Science.gov

Sample records for energy minimization progress

  1. Minimizing fan energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, R.C.

    1985-05-27

    Minimizing fan energy costs and maximizing fan efficiency is the subject of this paper. Blade design itself can cause poor flow distribution and inefficiency. A basic design criterion is that a blade should produce uniform flow over the entire plane of the fan. Also an inherent problem with the axial fan is swirl -- the tangential deflection of exit-flow caused by the effect of torque. Swirl can be prevented with an inexpensive hub component. Basic efficiency can be checked by means of the fan's performance curve. Generally, fewer blades translate into higher axial-fan efficiency. A crowded inboard area creates hub turbulence which lessens efficiency. Whether the pitch of fan blades is fixed or variable also affects energy consumption. Power savings of 50% per year or more can be realized by replacing fixed-pitch, continuously operating fans with fans whose blade pitch or speed is automatically varied.

  2. The torsion space nucleic acids molecular mechanics program DUPLEX: Surveying conformation space by potential energy minimization. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hingerty, B.E.; Broyde, S.

    1993-11-01

    It has been 21 years since the inception of the program DUPLEX. Now that ``molecular modeling`` (encompassing quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics and dynamics, and computer graphics) has become something of a trade, the time seems ripe for us to offer a brief perspective of our efforts since the beginnings of the field. The purpose in writing the program was to solve the crystal structure of Ca{sup +2}-GpC, an RNA subunit for which x-ray diffraction data had been collected by T. Sato. No trial structure was available to aid in solving the phase problem in the Fall of 1972 and we hoped to generate one by potential energy minimization. We hoped to compute not only the conformation of the GpC molecule, but also its packing scheme in the unit cell, a feat that had never before been performed for a nucleic acid subunit. Indeed, only one dinucleoside monophosphate crystal structure, that of UpA, had been previously solved and its structure was very different from that of GpC.

  3. Holographic dark energy from minimal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, Ricardo C. G.

    2016-02-01

    We embed models of holographic dark energy (HDE) coupled to dark matter (DM) in minimal supergravity plus matter, with one chiral superfield. We analyze two cases. The first one has the Hubble radius as the infrared (IR) cutoff and the interaction between the two fluids is proportional to the energy density of the DE. The second case has the future event horizon as IR cutoff while the interaction is proportional to the energy density of both components of the dark sector.

  4. Free energies for singleton minimal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    It is assumed that any free energy function exhibits strict periodic behavior for histories that have been periodic for all past times. This is not the case for the work function, which, however, has the usual defining properties of a free energy. Forms given in fairly recent years for the minimum and related free energies of linear materials with memory have this property. Materials for which the minimal states are all singletons are those for which at least some of the singularities of the Fourier transform of the relaxation function are not isolated. For such materials, the maximum free energy is the work function, and free energies intermediate between the minimum free energy and the work function should be given by a linear relation involving these two quantities. All such functionals, except the minimum free energy, therefore do not have strict periodic behavior for periodic histories, which contradicts our assumption. A way out of the difficulty is explored which involves approximating the relaxation function by a form for which the minimal states are no longer singletons. A representation can then be given of an arbitrary free energy as a linear combination of the minimum, maximum and intermediate free energies derived in earlier work. This representation obeys our periodicity assumption. Numerical data are presented, supporting the consistency of this approach.

  5. Nonlinear transient analysis via energy minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Knight, N. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The formulation basis for nonlinear transient analysis of finite element models of structures using energy minimization is provided. Geometric and material nonlinearities are included. The development is restricted to simple one and two dimensional finite elements which are regarded as being the basic elements for modeling full aircraft-like structures under crash conditions. The results indicate the effectiveness of the technique as a viable tool for this purpose.

  6. Smooth GERBS, orthogonal systems and energy minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T. E-mail: pza@hin.no; Zanaty, Peter E-mail: pza@hin.no

    2013-12-18

    New results are obtained in three mutually related directions of the rapidly developing theory of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) [7, 6]: closed-form computability of C{sup ∞}-smooth GERBS in terms of elementary and special functions, Hermite interpolation and least-squares best approximation via smooth GERBS, energy minimizing properties of smooth GERBS similar to those of the classical cubic polynomial B-splines.

  7. Convex Lower Bounds for Free Energy Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    We construct lower bounds on free energy with convex relaxations from the nonlinear minimization over probabilities to linear programs over expectation values. Finite-temperature expectation values are further resolved into distributions over energy. A superset of valid expectation values is delineated by an incomplete set of linear constraints. Free energy bounds can be improved systematically by adding constraints, which also increases their computational cost. We compute several free energy bounds of increasing accuracy for the triangular-lattice Ising model to assess the utility of this method. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Simulating granular materials by energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.

    2016-03-01

    Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the

  9. Simulating granular materials by energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, D.; Luding, S.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete element methods are extremely helpful in understanding the complex behaviors of granular media, as they give valuable insight into all internal variables of the system. In this paper, a novel discrete element method for performing simulations of granular media is presented, based on the minimization of the potential energy in the system. Contrary to most discrete element methods (i.e., soft-particle method, event-driven method, and non-smooth contact dynamics), the system does not evolve by (approximately) integrating Newtons equations of motion in time, but rather by searching for mechanical equilibrium solutions for the positions of all particles in the system, which is mathematically equivalent to locally minimizing the potential energy. The new method allows for the rapid creation of jammed initial conditions (to be used for further studies) and for the simulation of quasi-static deformation problems. The major advantage of the new method is that it allows for truly static deformations. The system does not evolve with time, but rather with the externally applied strain or load, so that there is no kinetic energy in the system, in contrast to other quasi-static methods. The performance of the algorithm for both types of applications of the method is tested. Therefore we look at the required number of iterations, for the system to converge to a stable solution. For each single iteration, the required computational effort scales linearly with the number of particles. During the process of creating initial conditions, the required number of iterations for two-dimensional systems scales with the square root of the number of particles in the system. The required number of iterations increases for systems closer to the jamming packing fraction. For a quasi-static pure shear deformation simulation, the results of the new method are validated by regular soft-particle dynamics simulations. The energy minimization algorithm is able to capture the evolution of the

  10. Quasistatic Cracks and Minimal Energy Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Raeisaenen, V.I.; Seppala, E.T.; Alava, M.J.; Raeisaenen, V.I.; Alava, M.J.; Alava, M.J.; Duxbury, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    We compare the roughness of minimal energy (ME) surfaces and scalar quasistatic fracture (SQF) surfaces. Two-dimensional ME and SQF surfaces have {ital the same roughness scaling,} w{approximately}L{sup {zeta}} (L is the system size) with {zeta}=(2)/(3). The 3{ital d} ME and SQF results at strong disorder are consistent with the random-bond Ising exponent {zeta}(d{ge}3){approx}0.21(5{minus}d) (d is the bulk dimension). However, 3{ital d} SQF surfaces are {ital rougher} than ME surfaces due to a larger prefactor. ME surfaces undergo a weakly rough to algebraically rough{close_quotes} transition in 3{ital d}, suggesting a similar behavior in fracture. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Minimizing Reheat Energy Use in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Frenze, David; Mathew, Paul; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr Jr., William

    2005-11-29

    HVAC systems that are designed without properly accounting for equipment load variation across laboratory spaces in a facility can significantly increase simultaneous heating and cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat for temperature control. This best practice guide describes the problem of simultaneous heating and cooling resulting from load variations, and presents several technological and design process strategies to minimize it. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  12. Wormholes minimally violating the null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Lobo, Francisco S N; Martín-Moruno, Prado E-mail: fslobo@fc.ul.pt

    2014-11-01

    We consider novel wormhole solutions supported by a matter content that minimally violates the null energy condition. More specifically, we consider an equation of state in which the sum of the energy density and radial pressure is proportional to a constant with a value smaller than that of the inverse area characterising the system, i.e., the area of the wormhole mouth. This approach is motivated by a recently proposed cosmological event, denoted {sup t}he little sibling of the big rip{sup ,} where the Hubble rate and the scale factor blow up but the cosmic derivative of the Hubble rate does not [1]. By using the cut-and-paste approach, we match interior spherically symmetric wormhole solutions to an exterior Schwarzschild geometry, and analyse the stability of the thin-shell to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations around static solutions, by choosing suitable properties for the exotic material residing on the junction interface radius. Furthermore, we also consider an inhomogeneous generalization of the equation of state considered above and analyse the respective stability regions. In particular, we obtain a specific wormhole solution with an asymptotic behaviour corresponding to a global monopole.

  13. Minimally invasive treatment of Peyronie's disease: evidence-based progress.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gerald H; Carson, Culley C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2014-07-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is often physically and psychologically devastating for patients, and the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and sexual function without adding treatment-related morbidity. The potential for treatment-related morbidity after more invasive interventions, e.g. surgery, creates a need for effective minimally invasive treatments. We critically examined the available literature using levels of evidence to determine the reported support for each treatment. Most available minimally invasive treatments lack critical support for effectiveness due to the absence of randomised, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) or non-significant results after RCTs. Iontophoresis, oral therapies (vitamin E, potassium para-aminobenzoate, tamoxifen, carnitine, and colchicine), extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and intralesional injection with verapamil or nicardipine have shown mixed or negative results. Treatments that have decreased penile curvature deformity in Level 1 or Level 2 evidence-based, placebo-controlled studies include intralesional injection with interferon α-2b or collagenase clostridium histolyticum.

  14. Solar Energy Development Progresses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses an engineering conference at which participants agreed that solar energy is a feasible energy source, although costs of such technology are presently very high. Also describes recent developments in solar energy research, and estimates the costs of this technology. (MLH)

  15. Waste minimization at Alpha -- A vehicle for progress

    SciTech Connect

    DiMartini, C.

    1994-12-31

    Alpha Metals, a Division of Cookson America, manufactures a full line of tin-lead solder alloy and soldering chemicals for the electronics industry. The solder alloys are produced at a facility in Jersey City, New Jersey. Raw materials are tin and lead purchased from primary producers and recycled and reclaimed alloy. Alpha also operates a facility in Alpharetta, Georgia which blends chemical intermediates to manufacture fluxes and cleaner sold to the printed circuit board and electronics assembly industries. Primary raw materials for the chemical blending operations are organic acids, solvents (mostly alcohols), rosin and surfactants. Both facilities generate hazardous wastes in these operations. These are collected, stored and directed to TSDs. The strategy of the federal government to encourage pollution prevention has been codified by the New Jersey and Georgia legislatives. As a consequent, both the Jersey City and Alpha facilities are actively pursuing changes in current operating practices and business objectives to minimize or eliminate hazardous non product output.

  16. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, L.W.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1982-12-01

    Recent accomplishments in buildings energy research by the diverse groups in the Energy Efficient Buildings Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are summarized. We review technological progress in the areas of ventilation and indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computer modeling, windows, and artificial lighting. The need for actual consumption data to track accurately the improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL. We summarize results to date from our Building Energy Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) studies, which include time trends in the energy consumption of new commercial and new residential buildings, the measured savings being attained by both commercial and residential retrofits, and the cost-effectiveness of buildings energy conservation measures. We also examine recent comparisons of predicted vs. actual energy usage/savings, and present the case for building energy use labels.

  17. Conformational properties of molecules by ab initio quantum mechanical energy minimization.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, L

    1985-01-01

    The recent literature on the determination of minimum energy conformations by ab initio quantum mechanical techniques is reviewed. The availability of computer-coded analytical first and second derivatives of the Hartree-Fock energy makes possible calculations that will be of significant assistance in structure determination of molecules. A short review of recent progress in empirical energy minimization and molecular dynamics is provided. PMID:3905373

  18. Does osteoderm growth follow energy minimization principles?

    PubMed

    Sensale, Sebastián; Jones, Washington; Blanco, R Ernesto

    2014-08-01

    Although the growth and development of tissues and organs of extinct species cannot be directly observed, their fossils can record and preserve evidence of these mechanisms. It is generally accepted that bone architecture is the result of genetically based biomechanical constraints, but what about osteoderms? In this article, the influence of physical constraints on cranial osteoderms growth is assessed. Comparisons among lepidosaurs, synapsids, and archosaurs are performed; according to these analyses, lepidosaur osteoderms growth is predicted to be less energy demanding than that of synapsids and archosaurs. Obtained results also show that, from an energetic viewpoint, ankylosaurid osteoderms growth resembles more that of mammals than the one of reptilians, adding evidence to debate whether dinosaurs were hot or cold blooded. PMID:24634089

  19. Does osteoderm growth follow energy minimization principles?

    PubMed

    Sensale, Sebastián; Jones, Washington; Blanco, R Ernesto

    2014-08-01

    Although the growth and development of tissues and organs of extinct species cannot be directly observed, their fossils can record and preserve evidence of these mechanisms. It is generally accepted that bone architecture is the result of genetically based biomechanical constraints, but what about osteoderms? In this article, the influence of physical constraints on cranial osteoderms growth is assessed. Comparisons among lepidosaurs, synapsids, and archosaurs are performed; according to these analyses, lepidosaur osteoderms growth is predicted to be less energy demanding than that of synapsids and archosaurs. Obtained results also show that, from an energetic viewpoint, ankylosaurid osteoderms growth resembles more that of mammals than the one of reptilians, adding evidence to debate whether dinosaurs were hot or cold blooded.

  20. Energy minimization for self-organized structure formation and actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofod, Guggi; Wirges, Werner; Paajanen, Mika; Bauer, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    An approach for creating complex structures with embedded actuation in planar manufacturing steps is presented. Self-organization and energy minimization are central to this approach, illustrated with a model based on minimization of the hyperelastic free energy strain function of a stretched elastomer and the bending elastic energy of a plastic frame. A tulip-shaped gripper structure illustrates the technological potential of the approach. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, complexity of final structures, and the ease with which any electroactive material can be exploited as means of actuation.

  1. Remediating minimal progress on teaching programs by adults with severe disabilities in a congregate day setting.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H; Towery, Donna; England, Peggy; Darden, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a modified teaching approach for improving the performance of adults with severe disabilities who were making minimal progress on teaching programs in a congregate day setting. An approach for enhancing progress was developed for implementation within the ongoing routine of the adult day setting using resources indigenous to the setting. The teaching approach, based on early intensive teaching programs, involved increasing teaching trials, adding another consequence to the reinforcement component, and reducing distractions. Improved progress accompanied the approach with each of 4 participating adults. Measures of happiness and problem behavior showed no detrimental effect on quality of life. Advantages and disadvantages of the teaching approach are discussed regarding implications for practitioners.

  2. Study to Minimize Learning Progress Differences in Software Learning Class Using PLITAZ System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Jian-Jie; Hwang, Wu-Yuin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a system using two-phased strategies called "Pause Lecture, Instant Tutor-Tutee Match, and Attention Zone" (PLITAZ). This system was used to help solve learning challenges and to minimize learning progress differences in a software learning class. During a teacher's lecture time, students were encouraged to anonymously express…

  3. Energy minimization on manifolds for docking flexible molecules

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Zarbafian, Shahrooz; Villar, Elizabeth; Mottarella, Scott; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we extend a recently introduced rigid body minimization algorithm, defined on manifolds, to the problem of minimizing the energy of interacting flexible molecules. The goal is to integrate moving the ligand in six dimensional rotational/translational space with internal rotations around rotatable bonds within the two molecules. We show that adding rotational degrees of freedom to the rigid moves of the ligand results in an overall optimization search space that is a manifold to which our manifold optimization approach can be extended. The effectiveness of the method is shown for three different docking problems of increasing complexity. First we minimize the energy of fragment-size ligands with a single rotatable bond as part of a protein mapping method developed for the identification of binding hot spots. Second, we consider energy minimization for docking a flexible ligand to a rigid protein receptor, an approach frequently used in existing methods. In the third problem we account for flexibility in both the ligand and the receptor. Results show that minimization using the manifold optimization algorithm is substantially more efficient than minimization using a traditional all-atom optimization algorithm while producing solutions of comparable quality. In addition to the specific problems considered, the method is general enough to be used in a large class of applications such as docking multidomain proteins with flexible hinges. The code is available under open source license (at http://cluspro.bu.edu/Code/Code_Rigtree.tar), and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package. PMID:26478722

  4. Migratory flight strategies of Levant sparrowhawks: time or energy minimization?

    PubMed

    Spaar; Stark; Liechti

    1998-11-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal flight paths of 364 Levant sparrowhawks, Accipiter brevipes, were recorded by radar and used to analyse migratory strategies. Soaring-gliding was the predominant flight strategy during the day when thermals were available. Also during the day, and at night, flapping-gliding flight was used. Levant sparrowhawks flew at similar altitudes as other migrating raptors in Israel during the day; however, they showed different diurnal patterns, using flapping flight at high altitudes soon after sunrise and late in the afternoon. Migratory directions were strongly concentrated on a south-southwest-north-northeast axis in spring and autumn, whereby birds compensated for lateral drift. Soaring-gliding birds maximized cross-country airspeed according to optimal flight theory and, thus, minimized time needed per distance. In flapping-gliding flight, they adjusted their airspeed with respect to the wind to fly at the maximum range speed, suggesting that they minimized energy consumption per distance. Calculations based on aerodynamic flight theory showed that the optimal migratory strategy of a Levant sparrowhawk with respect to time and energy depends on feeding conditions en route: in poor conditions, both time and energy are minimized by a pure soaring-gliding flight strategy. If food is available en route, soaring-gliding flight should be combined with flapping flight when no thermals are available, as this will minimize time spent on migration. The evidence for both strategies is discussed. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  5. Active minimization of energy density in three-dimensional enclosures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate and develop a novel approach for actively controlling the sound field in enclosures that is based on the acoustic energy density. Typically the acoustic field in an enclosure has been controlled by minimizing the sum of the squared pressures from several microphones distributed throughout the enclosure. The approach investigated in this study involved minimizing the acoustic energy density at the sensor locations, rather than the squared pressure. Research previous to this study in a simple one-dimensional enclosure showed that improved global attenuation of the acoustic field is often obtained by minimizing the energy density, rather than the pressure. The current study built on the previous research by extending the method of controlling the acoustic energy density to three-dimensional enclosures. The study was intended to help establish if improved control can still be expected in a more general enclosure. The study was designed to be both analytical/numerical and experimental in nature.

  6. Minimizing sludge handling and energy requirements for AWT

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, G.B.; Rivinus, R.P.; Brown, J.

    1980-02-01

    Upgrading of local stream use classification has required Cobb County, Georgia, which includes much of northwestern metropolitan Atlanta, to provide nitrification, phosphorus removal, and effluent filtration at the new 30-ML/d Noonday Creek Water Pollution Control Plant. The design study at the Noonday Plant is described, and means by which energy requirements are being minimized are discussed. Use of anaerobically produced methane will be maximized to enable the plant to be self-sufficient during electric utility peak demand periods.

  7. Strain energy minimization in SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) magnet winding

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.M.

    1990-09-24

    Differential geometry provides a natural family of coordinate systems, the Frenet frame, in which to specify the geometric properties of magnet winding. By a modification of the Euler-Bernoulli thin rod model, the strain energy is defined with respect to this frame. Then it is minimized by a direct method from the calculus of variations. The mathematics, its implementation in a computer program, and some analysis of an SSC dipole by the program will be described. 16 refs.

  8. Minimal self-models and the free energy principle.

    PubMed

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The term "minimal phenomenal selfhood" (MPS) describes the basic, pre-reflective experience of being a self (Blanke and Metzinger, 2009). Theoretical accounts of the minimal self have long recognized the importance and the ambivalence of the body as both part of the physical world, and the enabling condition for being in this world (Gallagher, 2005a; Grafton, 2009). A recent account of MPS (Metzinger, 2004a) centers on the consideration that minimal selfhood emerges as the result of basic self-modeling mechanisms, thereby being founded on pre-reflective bodily processes. The free energy principle (FEP; Friston, 2010) is a novel unified theory of cortical function built upon the imperative that self-organizing systems entail hierarchical generative models of the causes of their sensory input, which are optimized by minimizing free energy as an approximation of the log-likelihood of the model. The implementation of the FEP via predictive coding mechanisms and in particular the active inference principle emphasizes the role of embodiment for predictive self-modeling, which has been appreciated in recent publications. In this review, we provide an overview of these conceptions and illustrate thereby the potential power of the FEP in explaining the mechanisms underlying minimal selfhood and its key constituents, multisensory integration, interoception, agency, perspective, and the experience of mineness. We conclude that the conceptualization of MPS can be well mapped onto a hierarchical generative model furnished by the FEP and may constitute the basis for higher-level, cognitive forms of self-referral, as well as the understanding of other minds.

