher RDMs from the 2RDM to remove the indeterminacy of the CSE. With Grassmann algebra a more concise representation for Valdemoro's reconstruction functionals [F. Colmenero, C. Perez del Valle, and C. Valdemoro, Phys. Rev. A 47, 971 (1993)] is presented. From the perspective of the particle-hole equivalence we obtain Nakatsuji and Yasuda's correction for the 4RDM formula [H. Nakatsuji and K. Yasuda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1039 (1996)] as well as a corrective approach for the 3RDM functional. A different reconstruction strategy, the ensemble representability method (ERM), is introduced to build the 3- and 4-RDMs by enforcing four-ensemble representability and contraction conditions. We derive the CSE in second quantization without Valdemoro's matrix contraction mapping and offer the first proof of Nakatsuji's theorem for the second-quantized CSE. Both the functional and ERM reconstruction strategies are employed with the CSE to solve for the energies and the 2RDMs of a quasispin model without wave functions. We elucidate the iterative solution of the CSE through an analogy with the power method for eigenvalue equations. Resulting energies of the CSE methods are comparable to single-double configuration-interaction (SDCI) energies, and the 2RDMs are more accurate by an order of magnitude than those from SDCI. While the CSE has been applied to systems with 14 electrons, we present results for as many as 40 particles. Results indicate that the 2RDM remains accurate as the number

  10. Glucose metabolism impacts the spatiotemporal onset and magnitude of HSC induction in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Harris, James M.; Esain, Virginie; Frechette, Gregory M.; Harris, Lauren J.; Cox, Andrew G.; Cortes, Mauricio; Garnaas, Maija K.; Carroll, Kelli J.; Cutting, Claire C.; Khan, Tahsin; Elks, Philip M.; Renshaw, Stephen A.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Murphy, Michael P.; Paw, Barry H.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Many pathways regulating blood formation have been elucidated, yet how each coordinates with embryonic biophysiology to modulate the spatiotemporal production of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is currently unresolved. Here, we report that glucose metabolism impacts the onset and magnitude of HSC induction in vivo. In zebrafish, transient elevations in physiological glucose levels elicited dose-dependent effects on HSC development, including enhanced runx1 expression and hematopoietic cluster formation in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region; embryonic-to-adult transplantation studies confirmed glucose increased functional HSCs. Glucose uptake was required to mediate the enhancement in HSC development; likewise, metabolic inhibitors diminished nascent HSC production and reversed glucose-mediated effects on HSCs. Increased glucose metabolism preferentially impacted hematopoietic and vascular targets, as determined by gene expression analysis, through mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS)–mediated stimulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (hif1α). Epistasis assays demonstrated that hif1α regulates HSC formation in vivo and mediates the dose-dependent effects of glucose metabolism on the timing and magnitude of HSC production. We propose that this fundamental metabolic-sensing mechanism enables the embryo to respond to changes in environmental energy input and adjust hematopoietic output to maintain embryonic growth and ensure viability. PMID:23341543

  11. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune, as determined from Voyager data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Voyager infrared spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) investigation are used in determining the albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune. From broadband radiometric observations made at phase angles of 14 deg and 134 deg, together with measurements at intermediate phase angles from the literature, an orbital mean value of 0.290 +/-0.067 is obtained for the bolometric Bond albedo. This yields an equilibrium temperature Teq = 46.6 +/-1.1 K. From thermal spectra obtained over latitudes from pole to pole an effective temperature Teff = 59.3 +/-0.8 K is derived. This represents a substantial improvement over previously determined values. The energy balance of Neptune is therefore E = 2.61 +/-0.28, which is in agreement with previous results. The reduced uncertainty in this value is due to the improved determination of the effective temperature.

  12. Novel validated spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and human urine.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El Din, M K; Wahba, M E K

    2015-03-01

    Two sensitive, selective, economic and validated spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine. Method Ι is based on fluorimetric determination of the amino acid through its reaction with Hantzsch reagent to form a highly fluorescent product measured at 490 nm after excitation at 419 nm. Method ΙΙ is based on the reaction of taurine with tetracyanoethylene yielding a fluorescent charge transfer complex, which was measured at λex /em of (360 nm/450 nm). The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedures, and were statistically compared with the reference method, where the results obtained were in good agreement. Method Ι was further applied to determine taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine giving promising results. Moreover, the stoichiometry of the reactions was studied, and reaction mechanisms were postulated.

  13. Department of Energy's first waste determinations under section 3116: how did the process work?

    SciTech Connect

    Picha Jr, K.G.; Kaltreider, R.; Suttora, L.; Letourneau, M.; Clark, W.D.; Ross, S.; Lockie, K.

    2007-07-01

    Congress passed the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005 on October 9, 2004, and the President signed it into law on October 28, 2004. Section 3116(a) of the NDAA allows the Department of Energy (DOE) to, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), determine whether certain radioactive waste resulting from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at two DOE sites is not high-level radioactive waste, and dispose of that waste in compliance with the performance objectives set out in subpart C of 10 CFR part 61 for low-level waste. On January 17, 2006, the Department issued its first waste determination under the NDAA for salt waste disposal at the Savannah River Site. On November 19, 2006, the Department issued its second waste determination for closure of tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility. These two determinations and a third draft determination illustrate the range of issues that may be encountered in preparing a waste determination in accordance with NDAA Section 3116. This paper discusses the experiences associated with these first two completed waste determinations and an in-progress third waste determination, and discusses lessons learned from the projects that can be applied to future waste determinations. (authors)

  14. Magnitude of food overabundance affects expression of daily torpor.

    PubMed

    Eto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rintaroh; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Kashimura, Atsushi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Morita, Tetsuo

    2015-02-01

    Many small mammal species use torpor as a strategy for reducing energy expenditure in winter. Some rodent hibernators also hoard food to provide reserves of energy, and individuals with large hoards express less torpor than those with smaller reserves. These facts imply that animals can recognize levels of food availability, but where food is very plentiful, it is unclear whether torpor expression is affected by temporal changes in the extent of food overabundance. Moreover, the relationship between daily torpor and excess food availability has not been clearly established. The large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus caches food for use as a winter energy resource and exhibits daily torpor under artificial winter conditions. The present study examined whether individuals exposed to different magnitudes of overabundant food exhibited differences in expression of daily torpor, and secondly whether torpor expression varied in response to changes in the overall quantity of overabundant food. It was observed that while absolute quantities of overabundant food did not appear to affect daily torpor expression, the mice did respond to changes in food availability, even when food remained overabundant. This suggests that the mice respond to fluctuations in food availability, even where these changes do not place any constraint on energy budgets. Thus recognition of changing food availability cannot be a purely physiological response to shortage or plenty, and may contribute to predictions of future energy availability. The expression of torpor was inhibited in response to increasing food availability, and the mice used shallower torpor when food availability increased to superabundance. These findings suggest that daily torpor may be regulated not only physiologically in response to energy constraints but also psychologically, via recognition of food availability.

  15. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  16. Primary electron spectrometer, 18:63 UE: Electrostatic analyzer description and energy spectrum determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The primary electron spectrometer used to detect auroral electrons on sounding rocket 18:63 UE is described. The spectrometer used exponentially decaying positive and negative voltages applied to spherical deflection plates for energy analysis. A method for determining the analyzer response which does not require the assumptions that the ratio of plate separation to mean radius, the entrance or the exit apertures are small is described. By comparison with experiment it is shown that the effect of neither entrance nor exit collimation can be ignored. The experimental and calculated values of the limiting orbits agree well. A non-iterative technique of unfolding the electron differential energy spectrum is described. This method does not require the usual assumption of a flat or histogram-type energy spectrum. The unfolded spectra using both this technique and one which assumes a flat spectrum are compared to actual input spectra. This technique is especially useful in analyzing peaked auroral electron energy spectra.

  17. LDEF (Flight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experi ments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment tray in the D03 and D09 tray loca tions. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with with no visible damage. A brown discoloration is visible on the Trapped Proton Energy experiment detector housings and along the upper surfaces of the experiment sup port structure. The discoloration around the outer edges of the experiment mounting plate appears to be a much lighter tan color. The sub-experiments are intact and secure with no visible dam age.

  18. What is the Meaning of the Physical Magnitude `Work'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanderakis, Nikos

    2014-06-01

    Usually, in physics textbooks, the physical magnitude `work' is introduced as the product of a force multiplied by its displacement, in relation to the transfer of energy. In other words, `work' is presented as an internal affair of physics theory, while its relation to the world of experience, that is its empirical meaning, is missing. On the other hand, in the history of its creation, `work' was a concept that had empirical meaning from the start. It was constructed by engineers to measure the work (labor) of motor engines, men, and animals. Very soon however this initial meaning seems to vanish. In this article, it will be looked at how `work' is presented in physics textbooks, what was its initial meaning in the history of its formulation, under what circumstances this initial meaning faded, and how elements from the history of its creation can be used in the classroom to teach it.

  19. Floods in Puerto Rico, magnitude and frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Colon-Dieppa, Eloy; Cobb, Ernest D.

    1979-01-01

    Annual-peak discharge records at 50 sites in Puerto Rico with five or more years of record were used to determine individual site log-Pearson type III frequency curves. The frequency curve values for 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals at 37 sites with 10 or more years of record were regressed against basin characteristics. Drainage area and mean annual rainfall proved to be the only independent variables significant at the 95 percent confidence level in these regression equations. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Determination of the critical buckling pressure of blood vessels using the energy approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Hai-Chao

    2011-03-01

    The stability of blood vessels under lumen blood pressure is essential to the maintenance of normal vascular function. Differential buckling equations have been established recently for linear and nonlinear elastic artery models. However, the strain energy in bent buckling and the corresponding energy method have not been investigated for blood vessels under lumen pressure. The purpose of this study was to establish the energy equation for blood vessel buckling under internal pressure. A buckling equation was established to determine the critical pressure based on the potential energy. The critical pressures of blood vessels with small tapering along their axis were estimated using the energy approach. It was demonstrated that the energy approach yields both the same differential equation and critical pressure for cylindrical blood vessel buckling as obtained previously using the adjacent equilibrium approach. Tapering reduced the critical pressure of blood vessels compared to the cylindrical ones. This energy approach provides a useful tool for studying blood vessel buckling and will be useful in dealing with various imperfections of the vessel wall.

  1. Influence of Time and Space Correlations on Earthquake Magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Lippiello, E.; Arcangelis, L. de; Godano, C.

    2008-01-25

    A crucial point in the debate on the feasibility of earthquake predictions is the dependence of an earthquake magnitude from past seismicity. Indeed, while clustering in time and space is widely accepted, much more questionable is the existence of magnitude correlations. The standard approach generally assumes that magnitudes are independent and therefore in principle unpredictable. Here we show the existence of clustering in magnitude: earthquakes occur with higher probability close in time, space, and magnitude to previous events. More precisely, the next earthquake tends to have a magnitude similar but smaller than the previous one. A dynamical scaling relation between magnitude, time, and space distances reproduces the complex pattern of magnitude, spatial, and temporal correlations observed in experimental seismic catalogs.

  2. Maximum Magnitude and Recurrence Interval for the Large Earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Hu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Maximum magnitude and recurrence interval of the large earthquakes are key parameters for seismic hazard assessment in the central and eastern United States. Determination of these two parameters is quite difficult in the region, however. For example, the estimated maximum magnitudes of the 1811-12 New Madrid sequence are in the range of M6.6 to M8.2, whereas the estimated recurrence intervals are in the range of about 500 to several thousand years. These large variations of maximum magnitude and recurrence interval for the large earthquakes lead to significant variation of estimated seismic hazards in the central and eastern United States. There are several approaches being used to estimate the magnitudes and recurrence intervals, such as historical intensity analysis, geodetic data analysis, and paleo-seismic investigation. We will discuss the approaches that are currently being used to estimate maximum magnitude and recurrence interval of the large earthquakes in the central United States.

  3. Evaporation determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Likens, G.E.; Sturrock, A.M.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation was determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake during the open water periods of 1982-1987. For all years, evaporation rates were low in spring and fall and highest during the summer. However, the times of highest evaporation rates varied during the 6 yr. Evaporation reached maximum rates in July for three of the years, in June for two of the years, and in August for one of the years. The highest evaporation rate during the 6-yr study was 0.46 cm d-1 during 27 May-4 June 1986 and 15-21 July 1987. Solar radiation and atmospheric radiation input to the lake and long-wave radiation emitted from the lake were by far the largest energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water, and ground water had little effect on evaporation rates. In the energy-budget method, average evaporation rates are determined for energy-budget periods, which are bounded by the dates of thermal surveys of the lake. Our study compared evaporation rates calculated for short periods, usually ???1 week, with evaporation rates calculated for longer periods, usually ???2 weeks. The results indicated that the shorter periods showed more variability in evaporation rates, but seasonal patterns, with few exceptions, were similar.

  4. Tactical approach for determining impact of energy development on wildlife in Wyoming: special report number 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keenlyne, Kent D.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, within the Department of Interior, is responsible for providing national leadership in the management and protection of the nation's fish and wildlife resources, their habitat, and environment. Specifically, the Office of Biological Services obtains and assimilates biological and environmental data and identifies additional informational needs and means necessary to provide biological input into major natural resource decisions. The Wyoming Coal Coordinator for the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service is assigned the duty of becoming attuned to the ramifications of energy development within the State and its potential impact upon wildlife. In order for the Coal Coordinator to fulfill his obligations in becoming an "energy expert" for the Fish and Wildlife Service in Wyoming, it will be necessary for him to develop a means of obtaining an overview of the energy development situation. Similarly, in order for him to identify those area of critical concern to wildlife resources, it will be necessary that he determine or predict where energy development will occur, the nature of this development, and the cumulative effects of energy development upon wildlife. Likewise, in order to identify where wildlife data gaps occur and to determine future wildlife information needs, it will be necessary for him to compile and synthesize relevant existing data resources. It therefore becomes apparent that a need exists for him to gather and interpret pertinent information in a systematic way to meet these ends. The following is an account of the tactical number in which the Wyoming Coal Coordinator intends to approach the duties outlined above the rationale to be followed in meeting these needs. First, a general discussion on assessing impacts on wildlife is provided to form a basis for obtaining an overview. Secondly, a series of reports which will be generated to summarize existing information and to help identify potential problem areas is outlined

  5. Proposed Molecular Beam Determination of Energy Partition in the Photodissociation of Polyatomic Molecules

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zare, P. N.; Herschbach, D. R.

    1964-01-29

    Conventional photochemical experiments give no information about the partitioning of energy between translational recoil and internal excitation of the fragment molecules formed in photodissociation of a polyatomic molecule. In a molecular beam experiment, it becomes possible to determine the energy partition from the form of the laboratory angular distribution of one of the photodissociation products. A general kinematic analysis is worked out in detail, and the uncertainty introduced by the finite angular resolution of the apparatus and the velocity spread in the parent beam is examined. The experimental requirements are evaluated for he photolysis of methyl iodide by the 2537 angstrom Hg line.

  6. Evaluation on determination of iodine in coal by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Jackson, J.C.; Palmer, C.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quick and inexpensive method of relative high iodine determination from coal samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provided a detection limit of about 14 ppm (3 times of standard deviations of the blank sample), without any complex sample preparation. An analytical relative standard deviation of 16% was readily attainable for coal samples. Under optimum conditions, coal samples with iodine concentrations higher than 5 ppm can be determined using this EDXRF method. For the time being, due to the general iodine concentrations of coal samples lower than 5 ppm, except for some high iodine content coal, this method can not effectively been used for iodine determination. More work needed to meet the requirement of determination of iodine from coal samples for this method. Copyright ?? 2005 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.

  7. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  8. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  12. Sign-And-Magnitude Up/Down Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Magnitude-and-sign counter includes conventional up/down counter for magnitude part and special additional circuitry for sign part. Negative numbers indicated more directly. Counter implemented by programming erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) or programmable logic array (PLA). Used in place of conventional up/down counter to provide sign and magnitude values directly to other circuits.

  13. Numerical Magnitude Processing in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children…

  14. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  15. Spatial Seismicity Rates and Maximum Magnitudes for Background Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Zeng, Yuehua

    2008-01-01

    The background seismicity model is included to account for M 5.0 - 6.5 earthquakes on faults and for random M 5.0 ? 7.0 earthquakes that do not occur on faults included in the model (as in earlier models of Frankel et al., 1996, 2002 and Petersen et al., 1996). We include four different classes of earthquake sources in the California background seismicity model: (1) gridded (smoothed) seismicity, (2) regional background zones, (3) special fault zone models, and (4) shear zones (also referred to as C zones). The gridded (smoothed) seismicity model, the regional background zone model, and the special fault zones use a declustered earthquake catalog for calculation of earthquake rates. Earthquake rates in shear zones are estimated from the geodetically determined rate of deformation across an area of high strain rate. We use a truncated exponential (Gutenberg-Richter, 1944) magnitude-frequency distribution to account for earthquakes in the background models.

  16. Stress drop in the sources of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in northern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sycheva, N. A.; Bogomolov, L. M.

    2014-05-01

    The paper is devoted to estimating the dynamical parameters of 14 earthquakes with intermediate magnitudes (energy class 11 to 14), which occurred in the Northern Tien Shan. For obtaining the estimates of these parameters, including the stress drop, which could be then applied in crustal stress reconstruction by the technique suggested by Yu.L. Rebetsky (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences), we have improved the algorithms and programs for calculating the spectra of the seismograms. The updated products allow for the site responses and spectral transformations during the propagation of seismic waves through the medium (the effect of finite Q-factor). By applying the new approach to the analysis of seismograms recorded by the seismic KNET network, we calculated the radii of the sources (Brune radius), scalar seismic moment, and stress drop (release) for the studied 14 earthquakes. The analysis revealed a scatter in the source radii and stress drop even among the earthquakes that have almost identical energy classes. The stress drop by different earthquakes ranges from one to 75 bar. We have also determined the focal mechanisms and stress regime of the Earth's crust. It is worth noting that during the considered period, strong seismic events with energy class above 14 were absent within the segment covered by the KNET stations.

  17. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  18. Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaill, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Regionalized flood-frequency relations need to be updated on a regular basis (about every 10 years). The latest study on regionalized flood-frequency equations for Colorado used data collected through water year 1981. A study was begun in 1994 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Transportation and the Bureau of Land Management, to include streamflow data collected since water year 1981 in the regionalized flood-frequency relations for Colorado. Longer periods of streamflow data and improved statistical analysis methods were used to define regression relations for estimating peak discharges having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years for unregulated streams in Colorado. The regression relations can be applied to sites of interest on gaged and ungaged streams. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to determine the best explanatory basin or climatic characteristic variables for each peak-discharge characteristic, and generalized least-squares regression was used to determine the best regression relation. Drainage-basin area, mean annual precipitation, and mean basin slope were determined to be statistically significant explanatory variables in the regression relations. Separate regression relations were developed for each of five distinct hydrologic regions in the State. The mean standard errors of estimate and average standard error of prediction associated with the regression relations generally ranged from 40 to 80 percent, except for one hydrologic region where the errors ranged from about 200 to 300 percent. Methods are presented for determining the magnitude of peak discharges for sites located at gaging stations, for sites located near gaging stations on the same stream when the ratio of drainage-basin areas is between about 0.5 and 1.5, and for sites where the drainage basin crosses a flood-region boundary or a State boundary. Methods are presented for determining the magnitude of peak

  19. The magnitude of the sulfa residue problem.

    PubMed

    Van Houweling, C D

    1981-03-01

    Expenditures and losses associated with the so-called sulfa residue problem have totaled about $5 million over the past 6 years. This amount was calculated by recording actual costs when available and by reasonable estimates where actual expenses or losses were not available. It is not conclusive whether the consumers, who are intended to be the benefactors of this program, have received protection commensurate with the expenditures. The losses to producers may be greater if the sulfa problem causes them to discontinue the use of medicated feeds. The problem is the unusually high occurrence of sulfonamide residues in livers of slaughtered swine. In an effort to reduce or eliminate these violative residues, there has been extensive testing of swine livers by the FSQS of the USDA, and inspection of farms from which the pigs were shipped, by the FDA, the Extension Service, and the APHIS. Producers whose pigs are found with violative levels of residue are prohibited from selling more pigs until it has been determined that swine from that farm do not contain violative residues. This restriction can result in serious financial losses to producers.

  20. Binocular disparity magnitude affects perceived depth magnitude despite inversion of depth order.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Harold; Hill, Harold; Palmisano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The hollow-face illusion involves a misperception of depth order: our perception follows our top-down knowledge that faces are convex, even though bottom-up depth information reflects the actual concave surface structure. While pictorial cues can be ambiguous, stereopsis should unambiguously indicate the actual depth order. We used computer-generated stereo images to investigate how, if at all, the sign and magnitude of binocular disparities affect the perceived depth of the illusory convex face. In experiment 1 participants adjusted the disparity of a convex comparison face until it matched a reference face. The reference face was either convex or hollow and had binocular disparities consistent with an average face or had disparities exaggerated, consistent with a face stretched in depth. We observed that apparent depth increased with disparity magnitude, even when the hollow faces were seen as convex (ie when perceived depth order was inconsistent with disparity sign). As expected, concave faces appeared flatter than convex faces, suggesting that disparity sign also affects perceived depth. In experiment 2, participants were presented with pairs of real and illusory convex faces. In each case, their task was to judge which of the two stimuli appeared to have the greater depth. Hollow faces with exaggerated disparities were again perceived as deeper. PMID:22132512

  1. Five Planets Transiting a Ninth Magnitude Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Kristiansen, Martti H.; Bieryla, Allyson; Duev, Dmitry A.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Morton, Timothy D.; Latham, David W.; Adams, Fred C.; Baranec, Christoph; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed; Salama, Maïssa; Schmitt, Allan R.

    2016-08-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed a great diversity of planetary systems and architectures, but most of the planets discovered by Kepler orbit faint stars. Using new data from the K2 mission, we present the discovery of a five-planet system transiting a bright (V = 8.9, K = 7.7) star called HIP 41378. HIP 41378 is a slightly metal-poor late F-type star with moderate rotation (v sin i ≃ 7 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and lies at a distance of 116 ± 18 pc from Earth. We find that HIP 41378 hosts two sub-Neptune-sized planets orbiting 3.5% outside a 2:1 period commensurability in 15.6 and 31.7 day orbits. In addition, we detect three planets that each transit once during the 75 days spanned by K2 observations. One planet is Neptune-sized in a likely ˜160 day orbit, one is sub-Saturn-sized, likely in a ˜130 day orbit, and one is a Jupiter-sized planet in a likely ˜1 year orbit. We show that these estimates for the orbital periods can be made more precise by taking into account dynamical stability considerations. We also calculate the distribution of stellar reflex velocities expected for this system, and show that it provides a good target for future radial velocity observations. If a precise orbital period can be determined for the outer Jovian planets through future observations, this system will be an excellent candidate for follow-up transit observations to study its atmosphere and measure its oblateness.