  9. Applying the minimal energy scaling law to NIF data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Batha, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The minimal energy implosion-scaling model was recently developed to characterize the physical properties of the hot spot in terms of the peak implosion energy. In this model, the hot spot energy, volume, pressure, mass and areal density at the stagnation time are uniquely determined by the peak implosion velocity, the equation of state and the adiabat of the pusher and the DT fuel (cold and hot) at the peak implosion time. In this work, we apply this model to a number of published low-foot and high-foot experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility. Our model analysis is in a good agreement with the experimental data when a high adiabat is assumed for both low and high foot experiments. Implications of the results are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  10. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  11. Towards a Learning Progression of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Knut; Viering, Tobias; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an empirical study on an initial learning progression of energy, a concept of central importance to the understanding of science. Learning progressions have been suggested as one vehicle to support the systematic and successful teaching of core science concepts. Ideally, a learning progression will provide teachers with a…

  12. Energy minimization mechanisms of semi-coherent interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Shuai; Wang, J.; Misra, Amit

    2014-07-14

    In this article, we discussed energy minimization mechanisms of semi-coherent interfaces based on atomistic simulations and dislocation theory. For example, of (111) interfaces between two face centered cubic (FCC) crystals, interface comprises of two stable structures (normal FCC stacking structure and intrinsic stacking fault structure), misfit dislocations, and misfit dislocation intersections or nodes (corresponding to the high energy stacking fault (HESF) structure). According to atomistic simulations of four interfaces, we found that (1) greater spacing between misfit dislocations and/or larger slopes of generalized stacking fault energy at the stable interface structures leads to a narrower dislocation core and a higher state of coherency in the stable interfaces; (2) the HESF region is relaxed by the relative rotation and dilation/compression of the two crystals at the node. The crystal rotation is responsible for the spiral feature at the vicinity of a node and the dilation/compression is responsible for the creation of the free volume at a node; (3) the spiral feature is gradually frail and the free volume decreases with decreasing misfit dislocation spacing, which corresponds to an increase in lattice mismatch and/or a decrease in lattice rotation. Finally, the analysis method and energy minimization mechanisms explored in FCC (111) semi-coherent interfaces are also applicable for other semi-coherent interfaces.

  13. CORTICAL SURFACE PARAMETERIZATION BY P-HARMONIC ENERGY MINIMIZATION

    PubMed Central

    JOSHI, ANAND A.; SHATTUCK, DAVID W.; THOMPSON, PAUL M.; LEAHY, RICHARD M.

    2010-01-01

    Cortical surface parameterization has several applications in visualization and analysis of the brain surface. Here we propose a scheme for parameterizing the surface of the cerebral cortex. The parameterization is formulated as the minimization of an energy functional in the pth norm. A numerical method for obtaining the solution is also presented. Brain surfaces from multiple subjects are brought into common parameter space using the scheme. 3D spatial averages of the cortical surfaces are generated by using the correspondences induced by common parameter space. PMID:20721316

  14. Inference with minimal Gibbs free energy in information field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, Torsten A.; Weig, Cornelius

    2010-11-15

    Non-linear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems are difficult to tackle. Renormalization techniques permit us to construct good estimators for the posterior signal mean within information field theory (IFT), but the approximations and assumptions made are not very obvious. Here we introduce the simple concept of minimal Gibbs free energy to IFT, and show that previous renormalization results emerge naturally. They can be understood as being the Gaussian approximation to the full posterior probability, which has maximal cross information with it. We derive optimized estimators for three applications, to illustrate the usage of the framework: (i) reconstruction of a log-normal signal from Poissonian data with background counts and point spread function, as it is needed for gamma ray astronomy and for cosmography using photometric galaxy redshifts, (ii) inference of a Gaussian signal with unknown spectrum, and (iii) inference of a Poissonian log-normal signal with unknown spectrum, the combination of (i) and (ii). Finally we explain how Gaussian knowledge states constructed by the minimal Gibbs free energy principle at different temperatures can be combined into a more accurate surrogate of the non-Gaussian posterior.

  15. Inference with minimal Gibbs free energy in information field theory.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, Torsten A; Weig, Cornelius

    2010-11-01

    Non-linear and non-gaussian signal inference problems are difficult to tackle. Renormalization techniques permit us to construct good estimators for the posterior signal mean within information field theory (IFT), but the approximations and assumptions made are not very obvious. Here we introduce the simple concept of minimal Gibbs free energy to IFT, and show that previous renormalization results emerge naturally. They can be understood as being the gaussian approximation to the full posterior probability, which has maximal cross information with it. We derive optimized estimators for three applications, to illustrate the usage of the framework: (i) reconstruction of a log-normal signal from poissonian data with background counts and point spread function, as it is needed for gamma ray astronomy and for cosmography using photometric galaxy redshifts, (ii) inference of a gaussian signal with unknown spectrum, and (iii) inference of a poissonian log-normal signal with unknown spectrum, the combination of (i) and (ii). Finally we explain how gaussian knowledge states constructed by the minimal Gibbs free energy principle at different temperatures can be combined into a more accurate surrogate of the non-gaussian posterior.

  16. Multi-Target Tracking by Discrete-Continuous Energy Minimization.

    PubMed

    Milan, Anton; Schindler, Konrad; Roth, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    The task of tracking multiple targets is often addressed with the so-called tracking-by-detection paradigm, where the first step is to obtain a set of target hypotheses for each frame independently. Tracking can then be regarded as solving two separate, but tightly coupled problems. The first is to carry out data association, i.e., to determine the origin of each of the available observations. The second problem is to reconstruct the actual trajectories that describe the spatio-temporal motion pattern of each individual target. The former is inherently a discrete problem, while the latter should intuitively be modeled in continuous space. Having to deal with an unknown number of targets, complex dependencies, and physical constraints, both are challenging tasks on their own and thus most previous work focuses on one of these subproblems. Here, we present a multi-target tracking approach that explicitly models both tasks as minimization of a unified discrete-continuous energy function. Trajectory properties are captured through global label costs, a recent concept from multi-model fitting, which we introduce to tracking. Specifically, label costs describe physical properties of individual tracks, e.g., linear and angular dynamics, or entry and exit points. We further introduce pairwise label costs to describe mutual interactions between targets in order to avoid collisions. By choosing appropriate forms for the individual energy components, powerful discrete optimization techniques can be leveraged to address data association, while the shapes of individual trajectories are updated by gradient-based continuous energy minimization. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results on diverse benchmark sequences.

  17. Free-energy minimization and the dark-room problem.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Thornton, Christopher; Clark, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of an important new fundamental theory of brain function. This theory brings information-theoretic, Bayesian, neuroscientific, and machine learning approaches into a single framework whose overarching principle is the minimization of surprise (or, equivalently, the maximization of expectation). The most comprehensive such treatment is the "free-energy minimization" formulation due to Karl Friston (see e.g., Friston and Stephan, 2007; Friston, 2010a,b - see also Fiorillo, 2010; Thornton, 2010). A recurrent puzzle raised by critics of these models is that biological systems do not seem to avoid surprises. We do not simply seek a dark, unchanging chamber, and stay there. This is the "Dark-Room Problem." Here, we describe the problem and further unpack the issues to which it speaks. Using the same format as the prolog of Eddington's Space, Time, and Gravitation (Eddington, 1920) we present our discussion as a conversation between: an information theorist (Thornton), a physicist (Friston), and a philosopher (Clark). PMID:22586414

  18. Free-energy minimization and the dark-room problem.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Thornton, Christopher; Clark, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of an important new fundamental theory of brain function. This theory brings information-theoretic, Bayesian, neuroscientific, and machine learning approaches into a single framework whose overarching principle is the minimization of surprise (or, equivalently, the maximization of expectation). The most comprehensive such treatment is the "free-energy minimization" formulation due to Karl Friston (see e.g., Friston and Stephan, 2007; Friston, 2010a,b - see also Fiorillo, 2010; Thornton, 2010). A recurrent puzzle raised by critics of these models is that biological systems do not seem to avoid surprises. We do not simply seek a dark, unchanging chamber, and stay there. This is the "Dark-Room Problem." Here, we describe the problem and further unpack the issues to which it speaks. Using the same format as the prolog of Eddington's Space, Time, and Gravitation (Eddington, 1920) we present our discussion as a conversation between: an information theorist (Thornton), a physicist (Friston), and a philosopher (Clark).

  19. Minimization of the vibration energy of thin-plate structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Townsend, Dennis P.; Coy, John J.

    1992-01-01

    An optimization method is proposed to reduce the vibration of thin plate structures. The method is based on a finite element shell analysis, a modal analysis, and a structural optimization method. In the finite element analysis, a triangular shell element with 18 dof is used. In the optimization, the overall vibration energy of the structure is adopted as the objective function, and it is minimized at the given exciting frequency by varying the thickness of the elements. The technique of modal analysis is used to derive the sensitivity of the vibration energy with respect to the design variables. The sensitivity is represented by the sensitivities of both eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum value is computed by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure under the constraint condition of constant weight. A computer code, based on the proposed method, is developed and is applied to design problems using a beam and a plate as test cases. It is confirmed that the vibration energy is reduced at the given exciting frequency. For the beam excited by a frequency slightly less than the fundamental natural frequency, the optimized shape is close to the beam of uniform strength.

  20. Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

  1. Molecular Dynamics and Energy Minimization Based on Embedded Atom Method

    1995-03-01

    This program performs atomic scale computer simulations of the structure and dynamics of metallic system using energetices based on the Embedded Atom Method. The program performs two types of calculations. First, it performs local energy minimization of all atomic positions to determine ground state and saddle point energies and structures. Second, it performs molecular dynamics simulations to determine thermodynamics or miscroscopic dynamics of the system. In both cases, various constraints can be applied to themore » system. The volume of the system can be varied automatically to achieve any desired external pressure. The temperature in molecular dynamics simulations can be controlled by a variety of methods. Further, the temperature control can be applied either to the entire system or just a subset of the atoms that would act as a thermal source/sink. The motion of one or more of the atoms can be constrained to either simulate the effects of bulk boundary conditions or to facilitate the determination of saddle point configurations. The simulations are performed with periodic boundary conditions.« less

  2. Energy and environmental progress-1

    SciTech Connect

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 9 international congress on energy and environment under the following headings: Air pollution and control; Greenhouse effects; Climatological effects; and Deforestation/ disertification.

  3. Energy in America: Progress and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

  4. Free-Energy Minimization and the Dark-Room Problem

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl; Thornton, Christopher; Clark, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of an important new fundamental theory of brain function. This theory brings information-theoretic, Bayesian, neuroscientific, and machine learning approaches into a single framework whose overarching principle is the minimization of surprise (or, equivalently, the maximization of expectation). The most comprehensive such treatment is the “free-energy minimization” formulation due to Karl Friston (see e.g., Friston and Stephan, 2007; Friston, 2010a,b – see also Fiorillo, 2010; Thornton, 2010). A recurrent puzzle raised by critics of these models is that biological systems do not seem to avoid surprises. We do not simply seek a dark, unchanging chamber, and stay there. This is the “Dark-Room Problem.” Here, we describe the problem and further unpack the issues to which it speaks. Using the same format as the prolog of Eddington’s Space, Time, and Gravitation (Eddington, 1920) we present our discussion as a conversation between: an information theorist (Thornton), a physicist (Friston), and a philosopher (Clark). PMID:22586414

  5. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues.

  6. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. PMID:21262520

  7. Energy-efficient ECG compression on wireless biosensors via minimal coherence sensing and weighted ℓ₁ minimization reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Gu, Zhenghui; Yu, Zhu Liang; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-03-01

    Low energy consumption is crucial for body area networks (BANs). In BAN-enabled ECG monitoring, the continuous monitoring entails the need of the sensor nodes to transmit a huge data to the sink node, which leads to excessive energy consumption. To reduce airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, this paper presents an energy-efficient compressed sensing (CS)-based approach for on-node ECG compression. At first, an algorithm called minimal mutual coherence pursuit is proposed to construct sparse binary measurement matrices, which can be used to encode the ECG signals with superior performance and extremely low complexity. Second, in order to minimize the data rate required for faithful reconstruction, a weighted ℓ1 minimization model is derived by exploring the multisource prior knowledge in wavelet domain. Experimental results on MIT-BIH arrhythmia database reveals that the proposed approach can obtain higher compression ratio than the state-of-the-art CS-based methods. Together with its low encoding complexity, our approach can achieve significant energy saving in both encoding process and wireless transmission. PMID:25751844

  8. Energy minimization versus pseudo force technique for nonlinear structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of using minimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear structural analysis problems is discussed and demonstrated by comparison with the conventional pseudo force technique. The comparison involves nonlinear problems with a relatively few degrees of freedom. A survey of the state-of-the-art of algorithms for unconstrained minimization reveals that extension of the technique to large scale nonlinear systems is possible.

  9. Energy conservation in Kenya: progress, potentials, problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Hollander, J.M.; Milukas, M.; Alcamo, J.; Meyers, S.; Noll, S.

    1981-09-01

    A study was carried out of the flows of commercial energy in the economy of Kenya. Indications were sought of the extent to which energy conservation, (i.e., increase in efficiency of energy use) has reduced the ratio of energy inputs to economic outputs, in the post-1973 years. An assessment was made of the potential for energy conservation to reduce the growth of Kenyan energy use in the future and of significant barriers to increasing energy efficiency. Consideration was given to the role of government policy and of international assistance in fostering energy conservation in Kenya and other developing countries. The study was performed by analyzing available energy data and statistics from the largest oil companies, the Kenyan electric utility, and the government. These sources were supplemented by conducting personal interviews with personnel of nearly 50 commercial firms in Kenya. Direct consumption of fuel accounts for 94% of the commercial energy use in Kenya, while electricity accounts for 6%. The sectoral division of fuel use is: transportation 53%, industry 21%, energy production 11%, agriculture 9%, buildings and residences 5%, and construction 1%. For electricity the division is: buildings and residences 48%, industry 45%, energy production 4%, agriculture 2%, and construction 1%. Recent progress in conservation is reported.

  10. Fossil energy program. Progress report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L. E.

    1980-10-01

    This report - the seventy-second of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process and program analysis, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, fossil energy applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international assessment of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology, and PFBC systems analysis.

  11. Discretized energy minimization in a wave guide with point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propst, G.

    1994-01-01

    An anti-noise problem on a finite time interval is solved by minimization of a quadratic functional on the Hilbert space of square integrable controls. To this end, the one-dimensional wave equation with point sources and pointwise reflecting boundary conditions is decomposed into a system for the two propagating components of waves. Wellposedness of this system is proved for a class of data that includes piecewise linear initial conditions and piecewise constant forcing functions. It is shown that for such data the optimal piecewise constant control is the solution of a sparse linear system. Methods for its computational treatment are presented as well as examples of their applicability. The convergence of discrete approximations to the general optimization problem is demonstrated by finite element methods.

  12. Guided energy-minimizing model for segmentation of vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binias, Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Active contours or snakes, are a group of image segmentation methods based on the idea of energy-minimizng curves. In this paper classical snake model with added Balloon Force is modified, granting it the capability of performing object segmentation task on data with unlimited number of channels. Thanks to introduction of novel component, named the Guiding Energy, into the classical active contour energy functional, the method is now capable of focusing on the objects which posses a specified features provided to the model.

  13. Shapes of minimal-energy DNA ropes condensed in confinement.

    PubMed

    Šiber, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Shapes of a single, long DNA molecule condensed in a confinement of a virus capsid are described as conformations optimizing a model free energy functional accounting for the interplay between the bending energy of the DNA and the surface energy of the DNA bundled in a "rope". The rope is formed by bundled DNA brought together by (self-)attractive interactions. The conformations predicted by the model depend on the shape of the confinement, the total amount of the packed DNA but also on the relative contributions of the bending and surface energies. Some of the conformations found were not predicted previously, but many previously proposed DNA conformations, some of which are seemingly contradictory, were found as the solutions of the model. The results show that there are many possible packing conformations of the DNA and that the one which realizes in a particular virus depends on the capsid geometry and the nature of condensing agents. PMID:27364168

  14. Shapes of minimal-energy DNA ropes condensed in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiber, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Shapes of a single, long DNA molecule condensed in a confinement of a virus capsid are described as conformations optimizing a model free energy functional accounting for the interplay between the bending energy of the DNA and the surface energy of the DNA bundled in a “rope”. The rope is formed by bundled DNA brought together by (self-)attractive interactions. The conformations predicted by the model depend on the shape of the confinement, the total amount of the packed DNA but also on the relative contributions of the bending and surface energies. Some of the conformations found were not predicted previously, but many previously proposed DNA conformations, some of which are seemingly contradictory, were found as the solutions of the model. The results show that there are many possible packing conformations of the DNA and that the one which realizes in a particular virus depends on the capsid geometry and the nature of condensing agents.

  15. Shapes of minimal-energy DNA ropes condensed in confinement

    PubMed Central

    Šiber, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Shapes of a single, long DNA molecule condensed in a confinement of a virus capsid are described as conformations optimizing a model free energy functional accounting for the interplay between the bending energy of the DNA and the surface energy of the DNA bundled in a “rope”. The rope is formed by bundled DNA brought together by (self-)attractive interactions. The conformations predicted by the model depend on the shape of the confinement, the total amount of the packed DNA but also on the relative contributions of the bending and surface energies. Some of the conformations found were not predicted previously, but many previously proposed DNA conformations, some of which are seemingly contradictory, were found as the solutions of the model. The results show that there are many possible packing conformations of the DNA and that the one which realizes in a particular virus depends on the capsid geometry and the nature of condensing agents. PMID:27364168

  16. Minimally Invasive Early Operative Treatment of Progressive Foot and Ankle Deformity Associated With Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Tabatt, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a neuromuscular disorder that commonly results in a predictable pattern of progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness, numbness, contracture, and deformity, including drop foot, loss of ankle eversion strength, dislocated hammertoes, and severe cavus foot deformity. Late stage reconstructive surgery will be often necessary if the deformity becomes unbraceable or when neuropathic ulcers have developed. Reconstructive surgery for Charcot-Marie-Tooth deformity is generally extensive and sometimes staged. Traditional reconstructive surgery involves a combination of procedures, including tendon lengthening or transfer, osteotomy, and arthrodesis. The described technique highlights our early surgical approach, which involves limited intervention before the deformity becomes rigid, severe, or disabling. We present 2 cases to contrast our early minimally invasive technique with traditional late stage reconstruction. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects different muscles at various stages of disease progression. As 1 muscle becomes weak, the antagonist will overpower it and cause progressive deformity. The focus of the early minimally invasive approach is to decrease the forces that cause progressive deformity yet maintain function, where possible. Our goal has been to maintain a functional and braceable foot and ankle, with the hope of avoiding or limiting the extent of future major reconstructive surgery. The presented cases highlight the patient selection criteria, the ideal timing of early surgical intervention, the procedure selection criteria, and operative pearls. The early minimally invasive approach includes plantar fasciotomy, Achilles tendon lengthening, transfer of the peroneus longus to the fifth metatarsal, Hibbs and Jones tendon transfer, and hammertoe repair of digits 1 to 5.

  17. On global minimizers of repulsive–attractive power-law interaction energies

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Chipot, Michel; Huang, Yanghong

    2014-01-01

    We consider the minimization of the repulsive–attractive power-law interaction energies that occur in many biological and physical situations. We show the existence of global minimizers in the discrete setting and obtain bounds for their supports independently of the number of Dirac deltas in a certain range of exponents. These global discrete minimizers correspond to the stable spatial profiles of flock patterns in swarming models. Global minimizers of the continuum problem are obtained by compactness. We also illustrate our results through numerical simulations. PMID:25288810

  18. 1999 annual progress report -- Energy conservation team

    SciTech Connect

    Chalk, S.

    1999-10-19

    This report highlights progress achieved during FY 1999 under the Light-duty Fuels Utilization R and D Program. The program is comprised of two elements: the Advanced Petroleum-Based APB Fuels Program which focused on developing and testing advanced fuels for use with compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines and fuel cells and the Alternative Fuels Program which focused on Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels. The report contains 17 summaries of industry and National Laboratory projects. Fuel efficient vehicles with very low emissions are essential to meet the challenges of climate change, energy security, and improved air quality. The authors anticipate cooperative efforts with the auto and energy industries to develop new and innovative technologies that will be used to make advanced transportation vehicles that are fuel efficient, clean, and safe.

  19. Minimizing metabolic activation during pharmaceutical lead optimization: progress, knowledge gaps and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kassahun, Kelem; Tschirret-Guth, Richard A; Mitra, Kaushik; Baillie, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Minimizing the potential for drug candidates to form chemically reactive metabolites that can covalently modify cellular macromolecules represents a rational strategy to reduce the risk of drug-induced idiosyncratic toxicity in humans. In this review, the approaches that are currently available for addressing this issue during the lead optimization phase of drug discovery, their limitations, and future scientific directions that have the potential to address these limitations are discussed.

  20. Fast Energy Minimization of large Polymers Using Constrained Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Todd D. Plantenga

    1998-10-01

    A new computational technique is described that uses distance constraints to calculate empirical potential energy minima of partially rigid molecules. A constrained minimuzation algorithm that works entirely in Cartesian coordinates is used. The algorithm does not obey the constraints until convergence, a feature that reduces ill-conditioning and allows constrained local minima to be computed more quickly than unconstrained minima. Computational speedup exceeds the 3-fold factor commonly obtained in constained molecular dynamics simulations, where the constraints must be strictly obeyed at all times.

  1. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  2. Charting our energy future: progress or prudence

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.

    1980-04-01

    Dr. Cook says the US must decide whether to pursue the progress option of continued reliance on oil and gas to maintain its technological and social leadership or whether to adopt the prudent option of conservation and fuel substitutions to buy time for future needs. The progress option requires control of energy resources that will become increasingly difficult. Although the US is rich in resources, the problems of cost, demand uncertainty, environmental protection, social stability, safety, and the possibility that renewable resouces will be inadequate when non-renewables are depleted makes this a dangerous strategy. A steadier state of resource planning and conservation could be developing alternative domestic supplies which are free from external political control - the prudence option. This is the hard option, however, because it requires sacrifices of individual choice, a long-term commitment to real conservation through controls and possibly rationing, and a realistic assessment of the social and environmental costs of burning more coal and pushing ahead with nuclear power. Dr. Cook discusses briefly five reasons why a national decision for the prudence option appears unlikely. (DCK)

  3. Free energy minimization to predict RNA secondary structures and computational RNA design.

    PubMed

    Churkin, Alexander; Weinbrand, Lina; Barash, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Determining the RNA secondary structure from sequence data by computational predictions is a long-standing problem. Its solution has been approached in two distinctive ways. If a multiple sequence alignment of a collection of homologous sequences is available, the comparative method uses phylogeny to determine conserved base pairs that are more likely to form as a result of billions of years of evolution than by chance. In the case of single sequences, recursive algorithms that compute free energy structures by using empirically derived energy parameters have been developed. This latter approach of RNA folding prediction by energy minimization is widely used to predict RNA secondary structure from sequence. For a significant number of RNA molecules, the secondary structure of the RNA molecule is indicative of its function and its computational prediction by minimizing its free energy is important for its functional analysis. A general method for free energy minimization to predict RNA secondary structures is dynamic programming, although other optimization methods have been developed as well along with empirically derived energy parameters. In this chapter, we introduce and illustrate by examples the approach of free energy minimization to predict RNA secondary structures.

  4. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-07-15

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS {bar p} experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance.

  5. Band offset formation at semiconductor heterojunctions through density-based minimization of interface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Raymond T.; Kronik, Leeor

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the magnitude of band offset (BO) at any semiconductor heterojunction is directly derivable from the distribution of charge at that interface and that the latter is decided by a minimization of total energy. However, the fact that BO formation is governed by energy minimization has not been explicitly used in theoretical BO models, likely because the equilibrium charge densities at heterojunction interfaces appear difficult to predict, except via explicit calculation. In this paper, electron densities at a large number of (100), (110), and (111) oriented heterojunctions between lattice-matched, isovalent semiconductors with the zinc blende (ZB) structure have been calculated by first-principles methods and analyzed in detail for possible common characteristics among energy-minimized densities. Remarkably, the heterojunction electron density was found to largely depend only on the immediate, local atomic arrangement. In fact, it is so much so that a juxtaposition of local electron-densities generated in oligo-cells (LEGOs) accurately reproduced the charge densities that minimize the energy for the heterojunctions. Furthermore, the charge distribution for each bulk semiconductor was found to display a striking separability of its electrostatic effect into two neutral parts, associated with the cation and the anion, which are approximately transferrable among semiconductors. These discoveries form the basis of a neutral polyhedra theory (NPT) that approximately predicts the equilibrium charge density and BO of relaxed heterojunctions from the energy minimization requirement. Well-known experimentally observed characteristics of heterojunctions, such as the insensitivity of BO to heterojunction orientation and the identity of interface bonds, the transitivity rule, etc., are all in good agreement with the NPT. Therefore, energy minimization, which essentially decides the electronic properties of all other solid and molecular systems, also governs

  6. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.D.

    1989-11-01

    We have made substantial progress in experimental and theoretical studies in two areas: Photoinduced donor to acceptor electron transfer followed by back transfer in random solutions; and electronic excitation transport in systems with complex inhomogeneous spatial geometries and inhomogeneous energy distributions. Through the development of accurate statistical mechanical theories, we have been able to relate dynamics in complex systems to experimental observables. We have then used the experimental observables, time resolved fluorescence depolarization and transient grating experiments, to examine well defined molecular systems. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. 11 refs.

  7. Five dimensional spherically symmetric minimally interacting holographic dark energy model in Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R. K.; Raju, P.; Sobhanbabu, K.

    2016-04-01

    Five dimensional spherically symmetric space-time filled with two minimally interacting fields; matter and holographic dark energy components is investigated in a scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans and Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961). To obtain a determinate solution of the highly non-linear field equations we have used (i) a relation between metric potentials and (ii) an equation of state which represents disordered radiation in five dimensional universe. The solution obtained represents a minimally interacting and radiating holographic dark energy model in five dimensional universe. Some physical and Kinematical properties of the model are, also, studied.

  8. Teardrop Shapes Minimize Bending Energy of Fusion Pores Connecting Planar Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ryham, Rolf J.; Ward, Mark A.; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical gradient flow procedure was devised to characterize minimal energy shapes of fusion pores connecting two parallel planar bilayer membranes. Pore energy, composed of splay, tilt, and stretching, was obtained by modeling each bilayer as two monolayers and treating each monolayer of a bilayer membrane as a freely deformable surface described with a mean lipid orientation field. Voids between the two monolayers were prevented by a steric penalty formulation. Pore shapes were assumed to possess both axial and reflectional symmetry. For fixed pore radius and bilayer separation, the gradient flow procedure was applied to initially toroidal pore shapes. Using initially elliptical pore shapes yielded the same final shape. The resulting minimal pore shapes and energies were analyzed as a function of pore dimension and lipid composition. Previous studies either assumed or confined pore shapes, thereby tacitly supplying an unspecified amount of energy to maintain shape. The shapes derived in the present study were outputs of calculations and an externally provided energy was not supplied. Our procedure therefore yielded energy minima significantly lower than those reported in prior studies. The membrane of minimal energy pores bowed outward near the pore lumen, yielding a pore length that exceeded the distance between the two fusing membranes. PMID:24483480

  9. Teardrop shapes minimize bending energy of fusion pores connecting planar bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryham, Rolf J.; Ward, Mark A.; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical gradient flow procedure was devised to characterize minimal energy shapes of fusion pores connecting two parallel planar bilayer membranes. Pore energy, composed of splay, tilt, and stretching, was obtained by modeling each bilayer as two monolayers and treating each monolayer of a bilayer membrane as a freely deformable surface described with a mean lipid orientation field. Voids between the two monolayers were prevented by a steric penalty formulation. Pore shapes were assumed to possess both axial and reflectional symmetry. For fixed pore radius and bilayer separation, the gradient flow procedure was applied to initially toroidal pore shapes. Using initially elliptical pore shapes yielded the same final shape. The resulting minimal pore shapes and energies were analyzed as a function of pore dimension and lipid composition. Previous studies either assumed or confined pore shapes, thereby tacitly supplying an unspecified amount of energy to maintain shape. The shapes derived in the present study were outputs of calculations and an externally provided energy was not supplied. Our procedure therefore yielded energy minima significantly lower than those reported in prior studies. The membrane of minimal energy pores bowed outward near the pore lumen, yielding a pore length that exceeded the distance between the two fusing membranes.

  10. Minimizing the Free Energy: A Computer Method for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, Emerson F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a computer method for teaching chemical equilibrium concepts using material balance conditions and the minimization of the free energy. Method for the calculation of chemical equilibrium, the computer program used to solve equilibrium problems and applications of the method are also included. (HM)

  11. Minimal cooling speed for glass transition in a simple solvable energy landscape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2016-06-01

    The minimal cooling speed required to form a glass is obtained for a simple solvable energy landscape model. The model, made from a two-level system modified to include the topology of the energy landscape, is able to capture either a glass transition or a crystallization depending on the cooling rate. In this setup, the minimal cooling speed to achieve glass formation is then found to be related with the crystallization relaxation time, energy barrier and with the thermal history. In particular, we obtain that the thermal history encodes small fluctuations around the equilibrium population which are exponentially amplified near the glass transition, which mathematically corresponds to the boundary layer of the master equation. The change in the glass transition temperature is also found as a function of the cooling rate. Finally, to verify our analytical results, a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation was implemented.

  12. Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2016-10-01

    The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl-Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl-Teller and Gaussian wells.

  13. Progress on linking gender and sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.

    2000-04-05

    The field of gender and energy has been identified as critical in global sustainable energy development and is increasingly important to decision makers. The theme of women and energy was of significance at the 1998 World Renewable Energy Congress in Florence, Italy. This paper traces further developments in this field by summarizing selected programmatic initiatives, meetings, and publications over the past 18 months.

  14. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

  15. An energy minimization method for the correction of cupping artifacts in cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shipeng; Zhuang, Wenqin; Li, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce cupping artifacts and improve quantitative accuracy of the images in cone-beam CT (CBCT). An energy minimization method (EMM) is proposed to reduce cupping artifacts in reconstructed image of the CBCT. The cupping artifacts are iteratively optimized by using efficient matrix computations, which are verified to be numerically stable by matrix analysis. Moreover, the energy in our formulation is convex in each of its variables, which brings the robustness of the proposed energy minimization algorithm. The cupping artifacts are estimated as a result of minimizing this energy. The results indicate that proposed algorithm is effective for reducing the cupping artifacts and preserving the quality of the reconstructed image. The proposed method focuses on the reconstructed image without requiring any additional physical equipment; it is easily implemented and provides cupping correction using a single scan acquisition. The experimental results demonstrate that this method can successfully reduce the magnitude of cupping artifacts. The correction algorithm reported here may improve the uniformity of the reconstructed images, thus assisting the development of perfect volume visualization and threshold-based visualization techniques for reconstructed images. PMID:27455478

  16. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  17. 1994 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1995-10-16

    The Y-12 Plant serves as a key manufacturing technology center for the development and demonstration of unique materials, components, and services of importance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. This is accomplished through the reclamation and storage of nuclear materials, manufacture of nuclear materials, manufacture of components for the nation`s defense capabilities, support to national security programs, and services provided to other customers as approved by DOE. We are recognized by our people, the community, and our customers as innovative, responsive, and responsible. We are a leader in worker health and safety, environmental protection, and stewardship of our national resources. As a DOE facility, Y-12 also supports DOE`s waste minimization mission. Data contained in this report represents waste generation in Tennessee.

  18. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochi, Taha

    2016-09-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton and global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of computational fluid dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

  19. Five dimensional minimally interacting holographic dark energy model in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R. K.; Anitha, S.; Umadevi, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate five dimensional space-time filled with minimally interacting dark matter and holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke (Phys. Rev. 124:925, 1961) scalar-tensor theory of gravitation. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained using (i) special law of variation for Hubble's parameter that yields constant value of deceleration parameter and (ii) a relation between metric potentials. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  20. Isometric immersions, energy minimization and self-similar buckling in non-Euclidean elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, John; Sharon, Eran; Shearman, Toby; Venkataramani, Shankar C.

    2016-04-01

    The edges of torn plastic sheets and growing leaves often display hierarchical buckling patterns. We show that this complex morphology i) emerges even in zero strain configurations, and ii) is driven by a competition between the two principal curvatures, rather than between bending and stretching. We identify the key role of branch point (or “monkey saddle”) singularities in generating complex wrinkling patterns in isometric immersions, and show how they arise naturally from minimizing the elastic energy.

  1. Rigorous treatment of electrostatics for spatially varying dielectrics based on energy minimization

    PubMed Central

    Obolensky, O. I.; Doerr, T. P.; Ray, R.; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    An energy minimization formulation of electrostatics that allows computation of the electrostatic energy and forces to any desired accuracy in a system with arbitrary dielectric properties is presented. An integral equation for the scalar charge density is derived from an energy functional of the polarization vector field. This energy functional represents the true energy of the system even in nonequilibrium states. Arbitrary accuracy is achieved by solving the integral equation for the charge density via a series expansion in terms of the equation’s kernel, which depends only on the geometry of the dielectrics. The streamlined formalism operates with volume charge distributions only, not resorting to introducing surface charges by hand. Therefore, it can be applied to any spatial variation of the dielectric susceptibility, which is of particular importance in applications to biomolecular systems. The simplicity of application of the formalism to real problems is shown with analytical and numerical examples. PMID:19518256

  2. RADIUS CONSTRAINTS AND MINIMAL EQUIPARTITION ENERGY OF RELATIVISTICALLY MOVING SYNCHROTRON SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Piran, Tsvi; Nakar, Ehud E-mail: tsvi.piran@mail.huji.ac.il

    2013-07-20

    A measurement of the synchrotron self-absorption flux and frequency provides tight constraints on the physical size of the source and a robust lower limit on its energy. This lower limit is also a good estimate of the magnetic field and electrons' energy, if the two components are at equipartition. This well-known method was used for decades to study numerous astrophysical sources moving at non-relativistic (Newtonian) speeds. Here, we generalize the Newtonian equipartition theory to sources moving at relativistic speeds including the effect of deviation from spherical symmetry expected in such sources. As in the Newtonian case, minimization of the energy provides an excellent estimate of the emission radius and yields a useful lower limit on the energy. We find that the application of the Newtonian formalism to a relativistic source would yield a smaller emission radius, and would generally yield a larger lower limit on the energy (within the observed region). For sources where the synchrotron-self-Compton component can be identified, the minimization of the total energy is not necessary and we present an unambiguous solution for the parameters of the system.

  3. Computational methods for reactive transport modeling: A Gibbs energy minimization approach for multiphase equilibrium calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Allan M. M.; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg

    2016-02-01

    We present a numerical method for multiphase chemical equilibrium calculations based on a Gibbs energy minimization approach. The method can accurately and efficiently determine the stable phase assemblage at equilibrium independently of the type of phases and species that constitute the chemical system. We have successfully applied our chemical equilibrium algorithm in reactive transport simulations to demonstrate its effective use in computationally intensive applications. We used FEniCS to solve the governing partial differential equations of mass transport in porous media using finite element methods in unstructured meshes. Our equilibrium calculations were benchmarked with GEMS3K, the numerical kernel of the geochemical package GEMS. This allowed us to compare our results with a well-established Gibbs energy minimization algorithm, as well as their performance on every mesh node, at every time step of the transport simulation. The benchmark shows that our novel chemical equilibrium algorithm is accurate, robust, and efficient for reactive transport applications, and it is an improvement over the Gibbs energy minimization algorithm used in GEMS3K. The proposed chemical equilibrium method has been implemented in Reaktoro, a unified framework for modeling chemically reactive systems, which is now used as an alternative numerical kernel of GEMS.

  4. Free Energy Minimization Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibria. Reduction of Silicon Dioxide with Carbon at High Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wai, C. M.; Hutchinson, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of free energy in reactions between silicon dioxide and carbon. Describes several computer programs for calculating the free energy minimization and their uses in chemistry classrooms. Lists 16 references. (YP)

  5. Computation of mixed phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol bilayer structures by energy minimization.

    PubMed Central

    Vanderkooi, G

    1994-01-01

    The energetically preferred structures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)-cholesterol bilayers were determined at a 1:1 mole ratio. Crystallographic symmetry operations were used to generate planar bilayers of cholesterol and DMPC. Energy minimization was carried out with respect to bond rotations, rigid body motions, and the two-dimensional lattice constants. The lowest energy structures had a hydrogen bond between the cholesterol hydroxyl and the carbonyl oxygen of the sn-2 acyl chain, but the largest contribution to the intermolecular energy was from the nonbonded interactions between the flat alpha surface of cholesterol and the acyl chains of DMPC. Two modes of packing in the bilayer were found; in structure A (the global minimum), unlike molecules are nearest neighbors, whereas in structure B (second lowest energy) like-like intermolecular interactions predominate. Crystallographic close packing of the molecules in the bilayer was achieved, as judged from the molecular areas and the bilayer thickness. These energy-minimized structures are consistent with the available experimental data on mixed bilayers of lecithin and cholesterol, and may be used as starting points for molecular dynamics or other calculations on bilayers. PMID:8061195

  6. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost. PMID:25054163

  7. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    PubMed

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost. PMID:25054163

  8. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    PubMed

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  9. Minimizers of the Landau-de Gennes Energy Around a Spherical Colloid Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alama, Stan; Bronsard, Lia; Lamy, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    We consider energy minimizing configurations of a nematic liquid crystal around a spherical colloid particle, in the context of the Landau-de Gennes model. The nematic is assumed to occupy the exterior of a ball B r0, and satisfy homeotropic weak anchoring at the surface of the colloid and approach a uniform uniaxial state as {|x|to∞}. We study the minimizers in two different limiting regimes: for balls which are small {r_0≪ L^{1/2}} compared to the characteristic length scale {L^{1/2}}, and for large balls, {r_0≫ L^{1/2}}. The relationship between the radius and the anchoring strength W is also relevant. For small balls we obtain a limiting quadrupolar configuration, with a "Saturn ring" defect for relatively strong anchoring, corresponding to an exchange of eigenvalues of the Q-tensor. In the limit of very large balls we obtain an axisymmetric minimizer of the Oseen-Frank energy, and a dipole configuration with exactly one point defect is obtained.

  10. Recent progress in magma energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, A.; Dunn, J.C.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Hickox, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ongoing research in the area of Magma Energy Extraction is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of an open, direct-contact heat exchanger in a crustal magma body. The energy extraction rate has a direct influence on the economic viability of the concept. An open heat exchanger, in which fluid is circulated through the interconnecting fissures and fractures in the solidified region around drilling tubing, offers the promise of very high rates of heat transfer. This paper discusses recent research in five areas: (1) fundamental mechanisms of solidifying and thermally fracturing magma; (2) convective heat transfer in the internally fractured solidified magma; (3) convective flow in the molten magma and heat transfer from the magma to the cooled heat exchanger protruding into it; (4) numerical simulation of the overall energy extraction process; and (5) the thermodynamics of energy conversion in a magma power plant at the surface. The studies show that an open heat exchanger can be formed by solidifying magma around a cooled borehole and that the resulting mass will be extensively fractured by thermally-induced stresses. Numerical models indicate that high quality thermal energy can be delivered at the wellhead at nominal rates from 25 to 30 MW electric. It is shown that optimum well circulation rates can be found that depend on the heat transfer characteristics of the magma heat exchanger and the thermodynamic power conversion efficiencies of the surface plant.

  11. Ten scenarios from early radiation to late time acceleration with a minimally coupled dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, Stéphane

    2013-09-01

    We consider General Relativity with matter, radiation and a minimally coupled dark energy defined by an equation of state w. Using dynamical system method, we find the equilibrium points of such a theory assuming an expanding Universe and a positive dark energy density. Two of these points correspond to classical radiation and matter dominated epochs for the Universe. For the other points, dark energy mimics matter, radiation or accelerates Universe expansion. We then look for possible sequences of epochs describing a Universe starting with some radiation dominated epoch(s) (mimicked or not by dark energy), then matter dominated epoch(s) (mimicked or not by dark energy) and ending with an accelerated expansion. We find ten sequences able to follow this Universe history without singular behaviour of w at some saddle points. Most of them are new in dark energy literature. To get more than these ten sequences, w has to be singular at some specific saddle equilibrium points. This is an unusual mathematical property of the equation of state in dark energy literature, whose physical consequences tend to be discarded by observations. This thus distinguishes the ten above sequences from an infinity of ways to describe Universe expansion.

  12. Hierarchical particle swarm optimizer for minimizing the non-convex potential energy of molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ngaam J; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The stable conformation of a molecule is greatly important to uncover the secret of its properties and functions. Generally, the conformation of a molecule will be the most stable when it is of the minimum potential energy. Accordingly, the determination of the conformation can be solved in the optimization framework. It is, however, not an easy task to achieve the only conformation with the lowest energy among all the potential ones because of the high complexity of the energy landscape and the exponential computation increasing with molecular size. In this paper, we develop a hierarchical and heterogeneous particle swarm optimizer (HHPSO) to deal with the problem in the minimization of the potential energy. The proposed method is evaluated over a scalable simplified molecular potential energy function with up to 200 degrees of freedom and a realistic energy function of pseudo-ethane molecule. The experimental results are compared with other six PSO variants and four genetic algorithms. The results show HHPSO is significantly better than the compared PSOs with p-value less than 0.01277 over molecular potential energy function.