  2. Determining Regional Sensitivity to Energy-Related Water Withdrawals in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A.; Brauman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Minnesota has abundant freshwater resources, yet concerns about water-impacts of energy and mining development are increasing. Statewide, total annual water withdrawals have increased, and, in some watersheds, withdrawals make up a large fraction of available water. The energy and mining sectors play a critical role in determining water availability, as water is used to irrigate biofuel feedstock crops, cool thermoelectric plants, and process and transport fuels and iron ore. We evaluated the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Water and Reporting System (MPARS) dataset (1988-2014) to identify regions where energy and mining-related water withdrawals are high or where they are increasing. The energy and mining sectors account for over 65 percent of total water extractions in Minnesota, but this percentage is greater in some regions. In certain southern and northeastern Minnesota watersheds, these extractions account for 90 percent of total water demand. Sensitivity to these demands is not dependent on total water demand alone, and is also not uniform among watersheds. We identified and evaluated factors influencing sensitivity, including population, extraction type (surface water or groundwater), percentage of increased demand, and whether withdrawals are consumptive or not. We determined that southern Minnesota is particularly sensitive to increased water demands, because of growing biofuel and sand extraction industries (the products of which are used in hydraulic fracturing). In the last ten years, ethanol production in Minnesota has increased by 440 percent, and over fifteen refineries (each with a capacity over 1.1 billion gallons), have been built. These users primarily extract from surface water bodies within a few watersheds, compromising local supplies. As these energy-related industries continue to grow, so will the demand for freshwater resources. Determining regional sensitivity to increased demands will allow policy-makers to manage the

  3. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  4. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Vicente; López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations.

  5. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Vicente; López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  6. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Alaska south of the Yukon River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berwick, Vernon Kenneth; Childers, Joseph M.; Kuentzel, M.A.

    1964-01-01

    This report presents a method for evaluating the magnitude and frequency of floods on the basis of the analysis of flood records. One composite frequency curve is applied to the entire study region. This curve relates floods of various magnitudes at any site within the region to probable recurrence intervals (from 1.1 to 50 years) for those floods. Flood magnitudes are reduced to dimensionless form by expressing them as a ratio to mean annual flood. Magnitudes of mean annual floods vary with the flood-producing characteristics of stream basins. On the basis of the limited data available, drainage-area size is found to be the only significant factor affecting the magnitude of the mean annual flood. Trial and error groupings of gaging-station records show that the region can be split into three hydrologic areas: one curve defines the relation within each area between mean annual flood and drainage area. These three curves in combination with the composite flood-frequency curve permit, for natural-flow conditions at any site, the determination of flood magnitude for a given recurrence interval, or the determination of recurrence interval for a flood of known magnitude.

  7. Functional determinants and Casimir energy in higher dimensional spherically symmetric background potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucci, Guglielmo; Kirsten, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we analyze the spectral zeta function associated with a Laplace operator acting on scalar functions on an N-dimensional Euclidean space in the presence of a spherically symmetric background potential. The obtained analytic continuation of the spectral zeta function is then used to derive very simple results for the functional determinant of the operator and the Casimir energy of the scalar field.

  8. Determining the Importance of Energy Transfer between Magnetospheric Regions via MHD Waves using Constellations of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    This grant was focused on research in two specific areas: (1) development of new techniques and software for assimilation, analysis and visualization of data from multiple satellites making in-situ measurements; and (2) determination of the role of MHD waves in energy transport during storms and substorms. Results were obtained in both areas and presented at national meetings and in publications. The talks and papers that were supported in part or fully by this grant are listed in this paper.

  9. Determination of energy level alignment at metal/molecule interfaces by in-device electrical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, M; Pietrobon, L; Atxabal, A; Bedoya-Pinto, A; Sun, X; Golmar, F; Llopis, R; Casanova, F; Hueso, L E

    2014-01-01

    The energetics of metal/molecular semiconductor interfaces plays a fundamental role in organic electronics, determining the performance of very diverse devices. So far, information about the energy level alignment has been most commonly gained by spectroscopy techniques that typically require experimental conditions far from the real device operation. Here we demonstrate that a simple three-terminal device allows the acquisition of spectroscopic information about the metal/molecule energy alignment in real operative condition. As a proof of principle, we employ the proposed device to measure the energy barrier height between different clean metals and C60 molecules and we recover typical results from photoemission spectroscopy. The device is designed to inject a hot electron current directly into the molecular level devoted to charge transport, disentangling the contributions of both the interface and the bulk to the device total resistance, with important implications for spintronics and low-temperature physics.

  10. Determination of energy level alignment at metal/molecule interfaces by in-device electrical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, M; Pietrobon, L; Atxabal, A; Bedoya-Pinto, A; Sun, X; Golmar, F; Llopis, R; Casanova, F; Hueso, L E

    2014-01-01

    The energetics of metal/molecular semiconductor interfaces plays a fundamental role in organic electronics, determining the performance of very diverse devices. So far, information about the energy level alignment has been most commonly gained by spectroscopy techniques that typically require experimental conditions far from the real device operation. Here we demonstrate that a simple three-terminal device allows the acquisition of spectroscopic information about the metal/molecule energy alignment in real operative condition. As a proof of principle, we employ the proposed device to measure the energy barrier height between different clean metals and C60 molecules and we recover typical results from photoemission spectroscopy. The device is designed to inject a hot electron current directly into the molecular level devoted to charge transport, disentangling the contributions of both the interface and the bulk to the device total resistance, with important implications for spintronics and low-temperature physics. PMID:24946715

  11. LDEF (Postflight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in periph eral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The brown discoloration appears to be much lighter in this photograph than in the flight photograph, however, the postflight photograph of the individual experiment verifies the darker discoloration in the flight photograph. The light ing angle and intensity appear to have washed out the colors in the upper half of the integrated tray. The sub experiments appear to be intact and secure.

  12. Determination of Wetting Behavior, Spread Activation Energy, and Quench Severity of Bioquenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Fernandes, Peter

    2007-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils such as sunflower, coconut, groundnut, castor, cashewnut shell (CNS), and palm oils as quench media (bioquenchants) for industrial heat treatment by assessing their wetting behavior and severity of quenching. The relaxation of contact angle was sharp during the initial stages, and it became gradual as the system approached equilibrium. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with increase in the temperature of the substrate and decrease in the viscosity of the quench medium. A comparison of the relaxation of the contact angle at various temperatures indicated the significant difference in spreading of oils having varying viscosity. The spread activation energy was determined using the Arrhenius type of equation. Oils with higher viscosity resulted in lower cooling rates. The quench severity of various oil media was determined by estimating heat-transfer coefficients using the lumped capacitance method. Activation energy for spreading determined using the wetting behavior of oils at various temperatures was in good agreement with the severity of quenching assessed by cooling curve analysis. A high quench severity is associated with oils having low spread activation energy.

  13. Determination of Internal Energy Distributions of Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry using Thermometer Ions and Other Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Paul M.; Shi, Fengjian; Perez, Johnny J.; Karki, Santosh; Pfeiffer, Conrad; Schafmeister, Christian; Levis, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    The internal energy distributions for dried and liquid samples that were vaporized with femtosecond duration laser pulses centered at 800 nm and postionized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LEMS) were measured and compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The internal energies of the mass spectral techniques were determined by plotting the ratio of the intact parent molecular features to all integrated ion intensities of the fragments as a function of collisional energy using benzylpyridinium salts and peptides. Measurements of dried p-substituted benzylpyridinium salts using LEMS resulted in a greater extent of fragmentation in addition to the benzyl cation. The mean relative internal energies, were determined to be 1.62 ± 0.06, 2.0 ± 0.5, and 1.6 ± 0.3 eV for ESI-MS, dried LEMS, and liquid LEMS studies, respectively. Two-photon resonances with the laser pulses likely caused lower survival yields in LEMS analyses of dried samples but not liquid samples. In studies with larger biomolecules, LEMS analyses of dried samples from glass showed a decrease in survival yield compared with conventional ESI-MS for leucine enkephalin and bradykinin of ~15% and 11%, respectively. The survival yields for liquid LEMS analyses were comparable to or better than ESI-MS for benzylpyridinium salts and large biomolecules.

  14. Adsorption energies and prefactor determination for CH3OH adsorption on graphite.

    PubMed

    Doronin, M; Bertin, M; Michaut, X; Philippe, L; Fillion, J-H

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we have studied adsorption and thermal desorption of methanol CH3OH on graphite surface, with the specific aim to derive from experimental data quantitative parameters that govern the desorption, namely, adsorption energy Eads and prefactor ν of the Polanyi-Wigner law. In low coverage regime, these two values are interconnected and usually the experiments can be reproduced with any couple (Eads, ν), which makes intercomparison between studies difficult since the results depend on the extraction method. Here, we use a method for determining independently the average adsorption energy and a prefactor value that works over a large range of incident methanol coverage, from a limited set of desorption curves performed at different heating rates. In the low coverage regime the procedure is based on a first order kinetic law, and considers an adsorption energy distribution which is not expected to vary with the applied heating rate. In the case of CH3OH multilayers, Eads is determined as 430 meV with a prefactor of 5 × 10(14) s(-1). For CH3OH submonolayers on graphite, adsorption energy of 470 ± 30 meV and a prefactor of (8 ± 3) × 10(16) s(-1) have been found. These last values, which do not change between 0.09 ML and 1 ML initial coverage, suggest that the methanol molecules form island-like structure on the graphite even at low coverage.

  15. Method for measuring surface shear stress magnitude and direction using liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for determining surface shear magnitude and direction at every point on a surface. The surface is covered with a shear stress sensitive liquid crystal coating and illuminated by white light from a normal direction. A video camera is positioned at an oblique angle above the surface to observe the color of the liquid crystal at that angle. The shear magnitude and direction are derived from the color information. A method of calibrating the device is also provided.

  16. Stress magnitudes in the crust: constraints from stress orientation and relative magnitude data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Magee, M.

    1991-01-01

    The World Stress Map Project is a global cooperative effort to compile and interpret data on the orientation and relative magnitudes of the contemporary in situ tectonic stress field in the Earth's lithosphere. The intraplate stress field in both the oceans and continents is largely compressional with one or both of the horizontal stresses greater than the vertical stress. The regionally uniform horizontal intraplate stress orientations are generally consistent with either relative or absolute plate motions indicating that plate-boundary forces dominate the stress distribution within the plates. Current models of stresses due to whole mantle flow inferred from seismic topography models predict a general compressional stress state within continents but do not match the broad-scale horizontal stress orientations. The broad regionally uniform intraplate stress orientations are best correlated with compressional plate-boundary forces and the geometry of the plate boundaries. -from Authors

  17. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part II. Determining amount of energy lost or gained in a building

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. There are 3 parts to the training program. They are entitled: Understanding and Practicing Energy Conservation in Buildings; Determining Amount of Energy Lost or Gained in a Building; and Determining Which Practices Are Most Efficient and Installing Materials. For Part Two, it is recommended that cooling and heating load calculation manual (GRP 158) ASHRAE, 1979, be used. Specific subjects covered in Part II are: Terms Used to Measure Energy in Buildings; Understanding Heat Losses and Gains in Buildings; Estimating Heating Loads in Buildings; Special Applications for Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; and Determining Cost Benefits of Using Energy-Saving Practices.

  18. Definition and determination of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Felipe; Marazzi, Marco; Castaño, Obis; Acuña, A Ulises; Frutos, Luis Manuel

    2014-01-21

    A definition of the triplet-triplet energy transfer reaction coordinate within the very weak electronic coupling limit is proposed, and a novel theoretical formalism is developed for its quantitative determination in terms of internal coordinates The present formalism permits (i) the separation of donor and acceptor contributions to the reaction coordinate, (ii) the identification of the intrinsic role of donor and acceptor in the triplet energy transfer process, and (iii) the quantification of the effect of every internal coordinate on the transfer process. This formalism is general and can be applied to classical as well as to nonvertical triplet energy transfer processes. The utility of the novel formalism is demonstrated here by its application to the paradigm of nonvertical triplet-triplet energy transfer involving cis-stilbene as acceptor molecule. In this way the effect of each internal molecular coordinate in promoting the transfer rate, from triplet donors in the low and high-energy limit, could be analyzed in detail. PMID:25669358

  19. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

    2013-09-28

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  20. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

    2013-09-01

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  1. A computational model to determine energy intake during weight loss123

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M; Schoeller, Dale A; Redman, Leanne A; Martin, Corby K; Levine, James A; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy intake (EI) during weight loss is difficult and costly to measure accurately. Objective: The objective was to develop and validate a computational energy balance differential equation model to determine individual EI during weight loss. Design: An algorithm was developed to quantify EI during weight loss based on a validated one-dimensional model for weight change. By using data from a 24-wk calorie-restriction study, we tested the validity of the EI model against 2 criterion measures: 1) EI quantified through food provision from weeks 0–4 and 4–12 and 2) EI quantified through changes in body energy stores [measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)] and energy expenditure [measured with doubly labeled water (DLW)] from weeks 4–12 and 12–24. Results: Compared with food provision, the mean (±SD) model errors were 41 ± 118 kcal/d and −22 ± 230 kcal/d from weeks 0–4 and 4–12, respectively. Compared with EI measured with DXA and DLW, the model errors were −71 ± 272 kcal/d and −48 ± 226 kcal/d from weeks 4–12 and 12–24, respectively. In every comparison, the mean error was never significantly different from zero (P values > 0.10). Furthermore, Bland and Altman analysis indicated that error variance did not differ significantly over amounts of EI (P values > 0.26). Almost all individual participants’ values were within CI limits. Conclusion: The validity of the newly developed EI model was supported by experimental observations and can be used to determine an individual participant's EI during weight loss. PMID:20962159

  2. How to assess magnitudes of paleo-earthquakes from multiple observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    An important aspect of fault characterisation regarding seismic hazard assessment are paleo-earthquake magnitudes. Especially in regions with low or moderate seismicity, paleo-magnitudes are normally much larger than those of historical earthquakes and therefore provide essential information about seismic potential and expected maximum magnitudes of a certain region. In general, these paleo-earthquake magnitudes are based either on surface rupture length or on surface displacement observed at trenching sites. Several well-established correlations provide the possibility to link the observed surface displacement to a certain magnitude. However, the combination of more than one observation is still rare and not well established. We present here a method based on a probabilistic approach proposed by Biasi and Weldon (2006) to combine several observations to better constrain the possible magnitude range of a paleo-earthquake. Extrapolating the approach of Biasi and Weldon (2006), the single-observation probability density functions (PDF) are assumed to be independent of each other. Following this line, the common PDF for all observed surface displacements generated by one earthquake is the product of all single-displacement PDFs. In order to test our method, we use surface displacement data for modern earthquakes, where magnitudes have been determined by instrumental records. For randomly selected "observations", we calculated the associated PDFs for each "observation point". We then combined the PDFs into one common PDF for an increasing number of "observations". Plotting the most probable magnitudes against the number of combined "observations", the resultant range of most probable magnitudes is very close to the magnitude derived by instrumental methods. Testing our method with real trenching observations, we used the results of a paleoseismological investigation within the Vienna Pull-Apart Basin (Austria), where three trenches were opened along the normal

  3. A new iterative linear integral isoconversional method for the determination of the activation energy varying with the conversion degree.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Chen, Siyu

    2009-10-01

    The conventional linear integral isoconversional methods may lead to important errors in the determination of the activation energy when the significant variation of the activation energy with the conversion degree occurs. Vyazovkin proposed an advanced nonlinear isoconversional method, which allows the activation energy to be accurately determined [Vyazovkin, J Comput Chem 2001, 22, 178]. However, the use of the Vyazovkin method raises the problem of the time-consuming minimization without derivatives. A new iterative linear integral isoconversional method for the determination of the activation energy as a function of the conversion degree has been proposed, which is capable of providing valid values of the activation energy even if the latter strongly varies with the conversion degree. Also, the new method leads to the correct values of the activation energy in much less time than the Vyazovkin method. The application of the new method is illustrated by processing of theoretically simulated data of a strongly varying activation energy process.

  4. Color-magnitude diagram of Palomar 4 - CCD photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C. A.; Heasley, J. N.

    1986-04-01

    Photometry of the globular cluster Pal 4 was obtained with the RCA CCD camera on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea. The color-magnitude diagram of the cluster shows a well-defined red horizontal branch, typical of outer halo systems, and an asymptotic giant branch well separated from the giant branch. The population of Pal 4 has been sampled to the main-sequence turnoff region (V = 25), allowing a detailed comparison of this distant object with theoretical models. The cluster parameters consistent with the CCD data are (m - M)0 = 20.1 + or - 0.1 mag, E(B - V) = 0.02 + or - 0.02, and Fe/H forbidden line = -1.7 + or - 0.1 with Y =0.2. The age of the cluster, determined by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg and Bell (1985) is consistent with an age of 15 + or - 1 Gyr, similar to inner halo globular clusters with ages determined in the same way.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of flux determination in heart by H₂ ¹⁸O -provided labeling using a dynamic Isotopologue model of energy transfer pathways.

    PubMed

    Schryer, David W; Peterson, Pearu; Illaste, Ardo; Vendelin, Marko

    2012-01-01

    To characterize intracellular energy transfer in the heart, two organ-level methods have frequently been employed: ³¹P − NMR inversion and saturation transfer, and dynamic ¹⁸O labeling. Creatine kinase (CK) fluxes obtained by following oxygen labeling have been considerably smaller than the fluxes determined by ³¹P − NMR saturation transfer. It has been proposed that dynamic ¹⁸O labeling determines net flux through CK shuttle, whereas ³¹P − NMR saturation transfer measures total unidirectional flux. However, to our knowledge, no sensitivity analysis of flux determination by oxygen labeling has been performed, limiting our ability to compare flux distributions predicted by different methods. Here we analyze oxygen labeling in a physiological heart phosphotransfer network with active CK and adenylate kinase (AdK) shuttles and establish which fluxes determine the labeling state. A mathematical model consisting of a system of ordinary differential equations was composed describing ¹⁸O enrichment in each phosphoryl group and inorganic phosphate. By varying flux distributions in the model and calculating the labeling, we analyzed labeling sensitivity to different fluxes in the heart. We observed that the labeling state is predominantly sensitive to total unidirectional CK and AdK fluxes and not to net fluxes. We conclude that measuring dynamic incorporation of ¹⁸O into the high-energy phosphotransfer network in heart does not permit unambiguous determination of energetic fluxes with a higher magnitude than the ATP synthase rate when the bidirectionality of fluxes is taken into account. Our analysis suggests that the flux distributions obtained using dynamic ¹⁸O labeling, after removing the net flux assumption, are comparable with those from ³¹P − NMR inversion and saturation transfer.

  6. Macro creatine kinase: determination and differentiation of two types by their activation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W.; Bohner, J.; Steinhart, R.; Eggstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction may be disturbed by the presence of macro creatine kinase. The relative molecular mass of this form of creatine kinase in human serum is at least threefold that of the ordinary enzyme, and it is more thermostable. Here we describe our method for determination of macro creatine kinases and an easy-to-perform test for differentiating two forms of macro creatine kinase, based on their distinct activation energies. The activation energies of serum enzymes are mostly in the range of 40-65 kJ/mol of substrate. Unlike normal cytoplasmatic creatine kinases and IgG-linked CK-BB (macro creatine kinase type 1) a second form of macro creatine kinase (macro creatine kinase type 2) shows activation energies greater than 80 kJ/mol of substrate. The exact composition of macro creatine kinase type 2 is still unknown, but there is good reason to believe that it is of mitochondrial origin.

  7. Quantum Mechanical Determination of Potential Energy Surfaces for TiO and H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss current ab initio methods for determining potential energy surfaces, in relation to the TiO and H2O molecules, both of which make important contributions to the opacity of oxygen-rich stars. For the TiO molecule we discuss the determination of the radiative lifetimes of the excited states and band oscillator strengths for both the triplet and singlet band systems. While the theoretical radiative lifetimes for TiO agree well with recent measurements, the band oscillator strengths differ significantly from those currently employed in opacity calculations. For the H2O molecule we discuss the current results for the potential energy and dipole moment ground state surfaces generated at NASA Ames. We show that it is necessary to account for such effects as core-valence Correlation energy to generate a PES of near spectroscopic accuracy. We also describe how we solve the ro-vibrational problem to obtain the line positions and intensities that are needed for opacity sampling.

  8. Experimental determination of the deuterium binding energy with vacancies in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, M.; Ryabtsev, S.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Pisarev, A.

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) interaction with vacancies in tungsten (W) was studied using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In order to obtain a TDS spectrum with a prominent peak corresponding to D release from vacancies, a special procedure comprising damaging of a recrystallized W sample by low fluences of 10 keV/D ions, its annealing, and subsequent low-energy ion implantation, was utilized. This experimental sequence was performed several times in series; the only difference was the TDS heating rate that varied in the range of 0.15-4 K/s. The sum of the D binding energy (Eb) with vacancies and the activation energy for D diffusion (ED) in W was then directly determined from the slope of the Arrhenius-like plot ln(β / Tm2) versus 1/Tm, where β - heating rate and Tm - position of the respective peak in the TDS spectrum. The determined value of Eb + ED was 1.56 ± 0.06 eV.

  9. Precision Determination of Electron Scattering Angle by Differential Nuclear Recoil Energy Method

    SciTech Connect

    Liyanage, Nilanga; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak

    2015-09-01

    The accurate determination of the scattered electron angle is crucial to electron scattering experiments, both with open-geometry large-acceptance spectrometers and ones with dipole-type magnetic spectrometers for electron detection. In particular, for small central-angle experiments using dipole-type magnetic spectrometers, in which surveys are used to measure the spectrometer angle with respect to the primary electron beam, the importance of the scattering angle determination is emphasized. However, given the complexities of large experiments and spectrometers, the accuracy of such surveys is limited and insufficient to meet demands of some experiments. In this article, we present a new technique for determination of the electron scattering angle based on an accurate measurement of the primary beam energy and the principle of differential nuclear recoil. This technique was used to determine the scattering angle for several experiments carried out at the Experimental Hall A, Jefferson Lab. Results have shown that the new technique greatly improved the accuracy of the angle determination compared to surveys.

  10. Precision determination of electron scattering angle by differential nuclear recoil energy method

    SciTech Connect

    Liyanage, N.; Saenboonruang, K.

    2015-12-01

    The accurate determination of the scattered electron angle is crucial to electron scattering experiments, both with open-geometry large-acceptance spectrometers and ones with dipole-type magnetic spectrometers for electron detection. In particular, for small central-angle experiments using dipole-type magnetic spectrometers, in which surveys are used to measure the spectrometer angle with respect to the primary electron beam, the importance of the scattering angle determination is emphasized. However, given the complexities of large experiments and spectrometers, the accuracy of such surveys is limited and insufficient to meet demands of some experiments. In this article, we present a new technique for determination of the electron scattering angle based on an accurate measurement of the primary beam energy and the principle of differential nuclear recoil. This technique was used to determine the scattering angle for several experiments carried out at the Experimental Hall A, Jefferson Lab. Results have shown that the new technique greatly improved the accuracy of the angle determination compared to surveys.