  13. An energy spread minimization system for microbeam generation in the JAERI AVF cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Okumura, Susumu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Nara, Takayuki; Agematsu, Takashi; Ishibori, Ikuo; Yoshida, Kenichi; Yokota, Watalu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kumata, Yukio; Fukumoto, Yasushi; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2003-09-01

    A heavy-ion microbeam with energy of hundreds of MeV is a significantly useful probe for research in biology and biotechnology. A single-ion hit technique using the heavy-ion microbeam is being developed at the JAERI AVF cyclotron facility for elucidation of biofunctions. For production of a microbeam with a spot size of one micro-meter in diameter, the energy spread in the beam is required to be reduced to 0.02% to minimize the effect of chromatic aberrations in the focusing lenses. The energy spread in the cyclotron beam depends on a waveform of the acceleration voltage and beam phase acceptance of the cyclotron. The typical energy spread of the cyclotron beam is around 0.1% in the ordinary acceleration mode using a sinusoidal voltage waveform. The energy spread can be reduced by superimposing a fifth-harmonic voltage waveform on the fundamental one to generate a flat-top waveform for uniform energy gain. The flat-top acceleration system has been designed for the variable-energy multi-particle AVF cyclotron with acceleration harmonic mode of 1, 2 and 3. An additional coaxial cavity has been installed to generate the fifth-harmonic voltage, coupled to the main resonator. The frequency range of the fifth harmonics, 55-110 MHz, was fully covered by the flat-top acceleration system.

  14. ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

    2003-01-01

    A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

  15. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.

  16. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    DOE PAGES

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; et al

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, andmore » prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits.« less

  17. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil, Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics include: alloys, ceramics and composite research and development; corrosion and erosion research; environmental analysis and information systems; coal conversion development; mild gasification product characterization; coal combustion research; strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling; and coal structure and chemistry.

  18. Cracow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  19. Minimally Invasive Medial Plating of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries: Preliminary Experience with Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Ghioldi, Mauricio; Raimondi, Nicolás; De Elias, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Fracture dislocations involving the Lisfranc joint are rare; they represent only 0.2% of all the fractures. There is no consensus about the surgical management of these lesions in the medical literature. However, both anatomical reduction and tarsometatarsal stabilization are essential for a good outcome. In this clinical study, five consecutive patients with a diagnosis of Lisfranc low-energy lesion were treated with a novel surgical technique characterized by minimal osteosynthesis performed through a minimally invasive approach. According to the radiological criteria established, the joint reduction was anatomical in four patients, almost anatomical in one patient (#4), and nonanatomical in none of the patients. At the final follow-up, the AOFAS score for the midfoot was 96 points (range, 95–100). The mean score according to the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) at the end of the follow-up period was 1.4 points over 10 (range, 0–3). The surgical technique described in this clinical study is characterized by the use of implants with the utilization of a novel approach to reduce joint and soft tissue damage. We performed a closed reduction and minimally invasive stabilization with a bridge plate and a screw after achieving a closed anatomical reduction. PMID:27340569

  20. Fifteen observations on the structure of energy-minimizing gaits in many simple biped models.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    A popular hypothesis regarding legged locomotion is that humans and other large animals walk and run in a manner that minimizes the metabolic energy expenditure for locomotion. Here, using numerical optimization and supporting analytical arguments, I obtain the energy-minimizing gaits of many different simple biped models. I consider bipeds with point-mass bodies and massless legs, with or without a knee, with or without a springy tendon in series with the leg muscle and minimizing one of many different 'metabolic cost' models-correlated with muscle work, muscle force raised to some power, the Minetti-Alexander quasi-steady approximation to empirical muscle metabolic rate (from heat and ATPase activity), a new cost function called the 'generalized work cost' C(g) having some positivity and convexity properties (and includes the Minetti-Alexander cost and the work cost as special cases), and generalizations thereof. For many of these models, walking-like gaits are optimal at low speeds and running-like gaits at higher speeds, so a gait transition is optimal. Minimizing the generalized work cost C(g) appears mostly indistinguishable from minimizing muscle work for all the models. Inverted pendulum walking and impulsive running gaits minimize the work cost, generalized work costs C(g) and a few other costs for the springless bipeds; in particular, a knee-torque-squared cost, appropriate as a simplified model for electric motor power for a kneed robot biped. Many optimal gaits had symmetry properties; for instance, the left stance phase was identical to the right stance phases. Muscle force-velocity relations and legs with masses have predictable qualitative effects, if any, on the optima. For bipeds with compliant tendons, the muscle work-minimizing strategies have close to zero muscle work (isometric muscles), with the springs performing all the leg work. These zero work gaits also minimize the generalized work costs C(g) with substantial additive force or force rate

  1. Fifteen observations on the structure of energy-minimizing gaits in many simple biped models

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    A popular hypothesis regarding legged locomotion is that humans and other large animals walk and run in a manner that minimizes the metabolic energy expenditure for locomotion. Here, using numerical optimization and supporting analytical arguments, I obtain the energy-minimizing gaits of many different simple biped models. I consider bipeds with point-mass bodies and massless legs, with or without a knee, with or without a springy tendon in series with the leg muscle and minimizing one of many different ‘metabolic cost’ models—correlated with muscle work, muscle force raised to some power, the Minetti–Alexander quasi-steady approximation to empirical muscle metabolic rate (from heat and ATPase activity), a new cost function called the ‘generalized work cost’ Cg having some positivity and convexity properties (and includes the Minetti–Alexander cost and the work cost as special cases), and generalizations thereof. For many of these models, walking-like gaits are optimal at low speeds and running-like gaits at higher speeds, so a gait transition is optimal. Minimizing the generalized work cost Cg appears mostly indistinguishable from minimizing muscle work for all the models. Inverted pendulum walking and impulsive running gaits minimize the work cost, generalized work costs Cg and a few other costs for the springless bipeds; in particular, a knee-torque-squared cost, appropriate as a simplified model for electric motor power for a kneed robot biped. Many optimal gaits had symmetry properties; for instance, the left stance phase was identical to the right stance phases. Muscle force–velocity relations and legs with masses have predictable qualitative effects, if any, on the optima. For bipeds with compliant tendons, the muscle work-minimizing strategies have close to zero muscle work (isometric muscles), with the springs performing all the leg work. These zero work gaits also minimize the generalized work costs Cg with substantial additive force or

  2. 77 FR 10491 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    .... d. Applicant: Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. e. Name of Project: Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for...

  3. The exponentiated Hencky-logarithmic strain energy. Part II: Coercivity, planar polyconvexity and existence of minimizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Patrizio; Lankeit, Johannes; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Martin, Robert; Steigmann, David

    2015-08-01

    We consider a family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor log U, where μ > 0 is the infinitesimal shear modulus, is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with the first Lamé constant, are dimensionless parameters, is the gradient of deformation, is the right stretch tensor and is the deviatoric part (the projection onto the traceless tensors) of the strain tensor log U. For small elastic strains, the energies reduce to first order to the classical quadratic Hencky energy which is known to be not rank-one convex. The main result in this paper is that in plane elastostatics the energies of the family are polyconvex for , extending a previous finding on its rank-one convexity. Our method uses a judicious application of Steigmann's polyconvexity criteria based on the representation of the energy in terms of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor U. These energies also satisfy suitable growth and coercivity conditions. We formulate the equilibrium equations, and we prove the existence of minimizers by the direct methods of the calculus of variations.

  4. Sufficient minimal model for DNA denaturation: Integration of harmonic scalar elasticity and bond energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit Raj; Granek, Rony

    2016-10-01

    We study DNA denaturation by integrating elasticity — as described by the Gaussian network model — with bond binding energies, distinguishing between different base pairs and stacking energies. We use exact calculation, within the model, of the Helmholtz free-energy of any partial denaturation state, which implies that the entropy of all formed "bubbles" ("loops") is accounted for. Considering base pair bond removal single events, the bond designated for opening is chosen by minimizing the free-energy difference for the process, over all remaining base pair bonds. Despite of its great simplicity, for several known DNA sequences our results are in accord with available theoretical and experimental studies. Moreover, we report free-energy profiles along the denaturation pathway, which allow to detect stable or meta-stable partial denaturation states, composed of bubble, as local free-energy minima separated by barriers. Our approach allows to study very long DNA strands with commonly available computational power, as we demonstrate for a few random sequences in the range 200-800 base-pairs. For the latter, we also elucidate the self-averaging property of the system. Implications for the well known breathing dynamics of DNA are elucidated.

  5. MO-A-BRD-02: Noise Suppression for Dual-Energy CT Through Entropy Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Petrongolo, M; Niu, T; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In dual energy CT (DECT), noise amplification during signal decomposition significantly limits the utility of basis material images. Since clinically relevant objects contain a limited number of materials, we propose to suppress noise in decomposed images through entropy minimization within a 2D transformation space. Distinct from other noise suppression techniques, the entropy minimization method does not estimate and suppress noise based on spatial variations of signals and thus maximally preserves image spatial resolution. Methods: From decomposed images, we first generate a 2D plot of scattered data points, using basis material densities as coordinates. Data points representing the same material generate a cluster with a highly asymmetric shape. We orient an axis by minimizing the entropy in a 1D histogram of these points projected onto the axis. To suppress noise, we replace the pixel values of decomposed images with center-of-mass values in the direction perpendicular to the optimized axis. The proposed method's performance is assessed using a Catphan 600 phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Electron density calculations are used to quantify its accuracy. Our results are compared to those without noise suppression, with a filtering method, and with a recently developed iterative method. Results: On both phantoms, the proposed method reduces noise standard deviations of the decomposed images by at least on order of magnitude. In the Catphan study, this method retains the spatial resolution of the CT images and increases the accuracy of electron density calculations. In the head phantom study, the proposed method outperforms the others in retaining fine, intricate structures. Conclusion: This work shows that the proposed method of noise suppression through entropy minimization for DECT suppresses noise without loss of spatial resolution while increasing electron density calculation accuracy. Future investigations will analyze possible bias and

  6. Energy technology X: a decade of progress. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.F.

    1983-06-01

    The characterization, development, and availability of various energy sources for large scale energy production are discussed. Attention is given to government, industry, and international policies on energy resource development and implementation. Techniques for energy analysis, planning, and regulation are examined, with consideration given to conservation practices, military energy programs, and financing schemes. Efficient energy use is examined, including energy and load management, building retrofits, and cogeneration installations, as well as waste heat recovery. The state of the art of nuclear, fossil, and geothermal power extraction is investigated, with note taken of synthetic fuels, fluidized bed combustion, and pollution control in coal-powered plants. Finally, progress in renewable energy technologies, including solar heating and cooling, biomass, and large and small wind energy conversion devices is described.

  7. Converting Energy to Medical Progress [Nuclear Medicine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  8. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  9. Minimal supporting subtrees for the free energy of polymers on disordered trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörters, Peter; Ortgiese, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    We consider a model of directed polymers on a regular tree with a disorder given by independent, identically distributed weights attached to the vertices. For suitable weight distributions this model undergoes a phase transition with respect to its localization behavior. We show that, for high temperatures, the free energy is supported by a random tree of positive exponential growth rate, which is strictly smaller than that of the full tree. The growth rate of the minimal supporting subtree decreases to zero as the temperature decreases to the critical value. At the critical value and all lower temperatures, a single polymer suffices to support the free energy. Our proofs rely on elegant martingale methods adapted from the theory of branching random walks.

  10. Improved bounds on the energy-minimizing strains in martensitic polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peigney, Michaël

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the theoretical prediction of the energy-minimizing (or recoverable) strains in martensitic polycrystals, considering a nonlinear elasticity model of phase transformation at finite strains. The main results are some rigorous upper bounds on the set of energy-minimizing strains. Those bounds depend on the polycrystalline texture through the volume fractions of the different orientations. The simplest form of the bounds presented is obtained by combining recent results for single crystals with a homogenization approach proposed previously for martensitic polycrystals. However, the polycrystalline bound delivered by that procedure may fail to recover the monocrystalline bound in the homogeneous limit, as is demonstrated in this paper by considering an example related to tetragonal martensite. This motivates the development of a more detailed analysis, leading to improved polycrystalline bounds that are notably consistent with results for single crystals in the homogeneous limit. A two-orientation polycrystal of tetragonal martensite is studied as an illustration. In that case, analytical expressions of the upper bounds are derived and the results are compared with lower bounds obtained by considering laminate textures.

  11. Parameter Estimation and Energy Minimization for Region-Based Semantic Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Pawan; Turki, Haithem; Preston, Dan; Koller, Daphne

    2015-07-01

    We consider the problem of parameter estimation and energy minimization for a region-based semantic segmentation model. The model divides the pixels of an image into non-overlapping connected regions, each of which is to a semantic class. In the context of energy minimization, the main problem we face is the large number of putative pixel-to-region assignments. We address this problem by designing an accurate linear programming based approach for selecting the best set of regions from a large dictionary. The dictionary is constructed by merging and intersecting segments obtained from multiple bottom-up over-segmentations. The linear program is solved efficiently using dual decomposition. In the context of parameter estimation, the main problem we face is the lack of fully supervised data. We address this issue by developing a principled framework for parameter estimation using diverse data. More precisely, we propose a latent structural support vector machine formulation, where the latent variables model any missing information in the human annotation. Of particular interest to us are three types of annotations: (i) images segmented using generic foreground or background classes; (ii) images with bounding boxes specified for objects; and (iii) images labeled to indicate the presence of a class. Using large, publicly available datasets we show that our methods are able to significantly improve the accuracy of the region-based model. PMID:26352446

  12. One-dimensional free-energy profiles of complex systems: progress variables that preserve the barriers.

    PubMed

    Krivov, Sergei V; Karplus, Martin

    2006-06-29

    We show that the balanced minimum-cut procedure introduced in PNAS 2004, 101, 14766 can be reinterpreted as a method for solving the constrained optimization problem of finding the minimum cut among the cuts with a particular value of an additive function of the nodes on either side of the cut. Such an additive function (e.g., the partition function of the reactant region) can be used as a progress coordinate to determine a one-dimensional profile (FEP) of the free-energy surface of the protein-folding reaction as well as other complex reactions. The algorithm is based on the network (obtained from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation) that represents the calculated reaction behavior. The resulting FEP gives the exact values of the free energy as a function of the progress coordinate; i.e., at each value of the progress coordinate, the profile is obtained from the surface with the minimal partition function among the surfaces that divide the full free-energy surface between two chosen end points. In many cases, the balanced minimum-cut procedure gives results for only a limited set of points. An approximate method based on p(fold) is shown to provide the profile for a more complete set of values of the progress coordinate. Applications of the approach to model problems and to realistic systems (beta-hairpin of protein G, LJ38 cluster) are presented. PMID:16800603

  13. HDR geothermal energy - a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nunz, G.J.; Franke, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    A description of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program and a summary of the work completed to date are presented. The Fenton Hill Project is reviewed starting with the research system (Phase I) established in its initial configuration in 1977 with the research work completed in mid-1981. The engineering system (Phase II) initiated in parallel with the completion of the Phase I is now being developed in its interim configuration. The final system is planned for completion in FY 1985 with about one year of testing extending through FY 1986. Technical evaluations and test data to date are encouraging. The foreign involvement (FRG and Japan) is expected to continue along with positive support in the US.

  14. Hack's relation and optimal channel networks: The elongation of river basins as a consequence of energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjasz-Vasquez, Ede J.; Bras, Rafael L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    1993-08-01

    As pointed by Hack (1957), river basins tend to become longer and narrower as their size increases. This work shows that this property may be partially regarded as the consequence of competition and minimization of energy expenditure in river basins.

  15. Thermal energy storage technical progress report, April 1990--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TES program from April 1990 to March 1992 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, direct contact ice making, latent heat storage plasterboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

  16. Thermal energy storage technical progress report, April 1990--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s TES program from April 1990 to March 1992 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, direct contact ice making, latent heat storage plasterboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

  17. Dark energy, non-minimal couplings and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L. E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es

    2010-12-01

    In this work we consider the most general electromagnetic theory in curved space-time leading to linear second order differential equations, including non-minimal couplings to the space-time curvature. We assume the presence of a temporal electromagnetic background whose energy density plays the role of dark energy, as has been recently suggested. Imposing the consistency of the theory in the weak-field limit, we show that it reduces to standard electromagnetism in the presence of an effective electromagnetic current which is generated by the momentum density of the matter/energy distribution, even for neutral sources. This implies that in the presence of dark energy, the motion of large-scale structures generates magnetic fields. Estimates of the present amplitude of the generated seed fields for typical spiral galaxies could reach 10{sup −9} G without any amplification. In the case of compact rotating objects, the theory predicts their magnetic moments to be related to their angular momenta in the way suggested by the so called Schuster-Blackett conjecture.

  18. FY2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    The FY 2013 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  19. FY2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-01-31

    The FY 2011 Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D focuses on advancing the development of batteries to enable a large market penetration of hybrid and electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush.

  20. A Learning Progression for Energy in Socio-Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Anderson, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on our work of developing a learning progression focusing on K-12 students' performances of using energy concept in their accounts of carbon-transforming processes in socio-ecological systems. Carbon-transforming processes--the ecological carbon cycle and the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels--provide all of the energy…

  1. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R&D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  2. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, April 1990-- September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1990, through September 30, 1990, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Topics discussed include: ceramics and composite materials R D, new alloys, corrosion and erosion research, coal conversion development, mild gasification. (VC)

  3. Crystal Engineering on Industrial Diaryl Pigments Using Lattice Energy Minimizations and X-ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt,M.; Dinnebier, R.; Kalkhof, H.

    2007-01-01

    Diaryl azo pigments play an important role as yellow pigments for printing inks, with an annual pigment production of more than 50,000 t. The crystal structures of Pigment Yellow 12 (PY12), Pigment Yellow 13 (PY13), Pigment Yellow 14 (PY14), and Pigment Yellow 83 (PY83) were determined from X-ray powder data using lattice energy minimizations and subsequent Rietveld refinements. Details of the lattice energy minimization procedure and of the development of a torsion potential for the biphenyl fragment are given. The Rietveld refinements were carried out using rigid bodies, or constraints. It was also possible to refine all atomic positions individually without any constraint or restraint, even for PY12 having 44 independent non-hydrogen atoms per asymmetric unit. For PY14 (23 independent non-hydrogen atoms), additionally all atomic isotropic temperature factors could be refined individually. PY12 crystallized in a herringbone arrangement with twisted biaryl fragments. PY13 and PY14 formed a layer structure of planar molecules. PY83 showed a herringbone structure with planar molecules. According to quantum mechanical calculations, the twisting of the biaryl fragment results in a lower color strength of the pigments, whereas changes in the substitution pattern have almost no influence on the color strength of a single molecule. Hence, the experimentally observed lower color strength of PY12 in comparison with that of PY13 and PY83 can be explained as a pure packing effect. Further lattice energy calculations explained that the four investigated pigments crystallize in three different structures because these structures are the energetically most favorable ones for each compound. For example, for PY13, PY14, or PY83, a PY12-analogous crystal structure would lead to considerably poorer lattice energies and lower densities. In contrast, lattice energy calculations revealed that PY12 could adopt a PY13-type structure with only slightly poorer energy. This structure was

  4. Constraints on B and Higgs physics in minimal low energy supersymmetric models

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Menon, A.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Szynkman, A.; Wagner, C.E.M.; /Argonne /Chicago U., EFI

    2006-03-01

    We study the implications of minimal flavor violating low energy supersymmetry scenarios for the search of new physics in the B and Higgs sectors at the Tevatron collider and the LHC. We show that the already stringent Tevatron bound on the decay rate B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} sets strong constraints on the possibility of generating large corrections to the mass difference {Delta} M{sub s} of the B{sub s} eigenstates. We also show that the B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} bound together with the constraint on the branching ratio of the rare decay b {yields} s{gamma} has strong implications for the search of light, non-standard Higgs bosons at hadron colliders. In doing this, we demonstrate that the former expressions derived for the analysis of the double penguin contributions in the Kaon sector need to be corrected by additional terms for a realistic analysis of these effects. We also study a specific non-minimal flavor violating scenario, where there are flavor changing gluino-squark-quark interactions, governed by the CKM matrix elements, and show that the B and Higgs physics constraints are similar to the ones in the minimal flavor violating case. Finally we show that, in scenarios like electroweak baryogenesis which have light stops and charginos, there may be enhanced effects on the B and K mixing parameters, without any significant effect on the rate of B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}.

  5. Fouling mitigation by iron-based electroflocculation in microfiltration: Mechanisms and energy minimization.

    PubMed

    Ben Sasson, Moshe; Adin, Avner

    2010-07-01

    High-energy demand presents a major obstacle in the application of advanced water-purification systems. In this work, energy minimization and fouling mitigation by iron-based electroflocculation in dead-end microfiltration were investigated. Highly pure water contaminated with Silica-CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) particles were pretreated by electroflocculation at short operation times and a constant electrical current intensity of 0.4 A, followed by different slow-mixing times and filtration without any sedimentation step. By using a new method for filtration-energy appraisal, we found that an over 90% reduction in filtration energy could be achieved. The improvement was observed at all pH values examined (pH 6-8); pH values below 7 were problematic because the permeate turned yellow as a result of residual iron. The appearance of residual iron was explained by the dependence of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) reaction rates on pH. Scanning electron micrographs of the fouled membrane surface showed the important role played by the sweep-coagulation mechanism in mitigating fouling. When internal fouling was the dominant mechanism, the amorphous iron-hydroxide solids formed a layer that filtered out the primary particles, protecting the membrane pores from plugging. Iron-hydroxide particles also reduced the hydraulic resistance of the cake when the external fouling mechanism dominated. Significant energy reduction was observed, even without the slow-mixing step, as a result of the local flocculation conditions near the membrane surface. Additional energy savings were obtained due to the significantly higher initial-flux restoration rates (>90%) resulting from electroflocculation pretreatment. PMID:20570312

  6. SU-E-T-498: Energy Minimization and Dose-Volume Inverse Optimization in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaylov, I; Moros, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume (DVH) and energy minimization-based (EM) optimization for prostate cancer cases. Methods: A dozen of prostate plans were retrospectively studied. For each case two IMRT plans were generated, one with DVH and the other with EM objective cost function. Those different objective functions were used only for the organs at risk (OARs), while target objectives were achieved through DVH cost functions. The plans used the same beam angles, maximum number of segments per plan, minimum segment area and MUs per segment. Both plans were normalized such that 95% of the PTV was covered by the same prescription dose. After prescription was achieved, doses to the OARs were iteratively lowered until the standard deviation of the dose across the PTV was ~3.5%. Plan quality was evaluated by several dose indices (DIs). A DI represents the dose delivered to certain volume of a structure. Tallied DIs were for rectum and bladder 10%, 40%, 60% volumes, and 1% volumes of the femoral heads as surrogate for maximum doses. Statistical significance in the differences among DIs was quantified with two-tailed paired t-tests. Results: On average EM plans performed better than DVH plans. Statistically significant dose reduction in rectum DI10, DI40, and DI60, were 2.6%, 25.7%, and 35.9%, respectively. For bladder DI10, DI40, and DI60 the differences were 1.1%, 20.8%, and 29.7%. Left and right femoral head DI1s were better by 33.8% and 27.8% in EM plans. The quoted dose reduction is with respect to EM absolute doses for the DIs. Conclusion: The performance of EM optimization with respect to DVH optimization is patient and DI dependent. While in some cases specific DIs were better with DVH optimization, on average the energy minimization allows better (ranging from 1% to ~40%) OAR sparing than DVH optimization. NIH-NCI.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Apollo V.; Abreu, E. M. C.; Neves, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e. the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.

  8. Energy-efficient approach to minimizing the energy consumption in an extended job-shop scheduling problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dunbing; Dai, Min

    2015-09-01

    The traditional production planning and scheduling problems consider performance indicators like time, cost and quality as optimization objectives in manufacturing processes. However, environmentally-friendly factors like energy consumption of production have not been completely taken into consideration. Against this background, this paper addresses an approach to modify a given schedule generated by a production planning and scheduling system in a job shop floor, where machine tools can work at different cutting speeds. It can adjust the cutting speeds of the operations while keeping the original assignment and processing sequence of operations of each job fixed in order to obtain energy savings. First, the proposed approach, based on a mixed integer programming mathematical model, changes the total idle time of the given schedule to minimize energy consumption in the job shop floor while accepting the optimal solution of the scheduling objective, makespan. Then, a genetic-simulated annealing algorithm is used to explore the optimal solution due to the fact that the problem is strongly NP-hard. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is performed smalland large-size instances, respectively. The experimental results show that the approach can save 5%-10% of the average energy consumption while accepting the optimal solution of the makespan in small-size instances. In addition, the average maximum energy saving ratio can reach to 13%. And it can save approximately 1%-4% of the average energy consumption and approximately 2.4% of the average maximum energy while accepting the near-optimal solution of the makespan in large-size instances. The proposed research provides an interesting point to explore an energy-aware schedule optimization for a traditional production planning and scheduling problem.

  9. FY2014 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-03-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Energy Storage subprogram in 2014. You can download individual sections at the following website, http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/vehicle-technologies-office-2014-energy-storage-rd-annual-report.

  10. Thermal energy storage technical progress report, April 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of thermal energy storage (TES) as a means of efficiently coupling energy supplies to variable heating or cooling demands. Uses of TES include electrical demand-side management in buildings and industry, extending the utilization of renewable energy resources such as solar, and recovery of waste heat from periodic industrial processes. Technical progress to develop TES for specific diurnal and industrial applications under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s TES program from April 1992 to March 1993 is reported and covers research in the areas of low temperature sorption, thermal energy storage water heater, latent heat storage wallboard and latent/sensible heat regenerator technology development.

  11. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  12. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms. PMID:25440708

  13. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms.

  14. Pixel level image fusion for medical imaging: an energy minimizing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brandon; Law, Max W. K.; Ben-Ayed, Ismail; Garvin, Greg; Fenster, Aaron; Li, Shuo

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to improve the visualisation techniques for diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, we present a novel image fusion method for a pixel-wise fusion of CT and MR images. We focus on the spine and it's related diseases including osteophyte growth, degenerate disc disease and spinal stenosis. This will have benefit to the 50-75% of people who suffer from back pain, which is the reason for 1.8% of all hospital stays in the United States.1 Pre-registered CT and MR image pairs were used. Rigid registration was performed based on soft tissue correspondence. A pixel-wise image fusion algorithm has been designed to combine CT and MR images into a single image. This is accomplished by minimizing an energy functional using a Graph Cut approach. The functional is formulated to balance the similarity between the resultant image and the CT image as well as between the resultant image and the MR image. Furthermore the variational smoothness of the resultant image is considered in the energy functional (to enforce natural transitions between pixels). The results have been validated based on the amount of significant detail preserved in the final fused image. Based on bone cortex and disc / spinal cord areas, 95% of the relevant MR detail and 85% of the relevant CT detail was preserved. This work has the potential to aid in patient diagnosis, surgery planning and execution along with post operative follow up.

  15. Observed asymptotic differences in energies of stable and minimal point configurations on S2 and the role of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, M.; Griffiths, W.; Schulz, A.; Fichtl, C.; Hardin, D.

    2013-10-01

    Configurations of N points on the two-sphere that are stable with respect to the Riesz s-energy have a structure that is largely hexagonal. These stable configurations differ from the configurations with the lowest reported N-point s-energy in the location and structure of defects within this hexagonal structure. These differences in energy between the stable and minimal configuration suggest that energy scale at which defects play a role. This work uses numerical experiments to report this difference as a function of N, allowing us to infer the energy scale at which defects play a role. This work is presented in the context of established estimates for the minimal N-point energy, and in particular we identify terms in these estimates that likely reflect defect structure.

  16. FY2012 Progress Report for Energy Storage Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    FY 2012 annual report of the energy storage research and development effort within the VT Office. An important step for the electrification of the nation’s light duty transportation sector is the development of more cost-effective, long lasting, and abuse-tolerant PEV batteries. In fiscal year 2012, battery R&D work continued to focus on the development of high-energy batteries for PEVs and very high power devices for hybrid vehicles. This document provides a summary and progress update of the VTP battery R&D projects that were supported in 2012.

  17. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. PMID:24913891

  18. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices.

  19. PROGRESS OF HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV,A.V.

    2007-09-10

    The fundamental questions about QCD which can be directly answered at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) call for large integrated luminosities. The major goal of RHIC-I1 upgrade is to achieve a 10 fold increase in luminosity of Au ions at the top energy of 100 GeV/nucleon. Such a boost in luminosity for RHIC-II is achievable with implementation of high-energy electron cooling. The design of the higher-energy cooler for RHIC-II recently adopted a non-magnetized approach which requires a low temperature electron beam. Such electron beams will be produced with a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Detailed simulations of the electron cooling process and numerical simulations of the electron beam transport including the cooling section were performed. An intensive R&D of various elements of the design is presently underway. Here, we summarize progress in these electron cooling efforts.

  20. Stable standing waves for a NLS on star graphs as local minimizers of the constrained energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Riccardo; Cacciapuoti, Claudio; Finco, Domenico; Noja, Diego

    2016-05-01

    On a star graph made of N ≥ 3 halflines (edges) we consider a Schrödinger equation with a subcritical power-type nonlinearity and an attractive delta interaction located at the vertex. From previous works it is known that there exists a family of standing waves, symmetric with respect to the exchange of edges, that can be parametrized by the mass (or L2-norm) of its elements. Furthermore, if the mass is small enough, then the corresponding symmetric standing wave is a ground state and, consequently, it is orbitally stable. On the other hand, if the mass is above a threshold value, then the system has no ground state. Here we prove that orbital stability holds for every value of the mass, even if the corresponding symmetric standing wave is not a ground state, since it is anyway a local minimizer of the energy among functions with the same mass. The proof is based on a new technique that allows to restrict the analysis to functions made of pieces of soliton, reducing the problem to a finite-dimensional one. In such a way, we do not need to use direct methods of Calculus of Variations, nor linearization procedures.

  1. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  2. Progress Towards Highly Efficient Windows for Zero—Energy Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Energy efficient windows could save 4 quads/year, with an additional 1 quad/year gain from daylighting in commercial buildings. This corresponds to 13% of energy used by US buildings and 5% of all energy used by the US. The technical potential is thus very large and the economic potential is slowly becoming a reality. This paper describes the progress in energy efficient windows that employ low-emissivity glazing, electrochromic switchable coatings and other novel materials. Dynamic systems are being developed that use sensors and controls to modulate daylighting and shading contributions in response to occupancy, comfort and energy needs. Improving the energy performance of windows involves physics in a variety of application: optics, heat transfer, materials science and applied engineering. Technical solutions must also be compatible with national policy, codes and standards, economics, business practice and investment, real and perceived risks, comfort, health, safety, productivity, amenities, and occupant preference and values. The challenge is to optimize energy performance by understanding and reinforcing the synergetic coupling between these many issues.

  3. Energy Division progress report, fiscal years 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, C.I.

    1996-06-01

    At ORNL, the Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this progress report for FY 1994 and FY 1995. The Division`s expenditures in FY 1995 totaled 44.9 million. Sixty percent of the divisions work was supported by the US DOE. Other significant sponsors include the US DOT, the US DOD, other federal agencies, and some private organizations. The Division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) transportation systems, and (3) energy use and delivery technologies. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, and impact statements, research on emergency preparedness, analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries, and transportation analysis. Transportation systems research seeks to improve the quality of both civilian and military transportation efforts. Energy use and delivery technologies focus on building equipment, building envelopes, (walls, roofs, attics, and materials), improvement of energy efficiency in buildings, and electric power systems.

  4. Fossil energy program. Progress report for June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L.E.

    1980-08-01

    This report - the seventy-first of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component and process evaluation studies, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluation, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA fluidized combustion demonstration plant program technical support, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, performance assurance system support, and international energy technology assessment.

  5. Fossil energy program. Progress report for May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L.E.

    1980-08-01

    This report - the seventieth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component and process evaluation studies, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, performance assurance system support and international energy technology assessment.

  6. Dynamic Modeling of LD Converter Steelmaking: Reaction Modeling Using Gibbs' Free Energy Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Rahul; Gupta, Pramod; Basu, Somnath; Ballal, Nidambur Bharath

    2015-04-01

    Slag-metal emulsion plays an important role in the oxidation kinetics of metalloids in oxygen steelmaking. The importance of droplet generation rate, droplet size, and its residence time in the slag-metal emulsion on the overall reaction kinetics has become evident in recent times. Residence times of the droplets are strongly dependent on the decarburization rate, the CO bubbles giving a buoyant force to the droplets. The present work aims at developing a mathematical model for predicting the composition evolutions of the slag and the metal phases as the blow proceeds in an LD converter. The process dynamics are modeled by dividing the LD convertor into three separate continuous stirred tank reactors. Oxidation reactions are assumed to be primarily taking place at the interface between the slag and the metal phases in the emulsion. Among the different mass transfer and reaction steps controlling the kinetics, the mass transfer of FeO in the slag phase and that of the metalloids within the metal droplet are assumed to be rate-controlling. For a Fe-C-X (X = Mn, Si etc.) droplet, simultaneous removal of elements have been modeled by Gibbs' free energy minimization at the slag-metal interface. Effects of droplet size, mass transfer coefficient, and initial carbon content on the mean residence time of metal droplets in the slag-metal emulsion have also been identified. Mixing in the metal phase is simulated in terms of metal exchange rate and the reactor weight ratio between the upper and the lower parts of the bath.

  7. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances

    PubMed Central

    Bruineberg, Jelle; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism's tendency toward an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston's work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the system “brain-body-landscape of affordances.” Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism's selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients. PMID:25161615

  8. Dietary energy balance modulates ovarian cancer progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-08-15

    A high energy balance, or caloric excess, accounts as a tumor promoting factor, while a negative energy balance via caloric restriction, has been shown to delay cancer progression. The effect of energy balance on ovarian cancer progression was investigated in an isogeneic immunocompetent mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer kept on a regimen of regular diet, high energy diet (HED) and calorie restricted diet (CRD), prior to inoculating the animals intraperitoneally with the mouse ovarian surface epithelial ID8 cancer cells. Tumor evaluation revealed that mice group on HED displayed the most extensive tumor formation with the highest tumor score at all organ sites (diaphragm, peritoneum, bowel, liver, kidney, spleen), accompanied with increased levels of insulin, leptin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), VEGF and interleukin 6 (IL-6). On the other hand, the mice group on CRD exhibited the least tumor burden associated with a significant reduction in levels of insulin, IGF-1, leptin, MCP-1, VEGF and IL-6. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors from HED mice showed higher activation of Akt and mTOR with decreased adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 activation, while tumors from the CRD group exhibited the reverse profile. In conclusion, ovarian cancer growth and metastasis occurred more aggressively under HED conditions and was significantly curtailed under CRD. The suggested mechanism involves modulated secretion of growth factors, cytokines and altered regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 that converges on mTOR inhibition. While the role of a high energy state in ovarian cancer has not been confirnmed in the literature, the current findings support investigating the potential impact of diet modulation as adjunct to other anticancer therapies and as possible individualized treatment strategy of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  9. 'Minimal Metagravity versus Dark Matter and/or Dark Energy' [Physics of Atomic Nuclei 70, 2148-2151 (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, Yu. F.

    2008-09-15

    The minimal metagravity theory, explicitly violating the general covariance but preserving the unimodular one, is applied to study the evolution of the isotropic homogeneous Universe. The massive scalar graviton, contained in the theory in addition to the massless tensor one, is treated as a source of the dark matter and/or dark energy. The modified Friedmann equation for the scale factor of the Universe is derived. The question wether the minimal metagravity can emulate the LCDM concordance model, valid in General Relativity, is discussed.

  10. A fast multigrid algorithm for energy minimization under planar density constraints.

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, D.; Safro, I.; Brandt, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Weizmann Inst. of Science

    2010-09-07

    The two-dimensional layout optimization problem reinforced by the efficient space utilization demand has a wide spectrum of practical applications. Formulating the problem as a nonlinear minimization problem under planar equality and/or inequality density constraints, we present a linear time multigrid algorithm for solving a correction to this problem. The method is demonstrated in various graph drawing (visualization) instances.

  11. Minimal Model of Quantum Kinetic Clusters for the Energy-Transfer Network of a Light-Harvesting Protein Complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianlan; Tang, Zhoufei; Gong, Zhihao; Cao, Jianshu; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-04-01

    The energy absorbed in a light-harvesting protein complex is often transferred collectively through aggregated chromophore clusters. For population evolution of chromophores, the time-integrated effective rate matrix allows us to construct quantum kinetic clusters quantitatively and determine the reduced cluster-cluster transfer rates systematically, thus defining a minimal model of energy-transfer kinetics. For Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) and light-havrvesting complex II (LCHII) monomers, quantum Markovian kinetics of clusters can accurately reproduce the overall energy-transfer process in the long-time scale. The dominant energy-transfer pathways are identified in the picture of aggregated clusters. The chromophores distributed extensively in various clusters can assist a fast and long-range energy transfer.

  12. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  13. [Correction of central nervous system energy processes in children with the minimal cerebral dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Lavrik, S Iu; Domitrak, S V; Shprakh, V V

    2011-01-01

    Clinical-neurophysiological investigation of the efficiency of complex metabolic neuroprotector Cytoflavin in monotherapy was performed in 64 children of 4-8 years old with the minimal cerebral dysfunction. During the treatment other preparations were not used. Neurologic status, neurophysiological inspection, neuropsychophysiological and speech testing were performed before and after the course of treatment. Efficiency of Cytoflavin was established in children with the minimal cerebral dysfunction of preschool and early school age. By increasing a cerebral blood flow, improving parameters EEG and decreasing intracranial pressure, the drug had positive influence on the psycho-emotional and cognitive spheres, decreased asthenia syndrome, improving social adaptation of the children. Side-effects of Cytoflavin administration were not observed. PMID:21512499

  14. Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

    2010-08-15

    From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

  15. Progress of the LASL dry hot rock geothermal energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of extracting energy from geothermal reservoirs which do not spontaneously yield useful amounts of steam or hot water are discussed. The system for accomplishing this which is being developed first is a pressurized-water circulation loop intended for use in relatively impermeable hot rock. It will consist of two holes connected through the hot rock by a very large hydraulic fracture and connected at the surface through the primary heat exchanger of an energy utilization system. Preliminary experiments in a hole 2576 ft (0.7852 km) deep, extending about 470 ft (143 m) into the Precambrian basement rock underlying the Jemez Plateau of north-central New Mexico, revealed no unexpected difficulties in drilling or hydraulically fracturing such rock at a temperature of approximately 100 C, and demonstrated a permeability low enough so that it appeared probable that pressurized water could be contained by the basement rock. Similar experiments are in progress in a second hole, now 6701 ft (2.043 km) deep, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of the first one.

  16. Duke University high energy physics. Progress report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  17. An energy minimization approach to automated extraction of regular building footprints from airborne LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Zhang, C.; Fraser, C. S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to the extraction of building footprints from airborne LiDAR data based on energy minimization. Automated 3D building reconstruction in complex urban scenes has been a long-standing challenge in photogrammetry and computer vision. Building footprints constitute a fundamental component of a 3D building model and they are useful for a variety of applications. Airborne LiDAR provides large-scale elevation representation of urban scene and as such is an important data source for object reconstruction in spatial information systems. However, LiDAR points on building edges often exhibit a jagged pattern, partially due to either occlusion from neighbouring objects, such as overhanging trees, or to the nature of the data itself, including unavoidable noise and irregular point distributions. The explicit 3D reconstruction may thus result in irregular or incomplete building polygons. In the presented work, a vertex-driven Douglas-Peucker method is developed to generate polygonal hypotheses from points forming initial building outlines. The energy function is adopted to examine and evaluate each hypothesis and the optimal polygon is determined through energy minimization. The energy minimization also plays a key role in bridging gaps, where the building outlines are ambiguous due to insufficient LiDAR points. In formulating the energy function, hard constraints such as parallelism and perpendicularity of building edges are imposed, and local and global adjustments are applied. The developed approach has been extensively tested and evaluated on datasets with varying point cloud density over different terrain types. Results are presented and analysed. The successful reconstruction of building footprints, of varying structural complexity, along with a quantitative assessment employing accurate reference data, demonstrate the practical potential of the proposed approach.

  18. Progress in energy generation for Canadian remote sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Y.; Younes, R.; Abboudi, S.; Ilinca, A.; Nohra, C.