  11. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.

    2013-12-01

    Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk

  12. Determining neutrino mass hierarchy from electron disappearance at a low energy neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Rupak; Sinha, Nita; Raut, Sushant K.

    2014-04-01

    Recent measurements of large θ13 by the reactor experiments have opened up the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy, i.e., the sign of the mass squared splitting Δm312, the CP-violating phase δCP, and the octant of θ23. In light of this result, we study the performance of a low energy neutrino factory (LENF) for determination of the mass hierarchy. In particular, we explore the potential of the νe and ν¯e disappearance channels at LENF to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, that is free from the uncertainties arising from the unknown δCP phase and the θ23 octant. We find that using these electron neutrino (antineutrino) disappearance channels with a standard LENF, it is possible to exclude the wrong hierarchy at 5σ with only 2 years of running, with a muon beam energy above ˜3.5(5.0-10.0) GeV and baseline longer than ˜1400(1900-2400) km for an optimistic (conservative) systematic error of 2% (5%).

  13. Selective Determination of Trinitrotoluene Based on Energy Transfer between Carbon Dots and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Oskoei, Yones Mosaei; Fattahi, Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Azar, Ali Mousavi

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system between carbon dots (C-dots) and amine-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed for the selective determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). C-dots have an intrinsic florescence emission depending on their exciting wavelength. In the presence of AuNPs, C-dots adsorb on the Au surfaces, and NPs treat as energy acceptor, which can receive light emitted by C-dots, leading to decrease the fluorescence intensity of C-dots. Furthermore, it is observed that nitroaromatic compounds, especially TNT, could restore this fluorescence due to selective interaction with AuNPs via amine groups, and so releasing the C-dots. Based on this effect, a sensitive and selective fluorescence turn-on probe was designed for the determination of TNT. Some important factors including AuNPs and C-dot concentrations and media pH, which would affect the efficiency of the probe, were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, good linear relationships in the range of 7 - 250 nmol L(-1) TNT with the detection limit of 2.2 nmol L(-1) were obtained. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TNT in the environmental water samples. Compared with previous reports, the developed method has relatively high sensitivity, short analysis time, low cost and ease of operation.

  14. Magnitude and sign of long-range correlated time series: Decomposition and surrogate signal generation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Extremera, Manuel; Carpena, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study the scaling properties of the magnitude and sign of the fluctuations in correlated time series, which is a simple and useful approach to distinguish between systems with different dynamical properties but the same linear correlations. First, we decompose artificial long-range power-law linearly correlated time series into magnitude and sign series derived from the consecutive increments in the original series, and we study their correlation properties. We find analytical expressions for the correlation exponent of the sign series as a function of the exponent of the original series. Such expressions are necessary for modeling surrogate time series with desired scaling properties. Next, we study linear and nonlinear correlation properties of series composed as products of independent magnitude and sign series. These surrogate series can be considered as a zero-order approximation to the analysis of the coupling of magnitude and sign in real data, a problem still open in many fields. We find analytical results for the scaling behavior of the composed series as a function of the correlation exponents of the magnitude and sign series used in the composition, and we determine the ranges of magnitude and sign correlation exponents leading to either single scaling or to crossover behaviors. Finally, we obtain how the linear and nonlinear properties of the composed series depend on the correlation exponents of their magnitude and sign series. Based on this information we propose a method to generate surrogate series with controlled correlation exponent and multifractal spectrum.

  15. Magnitude and sign of long-range correlated time series: Decomposition and surrogate signal generation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Extremera, Manuel; Carpena, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study the scaling properties of the magnitude and sign of the fluctuations in correlated time series, which is a simple and useful approach to distinguish between systems with different dynamical properties but the same linear correlations. First, we decompose artificial long-range power-law linearly correlated time series into magnitude and sign series derived from the consecutive increments in the original series, and we study their correlation properties. We find analytical expressions for the correlation exponent of the sign series as a function of the exponent of the original series. Such expressions are necessary for modeling surrogate time series with desired scaling properties. Next, we study linear and nonlinear correlation properties of series composed as products of independent magnitude and sign series. These surrogate series can be considered as a zero-order approximation to the analysis of the coupling of magnitude and sign in real data, a problem still open in many fields. We find analytical results for the scaling behavior of the composed series as a function of the correlation exponents of the magnitude and sign series used in the composition, and we determine the ranges of magnitude and sign correlation exponents leading to either single scaling or to crossover behaviors. Finally, we obtain how the linear and nonlinear properties of the composed series depend on the correlation exponents of their magnitude and sign series. Based on this information we propose a method to generate surrogate series with controlled correlation exponent and multifractal spectrum. PMID:27176287

  16. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Gabriel V; Hunt, Patricia A; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George; Ford, Ian J

    2015-12-28

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the "mitosis" or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  17. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George; Hunt, Patricia A.; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-12-28

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the “mitosis” or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  18. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the "mitosis" or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  19. SEP distribution function and probability of the maximum magnitudes of events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho

    Based on the current knowledge the magnitude of specific anticipated SEP event is a random variable taken from large array of expected values. This set of expected values can be determined in terms of the distribution function. Form of the distribution function of SЕР events is usually determined from the data of continuous satellite measurement. Sometimes but without much effect indirect evidences, such as isotopes of samples of lunar rocks, data on the density of radioactive isotopes in the annual rings of ancient trees are used to determine the SEPE distribution function. The most successful was the attempt to describe the distribution function for 21-23 solar cycles by power-low function with exponential cutoff in the area of large events. Significant addition to the available information are relatively new data (McCracken et al., JGR 106(A10), 21585-21498, 2001) on the radioactive isotopes in the Greenland ice, which gives the additional information about the extreme SEP events since 1561. However, the lack of information about full set of events (mainly on small events) does not allow to use these data directly to determine the distribution function. However, using correlation between the number of sunspots and the corresponding mean number of SEP events, one can determine the distribution function since 1561 based on Greenland data. Surprisingly, the parameter values of this function coincide with those calculated from satellite data. Analysis of the obtained parameters of the distribution function shows that the maximum fluence of protons with energies above 30 MeV does not exceed 1011 cm-2 protons with about 10-11 midget probability.

  20. Energy level and half-life determinations from photonuclear reaction on Ga target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoyun, Serkan; Bayram, Tuncay; Dulger, Fatih; Đapo, Haris; Boztosun, Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Photonuclear reactions are important tools in the understanding of the nucleus. These reactions are also interesting for realizing the element creation processes in stellar environment. The use of bremsstrahlung photons generated from clinic linear accelerator is practical for performing these type of reactions. In this study, the bremsstrahlung photons with endpoint energy of 18MeV have been used for activating gallium target material. After irradiation, the transition energies and half-lives associated with the decay of 68Ga, 70Ga and 72Ga isotopes have been determined The values obtained for half-life of 68Ga, 70Ga and 72Ga isotopes are 67.5±0.9min, 21.1±0.9min and 13.8±0.4h, respectively. It has been seen that the values are consistent with the present literature values. In addition, the new measurements of gamma-ray energies for transition energies have been obtained comparable to the literature values with good uncertainties.

  1. Structure of a micropipette-aspirated vesicle determined from the bending-energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The structure of the system consisting of an aspirating pipette and an aspirated vesicle is investigated with fixed total vesicle volume, total vesicle surface area, and aspirated volume fraction, based on the bending-energy model. Through an energetic consideration, the usage of an aspirated volume fraction can be converted to the aspirating pressure for the determination of a phase diagram; the procedure identifies a first-order transition, between a weakly aspirated state and the strongly aspirated state, as the pressure increases. The physical properties of the system are obtained from minimization of the bending energy by an implementation of the simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure, which searches for a minimum in a multivariable space. An analysis of the hysteresis effects indicates that the experimentally observed aspirating and releasing critical pressures are related to the location of the spinodal points.

  2. Reaction pathway and free energy profile determined for specific recognition of oligosaccharide moiety of carboxypeptidase Y.

    PubMed

    Senkara-Barwijuk, Elżbieta; Kobiela, Tomasz; Lebed, Kateryna; Lekka, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of mannose specific lectin (from Lens culinaris, LcL) with the carbohydrate moiety of carboxypeptidase Y (CaY) was studied using both atomic force microscope (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The AFM enables to determine the positions of energy barriers present in the energy landscape of the single complex undergoing dissociation. The QCM-D measurements allow the estimation of the quantitative parameters characterizing the kinetics of the studied molecular interaction (namely the association and dissociation rate constants and the association constant). The use of both methods not only delivers the complementary characterization of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters but also permits to investigate the mechanism of the binding and unbinding of the molecules. The results for LcL were compared with those obtained for concanavalin A i.e. lectin, which interacts with the carbohydrate moiety on a similar way.

  3. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Annecke, W.

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  4. An energy-based method to determine material constants in nonlinear rheology with applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abali, B. Emek; Wu, Cheng-Chieh; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2016-09-01

    Many polymer-type materials show a rate-dependent and nonlinear rheological behavior. Such a response may be modeled by using a series of spring-dashpot systems. However, in order to cover different time scales the number of systems may become unreasonably large. A more appropriate treatment based on continuum mechanics will be presented herein. This approach uses representation theorems for deriving material equations and allows for a systematic increase in modeling complexity. Moreover, we propose an approach based on energy to determine thematerial parameters.This method results in a simple linear regression problemeven for highly nonlinearmaterial equations. Therefore, the inverse problem leads to a unique solution. The significance of the proposed method is that the stored and dissipated energies necessary for the procedure are measurable quantities. We apply the proposed method to a "semi-solid" material and measure its material parameters by using a simple-shear rheometer.

  5. Determining the energy balance in barrier-discharge Xe2 excilamp by the pressure jump method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, E. A.; Panarin, V. A.; Skakun, V. S.; Pikulev, A. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-08-01

    The energy redistribution in barrier-discharge Xe2 excilamp in various excitation regimes is investigated using the pressure jump method. Analytic expressions are derived for calculating power W dissipated in the excilamp discharge plasma in the form of heat and for calculating total discharge heat power P T spent on heating the excilamp. It is shown that the mechanism of the thermal energy dissipation gradually changes upon an increase in the xenon pressure in the excilamp. The conditions for generating the maximal radiation power of the excilamp are determined. It is shown that the maximum of the average radiation power is attained for an excitation pulse duration of 500 ns and the maximal pulse power is attained for a pulse duration of 100 ns. It is found that the optimal operation regime for the excilamp corresponds to the maximal values of the P T- W difference.

  6. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, J.C.; Conrath, B.J.; Hanel, R.A.; Pirraglia, J.A.; Coustenis, A. Paris, Observatoire, Meudon )

    1990-03-01

    The albedo, T(eff), and energy balance of Uranus are presently derived from Voyager IR Spectrometer and Radiometer data. By obtaining the absolute phase curve of Uranus, it has become possible to evaluate the Bond albedo without making separate determinations of the geometric albedo and phase integral. An orbital mean value for the bolometric Bond albedo of 0.3 + or - 0.049 yields an equilibrium temperature of 58.2 + or - 1.0 K. Thermal spectra from pole-to-pole latitude coverage establish a T(eff) of 59.1 + or - 0.3 K, leading to an energy balance of 1.06 + or - 0.08 for Uranus. 39 refs.

  7. Determination of energy dissipation of a spider silk structure under impulsive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencastre, Jorge; Mago, Carlos; Rivera, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Various researches and studies have demonstrated that spider silk is much stronger and more deformable than a steel string of the same diameter from a mechanical approach. These excellent properties have caused many scientific disciplines to get involved, such as bio-mechanics, bio-materials and bio-mimetics, in order to create a material of similar properties and characteristics. It should be noted that the researches and studies have been oriented mainly as a quasi-static model. For this research, the analysis has taken a dynamic approach and determined the dissipation energy of a structure which is made of spider silk "Dragline" and produced by the Argiope-Argentata spider, through an analytical-experimental way, when being subjected to impulsive loading. Both experimental and analytical results, the latter obtained by using adjusted models, have given high levels of dissipation energy during the first cycle of vibration, which are consistent with the values suggested by other authors.

  8. Magnitude and Frequency of Floods on Nontidal Streams in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of annual peak flows are required for the economical and safe design of transportation and water-conveyance structures. This report, done in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT) and the Delaware Geological Survey (DGS), presents methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on nontidal streams in Delaware at locations where streamgaging stations monitor streamflow continuously and at ungaged sites. Methods are presented for estimating the magnitude of floods for return frequencies ranging from 2 through 500 years. These methods are applicable to watersheds exhibiting a full range of urban development conditions. The report also describes StreamStats, a web application that makes it easy to obtain flood-frequency estimates for user-selected locations on Delaware streams. Flood-frequency estimates for ungaged sites are obtained through a process known as regionalization, using statistical regression analysis, where information determined for a group of streamgaging stations within a region forms the basis for estimates for ungaged sites within the region. One hundred and sixteen streamgaging stations in and near Delaware with at least 10 years of non-regulated annual peak-flow data available were used in the regional analysis. Estimates for gaged sites are obtained by combining the station peak-flow statistics (mean, standard deviation, and skew) and peak-flow estimates with regional estimates of skew and flood-frequency magnitudes. Example flood-frequency estimate calculations using the methods presented in the report are given for: (1) ungaged sites, (2) gaged locations, (3) sites upstream or downstream from a gaged location, and (4) sites between gaged locations. Regional regression equations applicable to ungaged sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain Physiographic Provinces of Delaware are presented. The equations incorporate drainage area, forest cover, impervious

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Determination of Dissociation Energies of Dispersion-Dominated Aromatic Molecular Complexes.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jann A; Holzer, Christof; Klopper, Wim; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2016-05-11

    The dissociation energy (D0) of an isolated and cold molecular complex in the gas-phase is a fundamental measure of the strength of the intermolecular interactions between its constituent moieties. Accurate D0 values are important for the understanding of intermolecular bonding, for benchmarking high-level theoretical calculations, and for the parametrization of force-field models used in fields ranging from crystallography to biochemistry. We review experimental and theoretical methods for determining gas-phase D0 values of M·S complexes, where M is a (hetero)aromatic molecule and S is a closed-shell "solvent" atom or molecule. The experimental methods discussed involve M-centered (S0 → S1) electronic excitation, which is often followed by ionization to the M(+)·S ion. The D0 is measured by depositing a defined amount of vibrational energy in the neutral ground state, giving M(‡)·S, the neutral S1 excited state, giving M*·S, or the M(+)·S ion ground state. The experimental methods and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Based on the electronic structure of M and S, we classify the M·S complexes as Type I, II, or III, and discuss characteristic properties of their respective potential energy surfaces that affect or hinder the determination of D0. Current theoretical approaches are reviewed, which comprise methods based on a Kohn-Sham reference determinant as well as wave function-based methods based on coupled-cluster theory. PMID:27055105

  10. Magnitude Problems in Historical Earthquake Catalogs and Their Impact on Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Y.; Mahdyiar, M.; Shen-Tu, B.; Shabestari, K.; Guin, J.

    2010-12-01

    A reliable historical earthquake catalog is a critical component for any regional seismic hazard analysis. In Europe, a number of historical earthquake catalogs have been compiled and used in constructing national or regional seismic hazard maps, for instance, Switzerland ECOS catalog by Swiss Seismological Service (2002), Italy CPTI catalog by CPTI Working Group (2004), Greece catalog by Papazachos et al. (2007), and CENEC (central, northern and northwestern Europe) catalog by Grünthal et al. (2009), Turkey catalog by Kalafat et al. (2007), and GSHAP catalog by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (1999). These catalogs spatially overlap with each other to a large extent and employed a uniform magnitude scale (Mw). A careful review of these catalogs has revealed significant magnitude problems which can substantially impact regional seismic hazard assessment: 1) Magnitudes for the same earthquakes in different catalogs are discrepant. Such discrepancies are mainly driven by different regression relationships used to convert other magnitude scales or intensity into Mw. One of the consequences is magnitudes of many events in one catalog are systematically biased higher or lower with respect to those in another catalog. For example, the magnitudes of large historical earthquakes in the Italy CPTI catalog are systematically higher than those in Switzerland ECOS catalog. 2) Abnormally high frequency of large magnitude events is observed for some time period that intensities are the main available data. This phenomenon is observed in Italy CPTI catalog for the time period of 1870 to 1930. This may be due to biased conversion from intensity to magnitude. 3) A systematic bias in magnitude resulted in biased estimations for a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude frequency relationships. It also affected the determination of upper bound magnitudes for various seismic source zones. All of these issues can lead to skewed seismic hazard results, or inconsistent

  11. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  12. Comparison of estimated energy intake using Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-determined energy expenditure in children

    PubMed Central

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Hjorth, Mads F.; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Brockhoff, Per B.; Andersen, Lene F.; Tetens, Inge; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) project carried out a school meal study to assess the impact of a New Nordic Diet (NND). The random controlled trial involved 834 children aged 8–11 in nine local authority schools in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children) to collect data from the children. Objective To compare the energy intake (EI) of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy expenditure (TEE) as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore an accelerometer for two periods of seven consecutive days: at baseline, when they ate their usual packed lunches and at intervention when they were served the NND. EI was estimated using WebDASC, and TEE was calculated from accelerometer-derived activity energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and diet-induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods of collecting dietary data and proved both effective and acceptable with children aged 8–11, even with perhaps less familiar foods of the NND. Conclusions WebDASC is a useful method that provided a reasonably accurate measure of EI at group level when compared to TEE derived from accelerometer-determined physical activity in children. WebDASC will benefit future research in this area. PMID:24358037

  13. Determination of Energy-Transfer Distributions in Ionizing Ion-Molecule Collisions.

    PubMed

    Maclot, S; Delaunay, R; Piekarski, D G; Domaracka, A; Huber, B A; Adoui, L; Martín, F; Alcamí, M; Avaldi, L; Bolognesi, P; Díaz-Tendero, S; Rousseau, P

    2016-08-12

    The ionization and fragmentation of the nucleoside thymidine in the gas phase has been investigated by combining ion collision with state-selected photoionization experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. The comparison between the mass spectra measured in both types of experiments allows us to accurately determine the distribution of the energy deposited in the ionized molecule as a result of the collision. The relation of two experimental techniques and theory shows a strong correlation between the excited states of the ionized molecule with the computed dissociation pathways, as well as with charge localization or delocalization. PMID:27563959

  14. A new method to determine optimum temperature and activation energies for enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, M; Miłek, J

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of the optimum temperature and activation energies based on an idea of the average rate of enzymatic reaction has been developed. A mathematical model describing the effect of temperature on a dimensionless activity for enzyme deactivation following the first-order kinetics has been derived. The necessary condition for existence of the function extreme of the optimal temperature has been applied in the model. The developed method has been verified using the experimental data for inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus. PMID:27066801

  15. A new method to determine optimum temperature and activation energies for enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, M; Miłek, J

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of the optimum temperature and activation energies based on an idea of the average rate of enzymatic reaction has been developed. A mathematical model describing the effect of temperature on a dimensionless activity for enzyme deactivation following the first-order kinetics has been derived. The necessary condition for existence of the function extreme of the optimal temperature has been applied in the model. The developed method has been verified using the experimental data for inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus.

  16. Determination of Energy-Transfer Distributions in Ionizing Ion-Molecule Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Piekarski, D. G.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.; Adoui, L.; Martín, F.; Alcamí, M.; Avaldi, L.; Bolognesi, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Rousseau, P.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization and fragmentation of the nucleoside thymidine in the gas phase has been investigated by combining ion collision with state-selected photoionization experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. The comparison between the mass spectra measured in both types of experiments allows us to accurately determine the distribution of the energy deposited in the ionized molecule as a result of the collision. The relation of two experimental techniques and theory shows a strong correlation between the excited states of the ionized molecule with the computed dissociation pathways, as well as with charge localization or delocalization.

  17. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  18. The chemistry of the light rare-earth elements as determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J.A.; Buck, E.C.

    1996-06-01

    The energy loss spectra of the rare earths are characterized by sharp {ital M}{sub 4,5} edges, the relative intensities of which are characteristic of the 4{ital f}-shell occupancy of the excited ion. For the light rare earths, the dependence of these relative peak heights on 4{ital f}-shell occupancy is quite pronounced. Thus they may be used to determine the oxidation state of the multivalent elements Ce and Pr. The second derivative of the spectrum is shown to be extremely sensitive to the chemical environment. Modern instrumentation and detection techniques allow the oxidation state of Ce and Pr to be determined even when they are present as only minor constituents. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Determination of anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility for nematics and polar anchoring energy coefficient for nematics: substrate systems by wedge cell method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierski, Jerzy; Raszewski, Zbigniew; Kojdecki, Marek A.; Zielinski, Jerzy; Miszczyk, Emilia; Lipinska, Ludwika

    2004-09-01

    A wedge cell of the wedge angle of order of few milliradians was used to measure threshold magnetic fields for the magnetic Freedericksz transition. A nematic liquid crystal filling the cell was of planar orientation enforced by the treatment of the flat boundary plates. A system of interference fringes appeared in the cell placed in normally incident light between analyzer and polarizer crossed. In the vicinity of each fringe the cell could be considered as a flat-parallel one and hence it was equivalent to a system of flat cells of different precisely determined thickness. The threshold magnetic field magnitudes were interpreted as eigenvalues of the boundary eigenvalue problem for the operator of second derivative; the interaction between the nematics and the substrate was described by the Rapini-Papoular formula (i.e. weak coupling was considered). The resulting formulae were used to determine the polar anchoring energy coefficient and the anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility after the threshold fields measured. The method was applied to characterize the nematic liquid crystal PCB and the coupling between it and the substrates made of poly(amic acid) MP2. The estimates of material parameters agreed pretty well with those determined by the composite method.

  20. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration does not enhance the anabolic skeletal effects of intermittent PTH in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michelle A; Brodt, Michael D; Stephens, Abby L; Civitelli, Roberto; Silva, Matthew J

    2011-04-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a low-magnitude mechanical stimulus that may be anabolic for bone, yet we recently found that WBV did not improve bone properties in adult mice. Because intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) enhances the anabolic effects of high-magnitude skeletal loading, we sought to determine the skeletal effects of WBV in combination with PTH. Seven-month-old male BALB/c mice were assigned to six groups (n = 13-14/group) based on magnitude of applied acceleration (0 or 0.3 G) and PTH dose (0, 10, or 40 µg/kg/day). Mice were exposed to WBV (0.3 G, 90 Hz, sine wave) or sham loading (0 G) for 15 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Vehicle or hPTH (1-34) was administered prior to each WBV session. Whole-body bone mineral content increased by ~ 5% from 0 to 8 weeks in the 40 µg/kg PTH group only, independent of WBV loading. Similarly, PTH treatment increased tibial cortical bone volume by ~5% from 0 to 8 weeks, independent of WBV loading. Neither PTH nor WBV stimulated trabecular bone formation. Consistent with the cortical bone effect, tibias from the 40 µg/kg PTH group had significantly greater ultimate force and energy to failure than tibias in the 0 and 10 µg/kg PTH groups, independent of WBV treatment. In summary, 8 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment increased cortical bone volume and strength in adult male BALB/c mice. Daily exposure to low-magnitude WBV by itself did not improve skeletal properties and did not enhance the PTH effect. No WBV-PTH synergy was found in this preclinical study.