    2016-07-01

    Many remote areas around the world are isolated, for various reasons, from electricity networks. They are usually supplied with electricity through diesel generators. The cost of operation and transportation of diesel fuel in addition to its price have led to the procurement of a more efficient and environmentally greener method of supply. Various studies have shown that a wind-diesel hybrid system with compressed air storage (WDCAS) seems to be one of the best solutions, and presents itself as an optimal configuration for the electrification of isolated sites. This system allows significant fuel savings to be made because the stored compressed air is used to supercharge the engine. In order to optimize system performance and minimize fuel consumption, installation of a system for recovering and storing the heat of compression (TES) seems necessary. In addition, the use of hydro-pneumatic energy storage systems that use the same machine as the hydraulic pump and turbine allow us to store energy in tight spaces and, if possible, contribute to power generation. The scrupulous study of this technical approach will be the focus of our research which will validate (or not) the use of such a system for the regulation of frequency of electrical networks. In this article we will skim through the main research that recently examined the wind-diesel hybrid system which addressed topics such as adiabatic compression and hydro-pneumatic storage. Instead, we will offer (based on existing studies) a new ACP-WDCAS (wind-diesel hybrid system with adiabatic air compression and storage at constant pressure), which combines these three concepts in one system for the optimization of wind-diesel hybrid system.

  19. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott D.; Goulden, Michael L.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Keller, Michael; Saleska, Scott R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Figueira, Adelaine Michela Silva; da Rocha, Humberto R.; de Camargo, Plinio B.

    2011-01-01

    We used eddy covariance and ecological measurements to investigate the effects of reduced impact logging (RIL) on an old-growth Amazonian forest. Logging caused small decreases in gross primary production, leaf production, and latent heat flux, which were roughly proportional to canopy loss, and increases in heterotrophic respiration, tree mortality, and wood production. The net effect of RIL was transient, and treatment effects were barely discernable after only 1 y. RIL appears to provide a strategy for managing tropical forest that minimizes the potential risks to climate associated with large changes in carbon and water exchange. PMID:22087005

  20. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott D; Goulden, Michael L; Hutyra, Lucy R; Keller, Michael; Saleska, Scott R; Wofsy, Steven C; Figueira, Adelaine Michela Silva; da Rocha, Humberto R; de Camargo, Plinio B

    2011-11-29

    We used eddy covariance and ecological measurements to investigate the effects of reduced impact logging (RIL) on an old-growth Amazonian forest. Logging caused small decreases in gross primary production, leaf production, and latent heat flux, which were roughly proportional to canopy loss, and increases in heterotrophic respiration, tree mortality, and wood production. The net effect of RIL was transient, and treatment effects were barely discernable after only 1 y. RIL appears to provide a strategy for managing tropical forest that minimizes the potential risks to climate associated with large changes in carbon and water exchange.

  1. Waste minimization policies, regulations, and practices within the U.S. Department of Energy defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, S.P.

    1989-11-01

    In 1984 the US Congress enacted the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the goals of this legislation was to focus attention on the need to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste so as to minimize the threat to human health and the environment. Subsequently, in September of 1988, DOE issued a Radioactive Waste Management Policy, DOE Order 5820.2A, and in November a General Environmental Program Order, DOE Order 5400.1. These documents embrace the principles set forth in RCRA, and expand their scope to include radioactive, mixed, and pollutant waste, and all actions for reducing waste from the point of generation through waste treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. This paper will present an overview of the legislation and policies for waste reduction and, in addition, give site responsibilities for implementing waste reduction program activities.

  2. Stars of bosons with non-minimal energy-momentum tensor

    SciTech Connect

    van der Bij, J.J.; Gleiser, M.

    1987-02-01

    We obtain spherically symmetric solutions for scalar fields with a non-minimal coupling xi absolute value of phi/sup 2/ R to gravity. We find, for fields of mass m, maximum masses and number of particles of order M/sub max/ approx. 0.73xi/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck//sup 2//m, and N/sub max/ approx. 0.88xi/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck//sup 2//m/sup 2/ respectively, for large positive xi. For large negative xi we find, M/sub max/ approx. 0.66 absolute value of xi/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck//sup 2//m, and N/sub max/ approx. 0.72 absolute value of xi/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck//sup 2//m/sup 2/.

  3. Theoretical studies in high energy nuclear physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This paper is a progress report for the period 1-1-93 to 6-30-95 on a project primarily directed at the application of high energy physics techniques to nuclear structure studies, and the ability to study hadron dynamics through interactions with nuclear targets. This work has included the first legitimate QCD calculations of hard coherent diffractive processes off nucleon (nuclear) targets which established novel features of color transparency phenomenon not anticipated in the previous intuitive or QCD inspired model calculations and predicted the fast increase of the cross section for electroproduction of {rho}-mesons with increase of the energy, which was confirmed very recently by the first HERA data on this reaction. First theoretical demonstration that color transparency phenomenon for the hard diffractive processes follow from QCD in the kinematics when both x{yields}0 and Q{sup 2}{yields}{infinity}. Establishing the pattern of color (cross section) fluctuations in hadrons. Confirmed by the FNAL inelastic diffraction data. Finding that in realistic quark, skyrmion models of a hadron large momentum transfer elastic lepton-hadron scattering occurs through formation of small spatial size configurations. Discovering a novel class of color transparency sensitive double interaction processes which is complementary to quasielastic reactions originally suggested by S. Brodsky and A. Mueller. Adopting ideas suggested elsewhere for hadron initiated reactions they developed a method for taking into account nuclear correlations in (e,e{prime}p) reactions. Such an approach gives practical possibility to overcome ambiguities of optical model approximation used before and to reliably interpret color transparency effects at intermediate Q{sup 2}.

  4. Energy barriers, entropy barriers, and non-Arrhenius behavior in a minimal glassy model.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Weeks, Eric R

    2016-06-01

    We study glassy dynamics using a simulation of three soft Brownian particles confined to a two-dimensional circular region. If the circular region is large, the disks freely rearrange, but rearrangements are rarer for smaller system sizes. We directly measure a one-dimensional free-energy landscape characterizing the dynamics. This landscape has two local minima corresponding to the two distinct disk configurations, separated by a free-energy barrier that governs the rearrangement rate. We study several different interaction potentials and demonstrate that the free-energy barrier is composed of a potential-energy barrier and an entropic barrier. The heights of both of these barriers depend on temperature and system size, demonstrating how non-Arrhenius behavior can arise close to the glass transition. PMID:27415326

  5. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  6. Dynamics of minimally coupled dark energy in spherical halos of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Tsizh, Maksym; Kulinich, Yurij

    2016-03-01

    We analyse the evolution of scalar field dark energy in the spherical halos of dark matter at the late stages of formation of gravitationally bound systems in the expanding Universe. The dynamics of quintessential dark energy at the center of dark matter halo strongly depends on the value of effective sound speed c_s (in units of speed of light). If c_s˜ 1 (classical scalar field) then the dark energy in the gravitationally bound systems is only slightly perturbed and its density is practically the same as in cosmological background. The dark energy with small value of sound speed (c_s<0.1), on the contrary, is important dynamical component of halo at all stages of their evolution: linear, non-linear, turnaround, collapse, virialization and later up to current epoch. These properties of dark energy can be used for constraining the value of effective sound speed c_s by comparison the theoretical predictions with observational data related to the large scale gravitationally bound systems.

  7. Biomechanical energy harvesting: generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort.

    PubMed

    Donelan, J M; Li, Q; Naing, V; Hoffer, J A; Weber, D J; Kuo, A D

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a biomechanical energy harvester that generates electricity during human walking with little extra effort. Unlike conventional human-powered generators that use positive muscle work, our technology assists muscles in performing negative work, analogous to regenerative braking in hybrid cars, where energy normally dissipated during braking drives a generator instead. The energy harvester mounts at the knee and selectively engages power generation at the end of the swing phase, thus assisting deceleration of the joint. Test subjects walking with one device on each leg produced an average of 5 watts of electricity, which is about 10 times that of shoe-mounted devices. The cost of harvesting-the additional metabolic power required to produce 1 watt of electricity-is less than one-eighth of that for conventional human power generation. Producing substantial electricity with little extra effort makes this method well-suited for charging powered prosthetic limbs and other portable medical devices.

  8. Biomechanical energy harvesting: generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort.

    PubMed

    Donelan, J M; Li, Q; Naing, V; Hoffer, J A; Weber, D J; Kuo, A D

    2008-02-01

    We have developed a biomechanical energy harvester that generates electricity during human walking with little extra effort. Unlike conventional human-powered generators that use positive muscle work, our technology assists muscles in performing negative work, analogous to regenerative braking in hybrid cars, where energy normally dissipated during braking drives a generator instead. The energy harvester mounts at the knee and selectively engages power generation at the end of the swing phase, thus assisting deceleration of the joint. Test subjects walking with one device on each leg produced an average of 5 watts of electricity, which is about 10 times that of shoe-mounted devices. The cost of harvesting-the additional metabolic power required to produce 1 watt of electricity-is less than one-eighth of that for conventional human power generation. Producing substantial electricity with little extra effort makes this method well-suited for charging powered prosthetic limbs and other portable medical devices. PMID:18258914

  9. A quadratic energy minimization framework for signal loss estimation from arbitrarily sampled ultrasound data.

    PubMed

    Hennersperger, Christoph; Mateus, Diana; Baust, Maximilian; Navab, Nassir

    2014-01-01

    We present a flexible and general framework to iteratively solve quadratic energy problems on a non uniform grid, targeted at ultrasound imaging. Therefore, we model input samples as the nodes of an irregular directed graph, and define energies according to the application by setting weights to the edges. To solve the energy, we derive an effective optimization scheme, which avoids both the explicit computation of a linear system, as well as the compounding of the input data on a regular grid. The framework is validated in the context of 3D ultrasound signal loss estimation with the goal of providing an uncertainty estimate for each 3D data sample. Qualitative and quantitative results for 5 subjects and two target regions, namely US of the bone and the carotid artery, show the benefits of our approach, yielding continuous loss estimates. PMID:25485401

  10. Verifying energy savings with minimal metered data: The Hunter heat pump analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    In November 1992, Hunter Army Air Field (AAF) completed the installation of 489 air-source heat pumps -- a new heat pump and air-handling unit for each residence. The air-source heat pumps replaced older, less efficient, air-conditioning systems, fuel oil-fired furnaces, and fan coil units. Hunter AAF originally contacted to upgrade the old family housing heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with high efficiency air-conditioning systems and natural gas furnaces, but an alternative proposal and following energy studies indicated that heat pumps were a more life-cycle cost-effective alternative. Six months after the heat pumps were installed, Hunter`s energy bills appeared to be increasing, not decreasing as expected. In early 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory` (PNL) began an analysis to determine if there were any energy savings resulting from the heat pump installation as predicted by previous energy studies. The problem is that the HVAC systems are not specifically submetered to support verifying the resulting energy savings and, as is the case with most federal facilities, even the homes are not individually metered. Savings verification needed to be accomplished with die existing and available metered data. This data consisted primarily of monthly electric submeter readings from the two housing subdivision meters, historical fuel oil delivery records for family housing, and monthly base-wide electric bills. The objective of the study is to verify the change in energy consumption in family housing and, to the extent possible, identify how much of the change in consumption is attributable to the new HVAC system and how much is probably attributable to other factors, such as the weather.

  11. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  12. Extension of the minimal three-nucleon model to the unphysical sheet of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, T.; Goldman, I.D.; Delfino, A.

    1988-02-01

    In the framework of the three-nucleon zero-range theory, we have calculated the correlation between the energy of the virtual state of the triton and the doublet neutron-deuteron scattering length. Our results show that the Girard-Fuda plot for the energy of the virtual state as a function of the doublet n-d scattering length is reproduced by this model. We also observe that the plot remains essentially unchanged when the nucleon-nucleon singlet input is varied.

  13. Protein structure prediction and potential energy landscape analysis using continuous global minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, K.A.; Phillips, A.T.; Rosen, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    Proteins require specific three-dimensional conformations to function properly. These {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} conformations result primarily from intramolecular interactions between the atoms in the macromolecule, and also intermolecular interactions between the macromolecule and the surrounding solvent. Although the folding process can be quite complex, the instructions guiding this process are specified by the one-dimensional primary sequence of the protein or nucleic acid: external factors, such as helper (chaperone) proteins, present at the time of folding have no effect on the final state of the protein. Many denatured proteins spontaneously refold into functional conformations once denaturing conditions are removed. Indeed, the existence of a unique native conformation, in which residues distant in sequence but close in proximity exhibit a densely packed hydrophobic core, suggests that this three-dimensional structure is largely encoded within the sequential arrangement of these specific amino acids. In any case, the native structure is often the conformation at the global minimum energy. In addition to the unique native (minimum energy) structure, other less stable structures exist as well, each with a corresponding potential energy. These structures, in conjunction with the native structure, make up an energy landscape that can be used to characterize various aspects of the protein structure. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  15. Recovery of freshwater from wastewater: upgrading process configurations to maximize energy recovery and minimize residuals.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Yaniv D; Criddle, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of conventional and novel wastewater treatment configurations reveals large differences in energy consumed or produced and solids generated per cubic meter of domestic wastewater treated. Complete aerobic BOD removal consumes 0.45 kWh and produces 153 g of solids, whereas complete anaerobic treatment produces 0.25 kWh and 80 g of solids. Emerging technologies, that include short-circuit nitrogen removal (SHARON, CANON with Anammox, CANDO) and mainstream anaerobic digestion, can potentially remove both BOD and nitrogen with an energy surplus of 0.17 kWh and production of 95 g of solids. Heat from biogas combustion can completely dry the solids, and these solids can be converted to syngas without imported energy. Syngas combustion can produce ∼ 0.1 kWh with an inorganic residue of just 10 g. If salt is removed, freshwater can be recovered with net production of electrical energy from methane (0.03-0.13 kWh) and syngas (∼ 0.1 kWh) and an inorganic residue of ∼ 0.1-0.3 kg as brine. Current seawater desalination requires 3-4 kWh (thermodynamic limit of 1 kWh) and results in an inorganic residue of ∼ 35 kg as brine.

  16. Energy Minimization of Discrete Protein Titration State Models Using Graph Theory.

    PubMed

    Purvine, Emilie; Monson, Kyle; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Star, Keith; Baker, Nathan A

    2016-08-25

    There are several applications in computational biophysics that require the optimization of discrete interacting states, for example, amino acid titration states, ligand oxidation states, or discrete rotamer angles. Such optimization can be very time-consuming as it scales exponentially in the number of sites to be optimized. In this paper, we describe a new polynomial time algorithm for optimization of discrete states in macromolecular systems. This algorithm was adapted from image processing and uses techniques from discrete mathematics and graph theory to restate the optimization problem in terms of "maximum flow-minimum cut" graph analysis. The interaction energy graph, a graph in which vertices (amino acids) and edges (interactions) are weighted with their respective energies, is transformed into a flow network in which the value of the minimum cut in the network equals the minimum free energy of the protein and the cut itself encodes the state that achieves the minimum free energy. Because of its deterministic nature and polynomial time performance, this algorithm has the potential to allow for the ionization state of larger proteins to be discovered.

  17. Generation of transgenic energy cane plants with integration of minimal transgene expression cassette.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Walid M; Hao, Wu; Xiong, Yuan; Steeves, Cody; Sandhu, Surinder K; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as feedstock and direct replacement for petrochemicals in the fuel, chemical, pharmaceutical and material industries. Energy cane has been identified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as prime lignocellulosic feedstock as it produces record biomass yields and is able to grow on low-value land with reduced inputs. Molecular improvement of energy cane is an essential step toward the development of a high-value crop and may contribute to improved biomass conversion to value added products. Such improvements require a development of an efficient regeneration and transformation system for the vegetatively propagated energy cane varieties. In this report, an efficient biolistic gene delivery protocol for energy canes (genotype L 79-1002 and Ho 00-961) has been established with immature leaf rolls as explants. Embryonic calli, developed approximately 6 weeks after culture initiation and was used as target for biolistic transfer of a minimum expression cassette of P-ubi::nptII::35S polyA derived from plasmid pJFNPTII. Putative transgenic clones of callus were obtained after selection on callus induction medium supplemented with 30 mg l(-1) geneticin. Regeneration was carried out on NB medium, which is modified from MS supplemented with 1.86 mg l(-1) naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.1mg l(-1), 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 20mg l(-1) paromomycin. Shoots growing on selection media were transferred to hormone free medium with 20 mg l(-1) paromomycin. Putative transgenic lines were first analyzed by PCR. Transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Immunochromathography assays confirmed transgene expression.

  18. Topology optimization of a suction muffler in a fluid machine to maximize energy efficiency and minimize broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman

    2016-03-01

    A suction muffler used in a fluid machine has three functions: noise reduction; minimizing pressure drop and improving energy efficiency using acoustic effects. However, no method of suction muffler design considers all three of these functions concurrently. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to provide an integrated design method of a suction muffler in a fluid machine that considers all three functions. The topology optimization method for acoustic and fluid systems was applied to an integrated design. However, the interaction between fluid and acoustic was not considered. In addition, the acoustic input impedance of a suction muffler was used for a specific acoustical resonance frequency to improve the energy efficiency of a fluid machine. Finally, the sequential optimization method based on physical investigations was proposed to satisfy several design criteria. The proposed method was applied to the suction muffler in refrigerator's compressor.

  19. Use of Binary Partition Tree and energy minimization for object-based classification of urban land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengmeng; Bijker, Wietske; Stein, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Two main challenges are faced when classifying urban land cover from very high resolution satellite images: obtaining an optimal image segmentation and distinguishing buildings from other man-made objects. For optimal segmentation, this work proposes a hierarchical representation of an image by means of a Binary Partition Tree (BPT) and an unsupervised evaluation of image segmentations by energy minimization. For building extraction, we apply fuzzy sets to create a fuzzy landscape of shadows which in turn involves a two-step procedure. The first step is a preliminarily image classification at a fine segmentation level to generate vegetation and shadow information. The second step models the directional relationship between building and shadow objects to extract building information at the optimal segmentation level. We conducted the experiments on two datasets of Pléiades images from Wuhan City, China. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed classification is compared at the optimal segmentation level with Maximum Likelihood Classification and Support Vector Machine classification. The results show that the proposed classification produced the highest overall accuracies and kappa coefficients, and the smallest over-classification and under-classification geometric errors. We conclude first that integrating BPT with energy minimization offers an effective means for image segmentation. Second, we conclude that the directional relationship between building and shadow objects represented by a fuzzy landscape is important for building extraction.

  20. Minimization of the Vibration Energy of Thin-Plate Structures and the Application to the Reduction of Gearbox Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Krantz, Timothy L.

    1995-01-01

    While the vibration analysis of gear systems has been developed, a systematic approach to the reduction of gearbox vibration has been lacking. The technique of reducing vibration by shifting natural frequencies is proposed here for gearboxes and other thin-plate structures using the theories of finite elements, modal analysis, and optimization. A triangular shell element with 18 degrees of freedom is developed for structural and dynamic analysis. To optimize, the overall vibration energy is adopted as the objective function to be minimized at the excitation frequency by varying the design variable (element thickness) under the constraint of overall constant weight. Modal analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the vibration energy as a function of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum design is found by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure. By applying the computer code to design problems for beams and plates, it was verified that the proposed method is effective in reducing vibration energy. The computer code is also applied to redesign the NASA Lewis gear noise rig test gearbox housing. As one example, only the shape of the top plate is varied, and the vibration energy levels of all the surfaces are reduced, yielding an overall reduction of 1/5 compared to the initial design. As a second example, the shapes of the top and two side plates are varied to yield an overall reduction in vibration energy of 1/30.

  1. APPARATUS FOR MINIMIZING ENERGY LOSSES FROM MAGNETICALLY CONFINED VOLUMES OF HOT PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1961-10-01

    An apparatus is described for controlling electron temperature in plasma confined in a Pyrotron magnetic containment field. Basically the device comprises means for directing low temperature electrons to the plasma in controlled quantities to maintain a predetermined optimum equilibrium electron temperature whereat minimum losses of plasma ions due to ambipolar effects and energy damping of the ions due to dynamical friction with the electrons occur. (AEC)

  2. Simulation of deep-bed drying of Virginia peanuts to minimize energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kulasiri, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    A deep-bed drying model simulating the drying of peanuts in a fixed bed is required for designing energy-efficient and automatically controlled dryers. A deep-red drying model consists of a thin-layer drying model to calculate the moisture release from the material and a set of mass and energy balances. An experimental setup was constructed to determine drying rates of Virginia-type peanuts under 14 different drying air conditions. Selected empirical and semi-theoretical models available for modeling thin-layer drying rates were fitted to the collected data using nonlinear regression techniques. The modified Page's model and the two-term exponential model fitted the data better than other models considered. A deep-bed drying model PEATECH based on four coupled partial differential equations consisting of four variables, air temperature, peanut temperature, air humidity, and peanut moisture content was developed. Validation of the model was accomplished by using the data collected from 36 deep-bed drying experiments conducted using three laboratory dryers during 1987, 1988, and 1989. PEATECH predicted the variables within a peanut bed with an accuracy of less than {plus minus} 6%. The energy saving potential of exhaust-air recirculation was established by conducting simulated experiments using a modified version of PEATECH.