  1. Simultaneous determination of the free energy profile and effective dynamics along a reaction coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2015-03-01

    Often one can gain insight into the functioning of a biomolecular system by following its dynamics along a relevant reaction coordinate (RC). A proper description of the motion along the RC requires not only the determination of the corresponding free energy profile (PMF) but also the correct identification of the underlying stochastic model. While there exist several methods for determining the PMF from fast non-equilibrium pulling processes, for simplicity it is implicitly assumed that the dynamics along the RC is a simple overdamped Brownian motion with known diffusion coefficient. However, in general, the dynamics along the RC is non-Markovian that can be modeled with a generalized Langevin equation characterized by a friction memory kernel. Here we propose and demonstrate a method that permits the simultaneous determination of both PMF and friction memory kernel from fast bi-directional (forward and time-reversed) pulling processes. As a result, one can determine whether the diffusion along the RC is normal or anomalous (e.g., subdiffusion). The proposed method provides a novel approach for identifying and characterizing the effective dynamics along a RC of a biomolecular system studied by either single-molecule force microscopy or steered molecular dynamics simulations. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  2. Some Effects of Magnitude of Reinforcement on Persistence of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie C.; Jimenez, Angel

    2008-01-01

    The influence of magnitude of reinforcement was examined on both response rate and behavioral persistence. During Phase 1, a multiple schedule of concurrent reinforcement was implemented in which reinforcement for one response option was held constant at VI 30 s across both components, while magnitude of reinforcement for the other response option…

  3. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  4. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  5. The Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude on Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvig, Elliot A.; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The relation between reinforcer magnitude and timing behavior was studied using a peak procedure. Four rats received multiple consecutive sessions with both low and high levels of brain stimulation reward (BSR). Rats paused longer and had later start times during sessions when their responses were reinforced with low-magnitude BSR. When estimated…

  6. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  7. Linear Numerical-Magnitude Representations Aid Children's Memory for Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Clarissa A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relation between children's numerical-magnitude representations and their memory for numbers. Results of three experiments indicated that the more linear children's magnitude representations were, the more closely their memory of the numbers approximated the numbers presented. This relation was present for preschoolers and…

  8. Magnitude Knowledge: The Common Core of Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: 1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic…

  9. Magnitude Knowledge: The Common Core of Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic…

  10. Congruency Effects between Number Magnitude and Response Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierck, Esther; Kiesel, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Numbers are thought to be represented in space along a mental left-right oriented number line. Number magnitude has also been associated with the size of grip aperture, which might suggest a connection between number magnitude and intensity. The present experiment aimed to confirm this possibility more directly by using force as a response…

  11. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources.

  12. Determination of human albumin in serum and urine samples by constant-energy synchronous fluorescence method.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Bagheri, Habibollah; Afkhami, Abbas

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method using constant-energy synchronous fluorescence technique is proposed for the determination of human albumin without separation. In this method, no reagent was used for enhancement of the fluorescence signal of albumin in the solution. Effects of some parameters, such as energy difference between excitation and emission monochromators (ΔE), emission and excitation slit widths and scan rate of wavelength were studied and the optimum conditions were established. For this purpose factorial design and response surface method were employed for optimization of the effective parameters on the fluorescence signal. The results showed that the scan rate of the wavelength has no significant effect on the analytical signal. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.1-220.0 µg mL(-1) of albumin with a detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-3)  µg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for six replicate measurements of albumin were calculated as 2.2%, 1.7% and 1.3% for 0.5, 10.0 and 100.0 µg mL(-1) albumin, respectively. Furthermore the proposed method has been employed for the determination of albumin in human serum and urine samples.

  13. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of Pannonian earthquake magnitude series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Toth, Laszlo

    2016-04-01

    The multifractality of the series of magnitudes of the earthquakes occurred in Pannonia region from 2002 to 2012 has been investigated. The shallow (depth less than 40 km) and deep (depth larger than 70 km) seismic catalogues were analysed by using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The shallow and deep catalogues are characterized by different multifractal properties: (i) the magnitudes of the shallow events are weakly persistent, while those of the deep ones are almost uncorrelated; (ii) the deep catalogue is more multifractal than the shallow one; (iii) the magnitudes of the deep catalogue are characterized by a right-skewed multifractal spectrum, while that of the shallow magnitude is rather symmetric; (iv) a direct relationship between the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law and the multifractality of the magnitudes is suggested.

  14. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimentation in this area. Three children who engaged in problem behavior that was maintained by social positive reinforcement (attention, access to tangible items) participated. Results indicated that preference for different magnitudes of social reinforcement may predict reinforcer efficacy and that magnitude effects may be mediated by the schedule requirement. PMID:18595284

  15. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.

  16. Intensity, magnitude, location and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, Walter; Hough, Susan; Martin, Stacey; Bilham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earthquakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental- with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earthquakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  17. Intensity, magnitude, location, and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, W.; Hough, S.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earth-quakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental-with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earth-quakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  18. Heterogeneous in situ stress magnitudes due to the presence of weak natural discontinuities in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chandong; Jo, Yeonguk

    2015-11-01

    Two field examples of hydraulic fracturing stress measurements are reported, in which the determined stress magnitudes exhibit severe variations with depth. The stress measurements were conducted in vertical boreholes drilled in granites in two different locations in South Korea. Several isolated intervals of intact rocks in the boreholes were vertically fractured by injecting water. The magnitudes of the minimum horizontal principal compressive stress (Shmin) were determined from shut-in pressures. The magnitudes of the maximum horizontal principal compressive stress (SHmax) were estimated based on the Kirsch equation using tensile strengths determined from hollow cylinder tests and Brazilian tests, in which pressurization-rate effects on tensile strength were taken into account. The stress states in both locations are in reverse-faulting stress regimes. The magnitudes of SHmax are generally within a stress range defined by frictional limits of favorably oriented fractures having frictional coefficients of 0.6 and 1.0. However, SHmax magnitudes do not increase linearly with depth, but rather scatter quite severely. It is noted that near the depths where the measured stresses are relatively low, natural discontinuities with wide apertures containing weak filling material exist, whereas near the depths of high stress, such wide discontinuities are scarce. Wide aperture discontinuities are predominantly oriented such that their slip tendency is high under the given stress conditions, meaning that if excessive shear stress is exerted, the weak discontinuities would slip to release the excessive stress. Such local processes would restrict SHmax magnitudes within values that can only be sustained by the shear strengths of the discontinuities, leading to severe variations of SHmax with depth. This result suggests that stress magnitudes are controlled quite locally by the frictional property of natural discontinuities, and that the stress state in granitic rock might be

  19. Metal-sulfur valence orbital interaction energies in metal-dithiolene complexes: determination of charge and overlap interaction energies by comparison of core and valence ionization energy shifts.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Nicholas J; Cranswick, Matthew A; Klein, Eric L; Lockett, L Tori; Lichtenberger, Dennis L; Enemark, John H

    2011-11-01

    The electronic interactions between metals and dithiolenes are important in the biological processes of many metalloenzymes as well as in diverse chemical and material applications. Of special note is the ability of the dithiolene ligand to support metal centers in multiple coordination environments and oxidation states. To better understand the nature of metal-dithiolene electronic interactions, new capabilities in gas-phase core photoelectron spectroscopy for molecules with high sublimation temperatures have been developed and applied to a series of molecules of the type Cp(2)M(bdt) (Cp = η(5)-cyclopentadienyl, M = Ti, V, Mo, and bdt = benzenedithiolato). Comparison of the gas-phase core and valence ionization energy shifts provides a unique quantitative energy measure of valence orbital overlap interactions between the metal and the sulfur orbitals that is separated from the effects of charge redistribution. The results explain the large amount of sulfur character in the redox-active orbitals and the 'leveling' of oxidation state energies in metal-dithiolene systems. The experimentally determined orbital interaction energies reveal a previously unidentified overlap interaction of the predominantly sulfur HOMO of the bdt ligand with filled π orbitals of the Cp ligands, suggesting that direct dithiolene interactions with other ligands bound to the metal could be significant for other metal-dithiolene systems in chemistry and biology.

  20. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four (4) experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The identifica tion plate on the lower right corner of the experiment mounting plate identifies the experiments location and orientation in the experiment tray. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, consist of a primary experiment and three (3) sub experiments mounted on an aluminum mount ing plate. The primary experiment components include six (6) stacks of CR-39 passive detectors in individual aluminum housings and an aluminum mounting structure, configured to provide the desired exposure for the detector stacks. The secondary experiments consist of the Neutron and Proton Activation experiment that expose metal samples to the ambient flux throughout the mis sion, the Microsphere Dosimetry experiment housed in a cylindrical aluminum container and the Flux Measurement by Ion Trapping experiment consisting of a variety of sample materials that are exposed to the space environment for the total mission. The exterior surfaces of the mounting plate, the experiment housings and the support structure are coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint.The experiment is assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners and safety wire.

  1. Determination of Energy Independent Neutron Densities using Dirac Phenomenology based on the RIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.; Kerr, L. J.; Hama, S.; Mercer, R. L.

    2002-04-01

    A new method for extracting neutron densities from intermediate energy elastic proton-nucleus scattering observables using a global Dirac phenomenological (DP) approach based on the Relativistic Impulse Approximation (RIA) is presented. (B. C. Clark, et al.) BAPS Vol 46, No. 7 pg.139, 2001. We have considered data sets for ^40Ca, ^48Ca and ^208Pb and energies from 500 MeV to 1040 MeV. The global fits are successful in reproducing the data and in predicting data sets not included in the analysis. Using this global DP approach we have obtained energy independent neutron densities. The vector point proton density distribution, ρ^p_v, is determined from the empirical charge density after unfolding the proton form factor. The other densities, ρ^n_v, ρ^p_s, ρ^n_s, are parameterized using the cosh form given in our paper on global DP optical potentials.(E. D. Cooper, et al.) Phys Rev. 47C, pg. 297, 1993 Neutron skin thicknesses extracted using the global analysis are compared to predictions from theoretical models.

  2. Sample thickness determination by scanning transmission electron microscopy at low electron energies.

    PubMed

    Volkenandt, Tobias; Müller, Erich; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2014-02-01

    Sample thickness is a decisive parameter for any quantification of image information and composition in transmission electron microscopy. In this context, we present a method to determine the local sample thickness by scanning transmission electron microscopy at primary energies below 30 keV. The image intensity is measured with respect to the intensity of the incident electron beam and can be directly compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Screened Rutherford and Mott scattering cross-sections are evaluated with respect to fitting experimental data with simulated image intensities as a function of the atomic number of the sample material and primary electron energy. The presented method is tested for sample materials covering a wide range of atomic numbers Z, that is, fluorenyl hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (Z = 3.5), carbon (Z = 6), silicon (Z = 14), gallium nitride (Z = 19), and tungsten (Z = 74). Investigations were conducted for two primary energies (15 and 30 keV) and a sample thickness range between 50 and 400 nm.

  3. In-medium NN cross sections determined from the nuclear stopping and collective flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yingxun; Li Zhuxia; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2007-03-15

    In-medium nucleon-nucleon scattering cross sections are explored by comparing results of quantum molecular dynamics simulations to data on stopping and on elliptic and directed flow in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. The comparison points to in-medium cross sections which are suppressed at low energies but not at higher energies. Positive correlations are found between the degree of stopping and the magnitudes of elliptic and directed flows.

  4. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the ENERGY-child questionnaire on energy balance-related behaviours and their potential determinants: the ENERGY-project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insight in children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) and their determinants is important to inform obesity prevention research. Therefore, reliable and valid tools to measure these variables in large-scale population research are needed. Objective To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the child questionnaire used in the ENERGY-project, measuring EBRBs and their potential determinants among 10-12 year old children. Methods We collected data among 10-12 year old children (n = 730 in the test-retest reliability study; n = 96 in the construct validity study) in six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and percentage agreement comparing scores from two measurements, administered one week apart. To assess construct validity, the agreement between questionnaire responses and a subsequent face-to-face interview was assessed using ICC and percentage agreement. Results Of the 150 questionnaire items, 115 (77%) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. Test-retest reliability was moderate for 34 items (23%) and poor for one item. Construct validity appeared to be good to excellent for 70 (47%) of the 150 items, as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. From the other 80 items, construct validity was moderate for 39 (26%) and poor for 41 items (27%). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ENERGY-child questionnaire, assessing EBRBs of the child as well as personal, family, and school-environmental determinants related to these EBRBs, has good test-retest reliability and moderate to good construct validity for the large majority of items. PMID:22152048

  5. Absolute Magnitudes of Pan-STARRS PS1 Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Peter; Jedicke, R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Denneau, L.; Wainscoat, R.; Bolin, B.; PS1SC Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Absolute magnitude (H) of an asteroid is a fundamental parameter describing the size and the apparent brightness of the body. Because of its surface shape, properties and changing illumination, the brightness changes with the geometry and is described by the phase function governed by the slope parameter (G). Although many years have been spent on detailed observations of individual asteroids to provide H and G, vast majority of minor planets have H based on assumed G and due to the input photometry from multiple sources the errors of these values are unknown. We compute H of ~ 180 000 and G of few thousands asteroids observed with the Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope in well defined photometric systems. The mean photometric error is 0.04 mag. Because on average there are only 7 detections per asteroid in our sample, we employed a Monte Carlo (MC) technique to generate clones simulating all possible rotation periods, amplitudes and colors of detected asteroids. Known asteroid colors were taken from the SDSS database. We used debiased spin and amplitude distributions dependent on size, spectral class distributions of asteroids dependent on semi-major axis and starting values of G from previous works. H and G (G12 respectively) were derived by phase functions by Bowell et al. (1989) and Muinonen et al. (2010). We confirmed that there is a positive systematic offset between H based on PS1 asteroids and Minor Planet Center database up to -0.3 mag peaking at 14. Similar offset was first mentioned in the analysis of SDSS asteroids and was believed to be solved by weighting and normalizing magnitudes by observatory codes. MC shows that there is only a negligible difference between Bowell's and Muinonen's solution of H. However, Muinonen's phase function provides smaller errors on H. We also derived G and G12 for thousands of asteroids. For known spectral classes, slope parameters agree with the previous work in general, however, the standard deviation of G in our sample is twice

  6. Efficient determination of protein-protein standard binding free energies from first principles.

    PubMed

    Gumbart, James C; Roux, Benoît; Chipot, Christophe

    2013-08-13

    Characterizing protein-protein association quantitatively has been a longstanding challenge for computer simulations. Here, a theoretical framework is put forth that addresses this challenge on the basis of detailed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. The proposed methodology relies upon independent potential of mean force (PMF) free-energy calculations carried out sequentially, wherein the biological objects are restrained in the conformation, position and orientation of the bound state, using adequately chosen biasing potentials. These restraints systematically narrow down the configurational entropy available to the system and effectively guarantee that the relevant network of interactions is properly sampled as the two proteins reversibly associate. Decomposition of the binding process into consecutive, well-delineated stages, for both the protein complex and the individual, unbound partners, offers a rigorous definition of the standard state, from which the absolute binding free energy can be determined. The method is applied to the difficult case of the extracellular ribonuclease barnase binding to its intracellular inhibitor barstar. The calculated binding free energy is -21.0 ± 1.4 kcal/mol, which compares well with the experimental value of -19.0 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The relatively small statistical error reflects the precision and convergence afforded by the PMF-based simulation methodology. In addition to providing an accurate reproduction of the standard binding free energy, the proposed strategy offers a detailed picture of the protein-protein interface, illuminating the thermodynamic forces that underlie reversible association. The application of the present formal framework to barnase:barstar binding provides a foundation for tackling nearly any protein-protein complex.

  7. Quantitative determination and classification of energy drinks using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Anita; Héberger, Károly; Fodor, Marietta

    2016-09-01

    Almost a hundred commercially available energy drink samples from Hungary, Slovakia, and Greece were collected for the quantitative determination of their caffeine and sugar content with FT-NIR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calibration models were built with partial least-squares regression (PLSR). An HPLC-UV method was used to measure the reference values for caffeine content, while sugar contents were measured with the Schoorl method. Both the nominal sugar content (as indicated on the cans) and the measured sugar concentration were used as references. Although the Schoorl method has larger error and bias, appropriate models could be developed using both references. The validation of the models was based on sevenfold cross-validation and external validation. FT-NIR analysis is a good candidate to replace the HPLC-UV method, because it is much cheaper than any chromatographic method, while it is also more time-efficient. The combination of FT-NIR with multidimensional chemometric techniques like PLSR can be a good option for the detection of low caffeine concentrations in energy drinks. Moreover, three types of energy drinks that contain (i) taurine, (ii) arginine, and (iii) none of these two components were classified correctly using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Such classifications are important for the detection of adulterated samples and for quality control, as well. In this case, more than a hundred samples were used for the evaluation. The classification was validated with cross-validation and several randomization tests (X-scrambling). Graphical Abstract The way of energy drinks from cans to appropriate chemometric models.

  8. Quantitative determination and classification of energy drinks using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Anita; Héberger, Károly; Fodor, Marietta

    2016-09-01

    Almost a hundred commercially available energy drink samples from Hungary, Slovakia, and Greece were collected for the quantitative determination of their caffeine and sugar content with FT-NIR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calibration models were built with partial least-squares regression (PLSR). An HPLC-UV method was used to measure the reference values for caffeine content, while sugar contents were measured with the Schoorl method. Both the nominal sugar content (as indicated on the cans) and the measured sugar concentration were used as references. Although the Schoorl method has larger error and bias, appropriate models could be developed using both references. The validation of the models was based on sevenfold cross-validation and external validation. FT-NIR analysis is a good candidate to replace the HPLC-UV method, because it is much cheaper than any chromatographic method, while it is also more time-efficient. The combination of FT-NIR with multidimensional chemometric techniques like PLSR can be a good option for the detection of low caffeine concentrations in energy drinks. Moreover, three types of energy drinks that contain (i) taurine, (ii) arginine, and (iii) none of these two components were classified correctly using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Such classifications are important for the detection of adulterated samples and for quality control, as well. In this case, more than a hundred samples were used for the evaluation. The classification was validated with cross-validation and several randomization tests (X-scrambling). Graphical Abstract The way of energy drinks from cans to appropriate chemometric models. PMID:27531031

  9. Quantitative Förster resonance energy transfer analysis for kinetic determinations of SUMO-specific protease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Song, Yang; Madahar, Vipul; Liao, Jiayu

    2012-03-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology has been widely used in biological and biomedical research, and it is a very powerful tool for elucidating protein interactions in either dynamic or steady state. SUMOylation (the process of SUMO [small ubiquitin-like modifier] conjugation to substrates) is an important posttranslational protein modification with critical roles in multiple biological processes. Conjugating SUMO to substrates requires an enzymatic cascade. Sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs) act as an endopeptidase to process the pre-SUMO or as an isopeptidase to deconjugate SUMO from its substrate. To fully understand the roles of SENPs in the SUMOylation cycle, it is critical to understand their kinetics. Here, we report a novel development of a quantitative FRET-based protease assay for SENP1 kinetic parameter determination. The assay is based on the quantitative analysis of the FRET signal from the total fluorescent signal at acceptor emission wavelength, which consists of three components: donor (CyPet-SUMO1) emission, acceptor (YPet) emission, and FRET signal during the digestion process. Subsequently, we developed novel theoretical and experimental procedures to determine the kinetic parameters, k(cat), K(M), and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M)) of catalytic domain SENP1 toward pre-SUMO1. Importantly, the general principles of this quantitative FRET-based protease kinetic determination can be applied to other proteases.

  10. Regional Triggering of Volcanic Activity Following Large Magnitude Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Butler, Charley; Blackett, Matthew; Wright, Robert

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous reports of a spatial and temporal link between volcanic activity and high magnitude seismic events. In fact, since 1950, all large magnitude earthquakes have been followed by volcanic eruptions in the following year - 1952 Kamchatka M9.2, 1960 Chile M9.5, 1964 Alaska M9.2, 2004 & 2005 Sumatra-Andaman M9.3 & M8.7 and 2011 Japan M9.0. While at a global scale, 56% of all large earthquakes (M≥8.0) in the 21st century were followed by increases in thermal activity. The most significant change in volcanic activity occurred between December 2004 and April 2005 following the M9.1 December 2004 earthquake after which new eruptions were detected at 10 volcanoes and global volcanic flux doubled over 52 days (Hill-Butler et al. 2014). The ability to determine a volcano's activity or 'response', however, has resulted in a number of disparities with <50% of all volcanoes being monitored by ground-based instruments. The advent of satellite remote sensing for volcanology has, therefore, provided researchers with an opportunity to quantify the timing, magnitude and character of volcanic events. Using data acquired from the MODVOLC algorithm, this research examines a globally comparable database of satellite-derived radiant flux alongside USGS NEIC data to identify changes in volcanic activity following an earthquake, February 2000 - December 2012. Using an estimate of background temperature obtained from the MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product (Wright et al. 2014), thermal radiance was converted to radiant flux following the method of Kaufman et al. (1998). The resulting heat flux inventory was then compared to all seismic events (M≥6.0) within 1000 km of each volcano to evaluate if changes in volcanic heat flux correlate with regional earthquakes. This presentation will first identify relationships at the temporal and spatial scale, more complex relationships obtained by machine learning algorithms will then be examined to establish favourable

  11. Derivation of Johnson-Cousins Magnitudes from DSLR Camera Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woojin; Pak, Soojong; Shim, Hyunjin; Le, Huynh Anh N.; Im, Myungshin; Chang, Seunghyuk; Yu, Joonkyu

    2016-01-01

    The RGB Bayer filter system consists of a mosaic of R, G, and B filters on the grid of the photo sensors which typical commercial DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras and CCD cameras are equipped with. Lot of unique astronomical data obtained using an RGB Bayer filter system are available, including transient objects, e.g. supernovae, variable stars, and solar system bodies. The utilization of such data in scientific research requires that reliable photometric transformation methods are available between the systems. In this work, we develop a series of equations to convert the observed magnitudes in the RGB Bayer filter system (RB, GB, and BB) into the Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system (BJ, VJ, and RC). The new transformation equations derive the calculated magnitudes in the Johnson-Cousins filters (BJcal, VJcal, and RCcal) as functions of RGB magnitudes and colors. The mean differences between the transformed magnitudes and original magnitudes, i.e. the residuals, are (BJ - BJcal) = 0.064 mag, (VJ - VJcal) = 0.041 mag, and (RC - RCcal) = 0.039 mag. The calculated Johnson-Cousins magnitudes from the transformation equations show a good linear correlation with the observed Johnson-Cousins magnitudes.

  12. A scheme to set preferred magnitudes in the ISC Bulletin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    One of the main purposes of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) is to collect, integrate and reprocess seismic bulletins provided by agencies around the world in order to produce the ISC Bulletin. This is regarded as the most comprehensive bulletin of the Earth's seismicity, and its production is based on a unique cooperation in the seismological community that allows the ISC to complement the work of seismological agencies operating at global and/or local-regional scale. In addition, by using the seismic wave measurements provided by reporting agencies, the ISC computes, where possible, its own event locations and magnitudes such as short-period body wave m b and surface wave M S . Therefore, the ISC Bulletin contains the results of the reporting agencies as well as the ISC own solutions. Among the most used seismic event parameters listed in seismological bulletins, the event magnitude is of particular importance for characterizing a seismic event. The selection of a magnitude value (or multiple ones) for various research purposes or practical applications is not always a straightforward task for users of the ISC Bulletin and related products since a multitude of magnitude types is currently computed by seismological agencies (sometimes using different standards for the same magnitude type). Here, we describe a scheme that we intend to implement in routine ISC operations to mark the preferred magnitudes in order to help ISC users in the selection of events with magnitudes of their interest.

  13. Quantifying Heartbeat Dynamics by Magnitude and Sign Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-05-01

    We review a recently developed approach for analyzing time series with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that time series with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We apply our approach to series of time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis method we find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications. Further, we study the heartbeat magnitude and sign series during different sleep stages — light sleep, deep sleep, and REM sleep. For the heartbeat sign time series we find short-range anticorrelations, which are strong during deep sleep, weaker during light sleep and even weaker during REM sleep. In contrast, for the heartbeat magnitude time series we find long-range positive correlations, which are strong during REM sleep and weaker during light sleep. Thus, the sign and the magnitude series provide information which is also useful for distinguishing between different sleep stages.

  14. Detonation charge size versus coda magnitude relations in California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Magnitude-charge size relations have important uses in forensic seismology and are used in Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. I derive empirical magnitude versus detonation-charge-size relationships for 322 detonations located by permanent seismic networks in California and Nevada. These detonations, used in 41 different seismic refraction or network calibration experiments, ranged in yield (charge size) between 25 and 106 kg; coda magnitudes reported for them ranged from 0.5 to 3.9. Almost all represent simultaneous (single-fired) detonations of one or more boreholes. Repeated detonations at the same shotpoint suggest that the reported coda magnitudes are repeatable, on average, to within 0.1 magnitude unit. An empirical linear regression for these 322 detonations yields M = 0.31 + 0.50 log10(weight [kg]). The detonations compiled here demonstrate that the Khalturin et al. (1998) relationship, developed mainly for data from large chemical explosions but which fits data from nuclear blasts, can be used to estimate the minimum charge size for coda magnitudes between 0.5 and 3.9. Drilling, loading, and shooting logs indicate that the explosive specification, loading method, and effectiveness of tamp are the primary factors determining the efficiency of a detonation. These records indicate that locating a detonation within the water table is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for an efficient shot.

  15. Bone strain magnitude is correlated with bone strain rate in tetrapods: implications for models of mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, B. R.; Iriarte-Diaz, J.; Blob, R. W.; Butcher, M. T.; Carrano, M. T.; Espinoza, N. R.; Main, R. P.; Ross, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Hypotheses suggest that structural integrity of vertebrate bones is maintained by controlling bone strain magnitude via adaptive modelling in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased tissue-level strain magnitude and rate have both been identified as potent stimuli leading to increased bone formation. Mechanotransduction models hypothesize that osteocytes sense bone deformation by detecting fluid flow-induced drag in the bone's lacunar–canalicular porosity. This model suggests that the osteocyte's intracellular response depends on fluid-flow rate, a product of bone strain rate and gradient, but does not provide a mechanism for detection of strain magnitude. Such a mechanism is necessary for bone modelling to adapt to loads, because strain magnitude is an important determinant of skeletal fracture. Using strain gauge data from the limb bones of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, we identified strong correlations between strain rate and magnitude across clades employing diverse locomotor styles and degrees of rhythmicity. The breadth of our sample suggests that this pattern is likely to be a common feature of tetrapod bone loading. Moreover, finding that bone strain magnitude is encoded in strain rate at the tissue level is consistent with the hypothesis that it might be encoded in fluid-flow rate at the cellular level, facilitating bone adaptation via mechanotransduction. PMID:26063842

  16. Reinforcer magnitude affects delay discounting and influences effects of d-amphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher A; Reilly, William J; Anderson, Karen G

    2016-09-01

    Impulsive choice in humans can be altered by changing reinforcer magnitude; however, this effect has not been found in rats. Current levels of impulsive choice can also influence effects of d-amphetamine. This study used a within-subject assessment to determine if impulsive choice is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and whether effects of d-amphetamine are related to current levels of impulsive choice. A discounting procedure in which choice was for a smaller reinforcer available immediately or a larger reinforcer available after a delay that increased within session was used. Reinforcer magnitude was manipulated between conditions and impulsive choice was quantified using area under the curve (AUC). In the Smaller-Magnitude (SM) Condition, choice was between one food pellet and three food pellets. In the Larger-Magnitude (LM) Condition, choice was between two food pellets and six food pellets. Impulsive choice was greater in the SM Condition compared to the LM Condition. Further, effects of d-amphetamine (0.1-1.8mg/kg) were related to differences in impulsive choice. d-Amphetamine increased impulsive choice in the LM Condition, but had no effect on impulsive choice in the SM Condition. Overall, these results show that impulsive choice in rats is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and that effects of d-amphetamine are influenced by current levels of impulsive choice.

  17. Reinforcer magnitude affects delay discounting and influences effects of d-amphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher A; Reilly, William J; Anderson, Karen G

    2016-09-01

    Impulsive choice in humans can be altered by changing reinforcer magnitude; however, this effect has not been found in rats. Current levels of impulsive choice can also influence effects of d-amphetamine. This study used a within-subject assessment to determine if impulsive choice is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and whether effects of d-amphetamine are related to current levels of impulsive choice. A discounting procedure in which choice was for a smaller reinforcer available immediately or a larger reinforcer available after a delay that increased within session was used. Reinforcer magnitude was manipulated between conditions and impulsive choice was quantified using area under the curve (AUC). In the Smaller-Magnitude (SM) Condition, choice was between one food pellet and three food pellets. In the Larger-Magnitude (LM) Condition, choice was between two food pellets and six food pellets. Impulsive choice was greater in the SM Condition compared to the LM Condition. Further, effects of d-amphetamine (0.1-1.8mg/kg) were related to differences in impulsive choice. d-Amphetamine increased impulsive choice in the LM Condition, but had no effect on impulsive choice in the SM Condition. Overall, these results show that impulsive choice in rats is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and that effects of d-amphetamine are influenced by current levels of impulsive choice. PMID:27418423

  18. Regression between earthquake magnitudes having errors with known variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Recent publications on the regression between earthquake magnitudes assume that both magnitudes are affected by error and that only the ratio of error variances is known. If X and Y represent observed magnitudes, and x and y represent the corresponding theoretical values, the problem is to find the a and b of the best-fit line y = a x + b. This problem has a closed solution only for homoscedastic errors (their variances are all equal for each of the two variables). The published solution was derived using a method that cannot provide a sum of squares of residuals. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the goodness of fit for different pairs of magnitudes. Furthermore, the method does not provide expressions for the x and y. The least-squares method introduced here does not have these drawbacks. The two methods of solution result in the same equations for a and b. General properties of a discussed in the literature but not proved, or proved for particular cases, are derived here. A comparison of different expressions for the variances of a and b is provided. The paper also considers the statistical aspects of the ongoing debate regarding the prediction of y given X. Analysis of actual data from the literature shows that a new approach produces an average improvement of less than 0.1 magnitude units over the standard approach when applied to Mw vs. mb and Mw vs. MS regressions. This improvement is minor, within the typical error of Mw. Moreover, a test subset of 100 predicted magnitudes shows that the new approach results in magnitudes closer to the theoretically true magnitudes for only 65 % of them. For the remaining 35 %, the standard approach produces closer values. Therefore, the new approach does not always give the most accurate magnitude estimates.

  19. The development of a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN): hope for a new standard candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, G.; Chung, S.; Gonzales, E. V.; Gorjian, V.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Of the galaxies in our universe, only a small percentage currently have Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These galaxies tend to be further out in the universe and older, and are different from inactive galaxies in that they emit high amounts of energy from their central black holes. These AGN can be classified as either Seyferts or quasars, depending on the amount of energy emitted from the center (less or more). We are studying the correlation between the ratio of dust emission and accretion disk emission to luminosities of AGN in order to determine if there is a relationship strong enough to act as a predictive model for distance within the universe. This relationship can be used as a standard candle if luminosity is found to determine distances in space. We have created a color-magnitude diagram depicting this relationship between luminosity and wavelengths, similar to the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The more luminous the AGN, the more dust surface area over which to emit energy, which results in a greater near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This differs from previous research because we use NIR to differentiate accretion from dust emission. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), we analyzed over one thousand Type 1 Seyferts and quasars. We studied data at different wavelengths in order to show the relationship between color (the ratio of one wavelength to another) and luminosity. It was found that plotting filters i-K (the visible and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum) against the magnitude absolute K (luminosity) showed a strong correlation. Furthermore, the redshift range between 0.14 and 0.15 was the most promising, with an R2 of 0.66.

  20. Determination of Electron and Ion Energy Distribution Functions in a Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition (PIAD) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harhausen, J.; Foest, R.; Ohl, A.

    2011-10-01

    High performance optical coatings are commonly produced by PIAD in order to achieve comparably high deposition rates. Here, the plasma source is a hot cathode direct current discharge with an auxiliary magnetic field (APS). Its design is such to generate a population of fast ions to be released into the deposition chamber. A detailed understanding of the plasma properties in the chamber is mandatory to increase the level of uniformity and reproducibility of the deposition process. In order to determine the electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDF, IEDF) the concepts of the Langmuir probe, the retarding field energy analyzer and optical emission spectroscopy are employed. Fundamental findings are that the EEDF can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation and that the degree of ionization inside the APS is close to unity. The shape of the IEDF and its evolution along the beam path can be described consistently by considering charge exchange reactions with the background neutral gas and the profile of the plasma potential. High performance optical coatings are commonly produced by PIAD in order to achieve comparably high deposition rates. Here, the plasma source is a hot cathode direct current discharge with an auxiliary magnetic field (APS). Its design is such to generate a population of fast ions to be released into the deposition chamber. A detailed understanding of the plasma properties in the chamber is mandatory to increase the level of uniformity and reproducibility of the deposition process. In order to determine the electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDF, IEDF) the concepts of the Langmuir probe, the retarding field energy analyzer and optical emission spectroscopy are employed. Fundamental findings are that the EEDF can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation and that the degree of ionization inside the APS is close to unity. The shape of the IEDF and its evolution along the beam path can be

  1. How do magnitude and frequency of monetary reward guide visual search?

    PubMed

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Leber, Andrew B

    2016-07-01

    How does reward guide spatial attention during visual search? In the present study, we examine whether and how two types of reward information-magnitude and frequency-guide search behavior. Observers were asked to find a target among distractors in a search display to earn points. We manipulated multiple levels of value across the search display quadrants in two ways: For reward magnitude, targets appeared equally often in each quadrant, and the value of each quadrant was determined by the average points earned per target; for reward frequency, we varied how often the target appeared in each quadrant but held the average points earned per target constant across the quadrants. In Experiment 1, we found that observers were highly sensitive to the reward frequency information, and prioritized their search accordingly, whereas we did not find much prioritization based on magnitude information. In Experiment 2, we found that magnitude information for a nonspatial feature (color) could bias search performance, showing that the relative insensitivity to magnitude information during visual search is not generalized across all types of information. In Experiment 3, we replicated the negligible use of spatial magnitude information even when we used limited-exposure displays to incentivize the expression of learning. In Experiment 4, we found participants used the spatial magnitude information during a modified choice task-but again not during search. Taken together, these findings suggest that the visual search apparatus does not equally exploit all potential sources of spatial value information; instead, it favors spatial reward frequency information over spatial reward magnitude information. PMID:27270595

  2. How do magnitude and frequency of monetary reward guide visual search?

    PubMed

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Leber, Andrew B

    2016-07-01

    How does reward guide spatial attention during visual search? In the present study, we examine whether and how two types of reward information-magnitude and frequency-guide search behavior. Observers were asked to find a target among distractors in a search display to earn points. We manipulated multiple levels of value across the search display quadrants in two ways: For reward magnitude, targets appeared equally often in each quadrant, and the value of each quadrant was determined by the average points earned per target; for reward frequency, we varied how often the target appeared in each quadrant but held the average points earned per target constant across the quadrants. In Experiment 1, we found that observers were highly sensitive to the reward frequency information, and prioritized their search accordingly, whereas we did not find much prioritization based on magnitude information. In Experiment 2, we found that magnitude information for a nonspatial feature (color) could bias search performance, showing that the relative insensitivity to magnitude information during visual search is not generalized across all types of information. In Experiment 3, we replicated the negligible use of spatial magnitude information even when we used limited-exposure displays to incentivize the expression of learning. In Experiment 4, we found participants used the spatial magnitude information during a modified choice task-but again not during search. Taken together, these findings suggest that the visual search apparatus does not equally exploit all potential sources of spatial value information; instead, it favors spatial reward frequency information over spatial reward magnitude information.

  3. Determination of the Optimal Energy Denominator Shift Parameter of KRb Electronic States in Quantum Chemical Computations Using Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shundalau, M. B.; Minko, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the energy denominator shift (EDS) parameter and the quantitative and qualitative compositions of electronic states included in CASSCF(2,14)/XMCQDPT2 ab initio calculations of the ground state equilibrium internuclear distance and dissociation energy of polar KRb was determined.

  4. A Study to Determine the Need for Development of a Vocational Education Program in Solar Energy Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. Paul; Orsak, Charles G.

    To determine the need for the development of a vocational education program in solar energy, an advisory committee considered opportunities for solar energy technicians and the need for the development of training programs and curricula and formulated recommendations for a program and curriculum. They concluded that the immediate need for persons…

  5. Quantitative FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) analysis for SENP1 protease kinetics determination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Liao, Jiayu

    2013-02-21

    Reversible posttranslational modifications of proteins with ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are widely used to dynamically regulate protein activity and have diverse roles in many biological processes. For example, SUMO covalently modifies a large number or proteins with important roles in many cellular processes, including cell-cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA damage response, and stress response 1-5. SENP, as SUMO-specific protease, functions as an endopeptidase in the maturation of SUMO precursors or as an isopeptidase to remove SUMO from its target proteins and refresh the SUMOylation cycle (1,3,6,7). The catalytic efficiency or specificity of an enzyme is best characterized by the ratio of the kinetic constants, kcat/KM. In several studies, the kinetic parameters of SUMO-SENP pairs have been determined by various methods, including polyacrylamide gel-based western-blot, radioactive-labeled substrate, fluorescent compound or protein labeled substrate (8-13). However, the polyacrylamide-gel-based techniques, which used the "native" proteins but are laborious and technically demanding, that do not readily lend themselves to detailed quantitative analysis. The obtained kcat/KM from studies using tetrapeptides or proteins with an ACC (7-amino-4-carbamoylmetylcoumarin) or AMC (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) fluorophore were either up to two orders of magnitude lower than the natural substrates or cannot clearly differentiate the iso- and endopeptidase activities of SENPs. Recently, FRET-based protease assays were used to study the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) or SENPs with the FRET pair of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) (9,10,14,15). The ratio of acceptor emission to donor emission was used as the quantitative parameter for FRET signal monitor for protease activity determination. However, this method ignored signal cross-contaminations at the acceptor and donor emission wavelengths by acceptor and donor

  6. A General Method to Estimate Earthquake Moment and Magnitude using Regional Phase Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2009-11-19

    This paper presents a general method of estimating earthquake magnitude using regional phase amplitudes, called regional M{sub o} or regional M{sub w}. Conceptually, this method uses an earthquake source model along with an attenuation model and geometrical spreading which accounts for the propagation to utilize regional phase amplitudes of any phase and frequency. Amplitudes are corrected to yield a source term from which one can estimate the seismic moment. Moment magnitudes can then be reliably determined with sets of observed phase amplitudes rather than predetermined ones, and afterwards averaged to robustly determine this parameter. We first examine in detail several events to demonstrate the methodology. We then look at various ensembles of phases and frequencies, and compare results to existing regional methods. We find regional M{sub o} to be a stable estimator of earthquake size that has several advantages over other methods. Because of its versatility, it is applicable to many more events, particularly smaller events. We make moment estimates for earthquakes ranging from magnitude 2 to as large as 7. Even with diverse input amplitude sources, we find magnitude estimates to be more robust than typical magnitudes and existing regional methods and might be tuned further to improve upon them. The method yields a more meaningful quantity of seismic moment, which can be recast as M{sub w}. Lastly, it is applied here to the Middle East region using an existing calibration model, but it would be easy to transport to any region with suitable attenuation calibration.

  7. The UBV Color Evolution of Classical Novae. II. Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    We have examined the outburst tracks of 40 novae in the color-magnitude diagram (intrinsic B - V color versus absolute V magnitude). After reaching the optical maximum, each nova generally evolves toward blue from the upper right to the lower left and then turns back toward the right. The 40 tracks are categorized into one of six templates: very fast nova V1500 Cyg fast novae V1668 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, and LV Vul moderately fast nova FH Ser and very slow nova PU Vul. These templates are located from the left (blue) to the right (red) in this order, depending on the envelope mass and nova speed class. A bluer nova has a less massive envelope and faster nova speed class. In novae with multiple peaks, the track of the first decay is more red than that of the second (or third) decay, because a large part of the envelope mass had already been ejected during the first peak. Thus, our newly obtained tracks in the color-magnitude diagram provide useful information to understand the physics of classical novae. We also found that the absolute magnitude at the beginning of the nebular phase is almost similar among various novae. We are able to determine the absolute magnitude (or distance modulus) by fitting the track of a target nova to the same classification of a nova with a known distance. This method for determining nova distance has been applied to some recurrent novae, and their distances have been recalculated.

  8. An analysis of Greek seismicity based on Non Extensive Statistical Physics: The interdependence of magnitude, interevent time and interevent distance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The context of Non Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP) has recently been suggested to comprise an appropriate tool for the analysis of complex dynamic systems with scale invariance, long-range interactions, long-range memory and systems that evolve in a fractal-like space-time. This is because the active tectonic grain is thought to comprise a (self-organizing) complex system; therefore, its expression (seismicity) should be manifested in the temporal and spatial statistics of energy release rates. In addition to energy release rates expressed by the magnitude M, measures of the temporal and spatial interactions are the time (Δt) and hypocentral distance (Δd) between consecutive events. Recent work indicated that if the distributions of M, Δt and Δd are independent so that the joint probability p(M,Δt,Δd) factorizes into the probabilities of M, Δt and Δd, i.e. p(M,Δt,Δd)= p(M)p(Δt)p(Δd), then the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related, not only to magnitude as the celebrated Gutenberg - Richter law predicts, but also to interevent time and distance by means of well-defined power-laws consistent with NESP. The present work applies these concepts to investigate the self-organization and temporal/spatial dynamics of seismicity in Greece and western Turkey, for the period 1964-2011. The analysis was based on the ISC earthquake catalogue which is homogenous by construction with consistently determined hypocenters and magnitude. The presentation focuses on the analysis of bivariate Frequency-Magnitude-Time distributions, while using the interevent distances as spatial constraints (or spatial filters) for studying the spatial dependence of the energy and time dynamics of the seismicity. It is demonstrated that the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related to the magnitude and the interevent time by means of well-defined multi-dimensional power-laws consistent with NESP and has attributes of universality,as its holds for a broad

  9. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  10. Comparative binding energy COMBINE analysis for understanding the binding determinants of type II dehydroquinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Peón, Antonio; Coderch, Claire; Gago, Federico; González-Bello, Concepción

    2013-05-01

    Herein we report comparative binding energy (COMBINE) analyses to derive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models that help rationalize the determinants of binding affinity for inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase (DHQ2), the third enzyme of the shikimic acid pathway. Independent COMBINE models were derived for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis DHQ2, which is an essential enzyme in both these pathogenic bacteria that has no counterpart in human cells. These studies quantify the importance of the hydrogen bonding interactions between the ligands and the water molecule involved in the DHQ2 reaction mechanism. They also highlight important differences in the ligand interactions with the interface pocket close to the active site that could provide guides for future inhibitor design.

  11. Method of particle energy determination based on measurement of waveguide mode frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyukhtin, A. V.

    2012-05-01

    A new method of determination of charged particle energy is developed. This method consists in use of dependency of waveguide mode frequencies on Lorenz factor of particle. For this method it is principal that the particle bunch generates radiation in waveguide and the mode frequencies depend essentially on the Lorenz factor. Three variants of realization of such technique are considered. The first variant consists in use of a thin dielectric layer in a waveguide. The second variant is based on use of a waveguide containing a system of wires coated with a dielectric material. The third version consists in application of a circular waveguide having a grid wall. For all cases analytical solutions of the problems are obtained (in the case of grid waveguide we use the averaged boundary conditions). Some typical results of computations are given. Advantages and disadvantages of different variants are discussed. It is noted that the grid waveguide can be used as well for generation of microwave radiation.

  12. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

  13. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  14. Direct Magnitude Estimation of Articulation Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Martin, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the perceived articulation rate of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with that of chronologically age-matched (CA) boys and to determine segmental and/or prosodic factors that account for perceived rate. Method: Ten listeners used direct magnitude estimation procedures to judge the articulation rates of 7 boys with FXS only, 5…

  15. Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of bromate in flour based on energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Argüelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    Determination of bromate ions in contaminated flour samples by using a room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) optosensor is described. The optosensor is based on the non-radiative energy transfer from α-bromonaphthalene (a phosphorescent molecule insensitive to the presence of the analyte) acting as donor, to an energy acceptor bromate-sensitive molecule (trifluoperazine hydrochloride). The RTP emission of the selected donor greatly overlaps with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor, resulting in a decrease of the measured signal as the concentration of bromate ions increases. A simple and general procedure is proposed to carry out the incorporation of both the donor and acceptor molecules in an appropriate solid material (sensing phase) through the co-immobilization of the species in a sol-gel inorganic matrix. The optimum amounts of the sol-gel precursors, including silica precursors, type of catalysis, and concentrations of donor and acceptor molecules, have been evaluated in order to obtain the best analytical features of the proposed optosensor for bromate determination. The highly stable developed sensing phase shows a selective and reversible response towards bromate even in presence of dissolved oxygen (a well-known quencher of the RTP). The calibration graphs were linear up to 200 mg L(-1), with a detection limit for bromate dissolved in aqueous medium of 0.2 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of the proposed optosensor was about 18 measurements h(-1). Application of the developed sensing phase was successfully proved for the detection of bromate ions in commercial flours, obtaining good recoveries.