  3. A strategy to minimize the energy offset in carrier injection from excited dyes to inorganic semiconductors for efficient dye-sensitized solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-Ichi; Osawa, Ayumi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2016-08-10

    Photoinduced carrier injection from dyes to inorganic semiconductors is a crucial process in various dye-sensitized solar energy conversions such as photovoltaics and photocatalysis. It has been reported that an energy offset larger than 0.2-0.3 eV (threshold value) is required for efficient electron injection from excited dyes to metal-oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). Because the energy offset directly causes loss in the potential of injected electrons, it is a crucial issue to minimize the energy offset for efficient solar energy conversions. However, a fundamental understanding of the energy offset, especially the threshold value, has not been obtained yet. In this paper, we report the origin of the threshold value of the energy offset, solving the long-standing questions of why such a large energy offset is necessary for the electron injection and which factors govern the threshold value, and suggest a strategy to minimize the threshold value. The threshold value is determined by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron reduction of semiconductors and typically-used donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes. In fact, the estimated values (0.21-0.31 eV) for several D-A dyes are in good agreement with the threshold value, supporting our conclusion. In addition, our results reveal that the threshold value is possible to be reduced by enlarging the π-conjugated system of the acceptor moiety in dyes and enhancing its structural rigidity. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to hole injection from excited dyes to semiconductors. In this case, the threshold value is given by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron oxidation of semiconductors and D-A dyes.

  4. A strategy to minimize the energy offset in carrier injection from excited dyes to inorganic semiconductors for efficient dye-sensitized solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-Ichi; Osawa, Ayumi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2016-08-10

    Photoinduced carrier injection from dyes to inorganic semiconductors is a crucial process in various dye-sensitized solar energy conversions such as photovoltaics and photocatalysis. It has been reported that an energy offset larger than 0.2-0.3 eV (threshold value) is required for efficient electron injection from excited dyes to metal-oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). Because the energy offset directly causes loss in the potential of injected electrons, it is a crucial issue to minimize the energy offset for efficient solar energy conversions. However, a fundamental understanding of the energy offset, especially the threshold value, has not been obtained yet. In this paper, we report the origin of the threshold value of the energy offset, solving the long-standing questions of why such a large energy offset is necessary for the electron injection and which factors govern the threshold value, and suggest a strategy to minimize the threshold value. The threshold value is determined by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron reduction of semiconductors and typically-used donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes. In fact, the estimated values (0.21-0.31 eV) for several D-A dyes are in good agreement with the threshold value, supporting our conclusion. In addition, our results reveal that the threshold value is possible to be reduced by enlarging the π-conjugated system of the acceptor moiety in dyes and enhancing its structural rigidity. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to hole injection from excited dyes to semiconductors. In this case, the threshold value is given by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron oxidation of semiconductors and D-A dyes. PMID:27452717

  5. Minimizing energy utilization for growing strawberries during long-duration space habitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2010-09-01

    Strawberry is a candidate crop for space that is rich in protective antioxidants and could also have psychological benefits as a component of crew diets during long-duration space habitation. Energy for electric lighting is a major input to a controlled-environment crop-production system for space habitation. Day-neutral strawberry cultivars were evaluated at several different photoperiods to determine minimum lighting requirements without limiting yield or negatively impacting fruit quality. The cultivars 'Tribute', 'Seascape', and 'Fern' were grown at 14, 17, or 20 h of light per day, and fruit yield was evaluated over a 31-week production period. This amounted to a difference of 2418 kWh m -2 in energy usage between the longest and shortest photoperiods. All cultivars produced similar total fresh weight of fruit regardless of photoperiod. Volunteer tasters rated organoleptic characteristics including sweetness, tartness, texture, and overall appeal as measures of fruit quality. Generally, organoleptic attributes were not affected by photoperiod, but these attributes were somewhat dependent upon cultivar and harvest time. Cultivars under different photoperiods varied in their production of fruit over time. 'Seascape' was the most consistent producer, typically with the largest, most palatable fruit. 'Seascape' plants subsequently were grown at 10-, 12-, or 14-h photoperiods over a treatment period of 33 weeks. Photoperiod again had no significant effect on total fruit weight, although there were periodic flushes of productivity. Fruit under all photoperiods had acceptable approval ratings. A large-fruited, day-neutral strawberry cultivar such as 'Seascape' remains productive under shortened photoperiods, allowing reductions in energy and crew labor while maintaining flexibility for mixed-cropping scenarios in space.

  6. Minimizing the expenditure of energy when scheduling the sequence of observations of astronomical objects from spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Legostaev, V. P.; Rulev, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    An approach to solving the problem of optimal scheduling of the sequence of spacecraft reorientations during observations of astronomical objects is discussed. The approach is based on problem formalization within the framework of graph theory and reduction of the problem to routing. Examples of constructing optimal observational programs for chosen stars are given. These examples show that the proposed approach offers the possibility of a significant reduction in energy expenditures for spacecraft reorientation. The applicability of the mentioned approach to optimizing traffic routes in various subnational entities is noted.

  7. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this paper shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. )

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  10. Energy-dissipating tensile composite members with progressive failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancila, Dragos Stefan

    A novel tailoring concept for increased energy dissipation and yield-type response in composite material 1D members subject to tensile loading is proposed, modeled and experimentally verified in this work. The concept was developed in connection with constrained arrest problems of practical interest. The beneficial response is obtained through the use of flexible composites, obtained by reinforcing an elastomeric matrix material with high performance elastic fibers, to create a structure with redundant load paths and progressive failure. In the interest of generality, the constitutive equations used to model the response of the flexible composite allow for elastic or viscoelastic matrix response, as well as circular or elliptical fiber cross-section. Three analytical models capturing the essential characteristics of the response under quasistatic loading were developed and their governing parameters were identified. Extensions of the three models for the case of impulsive loading were also developed. Model predictions are illustrated for a selected configuration, together with response changes corresponding to single-parameter perturbations around the selected configuration. An alternate configuration, considered more illustrative of the tailoring concept potential, was also considered and the predicted response is shown. In all cases, the response of the tailored configuration is compared with that of corresponding conventional counterparts of identical length, total cross-sectional area and material properties. An experimental program aimed at verifying the predictive capabilities of the developed models was undertaken. Based upon availability and cost considerations, a commercially available prepreg consisting of a rubber resin reinforced with glass-fiber yarns was selected. Tailored and conventional specimens were manufactured and tested under quasistatic loading, using a universal hydraulic testing machine, and under impulsive loading, using a custom designed

  11. Minimal cosmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Federico; Schücker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The minimal requirement for cosmography—a non-dynamical description of the universe—is a prescription for calculating null geodesics, and time-like geodesics as a function of their proper time. In this paper, we consider the most general linear connection compatible with homogeneity and isotropy, but not necessarily with a metric. A light-cone structure is assigned by choosing a set of geodesics representing light rays. This defines a "scale factor" and a local notion of distance, as that travelled by light in a given proper time interval. We find that the velocities and relativistic energies of free-falling bodies decrease in time as a consequence of cosmic expansion, but at a rate that can be different than that dictated by the usual metric framework. By extrapolating this behavior to photons' redshift, we find that the latter is in principle independent of the "scale factor". Interestingly, redshift-distance relations and other standard geometric observables are modified in this extended framework, in a way that could be experimentally tested. An extremely tight constraint on the model, however, is represented by the blackbody-ness of the cosmic microwave background. Finally, as a check, we also consider the effects of a non-metric connection in a different set-up, namely, that of a static, spherically symmetric spacetime.

  12. Comment on "Inference with minimal Gibbs free energy in information field theory".

    PubMed

    Iatsenko, D; Stefanovska, A; McClintock, P V E

    2012-03-01

    Enßlin and Weig [Phys. Rev. E 82, 051112 (2010)] have introduced a "minimum Gibbs free energy" (MGFE) approach for estimation of the mean signal and signal uncertainty in Bayesian inference problems: it aims to combine the maximum a posteriori (MAP) and maximum entropy (ME) principles. We point out, however, that there are some important questions to be clarified before the new approach can be considered fully justified, and therefore able to be used with confidence. In particular, after obtaining a Gaussian approximation to the posterior in terms of the MGFE at some temperature T, this approximation should always be raised to the power of T to yield a reliable estimate. In addition, we show explicitly that MGFE indeed incorporates the MAP principle, as well as the MDI (minimum discrimination information) approach, but not the well-known ME principle of Jaynes [E.T. Jaynes, Phys. Rev. 106, 620 (1957)]. We also illuminate some related issues and resolve apparent discrepancies. Finally, we investigate the performance of MGFE estimation for different values of T, and we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the approach.

  13. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1992-- September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development.

  14. Thermodynamic free-energy minimization for unsupervised fusion of dual-color infrared breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Miao, Lidan; Qi, Hairong

    2006-04-01

    function [A] may vary from the point tumor to its neighborhood, we could not rely on neighborhood statistics as did in a popular unsupervised independent component analysis (ICA) mathematical statistical method, we instead impose the physics equilibrium condition of the minimum of Helmholtz free-energy, H = E - T °S. In case of the point breast cancer, we can assume the constant ground state energy E ° to be normalized by those benign neighborhood tissue, and then the excited state can be computed by means of Taylor series expansion in terms of the pixel I/O data. We can augment the X-ray mammogram technique with passive IR imaging to reduce the unwanted X-rays during the chemotherapy recovery. When the sequence is animated into a movie, and the recovery dynamics is played backward in time, the movie simulates the cameras' potential for early detection without suffering the PD=0.1 search uncertainty. In summary, we applied two satellite-grade dual-color IR imaging cameras and advanced military (automatic target recognition) ATR spectrum fusion algorithm at the middle wavelength IR (3 - 5μm) and long wavelength IR (8 - 12μm), which are capable to screen malignant tumors proved by the time-reverse fashion of the animated movie experiments. On the contrary, the traditional thermal breast scanning/imaging, known as thermograms over decades, was IR spectrum-blind, and limited to a single night-vision camera and the necessary waiting for the cool down period for taking a second look for change detection suffers too many environmental and personnel variabilities.

  15. Radiographic Progression of Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Who Achieve Minimal Disease Activity in Response to Golimumab Therapy: Results Through 5 Years of a Randomized, Placebo‐Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Beutler, Anna; Gladman, Dafna; Mease, Philip; Krueger, Gerald G.; McInnes, Iain B.; Helliwell, Philip; Coates, Laura C.; Xu, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long‐term outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients who achieved or did not achieve minimal disease activity (MDA) through 5 years of golimumab treatment in the GO‐REVEAL trial. Methods The GO‐REVEAL trial was a phase III, randomized, double‐blind trial with placebo‐control through week 24 followed by an open‐label extension of golimumab 50/100 mg treatment up to 5 years. In these post‐hoc analyses, MDA was defined by the presence of ≥5 of 7 PsA outcome measures (≤1 swollen joint, ≤1 tender joint, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI] ≤1, patient pain score ≤15, patient global disease activity score ≤20 [range 0–100], Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI] ≤0.5, and ≤1 tender enthesis point). Results Treatment with golimumab yielded significantly higher MDA response rates versus patients randomized to placebo at week 14 (23.5% versus 1.0%; P < 0.0001), week 24 (28.1% versus 7.7%; P < 0.0001), and week 52 (42.4% versus 30.2%; P = 0.037). MDA was achieved at least once by ∼50% of golimumab‐treated patients overall. Irrespective of treatment randomization, achievement of MDA at ≥3 and ≥4 consecutive visits was associated with significantly less radiographic progression and more improvement in MDA components allowing specific assessment of physical function (HAQ DI) and overall disease activity (patient global assessment of disease activity) at week 256 versus patients not achieving MDA. Logistic regression analyses indicated that a 1‐unit higher baseline HAQ DI score yielded a significantly lower likelihood of achieving MDA at ≥3 (odds ratio 0.514 [95% confidence interval 0.321–0.824]; P = 0.006) and ≥4 (odds ratio 0.480 [95% confidence interval 0.290–0.795]; P = 0.004) consecutive visits. Conclusion Among golimumab‐treated PsA patients, better long‐term functional improvement, patient global assessment, and radiographic outcomes were observed when

  16. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.; Burns, C.C.; Cochrane, H.; Johnson, G.R.; Leong, H.; Sheaffer, J.D.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period September 1979 to July 1980 is reported. Research was structured along four major tasks: (1) atmospheric circulation and climate variability; (2) urban mesoclimate; (3) energy demand modelling; and (4) economic implications of weather variability and energy demand: stimulating residential energy conservation through the financial section. (ACR)

  17. Magma Energy Research Project, FY80 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Colp, J.L.

    1982-04-01

    The technical feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies is explored. Five aspects of the project are studied: resource location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization, magma/material compatibility, and energy extraction.

  18. Vibration attenuation of rotating machines by application of magnetorheological dampers to minimize energy losses in the rotor support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapoměl, J.; Ferfecki, P.

    2016-09-01

    A frequently used technological solution for minimization of undesirable effects caused by vibration of rotating machines consists in placing damping devices in the rotor supports. The application of magnetorheological squeeze film dampers enables their optimum performance to be achieved in a wide range of rotating speeds by adapting their damping effect to the current operating conditions. The damping force, which is produced by squeezing the layer of magnetorheological oil, can be controlled by changing magnetic flux passing through the lubricant. The force acting between the rotor and its frame is transmitted through the rolling element bearing, the lubricating layer and the squirrel spring. The loading of the bearing produces a time variable friction moment, energy losses, uneven rotor running, and has an influence on the rotor service life and the current fluctuation in electric circuits. The carried out research consisted in the development of a mathematical model of a magnetorheological squeeze film damper, its implementation into the computational models of rotor systems, and in performing the study on the dependence of the energy losses and variation of the friction moment on the damping force and its control. The new and computationally stable mathematical model of a magnetorheological squeeze film damper, its implementation in the computational models of rigid rotors and learning more on the energy losses generated in the rotor supports in dependence on the damping effect are the principal contributions of this paper. The results of the computational simulations prove that a suitable control of the damping force enables the energy losses to be reduced in a wide velocity range.

  19. Energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A report on the nation`s progress

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C.; Eckert, J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes progress throughout the nation in establishing voluntary programs linking home energy rating systems (HERS) and energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). These programs use methods for rating the energy efficiency of new and existing homes and predicting energy cost savings so lenders can factor in energy cost savings when underwriting mortgages. The programs also encourage lenders to finance cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes with low-interest mortgages or other instruments. The money saved on utility bills over the long term can more than offset the cost of such energy-efficiency improvements. The National Collaborative on HERS and EEMs recommended that this report be prepared.

  20. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.T.

    1992-12-31

    Results of a study on high energy collisions with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which is still dipole in form but contains an energy--dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic {bar p}p scattering very well from the ISR to S{bar p}pS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results {bar p}p in good agreement with the {bar p}p differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S{bar p}pS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. The cluster size of emitted hadrons increases gradually with energy. Aside from high-energy collisions, the giant fullerene molecules were studied and precise algebraic eigenvalue expressions of the Hueckel problem for carbon-240 were obtained.

  1. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1992 through March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. In particular, projects related to materials and coal combustion, environmental analysis, and bioconversion are described.

  2. FY2007 NREL Energy Storage R&D Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is engaged in research and development activities to support achieving targets and objectives set by the Energy Storage Program at the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology in the U.S. Department of Energy. These activities include: 1. supporting the Battery Technology Development Program with battery thermal characterization and modeling and with energy storage system simulations and analysis; 2. supporting the Applied Research Program by developing thermal models to address abuse of Li-Ion batteries; and 3. supporting the Focused Long-Term Research Program by investigating improved Li-Ion battery electrode materials. This report summarizes the results of NREL energy storage activities in FY07.

  3. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume I. Progress summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume I summarizes the activities and notable progress toward program objectives in both Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Major changes in program emphasis and structure are also documented.

  4. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  5. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  6. Detectors for high energy nuclear collisions: problems, progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Some perspective of the main issues in high energy nuclear collision physics is offered. How to identify and measure a quark-gluon plasma is considered to still be an open question. The types of detector configurations to be used in high-energy nucleus-nucleus experiments are discussed. Particular issues covered are measurements of lepton pair spectra, tracking systems and multitrack resolution, event-rate capabilities, backgrounds and other problems close to the beam, and calorimetry. 2 refs. (LEW)

  7. Herbaceous energy crop development: recent progress and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Emily A; Flavell, Richard B; Mascia, Peter N; Thomas, Steven R; Dohleman, Frank G; Long, Stephen P

    2008-06-01

    Oil prices and government mandates have catalyzed rapid growth of nonfossil transportation fuels in recent years, with a large focus on ethanol from energy crops, but the food crops used as first-generation energy crops today are not optimized for this purpose. We show that the theoretical efficiency of conversion of whole spectrum solar energy into biomass is 4.6-6%, depending on plant type, and the best year-long efficiencies realized are about 3%. The average leaf is as effective as the best PV solar cells in transducing solar energy to charge separation (ca. 37%). In photosynthesis, most of the energy that is lost is dissipated as heat during synthesis of biomass. Unlike photovoltaic (PV) cells this energetic cost supports the construction, maintenance, and replacement of the system, which is achieved autonomously as the plant grows and re-grows. Advances in plant genomics are being applied to plant breeding, thereby enabling rapid development of next-generation energy crops that capitalize on theoretical efficiencies while maintaining environmental and economic integrity. PMID:18513940

  8. Liquid-gas coexistence versus energy minimization with respect to the density profile in the inhomogeneous inner crust of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Noël; Urban, Michael

    2015-07-01

    We compare two approaches to describe the inner crust of neutron stars: On the one hand, the simple coexistence of a liquid (clusters) and a gas phase, and on the other hand, the energy minimization with respect to the density profile, including Coulomb and surface effects. We find that the phase-coexistence model gives a reasonable description of the densities in the clusters and in the gas, but the precision is not high enough to obtain the correct proton fraction at low baryon densities. We also discuss the surface tension and neutron skin obtained within the energy minimization.

  9. Symposium Papers-Progress in Radiation and Energy Balance Measurement Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On November 2, 2004, an all-day symposium entitled “Progress in Radiation and Energy Balance Measurement Systems” was convened at the ASA-CSSA-SSSA annual meetings in Seattle, WA. Interest in the measurement of radiation and energy balance components at soil and plant canopy surfaces has seen a res...

  10. Improving the physical realism and structural accuracy of protein models by a two-step atomic-level energy minimization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang

    2011-11-16

    Most protein structural prediction algorithms assemble structures as reduced models that represent amino acids by a reduced number of atoms to speed up the conformational search. Building accurate full-atom models from these reduced models is a necessary step toward a detailed function analysis. However, it is difficult to ensure that the atomic models retain the desired global topology while maintaining a sound local atomic geometry because the reduced models often have unphysical local distortions. To address this issue, we developed a new program, called ModRefiner, to construct and refine protein structures from Cα traces based on a two-step, atomic-level energy minimization. The main-chain structures are first constructed from initial Cα traces and the side-chain rotamers are then refined together with the backbone atoms with the use of a composite physics- and knowledge-based force field. We tested the method by performing an atomic structure refinement of 261 proteins with the initial models constructed from both ab initio and template-based structure assemblies. Compared with other state-of-art programs, ModRefiner shows improvements in both global and local structures, which have more accurate side-chain positions, better hydrogen-bonding networks, and fewer atomic overlaps. ModRefiner is freely available at http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/ModRefiner.

  11. Minimal Reduplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jesse Saba

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

  12. How Much Progress Has Been Made in Minimally Invasive Surgery for Gastric Cancer in Korea?: A Viewpoint From Korean Prospective Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Sung-Heun; Kim, Min-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. Because the incidence of gastric cancer is still high even with early detection and because of developments in surgical instruments and technological advances, minimally invasive surgery has rapidly become an accepted treatment for gastric cancer in Korea. Many Korean gastric surgeons have contributed to the rapid adaptation of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer: not only the Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study (KLASS) group, but also other expert surgeons after the 2000s. Thanks to their vigorous efforts involving active learning, education, workshops, academic communications, and international communications with active laparoscopic gastric surgeons in Korea, numerous results and well-designed large-scale clinical studies have been published or are actively ongoing, thus increasing its wide acceptance as an option for gastric cancer. Now, Korea has become one of the leading countries using minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer. This review article will summarize the current status and issues, as well as the clinical trials that have finished or are ongoing, regarding minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer in Korea. PMID:25526443

  13. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics discussed are under the following projects: materials research and developments; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; and fossil fuels supplies modeling and research.