  16. Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of bromate in flour based on energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Argüelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    Determination of bromate ions in contaminated flour samples by using a room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) optosensor is described. The optosensor is based on the non-radiative energy transfer from α-bromonaphthalene (a phosphorescent molecule insensitive to the presence of the analyte) acting as donor, to an energy acceptor bromate-sensitive molecule (trifluoperazine hydrochloride). The RTP emission of the selected donor greatly overlaps with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor, resulting in a decrease of the measured signal as the concentration of bromate ions increases. A simple and general procedure is proposed to carry out the incorporation of both the donor and acceptor molecules in an appropriate solid material (sensing phase) through the co-immobilization of the species in a sol-gel inorganic matrix. The optimum amounts of the sol-gel precursors, including silica precursors, type of catalysis, and concentrations of donor and acceptor molecules, have been evaluated in order to obtain the best analytical features of the proposed optosensor for bromate determination. The highly stable developed sensing phase shows a selective and reversible response towards bromate even in presence of dissolved oxygen (a well-known quencher of the RTP). The calibration graphs were linear up to 200 mg L(-1), with a detection limit for bromate dissolved in aqueous medium of 0.2 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of the proposed optosensor was about 18 measurements h(-1). Application of the developed sensing phase was successfully proved for the detection of bromate ions in commercial flours, obtaining good recoveries. PMID:24148398

  17. Magnitude-frequency distribution of volcanic explosion earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Iguchi, Masato; Hendrasto, Mohammad; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Yamada, Taishi; Ripepe, Maurizio; Genco, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Magnitude-frequency distributions of volcanic explosion earthquakes that are associated with occurrences of vulcanian and strombolian eruptions, or gas burst activity, are examined at six active volcanoes. The magnitude-frequency distribution at Suwanosejima volcano, Japan, shows a power-law distribution, which implies self-similarity in the system, as is often observed in statistical characteristics of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes. On the other hand, the magnitude-frequency distributions at five other volcanoes, Sakurajima and Tokachi-dake in Japan, Semeru and Lokon in Indonesia, and Stromboli in Italy, are well explained by exponential distributions. The statistical features are considered to reflect source size, as characterized by a volcanic conduit or chamber. Earthquake generation processes associated with vulcanian, strombolian and gas burst events are different from those of eruptions ejecting large amounts of pyroclasts, since the magnitude-frequency distribution of the volcanic explosivity index is generally explained by the power law.

  18. Reinforcement magnitude and responding during treatment with differential reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Kelley, Michael E; Vorndran, Christina M; Kuhn, Stephanie A C; LaRue, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Basic findings indicate that the amount or magnitude of reinforcement can influence free-operant responding prior to and during extinction. In this study, the relation between reinforcement magnitude and adaptive behavior was evaluated with 3 children as part of treatment with differential reinforcement. In the first experiment, a communicative response was shaped and maintained by the same reinforcer that was found to maintain problem behavior. Two reinforcement magnitudes (20-s or 60-s access to toys or escape from demands) were compared and found to be associated with similar levels of resistance to extinction. The relation between reinforcement magnitude and response maintenance was further evaluated in the second experiment by exposing the communicative response to 20-s or 300-s access to toys or escape. Results for 2 participants suggested that this factor may alter the duration of postreinforcement pauses. PMID:11936544

  19. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  20. Reinforcement magnitude and responding during treatment with differential reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Kelley, Michael E; Vorndran, Christina M; Kuhn, Stephanie A C; LaRue, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Basic findings indicate that the amount or magnitude of reinforcement can influence free-operant responding prior to and during extinction. In this study, the relation between reinforcement magnitude and adaptive behavior was evaluated with 3 children as part of treatment with differential reinforcement. In the first experiment, a communicative response was shaped and maintained by the same reinforcer that was found to maintain problem behavior. Two reinforcement magnitudes (20-s or 60-s access to toys or escape from demands) were compared and found to be associated with similar levels of resistance to extinction. The relation between reinforcement magnitude and response maintenance was further evaluated in the second experiment by exposing the communicative response to 20-s or 300-s access to toys or escape. Results for 2 participants suggested that this factor may alter the duration of postreinforcement pauses.

  1. Constant-Magnitude Acceleration on a Curved Path.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the theory behind a two-dimensional curved path along which the magnitude of the acceleration vector remains constant for an object moving frictionlessly under the influence of gravity. (JRH)

  2. Experimental determination of in situ utilization of lunar regolith for thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1992-01-01

    A Lunar Thermal Energy from Regolith (LUTHER) experiment has been designed and fabricated at the NASA Lewis Research Center to determine the feasibility of using lunar soil as thermal energy storage media. The experimental apparatus includes an alumina ceramic canister which contains simulated lunar regolith, a heater, nine heat shields, a heat transfer cold jacket, and 19 type-B platinum rhodium thermocouples. The simulated lunar regolith is a basalt that closely resembles the lunar basalt returned to earth by the Apollo missions. The experiment will test the effects of vacuum, particle size, and density on the thermophysical properties of the regolith, which include melt temperature, specific heat thermal conductivity, and latent heat of storage. Two separate tests, using two different heaters, will be performed to study the effect of heating the system using radiative and conductive heat transfer. A finite differencing SINDA model was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to predict the performance of the LUTHER experiment. The code will predict the effects of vacuum, particle size, and density has on the heat transfer to the simulated regolith.

  3. The Spectrophotometric Method of Determining the Transmission of Solar Energy in Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianelli, J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to predict the thermal efficiency of a solar pond it is necessary to know total average solar energy reaching the storage layer. One method for determining this energy for water containing dissolved colored species is based upon spectral transmission measurements using a laboratory spectrophotometer. This method is examined and some of the theoretical ground work needed to discuss the measurement of transmission of light water. Results of in situ irradiance measurements from oceanography research are presented and the difficulties inherent in extrapolating laboratory data obtained with ten centimeter cells to real three dimensional pond situations is discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the need to account for molecular and particulate scattering in measurements done on low absorbing solutions. Despite these considerations it is expected that attenuation calculations based upon careful measurements using a dual beam spectrophotometer technique combined with known attenuation coefficients will be useful in solar pond modeling and monitoring for color buildup. Preliminary results using the CSM method are presented.

  4. Feasibility of determining diffuse ultra-high energy cosmic neutrino flavor ratio through ARA neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shi-Hao; Chen, Pisin; Nam, Jiwoo; Huang, Melin E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw E-mail: phmelin@snolab.ca

    2013-11-01

    The flavor composition of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos (UHECN) carries precious information about the physical properties of their sources, the nature of neutrino oscillations and possible exotic physics involved during the propagation. Since UHECN with different incoming directions would propagate through different amounts of matter in Earth and since different flavors of charged leptons produced in the neutrino-nucleon charged-current (CC) interaction would have different energy-loss behaviors in the medium, measurement of the angular distribution of incoming events by a neutrino observatory can in principle be employed to help determine the UHECN flavor ratio. In this paper we report on our investigation of the feasibility of such an attempt. Simulations were performed, where the detector configuration was based on the proposed Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Observatory at the South Pole, to investigate the expected event-direction distribution for each flavor. Assuming ν{sub μ}-ν{sub τ} symmetry and invoking the standard oscillation and the neutrino decay scenarios, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the event directions are utilized to extract the flavor ratio of cosmogenic neutrinos on Earth. The simulation results are summarized in terms of the probability of flavor ratio extraction and resolution as functions of the number of observed events and the angular resolution of neutrino directions. We show that it is feasible to constrain the UHECN flavor ratio using the proposed ARA Observatory.

  5. The spectrophotometric method of determining the transmission of solar energy in salt gradient solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulianelli, J.

    1984-09-01

    In order to predict the thermal efficiency of a solar pond it is necessary to know total average solar energy reaching the storage layer. One method for determining this energy for water containing dissolved colored species is based upon spectral transmission measurements using a laboratory spectrophotometer. This method is examined and some of the theoretical ground work needed to discuss the measurement of transmission of light water. Results of in situ irradiance measurements from oceanography research are presented and the difficulties inherent in extrapolating laboratory data obtained with ten centimeter cells to real three dimensional pond situations is discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the need to account for molecular and particulate scattering in measurements done on low absorbing solutions. Despite these considerations it is expected that attenuation calculations based upon careful measurements using a dual beam spectrophotometer technique combined with known attenuation coefficients will be useful in solar pond modeling and monitoring for color buildup. Preliminary results using the CSM method are presented.

  6. Bone calcium/phosphorus ratio determination using dual energy X-ray method.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, P; Fountos, G; Martini, N; Koukou, V; Michail, C; Kandarakis, I; Nikiforidis, G

    2015-05-01

    Non-invasive dual energy methods have been used extensively on osteoporosis diagnosis estimating parameters, such as, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC). In this study, an X-ray dual energy method (XRDE) was developed for the estimation of the bone Calcium-to-Phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, as a bone quality index. The optimized irradiation parameters were assessed by performing analytical model simulations. X-ray tube output, filter material and thickness were used as input parameters. A single exposure technique, combined with K-edge filtering, was applied. The optimal X-ray spectra were selected according to the resulted precision and accuracy values. Experimental evaluation was performed on an XRDE system incorporating a Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) photon counting detector and three bone phantoms with different nominal mass Ca/P ratios. Additionally, the phantoms' mass Ca/P ratios were validated with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Simulation results showed that the optimum filter atomic number (Z) ranges between 57 and 70. The optimum spectrum was obtained at 100 kVp, filtered with Cerium (Ce), with a surface density of 0.88 g/cm(2). All Ca/P ratio measurements were found to be accurate to within 1.6% of the nominal values, while the precision ranged between 0.91 and 1.37%. The accuracy and precision values of the proposed non-invasive method contributes to the assessment of the bone quality state through the mass Ca/P ratio determination.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  8. Magnitude knowledge: the common core of numerical development.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, (2) connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, (3) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and (4) accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The present review identifies substantial commonalities, as well as differences, in these four aspects of numerical development. With both whole and rational numbers, numerical magnitude knowledge is concurrently correlated with, longitudinally predictive of, and causally related to multiple aspects of mathematical understanding, including arithmetic and overall math achievement. Moreover, interventions focused on increasing numerical magnitude knowledge often generalize to other aspects of mathematics. The cognitive processes of association and analogy seem to play especially large roles in this development. Thus, acquisition of numerical magnitude knowledge can be seen as the common core of numerical development.

  9. Magnitude knowledge: the common core of numerical development.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, (2) connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, (3) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and (4) accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The present review identifies substantial commonalities, as well as differences, in these four aspects of numerical development. With both whole and rational numbers, numerical magnitude knowledge is concurrently correlated with, longitudinally predictive of, and causally related to multiple aspects of mathematical understanding, including arithmetic and overall math achievement. Moreover, interventions focused on increasing numerical magnitude knowledge often generalize to other aspects of mathematics. The cognitive processes of association and analogy seem to play especially large roles in this development. Thus, acquisition of numerical magnitude knowledge can be seen as the common core of numerical development. PMID:27074723

  10. Novel method to determine capture cross-section activation energies by deep-level transient spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, J.; Gomez, A.; Calleja, E.; Muñoz, E.

    1988-02-01

    Deep-center characterization by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) allows a direct determination of the trap thermal emission activation energy. However, capture barrier energy measurements, based on trap partial filling by pulses of increasing width, require a quite different experimental processing and pose some hardware difficulties. In this letter we present a new method to determine the trap capture barrier energy, one that requires constant-width filling pulses and obtains capture information from standard DLTS data. This technique has been applied to Te-, Sn-, and Si-related DX centers in AlGaAs alloys.

  11. Determination of Elemental Ratio in an Atomic Column by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mitsutaka; Hosaka, Yoshiteru; Ichikawa, Noriya; Saito, Takashi; Shimakawa, Yuichi; Kurata, Hiroki

    2016-07-26

    Atomic-resolution quantification of the elemental ratio of Fe to Mn at the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in brownmillerite Ca2Fe1.07Mn0.93O5 was determined using electron energy-loss spectroscopy combined with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The combined techniques revealed that oversampling of the spectral imaging data yielded a spatially resolved area that very nearly reflects atomic resolution (∼1.2 Å radius). The average experimental ratios of Fe to Mn within this region were 17.5:82.5 for the octahedral sites and 81.6:18.4 for the tetrahedral sites. The elemental ratio in an octahedral atomic column was successfully extracted by estimating the mixing of signals from nearest neighbor columns. The results indicated that the ratio of Fe to Mn was 13:87 at the octahedral site, which is in good agreement with the results of neutron diffraction analysis. In addition, the uncertainty of experimental results obtained by using an average 1.2 Å radius was less than 10% at octahedral sites, depending on the sample thickness. In contrast, the experimental error due to dechanneling of incident electrons was larger at the tetrahedral sites. This experimental procedure has wide application for determining the spatially resolved composition ratio of elements in perovskite-like compounds. PMID:27341006

  12. Shock Initiation of Hexanitrostilbene at Ultra-high Shock Pressures and Critical Energy Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mike; Maisey, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Hexanitrostilbene is a secondary explosive with attractive properties for detonator usage, including thermal stability, good safety properties and easy initiability. It is desirable to characterize the shock initiation of detonator explosives to enable optimization of system parameters. HNS is a suitable explosive for use in electrical and optical slapper detonators, where shock pressures generated by the flyer plates used can exceed 30 GPa. This extreme shock regime can be explored by initiating HNS with a variety of flyer thicknesses, from 3 to 25 microns at velocities of several km/s. Thresholds for optical and electrical slapper detonators were evaluated, and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery used to determine the flyer velocity at threshold. The flyer diameters are in excess of the critical diameter for HNS, allowing a one-dimensional treatment of the initiation. Calculated values for pressure and shock duration are used to evaluate the critical energy criteria Pn τ . The calculated value of n is compared to published values and discussed for similar systems. The James Criterion is used to analyze the initiation, with values of Ec and Σc being determined from experimental data, providing a predictive capability to model other configurations such as different flyer thicknesses and materials.

  13. Shock initiation of hexanitrostilbene at ultra-high shock pressures and critical energy determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mike; Maisey, Matthew Peter; Knowles, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) is a secondary explosive with attractive properties for detonator usage, including thermal stability, good safety properties and easy initiability. It is desirable to characterize the shock initiation of detonator explosives to enable optimization of system parameters. HNS is a suitable explosive for use in electrical and optical slapper detonators, where shock pressures generated by the flyer plates used can exceed 30 GPa. This extreme shock regime can be explored by initiating HNS with a variety of flyer thicknesses, from 3 to 25 microns at velocities of several km/s. Thresholds for optical and electrical slapper detonators were evaluated, and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery used to determine the flyer velocity at threshold. The flyer diameters are in excess of the critical diameter for HNS, allowing a one-dimensional treatment of the initiation. Calculated values for pressure and shock duration are used to evaluate the critical energy criteria P2τ. The James Criterion is used to analyse the initiation, with values of EC and ΣC being determined from experimental data, providing a predictive capability to model other configurations such as different flyer thicknesses and materials.

  14. Determination of Elemental Ratio in an Atomic Column by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mitsutaka; Hosaka, Yoshiteru; Ichikawa, Noriya; Saito, Takashi; Shimakawa, Yuichi; Kurata, Hiroki

    2016-07-26

    Atomic-resolution quantification of the elemental ratio of Fe to Mn at the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in brownmillerite Ca2Fe1.07Mn0.93O5 was determined using electron energy-loss spectroscopy combined with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The combined techniques revealed that oversampling of the spectral imaging data yielded a spatially resolved area that very nearly reflects atomic resolution (∼1.2 Å radius). The average experimental ratios of Fe to Mn within this region were 17.5:82.5 for the octahedral sites and 81.6:18.4 for the tetrahedral sites. The elemental ratio in an octahedral atomic column was successfully extracted by estimating the mixing of signals from nearest neighbor columns. The results indicated that the ratio of Fe to Mn was 13:87 at the octahedral site, which is in good agreement with the results of neutron diffraction analysis. In addition, the uncertainty of experimental results obtained by using an average 1.2 Å radius was less than 10% at octahedral sites, depending on the sample thickness. In contrast, the experimental error due to dechanneling of incident electrons was larger at the tetrahedral sites. This experimental procedure has wide application for determining the spatially resolved composition ratio of elements in perovskite-like compounds.

  15. Order of magnitude reduction of fluoroscopic x-ray dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abhinav; Robert, Normand; Machan, Lindsay; Deutsch, Meir; Kisselgoff, David; Babyn, Paul; Rowlands, John A.

    2012-03-01

    The role of fluoroscopic imaging is critical for diagnostic and image guided therapy. However, fluoroscopic imaging can require significant radiation leading to increased cancer risk and non-stochastic effects such as radiation burns. Our purpose is to reduce the exposure and dose to the patient by an order of magnitude in these procedures by use of the region of interest method. Method and Materials: Region of interest fluoroscopy (ROIF) uses a partial attenuator. The central region of the image has full exposure while the image periphery, there to provide context only, has a reduced exposure rate. ROIF using a static partial attenuator has been shown in our previous studies to reduce the dose area product (DAP) to the patient by at least 2.5 times. Significantly greater reductions in DAP would require improvements in flat panel detectors performance at low x-ray exposures or a different x-ray attenuation strategy. Thus we have investigated a second, dynamic, approach. We have constructed an x-ray shutter system allowing a normal x-ray exposure in the region of interest while reducing the number of x-ray exposures in the periphery through the rapid introduction, positioning and removal of an x-ray attenuating shutter to block radiation only for selected frames. This dynamic approach eliminates the DQE(0) loss associated with the use of static partial attenuator applied to every frame thus permitting a greater reduction in DAP. Results: We have compared the two methods by modeling and determined their fundamental limits.

  16. STANDARDIZING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS DATA REGRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Nordin, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel class of models for Type Ia supernova time-evolving spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and absolute magnitudes: they are each modeled as stochastic functions described by Gaussian processes. The values of the SED and absolute magnitudes are defined through well-defined regression prescriptions, so that data directly inform the models. As a proof of concept, we implement a model for synthetic photometry built from the spectrophotometric time series from the Nearby Supernova Factory. Absolute magnitudes at peak B brightness are calibrated to 0.13 mag in the g band and to as low as 0.09 mag in the z = 0.25 blueshifted i band, where the dispersion includes contributions from measurement uncertainties and peculiar velocities. The methodology can be applied to spectrophotometric time series of supernovae that span a range of redshifts to simultaneously standardize supernovae together with fitting cosmological parameters.

  17. Determination of Longwall Mining-Induced Stress Using the Strain Energy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohammad; Hossaini, Mohammad Farouq; Majdi, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    Extraction of the coal seam causes stress redistribution around the mined panel in longwall mining. The weight of bridging strata and strata that cantilevers over the destressed zone is shifted to adjacent gates, pillars, and abutments surrounding the longwall panel. Thus, knowledge of the mining-induced stress is very important to enable accurate design of gate supports and pillar dimensions. In this paper, an analytical model based on the strain energy balance in longwall coal mining is developed to determine the mining-induced stress over gates and pillars. In the proposed model, the height of the destressed zone above the mined panel, total induced stress, abutment angle, vertical component of induced stress, and coefficient of stress concentration over gates and pillars are determined analytically. As a case study, the proposed model is used to determine the coefficient of stress concentration over the gates and pillars in Tabas coal mine of Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of the proposed model's incorporated parameters on the coefficient of stress concentration, a sensitivity analysis is conducted based on the actual data of Tabas coal mine. Also, the proposed model is validated against the in-situ measurement as well as numerical and analytical models with the same boundary conditions. The validation results show that the proposed model is in agreement with the in-situ measurement and numerical model, but has differences compared with the available analytical models. Considering the obtained results, it can be concluded that the proposed analytical model can be used to calculate the mining-induced stress, aiming to reach the optimum design of gate supports and pillar dimensions.

  18. To determine ice layer thickness of Europa by high energy neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, D.; Kurita, K.; Tanaka, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    Europa, the second closest Galilean satellite is one of the targets which are suspected to have an internal ocean. Detection and characterization of the internal ocean is one of the main subjects for Europa orbiter exploration. Although the gravitational data has shown the thickness of the surface H2O layer of 80-170km[1], it can not determine the phase of H2O. The variations in the magnetic field associated with the induced current in the internal ocean can determine the thickness of the layer of ice if satellite's orbits satisfy the required conditions. Observations of tidal amplitude forced by Jupiter can also resolve the thickness of the surface lithosphere[2]. At moment because of the lack of observational constraints there exist two contrasting models:thick ice layer model and thin model. Here we propose new method to detect the ocean directly based on the radiation by high energy neutrino interacted with matter. Schaefer et al[3] have proposed a similar method to determine ice layer thickness. We will focus on the detection of internal ocean for Europa and present the method is suitable for actual situations of Europa exploration by numerical simulations. Neutrino is famous for its traveling at long distance without any interaction with matter. When high energy neutrinos traverse in Europa hadronic showers are produced by the weak interaction with the nucleons that makes the body of Europa. These hadronic showers induces excess electrons. Because of these excess electrons, Cherenkov photons are emitted. When this radiation occurs in the ice layer, radiations whose wave length is over 10cm should be coherent because the scale of the shower becomes small (a few cm) in the ice, which is called as Askaryan effect[3]. Thus, the intensity of the radiation whose frequency is a few GHz should be enhanced. Since ice has a much longer attenuation length than water, the radiations which occur in the surface ice layer could be detected by the antenna outside Europa but

  19. Moment magnitude, local magnitude and corner frequency of small earthquakes nucleating along a low angle normal fault in the Upper Tiber valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.

    2015-12-01

    The relation between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) is still a debated issue (Bath, 1966, 1981; Ristau et al., 2003, 2005). Theoretical considerations and empirical observations show that, in the magnitude range between 3 and 5, MW and ML scale 1∶1. Whilst for smaller magnitudes this 1∶1 scaling breaks down (Bethmann et al. 2011). For accomplishing this task we analyzed the source parameters of about 1500 (30.000 waveforms) well-located small earthquakes occurred in the Upper Tiber Valley (Northern Apennines) in the range of -1.5≤ML≤3.8. In between these earthquakes there are 300 events repeatedly rupturing the same fault patch generally twice within a short time interval (less than 24 hours; Chiaraluce et al., 2007). We use high-resolution short period and broadband recordings acquired between 2010 and 2014 by 50 permanent seismic stations deployed to monitor the activity of a regional low angle normal fault (named Alto Tiberina fault, ATF) in the framework of The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO; Chiaraluce et al., 2014). For this study the direct determination of MW for small earthquakes is essential but unfortunately the computation of MW for small earthquakes (MW < 3) is not a routine procedure in seismology. We apply the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation computed for this area in order to obtain precise spectral corrections to be used in the calculation of small earthquakes spectral plateaus. The aim of this analysis is to achieve moment magnitudes of small events through a procedure that uses our previously calibrated crustal attenuation parameters (geometrical spreading g(r), quality factor Q(f), and the residual parameter k) to correct for path effects. We determine the MW-ML relationships in two selected fault zones (on-fault and fault-hanging-wall) of the ATF by an orthogonal regression analysis providing a semi-automatic and robust procedure for moment magnitude determination within a

  20. A method of determining narrow energy spread electron beams from a laser plasma wakefield accelerator using undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gallacher, J. G.; Anania, M. P.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Islam, M. R.; Reitsma, A. J. W.; Shanks, R. P.; Wiggins, S. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Budde, F.; Debus, A.; Haupt, K.; Schwoerer, H.; Jaeckel, O.; Pfotenhauer, S.; Rohwer, E.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.

    2009-09-15

    In this paper a new method of determining the energy spread of a relativistic electron beam from a laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerator by measuring radiation from an undulator is presented. This could be used to determine the beam characteristics of multi-GeV accelerators where conventional spectrometers are very large and cumbersome. Simultaneous measurement of the energy spectra of electrons from the wakefield accelerator in the 55-70 MeV range and the radiation spectra in the wavelength range of 700-900 nm of synchrotron radiation emitted from a 50 period undulator confirm a narrow energy spread for electrons accelerated over the dephasing distance where beam loading leads to energy compression. Measured energy spreads of less than 1% indicates the potential of using a wakefield accelerator as a driver of future compact and brilliant ultrashort pulse synchrotron sources and free-electron lasers that require high peak brightness beams.

  1. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Elst, N.; Page, M. T.; Weiser, D. A.; Goebel, T.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Key questions with implications for seismic hazard and industry practice are how large injection-induced earthquakes can be, and whether their maximum size is smaller than for similarly located tectonic earthquakes. Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. McGarr (JGR 2014) showed that for earthquakes confined to the reservoir and triggered by pore-pressure increase, the maximum moment should be limited to the product of the shear modulus G and total injected volume ΔV. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network, with an absolute maximum magnitude that is notoriously difficult to constrain. A common approach for tectonic earthquakes is to use the magnitude-frequency distribution of smaller earthquakes to forecast the largest earthquake expected in some time period. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) distribution for tectonic earthquakes, with no assumption of an intrinsic upper bound. The GR law implies that the largest observed earthquake in a sample should scale with the log of the total number induced. We find that the maximum magnitudes at most sites are consistent with this scaling, and that maximum magnitude increases with log ΔV. We find little in the size distribution to distinguish induced from tectonic earthquakes. That being said, the probabilistic estimate exceeds the deterministic GΔV cap only for expected magnitudes larger than ~M6, making a definitive test of the models unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, however, it may be prudent to treat the hazard from induced earthquakes with the same probabilistic machinery used for tectonic earthquakes.

  2. Parsing pain perception between nociceptive representation and magnitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Baliki, M N; Geha, P Y; Apkarian, A V

    2009-02-01

    Assessing the size of objects rapidly and accurately clearly has survival value. A central multisensory module for subjective magnitude assessment is therefore highly likely, suggested by psychophysical studies, and proposed on theoretical grounds. Given that pain perception is fundamentally an assessment of stimulus intensity, it must necessarily engage such a central module. Accordingly, we compared functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity of pain magnitude ratings to matched visual magnitude ratings in 14 subjects. We show that brain activations segregate into two groups, one preferentially activated for pain and another equally activated for both visual and pain magnitude ratings. The properties of regions in the first group were consistent with encoding nociception, whereas those in the second group with attention and task control. Insular cortex responses similarly segregated to a pain-specific area and an area (extending to the lateral prefrontal cortex) conjointly representing perceived magnitudes for pain and vision. These two insular areas were differentiated by their relationship to task variance, ability to encode perceived magnitudes for each stimulus epoch, temporal delay differences, and brain intrinsic functional connectivity. In a second group of subjects (n=11) we contrasted diffusion tensor imaging-based white matter connectivity for these two insular areas and observed anatomical connectivity closely corresponding to the functional connectivity identified with fMRI. These results demonstrate that pain perception is due to the transformation of nociceptive representation into subjective magnitude assessment within the insula. Moreover, we argue that we have identified a multisensory cortical area for "how much" complementary and analogous to the "where" and "what" as described for central visual processing.

  3. The magnitude and effects of extreme solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiggens, Piers; Chavy-Macdonald, Marc-Andre; Santin, Giovanni; Menicucci, Alessandra; Evans, Hugh; Hilgers, Alain

    2014-06-01

    The solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation environment is an important consideration for spacecraft design, spacecraft mission planning and human spaceflight. Herein is presented an investigation into the likely severity of effects of a very large Solar Particle Event (SPE) on technology and humans in space. Fluences for SPEs derived using statistical models are compared to historical SPEs to verify their appropriateness for use in the analysis which follows. By combining environment tools with tools to model effects behind varying layers of spacecraft shielding it is possible to predict what impact a large SPE would be likely to have on a spacecraft in Near-Earth interplanetary space or geostationary Earth orbit. Also presented is a comparison of results generated using the traditional method of inputting the environment spectra, determined using a statistical model, into effects tools and a new method developed as part of the ESA SEPEM Project allowing for the creation of an effect time series on which statistics, previously applied to the flux data, can be run directly. The SPE environment spectra is determined and presented as energy integrated proton fluence (cm-2) as a function of particle energy (in MeV). This is input into the SHIELDOSE-2, MULASSIS, NIEL, GRAS and SEU effects tools to provide the output results. In the case of the new method for analysis, the flux time series is fed directly into the MULASSIS and GEMAT tools integrated into the SEPEM system. The output effect quantities include total ionising dose (in rads), non-ionising energy loss (MeV g-1), single event upsets (upsets/bit) and the dose in humans compared to established limits for stochastic (or cancer-causing) effects and tissue reactions (such as acute radiation sickness) in humans given in grey-equivalent and sieverts respectively.

  4. Earthquake rate and magnitude distributions of great earthquakes for use in global forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2016-07-01

    We have obtained new results in the statistical analysis of global earthquake catalogues with special attention to the largest earthquakes, and we examined the statistical behaviour of earthquake rate variations. These results can serve as an input for updating our recent earthquake forecast, known as the `Global Earthquake Activity Rate 1' model (GEAR1), which is based on past earthquakes and geodetic strain rates. The GEAR1 forecast is expressed as the rate density of all earthquakes above magnitude 5.8 within 70 km of sea level everywhere on earth at 0.1 × 0.1 degree resolution, and it is currently being tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability. The seismic component of the present model is based on a smoothed version of the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalogue from 1977 through 2013. The tectonic component is based on the Global Strain Rate Map, a `General Earthquake Model' (GEM) product. The forecast was optimized to fit the GCMT data from 2005 through 2012, but it also fit well the earthquake locations from 1918 to 1976 reported in the International Seismological Centre-Global Earthquake Model (ISC-GEM) global catalogue of instrumental and pre-instrumental magnitude determinations. We have improved the recent forecast by optimizing the treatment of larger magnitudes and including a longer duration (1918-2011) ISC-GEM catalogue of large earthquakes to estimate smoothed seismicity. We revised our estimates of upper magnitude limits, described as corner magnitudes, based on the massive earthquakes since 2004 and the seismic moment conservation principle. The new corner magnitude estimates are somewhat larger than but consistent with our previous estimates. For major subduction zones we find the best estimates of corner magnitude to be in the range 8.9 to 9.6 and consistent with a uniform average of 9.35. Statistical estimates tend to grow with time as larger earthquakes occur. However, by using the moment conservation

  5. Constraining stress magnitudes using petroleum exploration data in the Cooper Eromanga Basins, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Scott D.; Mildren, Scott D.; Hillis, Richard R.; Meyer, Jeremy J.

    2006-03-01

    The magnitude of the in situ stresses in the Cooper-Eromanga Basins have been determined using an extensive petroleum exploration database from over 40 years of drilling. The magnitude of the vertical stress ( Sv) was calculated based on density and velocity checkshot data in 24 wells. Upper and lower bound values of the vertical stress magnitude are approximated by Sv = (14.39 × Z) 1.12 and Sv = (11.67 × Z) 1.15 functions respectively (where Z is depth in km and Sv is in MPa). Leak-off test data from the two basins constrain the lower bound estimate for the minimum horizontal stress ( Shmin) magnitude to 15.5 MPa/km. Closure pressures from a large number of minifrac tests indicate considerable scatter in the minimum horizontal stress magnitude, with values approaching the magnitude of the vertical stress in some areas. The magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress ( SHmax) was constrained by the frictional limits to stress beyond which faulting occurs and by the presence of drilling-induced tensile fractures in some wells. The maximum horizontal stress magnitude can only be loosely constrained regionally using frictional limits, due to the variability of both the minimum horizontal stress and vertical stress estimates. However, the maximum horizontal stress and thus the full stress tensor can be better constrained at individual well locations, as demonstrated in Bulyeroo-1 and Dullingari North-8, where the necessary data (i.e. image logs, minifrac tests and density logs) are available. The stress magnitudes determined indicate a predominantly strike-slip fault stress regime ( SHmax > Sv > Shmin) at a depth of between 1 and 3 km in the Cooper-Eromanga Basins. However, some areas of the basin are transitional between strike-slip and reverse fault stress regimes ( SHmax > Sv ≈ Shmin). Large differential stresses in the Cooper-Eromanga Basins indicate a high upper crustal strength for the region, consistent with other intraplate regions. We propose that the in

  6. Multi-objective control of nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator magnitude and rate constraints.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pang-Chia

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates multi-objective controller design approaches for nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics subject to actuator magnitude and rate constraints. System nonlinearity is handled by a suitable linear parameter varying system representation with drum pressure as the system varying parameter. Variation of the drum pressure is represented by suitable norm-bounded uncertainty and affine dependence on system matrices. Based on linear matrix inequality algorithms, the magnitude and rate constraints on the actuator and the deviations of fluid density and water level are formulated while the tracking abilities on the drum pressure and power output are optimized. Variation ranges of drum pressure and magnitude tracking commands are used as controller design parameters, determined according to the boiler-turbine's operation range.

  7. Variations of Magnitude and Ionization Along the Traces of the Same Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narziev, Mirhusen

    2016-07-01

    Using the results of simultaneous television and basic radar observations of meteors from points 4-5, received during the periods of activity of the main annual meteor showers α - Kaprikornis, δ - Akvarids, Geminids, Quadrantids and Orionids in 1979 in GisAO, the variation of magnitude and linear electronic density along a traces of the same meteors were studied. It was determined that for meteors with velocities of 23-69 km/c the course of variation of magnitude and linear electronic density along the traces of the same meteors were fairly coordinated among themselves. The received results are compared with the similar data received for weaker meteors in Harward (Illinois). It is concluded that the difference between radar-tracking and photographic magnitude depends on the speed of meteors.

  8. CRDS of 17O enriched water between 5850 and 6671 cm-1: More than 1000 energy levels of H217O and HD17O newly determined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailenko, S. N.; Leshchishina, O.; Karlovets, E. V.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2016-07-01

    The room temperature absorption spectrum of water vapor highly enriched in 17O has been recorded by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) between 5850 and 6671 cm-1. Two series of recordings were performed with pressure values of 1.0 and 12.0 Torr. The investigated spectral region corresponds to the important 1.55 μm transparency window of the atmosphere where water absorption is very weak. The high sensitivity of the recordings (αmin ~ 5×10-11 cm-1) allows detecting lines with intensity spanning six orders of magnitude (1.4×10-30-3.6×10-24 cm/molecule at room temperature). The experimental list includes more than 10,300 lines. The assignments of water lines were performed using known experimental energy levels as well as calculated line lists based on the results of Partridge and Schwenke. More than 8500 lines were assigned to 9619 transitions of six water isotopologues (H216O, H217O, H218O, HD16O, HD17O and HD18O). All but four transitions of the 16O and 18O isotopologues were assigned using known experimental energy levels. More than half of the assigned H217O and HD17O transitions correspond to new (or corrected) upper energy levels. About 1000 new H217O transitions associated with upper states of the second triad and of the first hexad were identified. Most of the newly assigned HD17O transitions belong to the ν1+ν3 and 2ν2+ν3 bands. The assigned transitions allowed to newly determine or correct 20 highly excited rotational levels of the vibrational ground state of this isotopologue. Overall 791 and 266 energy levels are newly determined for H217O and HD17O, respectively. A few additional levels were corrected compared to literature values. The obtained experimental results are compared to the spectroscopic parameters provided by the HITRAN database and to the empirical energy levels recommended by an IUPAC task group.

  9. CRDS of 17O enriched water between 5850 and 6671 cm-1: More than 1000 energy levels of H217O and HD17O newly determined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailenko, S. N.; Leshchishina, O.; Karlovets, E. V.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2016-07-01

    The room temperature absorption spectrum of water vapor highly enriched in 17O has been recorded by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) between 5850 and 6671 cm-1. Two series of recordings were performed with pressure values of 1.0 and 12.0 Torr. The investigated spectral region corresponds to the important 1.55 μm transparency window of the atmosphere where water absorption is very weak. The high sensitivity of the recordings (αmin ~ 5×10-11 cm-1) allows detecting lines with intensity spanning six orders of magnitude (1.4×10-30-3.6×10-24 cm/molecule at room temperature). The experimental list includes more than 10,300 lines. The assignments of water lines were performed using known experimental energy levels as well as calculated line lists based on the results of Partridge and Schwenke. More than 8500 lines were assigned to 9619 transitions of six water isotopologues (H216O, H217O, H218O, HD16O, HD17O and HD18O). All but four transitions of the 16O and 18O isotopologues were assigned using known experimental energy levels. More than half of the assigned H217O and HD17O transitions correspond to new (or corrected) upper energy levels. About 1000 new H217O transitions associated with upper states of the second triad and of the first hexad were identified. Most of the newly assigned HD17O transitions belong to the ν1+ν3 and 2ν2+ν3 bands. The assigned transitions allowed to newly determine or correct 20 highly excited rotational levels of the vibrational ground state of this isotopologue. Overall 791 and 266 energy levels are newly determined for H217O and HD17O, respectively. A few additional levels were corrected compared to literature values. The obtained experimental results are compared to the spectroscopic parameters provided by the HITRAN database and to the empirical energy levels recommended by an IUPAC task group.

  10. Correlating Total Visual Magnitude Estimates and CCD Photometry for Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidger, Mark Richard

    2015-08-01

    A key facet of understanding the activity of comets is coverage of their light curve. For some comets such as 2P/Encke there is good light curve coverage from visual observers extending back over many returns over more than 2 centuries. However, in recent years, CCD photometry by amateur astronomers has become the dominant data source and the number of total visual magnitude estimates has reduced sharply, making comparison of recent and historical photometric data for comets increasingly difficult. The relationship between total visual magnitude estimates - dominated by the emission from the Swan bands of C2 - and CCD aperture photometry - dominated by the dust continuum - has been far from clear.This paper compares CCD aperture photometry and total visual magnitude for several recent well-observed bright comets, including C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) using a consistent and homogeneous database of observations from (mainly) Spanish observers. For comets with a 1/r radial coma profile, good agreement is found between CCD aperture photometry and total visual magnitude estimates for a CCD aperture corresponding to a physical coma diameter of ≈105km.The relationship between the coma radial brightness slope and the equivalent physical aperture for CCD photometry to obtain agreement with total visual magnitude estimates is investigated.

  11. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative... alternatives to testing for the purposes of certifying compliance with the applicable energy conservation..., U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Alternative...

  12. The Determination of Cognitive Structure of Candidate Teachers about Energy Centrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Kadir; Topçu, Ersin; Aydinli, Bahattin

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the vital essence of every biotic and abiotic process. Energy is also in central position in human civilization. The famous energy centrals are the major way for production of energy with many diverse effects on environment. Therefore, the mitigation of these effects is extremely important and one of its way is education in this…

  13. Experimental Determination of in Situ Utilization of Lunar Regolith for Thermal Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1993-01-01

    A Lunar Thermal Energy from Regolith (LUTHER) experiment has been designed and fabricated at the NASA Lewis Research Center to determine the feasibility of using lunar soil as thermal energy storage media. The experimental apparatus includes an alumina ceramic canister (25.4 cm diameter by 45.7 cm length) which contains simulated lunar regolith, a heater (either radiative or conductive), 9 heat shields, a heat transfer cold jacket, and 19 type B platinum rhodium thermocouples. The simulated lunar regolith is a basalt, mined and processed by the University of Minnesota, that closely resembles the lunar basalt returned to earth by the Apollo missions. The experiment will test the effects of vacuum, particle size, and density on the thermophysical properties of the regolith. The properties include melt temperature (range), specific heat, thermal conductivity, and latent heat of storage. Two separate tests, using two different heaters, will be performed to study the effect of heating the system using radiative and conductive heat transfer. The physical characteristics of the melt pattern, material compatibility of the molten regolith, and the volatile gas emission will be investigated by heating a portion of the lunar regolith to its melting temperature (1435 K) in a 10(exp -4) pascal vacuum chamber, equipped with a gas spectrum analyzer. A finite differencing SINDA model was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to predict the performance of the LUTHER experiment. The analytical results of the code will be compared with the experimental data generated by the LUTHER experiment. The code will predict the effects of vacuum, particle size, and density has on the heat transfer to the simulated regolith.

  14. Determining Risk - How to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copping, A. E.; Blake, K.; Zdanski, L.

    2011-12-01

    As marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development projects progress towards early deployments in the U.S., the process of determining the risks to aquatic animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes from these engineered systems continues to be a significant barrier to efficient siting and permitting. Understanding the risk of MHK installations requires that the two elements of risk - consequence and probability - be evaluated. However, standard risk assessment methodologies are not easily applied to MHK interactions with marine and riverine environment as there are few data that describe the interaction of stressors (MHK devices, anchors, foundations, mooring lines and power cables) and receptors (aquatic animals, habitats and ecosystem processes). The number of possible combinations and permutations of stressors and receptors in MHK systems is large: there are many different technologies designed to harvest energy from the tides, waves and flowing rivers; each device is planned for a specific waterbody that supports an endemic ecosystem of animals and habitats, tied together by specific physical and chemical processes. With few appropriate analogue industries in the oceans and rivers, little information on the effects of these technologies on the living world is available. Similarly, without robust data sets of interactions, mathematical probability models are difficult to apply. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists are working with MHK developers, researchers, engineers, and regulators to rank the consequences of planned MHK projects on living systems, and exploring alternative methodologies to estimate probabilities of these encounters. This paper will present the results of ERES, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System, which has been used to rank consequences for major animal groups and habitats for five MHK projects that are in advanced stages of development and/or early commercial deployment. Probability analyses have been performed for high

  15. Effect of Spinal Manipulation Thrust Magnitude on Trunk Mechanical Thresholds of Lateral Thalamic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM), as performed by manual therapists (eg, doctors of chiropractic and osteopathy) results in mechanical hypoalgesia in clinical settings. This hypoalgesic effect has previously been attributed to alterations in peripheral and/or central pain processing. The objective of this study was to determine whether thrust magnitude of a simulated HVLA-SM alters mechanical trunk response thresholds in wide dynamic range (WDR) and/or nociceptive specific (NS) lateral thalamic neurons. Methods Extracellular recordings were carried out in the thalamus of 15 anesthetized Wistar rats. Lateral thalamic neurons having receptive fields which included the lumbar dorsal-lateral trunk were characterized as either WDR (n=22) or NS (n=25). Response thresholds to electronic von Frey (rigid tip) mechanical trunk stimuli were determined in three directions (dorsal-ventral, 45°caudalward, and 45°cranialward) prior to and immediately following the dorsal-ventral delivery of a 100ms HVLA-SM at three thrust magnitudes (control, 55%, 85% body weight; (BW)). Results There was a significant difference in mechanical threshold between 85% BW manipulation and control thrust magnitudes in the dorsal-ventral direction in NS neurons (p=.01). No changes were found in WDR neurons at either HVLA-SM thrust magnitude. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate the effect of HVLA-SM thrust magnitude on WDR and NS lateral thalamic mechanical response threshold. Our data suggest that at the single lateral thalamic neuron level, there may be a minimal spinal manipulative thrust magnitude required to elicit an increase in trunk mechanical response thresholds. PMID:24928636

  16. Determination of dark energy by the Einstein Telescope: Comparing with CMB, BAO, and SNIa observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Li, T. G. F.

    2011-01-15

    A design study is currently in progress for a third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector called the Einstein Telescope (ET). An important kind of source for ET will be the inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars up to z{approx}2. If binary neutron star mergers are the progenitors of short-hard {gamma}-ray bursts, then some fraction of them will be seen both electromagnetically and through GW, so that the luminosity distance and the redshift of the source can be determined separately. An important property of these 'standard sirens' is that they are self-calibrating: the luminosity distance can be inferred directly from the GW signal, with no need for a cosmic distance ladder. Thus, standard sirens will provide a powerful independent check of the {Lambda}CDM model. In previous work, estimates were made of how well ET would be able to measure a subset of the cosmological parameters (such as the dark energy parameter w{sub 0}) it will have access to, assuming that the others had been determined to great accuracy by alternative means. Here we perform a more careful analysis by explicitly using the potential Planck cosmic microwave background data as prior information for these other parameters. We find that ET will be able to constrain w{sub 0} and w{sub a} with accuracies {Delta}w{sub 0}=0.099 and {Delta}w{sub a}=0.302, respectively. These results are compared with projected accuracies for the JDEM baryon acoustic oscillations project and the SNAP type Ia supernovae observations.

  17. The volume and energy content of meals as determinants of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J N; Stubbs, D F

    1975-01-01

    1. Results were collected from thirty-three published and unpublished studies of gastric emptying. The volumes of the meals ranged from 50 to 1250 ml., and composition varied from pure carbohydrates to ordinary food. 2. From the published composition of the meals, their nutritive density, as kcal/ml. (4-18 KJ/ml.) was computed: it ranged from zero to 2-3 kcal/ml. 3. The volume of each meal, or test meal, delivered to the duodenum in 30 min was determined, assuming that gastric emptying was exponential. 4. The greater the nutritive density of a meal, the less was the volume transferred to the duodenum in 30 min. The original volume of meal given was not a determinant of the rate of emptying (ml./min). 5. The slowing of gastric emptying with a meal of high nutritive density was not sufficient to prevent an increased rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum (nutritive density times volume delivered in unit time) with a meal of high nutritive density. 6. Assuming an appropriate relationship for the interaction of a stimulus (kcal/ml.) and duodenal receptors, it was possible to predict a rate of gastric emptying for each meal, given its nutritive density. Knowing the initial volume of the meal, it was possible to predict the mean half time for its emptying. 7. There were eight sets of anomalous results: in four the volumes of meal given were less than 200 ml.; explanations of the anomalies in the other four results could not be provided. 8. The results are consistent with equal slowing of gastric emptying by the duodenal action of the products of digestion of isocaloric amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate, for example, 4 g fat or 9 g carbohydrate, both 36 kcal, taking carbohydrate and protein as 4 kcal/g and fat as 9 kcal/g. PMID:1127608

  18. A Comparison of the 2003 and 2006 International Energy Conservation Codes to Determine the Potential Impact on Residential Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Baxter, Van D

    2008-03-01

    The IECC was updated in 2006. As required in the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1992, Title 3, DOE has a legislative requirement to "determine whether such revision would improve energy efficiency in residential buildings" within 12 months of the latest revision. This requirement is part of a three-year cycle of regular code updates. To meet this requirement, an independent review was completed using personnel experienced in building science but not involved in the code development process.

  19. Newmark design spectra considering earthquake magnitudes and site categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Newmark design spectra have been implemented in many building codes, especially in building codes for critical structures. Previous studies show that Newmark design spectra exhibit lower amplitudes at high frequencies and larger amplitudes at low frequencies in comparison with spectra developed by statistical methods. To resolve this problem, this study considers three suites of ground motions recorded at three types of sites. Using these ground motions, influences of the shear-wave velocity, earthquake magnitudes, source-to-site distances on the ratios of ground motion parameters are studied, and spectrum amplification factors are statistically calculated. Spectral bounds for combinations of three site categories and two cases of earthquake magnitudes are estimated. Site design spectrum coefficients for the three site categories considering earthquake magnitudes are established. The problems of Newmark design spectra could be resolved by using the site design spectrum coefficients to modify the spectral values of Newmark design spectra in the acceleration sensitive, velocity sensitive, and displacement sensitive regions.

  20. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  1. A catalog of observed nuclear magnitudes of Jupiter family comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Fernández, J. A.; Rickman, H.; Licandro, J.

    2000-10-01

    A catalog of a sample of 105 Jupiter family (JF) comets (defined as those with Tisserand constants T > 2 and orbital periods P < 20 yr) is presented with our ``best estimates'' of their absolute nuclear magnitudes H_N = V(1,0,0). The catalog includes all the nuclear magnitudes reported after 1950 until August 1998 that appear in the International Comet Quarterly Archive of Cometary Photometric Data, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) data base, IAU Circulars, International Comet Quarterly, and a few papers devoted to some particular comets, together with our own observations. Photometric data previous to 1990 have mainly been taken from the Comet Light Curve Catalogue (CLICC) compiled by Kamél (\\cite{kamel}). We discuss the reliability of the reported nuclear magnitudes in relation to the inherent sources of errors and uncertainties, in particular the coma contamination often present even at large heliocentric distances. A large fraction of the JF comets of our sample indeed shows various degrees of activity at large heliocentric distances, which is correlated with recent downward jumps in their perihelion distances. The reliability of coma subtraction methods to compute the nuclear magnitude is also discussed. Most absolute nuclear magnitudes are found in the range 15 - 18, with no magnitudes fainter than H_N ~ 19.5. The catalog can be found at: http://www.fisica.edu.uy/ ~ gonzalo/catalog/. Table 2 and Appendix B are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  2. Every reinforcer counts: reinforcer magnitude and local preference.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2003-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval schedules. Sessions consisted of seven components, each lasting 10 reinforcers, with the conditions of reinforcement differing between components. The component sequence was randomly selected without replacement. In Experiment 1, the concurrent-schedule reinforcer ratios in components were all equal to 1.0, but across components reinforcer-magnitude ratios varied from 1:7 through 7:1. Three different overall reinforcer rates were arranged across conditions. In Experiment 2, the reinforcer-rate ratios varied across components from 27:1 to 1:27, and the reinforcer-magnitude ratios for each alternative were changed across conditions from 1:7 to 7:1. The results of Experiment 1 replicated the results for changing reinforcer-rate ratios across components reported by Davison and Baum (2000, 2002): Sensitivity to reinforcer-magnitude ratios increased with increasing numbers of reinforcers in components. Sensitivity to magnitude ratio, however, fell short of sensitivity to reinforcer-rate ratio. The degree of carryover from component to component depended on the reinforcer rate. Larger reinforcers produced larger and longer postreinforcer preference pulses than did smaller reinforcers. Similar results were found in Experiment 2, except that sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude was considerably higher and was greater for magnitudes that differed more from one another. Visit durations following reinforcers measured either as number of responses emitted or time spent responding before a changeover were longer following larger than following smaller reinforcers, and were longer following sequences of same reinforcers than following other sequences. The results add to the growing body of research that informs model building at local levels. PMID:13677611

  3. Magnitude comparison with different types of rational numbers.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Melissa; Grounds, Margaret A; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-02-01

    An important issue in understanding mathematical cognition involves the similarities and differences between the magnitude representations associated with various types of rational numbers. For single-digit integers, evidence indicates that magnitudes are represented as analog values on a mental number line, such that magnitude comparisons are made more quickly and accurately as the numerical distance between numbers increases (the distance effect). Evidence concerning a distance effect for compositional numbers (e.g., multidigit whole numbers, fractions and decimals) is mixed. We compared the patterns of response times and errors for college students in magnitude comparison tasks across closely matched sets of rational numbers (e.g., 22/37, 0.595, 595). In Experiment 1, a distance effect was found for both fractions and decimals, but response times were dramatically slower for fractions than for decimals. Experiments 2 and 3 compared performance across fractions, decimals, and 3-digit integers. Response patterns for decimals and integers were extremely similar but, as in Experiment 1, magnitude comparisons based on fractions were dramatically slower, even when the decimals varied in precision (i.e., number of place digits) and could not be compared in the same way as multidigit integers (Experiment 3). Our findings indicate that comparisons of all three types of numbers exhibit a distance effect, but that processing often involves strategic focus on components of numbers. Fractions impose an especially high processing burden due to their bipartite (a/b) structure. In contrast to the other number types, the magnitude values associated with fractions appear to be less precise, and more dependent on explicit calculation. PMID:23750968

  4. On the determination of activation energy and the order of kinetics in thermoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Mahua; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mazumdar, P. S.; Singh, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The study of thermoluminescence (TL) glow-peaks forms the background of important and useful methods for estimating the kinetic parameters such as activation energy ? and the order of kinetics ?. These parameters are, in general, determined by using glow curve deconvolution or peak shape methods. In the present paper, we have investigated the suitability of the modified peak shape method and Kirsh method in order to perform simultaneous evaluation of these kinetic parameters ? and ? in TL. For this purpose, we have considered numerically computed TL peaks resulting from (i) General Order Kinetics model, (ii) Non-interactive MultiTrap System model (or Modified One Trap One Recombination centre (M-OTOR) model), and (iii) Interactive MultiTrap System model. We have also considered the application of these methods to experimental TL glow peaks of γ-irradiated colourless calcite that exhibits two intense TL glow peaks at 516 and 613 K, respectively. Theoretical results obtained by using different methods corresponding to different models show good agreement with experiments and, hence, point towards the model independence of methods under consideration, except the cases of strong retrapping.

  5. Determination of actinide speciation in solution using high-energy X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Soderholm, L; Skanthakumar, S; Neuefeind, J

    2005-09-01

    High-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) has been used to understand the coordination environment of the uranyl ion in a perchlorate solution. Assuming the two coordinating oxo ligands bound to U(VI) are represented in a peak in the pair distribution function (PDF) at 1.766(1) A, integration of the peak intensity is used to quantify the charge located on the oxygens. The dioxo ligands are essentially neutral, as predicted by numerous published calculations, with a charge of -16.4(8) electrons. The peak in the PDF at 2.420(1) A is consistent with equatorial ligating waters. The intensity of this peak is inconsistent with an integral coordination number and is used to propose a solution equilibrium of five and four waters coordinating to the uranyl(VI) ion favoring the five-coordinate species. This equilibrium is then used to experimentally determine that five-coordinate uranyl is 1.19+/-0.42 kcal/mol more stable than its four-coordinate counterpart under the conditions of the experiment. Further peaks in the Fourier transform of the scattering data at 4.50, 7, and 8.7 A are attributed to uranium-solvent correlations.

  6. Determination of neutral beam energy fractions from collisional radiative measurements on DIII-D.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Grierson, B A; Muñoz Burgos, J M; Van Zeeland, M A

    2012-10-01

    Neutral beams based on positive ion source technology are a key component of contemporary fusion research. An accurate assessment of the injected beam species mix is important for determining the actual plasma heating and momentum input as well as proper interpretation of beam-based diagnostics. On DIII-D, the main ion charge-exchange spectroscopy system is used to extract well-resolved intensity ratios of the Doppler-shifted D(α) emission from the full, half, and third energy beam components for a variety of beam operational parameters. In conjunction with accurate collisional-radiative modeling, these measurements indicate the assumed species mix and power fractions can vary significantly and should be regularly monitored and updated for the most accurate interpretation of plasma performance. In addition, if stable active control of the power fractions can be achieved through appropriate source tuning, the resulting control over the deposition profile can serve as an additional experimental knob for advanced tokamak studies, e.g., varying the off axis beam current drive without altering the beam trajectory.

  7. Surface structure and composition determination by low-energy electron scattering and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiebing

    This thesis reports on surface and surface alloy structural and compositional determination with low-energy electron scattering and Monte Carlo simulations. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) technique and the newly developed low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) IV technique are used to measure the electron scattering intensity spectra and dynamical multiple scattering analysis is performed to optimize the surface structural and non-structural parameters via comparison between the experimental spectra and calculated ones. My work focuses on the following four surface systems. (111), (110) and (001) surface structures of the semimetal bismuth are determined with LEED. The unreconstructed (1x1) structure is revealed for all three surfaces. The interlayer spacings for several outermost layers are resolved. All results agree with those obtained by first-principles calculations. The Debye temperatures for the Bi(111) and Bi(110) surface are found to be lower than that of the Bi bulk. In conjunction with the LEED technique, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observation is performed on the Bi(001) surface. Surface topology images show dominant bilayer steps and no single layer step. The newly developed LEEM-IV technique is used to investigate the PdCu surface alloy on the substrate Cu(001). Studies include quantifying the temporal evolution of Pd concentration on the Cu(001) terrace, mapping the 3D heterogeneous surface chemical composition, and identifying a step-overgrowth thin film growth mechanism. It is found that, at the initial deposition stages, Pd atoms reside in the second layer at the sample temperature of 473 K, and the Pd concentration increases exponentially with time. The heterogeneous structure and composition near the steps are found to be a result of the step-overgrowth. We highlight the LEEM-IV technique which provides a high lateral resolution at surfaces. We demonstrate a 3D profile of Pd concentration in the surface region by using the LEEM

  8. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  9. Magnitude and Carbon Consequences of Forest Management in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Kurz, W.; de Jong, B. H.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon balance of forests depends on the type, frequency and severity of recent disturbances (carbon source) and the rate of recovery from past disturbance (carbon sink). Harvest and land cover conversion represent significant forest disturbance agents over much of North America. For example, pine forests in the southeastern US are typically harvested at ~20 year intervals, and may occupy about half the regional landscape, resulting in regional landscape turnover rates of 2-3% per year. Inventory data are the primary source for quantifying information on harvest and conversion in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Recent inventory data from these countries indicate timber production of 424 million cu m, 163 million cu m, and 7 million cu m, respectively, with significant year-to-year variability associated with wood products demand and timber price. Areas affected by harvest activity vary as well, with 3.97 Mha (million hectares) and 1.04 Mha affected by harvest in the US and Canada, respectively. Forest cover conversion (deforestation) is thought to be relatively minor in the US and Canada, but recent estimates suggest that forest and woodland cover in Mexico declined by 300-500 Kha/yr during the 1990’s. Recently, satellite remote sensing data products on forest change have been generated that complement the traditional inventory approach. These products are particularly useful for “wall-to-wall” estimates of forest conversion and tracking small disturbances. The type and severity of disturbance cannot be easily determined using satellite observations, however, and therefore some care must be taken to reconcile these products with ground-based data. In this talk we review available resources for characterizing “carbon relevant” information on the magnitude (area, type of activity) of forest management in North America, and attempt a first-order comparison between remote sensing and inventory estimates. We also discuss strategies that might be employed to

  10. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. V. Integrated JHKS magnitudes and luminosity functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Röser, S.; Scholz, R.-D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In this study we determine absolute integrated magnitudes in the J,H,KS passbands for Galactic star clusters from the Milky Way Star Clusters survey. In the wide solar neighbourhood, we derive the open cluster luminosity function (CLF) for different cluster ages. Methods: The integrated magnitudes are based on uniform cluster membership derived from the 2MAst catalogue (a merger of the PPMXL and 2MASS) and are computed by summing up the individual luminosities of the most reliable cluster members. We discuss two different techniques of constructing the CLF, a magnitude-limited and a distance-limited approach. Results: Absolute J,H,KS integrated magnitudes are obtained for 3061 open clusters, and 147 globular clusters. The integrated magnitudes and colours are accurate to about 0.8 and 0.2 mag, respectively. Based on the sample of open clusters we construct the general cluster luminosity function in the solar neighbourhood in the three passbands. In each passband the CLF shows a linear part covering a range of 6 to 7 mag at the bright end. The CLFs reach their maxima at an absolute magnitude of -2 mag, then drop by one order of magnitude. During cluster evolution, the CLF changes its slope within tight, but well-defined limits. The CLF of the youngest clusters has a steep slope of about 0.4 at bright magnitudes and a quasi-flat portion for faint clusters. For the oldest population, we find a flatter function with a slope of about 0.2. The CLFs at Galactocentric radii smaller than that of the solar circle differ from those in the direction of the Galactic anti-centre. The CLF in the inner area is flatter and the cluster surface density higher than the local one. In contrast, the CLF is somewhat steeper than the local one in the outer disk, and the surface density is lower. The corresponding catalogue of integrated magnitudes is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  11. Cosmological parameter extraction and biases from type Ia supernova magnitude evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, S.; Virey, J.-M.; Tilquin, A.

    2009-11-01

    We study different one-parametric models of type Ia supernova magnitude evolution on cosmic time scales. Constraints on cosmological and supernova evolution parameters are obtained by combined fits on the actual data coming from supernovae, the cosmic microwave background, and baryonic acoustic oscillations. We find that the best-fit values imply supernova magnitude evolution such that high-redshift supernovae appear some percent brighter than would be expected in a standard cosmos with a dark energy component. However, the errors on the evolution parameters are of the same order, and data are consistent with nonevolving magnitudes at the 1σ level, except for special cases. We simulate a future data scenario where SN magnitude evolution is allowed for, and neglect the possibility of such an evolution in the fit. We find the fiducial models for which the wrong model assumption of nonevolving SN magnitude is not detectable, and for which biases on the fitted cosmological parameters are introduced at the same time. Of the cosmological parameters, the overall mass density ΩM has the strongest chances to be biased due to the wrong model assumption. Whereas early-epoch models with a magnitude offset Δ m˜ z2 show up to be not too dangerous when neglected in the fitting procedure, late epoch models with Δ m˜√{z} have high chances of undetectably biasing the fit results. Centre de Physique Théorique is UMR 6207 - “Unité Mixte de Recherche” of CNRS and of the Universities “de Provence”, “de la Mediterranée”, and “du Sud Toulon-Var” - Laboratory affiliated with FRUMAM (FR2291).

  12. An analysis of Greek seismicity based on Non Extensive Statistical Physics: The interdependence of magnitude, interevent time and interevent distance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The context of Non Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP) has recently been suggested to comprise an appropriate tool for the analysis of complex dynamic systems with scale invariance, long-range interactions, long-range memory and systems that evolve in a fractal-like space-time. This is because the active tectonic grain is thought to comprise a (self-organizing) complex system; therefore, its expression (seismicity) should be manifested in the temporal and spatial statistics of energy release rates. In addition to energy release rates expressed by the magnitude M, measures of the temporal and spatial interactions are the time (Δt) and hypocentral distance (Δd) between consecutive events. Recent work indicated that if the distributions of M, Δt and Δd are independent so that the joint probability p(M,Δt,Δd) factorizes into the probabilities of M, Δt and Δd, i.e. p(M,Δt,Δd)= p(M)p(Δt)p(Δd), then the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related, not only to magnitude as the celebrated Gutenberg - Richter law predicts, but also to interevent time and distance by means of well-defined power-laws consistent with NESP. The present work applies these concepts to investigate the self-organization and temporal/spatial dynamics of seismicity in Greece and western Turkey, for the period 1964-2011. The analysis was based on the ISC earthquake catalogue which is homogenous by construction with consistently determined hypocenters and magnitude. The presentation focuses on the analysis of bivariate Frequency-Magnitude-Time distributions, while using the interevent distances as spatial constraints (or spatial filters) for studying the spatial dependence of the energy and time dynamics of the seismicity. It is demonstrated that the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related to the magnitude and the interevent time by means of well-defined multi-dimensional power-laws consistent with NESP and has attributes of universality,as its holds for a broad

  13. Determination of renewable energy yield from mixed waste material from the use of novel image analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Wagland, S T; Dudley, R; Naftaly, M; Longhurst, P J

    2013-11-01

    Two novel techniques are presented in this study which together aim to provide a system able to determine the renewable energy potential of mixed waste materials. An image analysis tool was applied to two waste samples prepared using known quantities of source-segregated recyclable materials. The technique was used to determine the composition of the wastes, where through the use of waste component properties the biogenic content of the samples was calculated. The percentage renewable energy determined by image analysis for each sample was accurate to within 5% of the actual values calculated. Microwave-based multiple-point imaging (AutoHarvest) was used to demonstrate the ability of such a technique to determine the moisture content of mixed samples. This proof-of-concept experiment was shown to produce moisture measurement accurate to within 10%. Overall, the image analysis tool was able to determine the renewable energy potential of the mixed samples, and the AutoHarvest should enable the net calorific value calculations through the provision of moisture content measurements. The proposed system is suitable for combustion facilities, and enables the operator to understand the renewable energy potential of the waste prior to combustion.

  14. Magnitude Estimation with Noisy Integrators Linked by an Adaptive Reference

    PubMed Central

    Thurley, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Judgments of physical stimuli show characteristic biases; relatively small stimuli are overestimated whereas relatively large stimuli are underestimated (regression effect). Such biases likely result from a strategy that seeks to minimize errors given noisy estimates about stimuli that itself are drawn from a distribution, i.e., the statistics of the environment. While being conceptually well described, it is unclear how such a strategy could be implemented neurally. The present paper aims toward answering this question. A theoretical approach is introduced that describes magnitude estimation as two successive stages of noisy (neural) integration. Both stages are linked by a reference memory that is updated with every new stimulus. The model reproduces the behavioral characteristics of magnitude estimation and makes several experimentally testable predictions. Moreover, the model identifies the regression effect as a means of minimizing estimation errors and explains how this optimality strategy depends on the subject's discrimination abilities and on the stimulus statistics. The latter influence predicts another property of magnitude estimation, the so-called range effect. Beyond being successful in describing decision-making, the present work suggests that noisy integration may also be important in processing magnitudes. PMID:26909028

  15. The Role of Executive Functions in Numerical Magnitude Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkman, Meijke E.; Hoijtink, Herbert J. A.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are closely related to math performance. Little is known, however, about the role of EF in numerical magnitude skills (NS), although these skills are widely acknowledged to be important precursors of math learning. The current study focuses on the different roles of updating, shifting, and inhibition in NS. EF and NS were…

  16. The Magnitude of Premenstrual and Menstrual Mood Changes in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Sharon; Murphy, Denise

    Frequent mood changes in adolescents are often attributed to the influence of shifting hormone levels. The presence and magnitude of menstrual-related mood changes in adolescent women were examined in 10th and 11th grade females (N=158) who completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Self-reports of the onset date for the next two…

  17. A dissociation between symbolic number knowledge and analogue magnitude information.

    PubMed

    Polk, T A; Reed, C L; Keenan, J M; Hogarth, P; Anderson, C A

    2001-12-01

    Semantic understanding of numbers and related concepts can be dissociated from rote knowledge of arithmetic facts. However, distinctions among different kinds of semantic representations related to numbers have not been fully explored. Working with numbers and arithmetic requires representing semantic information that is both analogue (e.g., the approximate magnitude of a number) and symbolic (e.g., what / means). In this article, the authors describe a patient (MC) who exhibits a dissociation between tasks that require symbolic number knowledge (e.g., knowledge of arithmetic symbols including numbers, knowledge of concepts related to numbers such as rounding) and tasks that require an analogue magnitude representation (e.g., comparing size or frequency). MC is impaired on a variety of tasks that require symbolic number knowledge, but her ability to represent and process analogue magnitude information is intact. Her deficit in symbolic number knowledge extends to a variety of concepts related to numbers (e.g., decimal points, Roman numerals, what a quartet is) but not to any other semantic categories that we have tested. These findings suggest that symbolic number knowledge is a functionally independent component of the number processing system, that it is category specific, and that it is anatomically and functionally distinct from magnitude representations. PMID:11748908

  18. Neural representations of magnitude for natural and rational numbers.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Melissa; Chiang, Jeffrey N; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J; Monti, Martin M

    2016-11-01

    Humans have developed multiple symbolic representations for numbers, including natural numbers (positive integers) as well as rational numbers (both fractions and decimals). Despite a considerable body of behavioral and neuroimaging research, it is currently unknown whether different notations map onto a single, fully abstract, magnitude code, or whether separate representations exist for specific number types (e.g., natural versus rational) or number representations (e.g., base-10 versus fractions). We address this question by comparing brain metabolic response during a magnitude comparison task involving (on different trials) integers, decimals, and fractions. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the strength and pattern of activation for fractions differed systematically, within the intraparietal sulcus, from that of both decimals and integers, while the latter two number representations appeared virtually indistinguishable. These results demonstrate that the two major notations formats for rational numbers, fractions and decimals, evoke distinct neural representations of magnitude, with decimals representations being more closely linked to those of integers than to those of magnitude-equivalent fractions. Our findings thus suggest that number representation (base-10 versus fractions) is an important organizational principle for the neural substrate underlying mathematical cognition.

  19. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  20. Children's Sensitivity to Error Magnitude when Evaluating Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Shiri; Robinson, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined children's (N = 80; 40; 48) sensitivity to error magnitude as a measure of informants' past accuracy, and indication of future reliability. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed whether, in a forced-choice task, children would evaluate as better and show greater trust in an informant whose previous errors were consistently within…