  14. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2001-06-14

    This report covers progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The ORNL Fossil Energy Program research and development activities cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the SPR. An important part of the Fossil Energy Program is technical management of all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research (AR) Materials Program. The AR Materials Program involves research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  15. CRACOW CLEAN FOSSIL FUELS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM. PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1998

    SciTech Connect

    PIERCE,B.

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  16. Exploratory energy research program at the University of Michigan. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, W.

    1980-12-08

    A DOE grant to the University of Michigan for an Exploratory Energy Research Program is being used by the U-M Office of Energy Research (OER) to support faculty research and grad student research assistantships. Progress on activity during the first six months of the program is described and brief status reports on 20 energy-related faculty research projects in the physical, engineering, biological, and behavioral sciences are presented.

  17. [Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders]. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

  18. Progress in ultra high energy neutrino experiments using radio techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiali; Tiedt, Douglas

    2013-05-23

    Studying the source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) can provide important clues on the understanding of UHE particle physics, astrophysics, and other extremely energetic phenomena in the universe. However, charged CR particles are deflected by magnetic fields and can not point back to the source. Furthermore, UHECR charged particles above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff (about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV) suffer severe energy loss due to the interaction with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Consequently almost all the information carried by CR particles about their origin is lost. Neutrinos, which are neutral particles and have extremely weak interactions with other materials can arrive at the earth without deflection and absorption. Therefore UHE neutrinos can be traced back to the place where they are produced. Due to their weak interaction and ultra high energies (thus extremely low flux) the detection of UHE neutrinos requires a large collecting area and massive amounts of material. Cherenkov detection at radio frequency, which has long attenuation lengths and can travel freely in natural dense medium (ice, rock and salt et al), can fulfill the detection requirement. Many UHE neutrino experiments are being performed by radio techniques using natural ice, lunar, and salt as detection mediums. These experiments have obtained much data about radio production, propagation and detection, and the upper limit of UHE neutrino flux.

  19. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future.

  20. Wind cannot be Directed but Sails can be Adjusted for Malaysian Renewable Energy Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Nasir, Meseret; Veeramani, S.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy has been the promising energy technology since 1980s in terms of percentage of yearly growth of installed capacity. However the progress of wind energy has not been evenly distributed around the world. Particularly, in South East Asian countries like Malaysia and Singapore, though the Governments are keen on promoting wind energy technology, it is not well practiced due to the low wind speeds. Owing to the recent advancements in wind turbine designs, even Malaysia is well suited for wind energy by proper choice of wind turbines. As evidence, this paper presents successful wind turbines with simulated study outcomes to encourage wind power developments in Malaysia.

  1. Applications and Progress of Dust Injection to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Wurden, Glen A.; Mansfield, Dennis K.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Ticos, Catalin M.

    2008-09-07

    Three regimes of dust injection are proposed for different applications to fusion energy. In the 'low-speed' regime (<5 km/s), basic dust transport study, edge plasma diagnostics, edge-localized-mode (ELM) pacing in magnetic fusion devices can be realized by injecting dust of known properties into today's fusion experiments. ELM pacing, as an alternative to mini-pellet injection, is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion devices. Different schemes are available to inject dust. In the 'intermediate-speed' regime (10-200 km/s), possible applications of dust injection include fueling of the next-step fusion devices, core-diagnostics of the next-step fusion devices, and compression of plasma and solid targets to aid fusion energy production. Promising laboratory results of dust moving at 10-50 km/s do exist. Significant advance in this regime may be expected in the near term to achieve higher dust speeds. In the 'high-speed' regime (>500 km/s), dust injection can potentially be used to directly produce fusion energy through impact. Ideas on how to achieve these extremely high speeds are mostly on paper. No plan exists today to realize them in laboratory. Some experimental results, including electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration, are summarized and compared. Some features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. A necessary component of all dust injectors is the dust dropper (also known as dust dispenser). A computer-controlled piezoelectric crystals has been developed to dropped dust in a systematic and reproducible manner. Particle fluxes ranges from a few tens of particles per second up to thousands of particles per second by this simple device.

  2. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  3. Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a disel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1985 included crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance and reduced vernalization requirements in genotypes with desirable seed and oil qualities. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1985 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, and the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1985 included completion of a resource assessment of the southwestern United States, a study on successful new crop introductions, and initiation of studies on near-term markets for lignocellulosic energy crops and on vegetable oil extraction facilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Herbaceous Energy Corps Program: Annual progress report for FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

    1987-05-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. HECP is devoted to research on the development of terrestrial, nonwoody plant species for use as energy feedstocks. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1986 screening and selection trials continued on 25 species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake States regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a diesel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1986 included genetic crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance, development of Canola-quality winter rapeseed for the Southeast, and development of dwarf varieties. Production practices for double-cropped winter rapeseed in the Southeast were also examined. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1986 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex-bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes, and the start of a study to measure sustained productivity of old-field successional vegetation. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1986 included studies on the uses of wetlands and wet soils, the use of lignocellulosic crops as an alcohol feedstock, the potential of direct combustion of lignocellulosic crops, and existing oilseed extraction facilities. 6 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (< 12 mm/yr) are strongly preferred for the San Gorgonio segment of the SAF. The GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a

  6. Selected problems in experimental intermediate energy physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, B.W.; Hungerford, E.V.; Pinsky, L.S.

    1992-09-01

    Objectives of this research program are to investigate forefront problems in experimental intermediate-energy physics, educate students in this field of research, and develop the instrumentation necessary. Generally, this research is designed to search for physical processes that cannot be explained by conventional models of elementary interactions. The program has three major thrusts: strange particle physics, where a strange quark is embedded in the nuclear medium; muon electro-weak decay, which involves a search for a violation of the standard model of the electro-weak interaction; and measurement of the spin-dependent structure function of the neutron. Current research is reported in the following areas: hyperon physics at the AGS, electroproduction of hypernuclei, test of the standard model of electro-weak interactions, spin structure function of nucleons, and instrumentation.

  7. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1994 through March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1995, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, and DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The following research areas are covered in this report: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis support; Bioprocessing research; Coal combustion research; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science an Technology database.

  8. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

  9. [Progress of low-energy shockwave therapy in clinical application].

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhong-cheng; Liu, Jing; Wang, Lin; Li, Hui-xi

    2013-08-18

    A shock wave is a transient pressure disturbance that propagates rapidly in three-dimensional space. It is associated with a sudden rise from ambient pressure to its maximum pressure. Shock wave therapy in urology is primarily used to disintegrate urolithiasis. Recently, low-energy shock wave therapy (LESWT), which is a novel convenient and cost-effective therapeutic modality, is extended to treat other pathological conditions including coronary heart disease, musculoskeletal disorders and erectile dysfunction. However, the exact therapeutic mechanisms and clinical safety and efficacy of LESWT remain to be investigated. Based on the results of previous studies, it is suggested that LESWT could regulate angiogenesis-related growth factors expression including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vessel endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which might induce the ingrowth of neovascularization that improves blood supply and increases cell proliferation and eventual tissue regeneration for restore pathological changes. The further studies on cellular and molecular biological changes by LESWT for clarification its mechanism and clinical safety and efficacy studies are recommended.

  10. Progress in Z-pinch inertial fusion energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, John Woodruff

    2010-03-01

    The goal of z-pinch inertial fusion energy (IFE) is to extend the single-shot z-pinch inertial confinement fusion (ICF) results on Z to a repetitive-shot z-pinch power plant concept for the economical production of electricity. Z produces up to 1.8 MJ of x-rays at powers as high as 230 TW. Recent target experiments on Z have demonstrated capsule implosion convergence ratios of 14-21 with a double-pinch driven target, and DD neutron yields up to 8x10exp10 with a dynamic hohlraum target. For z-pinch IFE, a power plant concept is discussed that uses high-yield IFE targets (3 GJ) with a low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz). The concept includes a repetitive driver at 0.1 Hz, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the driver to the target, high-yield targets, and a thick-liquid wall chamber. Recent funding by a U.S. Congressional initiative for $4M for FY04 is supporting research on RTLs, repetitive pulsed power drivers, shock mitigation, full RTL cycle planned experiments, high-yield IFE targets, and z-pinch power plant technologies. Recent results of research in all of these areas are discussed, and a Road Map for Z-Pinch IFE is presented.

  11. Assessing Learning Progression of Energy Concepts across Middle School Grades: The Knowledge Integration Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2010-01-01

    We use a construct-based assessment approach to measure learning progression of energy concepts across physical, life, and earth science contexts in middle school grades. We model the knowledge integration construct in six levels in terms of the numbers of ideas and links used in student-generated explanations. For this study, we selected 10 items…

  12. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: the legislative and institutional program, cities program, outreach, the integrated alcohol/feedlot/geothermal operation, geothermal energy in the mining industry, geothermal space heating and cooling, identification of a suitable industry for a remote geothermal site, irrigation pumping, coal-fired/geothermal-assisted power plants, and area development plans. (MHR)

  13. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: legislative and institutional program, cities program, geothermal applications utilization technology, integrated alcohol/feedlot/geothermal operation, geothermal energy in the mining industry, geothermal space heating and cooling, identification of a suitable industry for a remote geothermal site, irrigation pumping, coal-fired/geothermal-assisted power plants, area development plans, and outreach. (MHR)

  14. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991]. Progress report, January 1990--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included.

  15. 76 FR 78702 - Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR...

  16. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report No. 2, April 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-03-15

    Systems that reduce energy usage and are economically viable in the citrus fruit processing industry are identified. The preliminary results of Phase I are presented. Alternative systems to be considered are classified and denoted as central, modular, integrated, and combined. Progress is reported on the central and modular systems. (MCW)

  17. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  18. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1993 through March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1994, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Bartlesville Project Office, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The five areas of research covered in this report are: Materials research and development; Environmental analysis and support; Bioprocessing; Coal combustion; and Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Altered Metabolic Homeostasis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Mechanisms of Energy Imbalance and Contribution to Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Zara A; Ngo, Shyuan T; Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A; Steyn, Frederik J

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the death of motor neurones, which leads to paralysis and death in an average of 3 years following diagnosis. The cause of ALS is unknown, but there is substantial evidence that metabolic factors, including nutritional state and body weight, affect disease progression and survival. This review provides an overview of the characteristics of metabolic dysregulation in ALS focusing on mechanisms that lead to disrupted energy supply (at a whole-body and cellular level) and altered energy expenditure. We discuss how a decrease in energy supply occurs in parallel with an increase in energy demand and leads to a state of chronic energy deficit which has a negative impact on disease outcome in ALS. We conclude by presenting potential and tested strategies to compensate for, or correct this energy imbalance, and speculate on promising areas for further research. PMID:27400276

  20. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-15

    The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

  1. Fossil-energy program. Quarterly progress report for June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L.E.

    1983-08-01

    This quarterly report covers the progress made during the period March 31 through June 30 for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research and development projects that are carried out in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuels as sources of clean energy. These projects are supported by various parts of DOE including Fossil Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview, the Electric Power Research Institute, and by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the EPA Office of Research and Development through inter-agency agreement with DOE.

  2. Adding energy minimization strategy to peptide-design algorithm enables better search for RNA-binding peptides: Redesigned λ N peptide binds boxB RNA.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xingqing; Hung, Michelle E; Leonard, Joshua N; Hall, Carol K

    2016-10-15

    Our previously developed peptide-design algorithm was improved by adding an energy minimization strategy which allows the amino acid sidechains to move in a broad configuration space during sequence evolution. In this work, the new algorithm was used to generate a library of 21-mer peptides which could substitute for λ N peptide in binding to boxB RNA. Six potential peptides were obtained from the algorithm, all of which exhibited good binding capability with boxB RNA. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were then conducted to examine the ability of the λ N peptide and three best evolved peptides, viz. Pept01, Pept26, and Pept28, to bind to boxB RNA. Simulation results demonstrated that our evolved peptides are better at binding to boxB RNA than the λ N peptide. Sequence searches using the old (without energy minimization strategy) and new (with energy minimization strategy) algorithms confirm that the new algorithm is more effective at finding good RNA-binding peptides than the old algorithm. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Rotenone-induced energy stress decompensated in ventral mesocerebrum is associated with Parkinsonism progression in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Qunhua; He, Junlin; Tang, Yong; Wang, Shibo; Qiu, Jingfu; Wang, Yang; Yu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by the hallmark feature of loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Energy metabolic disorder is associated with the pathogenesis of PD; however, the development of this disorder is yet to be elucidated. PD-like characteristics have been demonstrated in a rotenone rat model. In the present study, energy metabolism status was investigated in a rat model following intraperitoneal treatment with 1.0 mg/kg rotenone every 48 h. The behavior and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive levels in the substantia nigra of rats that were treated with rotenone for 24 weeks demonstrated that these rats developed more severe parkinsonism, as compared with that were treated for 16 weeks. Detection of ATP, lactic acid, NADH dehydrogenase 1 mRNA and lactate dehydrogenase B mRNA levels in the ventral mesocerebrum (VM) and skeletal muscle (SM) of the rats that had been treated with rotenone for 16 and 24 weeks demonstrated that the energy stress induced by rotenone progressed in both VM and SM. Notably, the energy stress detected in VM was more severe, and this energy stress was decompensated in the VM of rats that had been treated with rotenone for 24 weeks. The progression of energy stress and the incidence of energy decompensation in VM may be important for the improvement of PD pathology. PMID:27446321

  4. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  5. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, R.H.

    1991-06-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division are described in this annual progress report for FY 1990. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of how societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy efficient technologies; and (4) developing improved transportation planning and policy. Disciplines of the 129 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building enveloped (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), retrofits for existing buildings, and electric power systems. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. 48 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 29, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Progress is reported on the OPAL experiment at LEP, including construction and assembly of the hadron calorimeter and development of OPAL software. Progress on the JADE experiment, which examines e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at PETRA, and of the PLUTO collaboration are also discussed. Experiments at Fermilab are reported, including deep inelastic muon scattering at TeV II, the D0 experiment at TeV I, and hadron jet physics. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering and a search for point-sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are reported. Other activities discussed include polarization in electron storage rings, participation in studies for the SSC and LEP 200, neutron-antineutron oscillations, and the work of the electronics support group. High energy physics computer experience is also discussed. 158 refs. (LEW)

  7. Progressive changes in energy cost during a three-hour race-walk exercise.

    PubMed

    Farley, G R; Hamley, E J

    1978-12-01

    Twenty experienced race-walkers were exercised in a controlled routine walking at 11.6 km/hr continuously for 3 hr, alternately on a treadmill and a cinder track. Analyses of expired air samples taken at 30 min intervals were used to calculate average R.Q. and energy expenditure. R.Q. was found to decrease progressively from 0.92 to 0.66 in the 3 hr and remained at this level 30 min later. The mean energy cost rose from 46.2 to 55.4 kJ/min or 24.7 to 29.7 kJ/min.m2. The results indicate that this group probably experienced an elevation of aerobic activity as they utilized progressively more fat to satisfy metabolic demands and that R.Q. may be a good indicator for determining recovery after severe long duration exercise.

  8. Vertical and adiabatic excitations in anthracene from quantum Monte Carlo: Constrained energy minimization for structural and electronic excited-state properties in the JAGP ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco; Sorella, Sandro; Casula, Michele

    2015-06-01

    We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the π → π∗ (1La) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO → LUMO one, which underlies the 1La excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in π-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral 1La excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.

  9. Vertical and adiabatic excitations in anthracene from quantum Monte Carlo: Constrained energy minimization for structural and electronic excited-state properties in the JAGP ansatz

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco Casula, Michele; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-06-07

    We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the π → π{sup ∗} ({sup 1}L{sub a}) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO → LUMO one, which underlies the {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in π-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.

  10. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This report covers progress made on research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies, covering the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; fossil fuels supplies modeling and research; and oil and gas production.

  11. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1988: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The goals and accomplishments of the Energy Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described in this annual progress report for Fiscal Year (FY) 1988. The Energy Division is a multidisciplinary research organization committed to (1) increasing the knowledge and understanding of the way society makes choices in energy use and energy-using technologies, (2) improving society's understanding of the environmental implications of changes in energy technology, and (3) improving and developing new energy-efficient technologies. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on four major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) transportation and decision systems research, (3) technology research and development for improving the efficiency of energy and end-use technologies, and (4) electric power systems. The Division's total expenditures in FY 1988 were $44.3 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 139 staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics.

  12. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program: Progress summary for the period April 1986 through March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1988-10-01

    This report discusses recent progress in the DOE program, directed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to develop seasonal thermal energy storage (STES). STES has been identified as one method to substantially improve energy efficiency and economics in certain sectors of our economy. It provides a potentially economic means of using waste heat and climatic energy resources to meet a significant portion of our growing energy need for building and industrial process heating and cooling. Environmental benefits accompany the use of STES in many applications. Furthermore, STES can contribute to reduced reliance on premium fuels that are often obtained from foreign sources. Lastly by improving the energy economics of industry, STES can contribute to improved US industrial competitiveness. The report is provided in four sections; the first being this introduction Section 2 of the report describes the program and briefly documents its organization, goals, history, and long-term plans. Section 3 describes the progress during the period from April, 1986, through March, 1988. Section 4 provides a short update on international development of STES. 17 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Computational chemistry for graphene-based energy applications: progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Zak E.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2015-04-01

    Research in graphene-based energy materials is a rapidly growing area. Many graphene-based energy applications involve interfacial processes. To enable advances in the design of these energy materials, such that their operation, economy, efficiency and durability is at least comparable with fossil-fuel based alternatives, connections between the molecular-scale structure and function of these interfaces are needed. While it is experimentally challenging to resolve this interfacial structure, molecular simulation and computational chemistry can help bridge these gaps. In this Review, we summarise recent progress in the application of computational chemistry to graphene-based materials for fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and supercapacitors. We also outline both the bright prospects and emerging challenges these techniques face for application to graphene-based energy materials in future.

  14. Computational chemistry for graphene-based energy applications: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Zak E; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2015-04-28

    Research in graphene-based energy materials is a rapidly growing area. Many graphene-based energy applications involve interfacial processes. To enable advances in the design of these energy materials, such that their operation, economy, efficiency and durability is at least comparable with fossil-fuel based alternatives, connections between the molecular-scale structure and function of these interfaces are needed. While it is experimentally challenging to resolve this interfacial structure, molecular simulation and computational chemistry can help bridge these gaps. In this Review, we summarise recent progress in the application of computational chemistry to graphene-based materials for fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and supercapacitors. We also outline both the bright prospects and emerging challenges these techniques face for application to graphene-based energy materials in future. PMID:25833794

  15. Seasonal thermal energy storage program. Progress report, January 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    The objectives of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program is to demonstrate the economic storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis, using heat or cold available from waste sources or other sources during a surplus period to reduce peak period demand, reduce electric utilities peaking problems, and contribute to the establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. Aquifers, ponds, earth, and lakes have potential for seasonal storage. The initial thrust of the STES Program is toward utilization of ground-water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage. Program plans for meeting these objectives, the development of demonstration programs, and progress in assessing the technical, economic, legal, and environmental impacts of thermal energy storage are described. (LCL)

  16. Proposed actions for the US Food and Drug Administration to implement to minimize adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Thorlton, Janet; Colby, David A; Devine, Paige

    2014-07-01

    Energy drink sales are expected to reach $52 billion by 2016. These products, often sold as dietary supplements, typically contain stimulants. The Dietary Supplement Protection Act claims an exemplary public health safety record. However, in 2011 the number of emergency department visits related to consumption of energy drinks exceeded 20,000. Nearly half of these visits involved adverse effects occurring from product misuse. Political, social, economic, practical, and legal factors shape the landscape surrounding this issue. In this policy analysis, we examine 3 options: capping energy drink caffeine levels, creating a public education campaign, and increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding the manufacture and labeling of energy drinks. Increased regulatory scrutiny may be in order, especially in light of wrongful death lawsuits related to caffeine toxicity resulting from energy drink consumption.

  17. Proposed Actions for the US Food and Drug Administration to Implement to Minimize Adverse Effects Associated With Energy Drink Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Colby, David A.; Devine, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink sales are expected to reach $52 billion by 2016. These products, often sold as dietary supplements, typically contain stimulants. The Dietary Supplement Protection Act claims an exemplary public health safety record. However, in 2011 the number of emergency department visits related to consumption of energy drinks exceeded 20 000. Nearly half of these visits involved adverse effects occurring from product misuse. Political, social, economic, practical, and legal factors shape the landscape surrounding this issue. In this policy analysis, we examine 3 options: capping energy drink caffeine levels, creating a public education campaign, and increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding the manufacture and labeling of energy drinks. Increased regulatory scrutiny may be in order, especially in light of wrongful death lawsuits related to caffeine toxicity resulting from energy drink consumption. PMID:24832439

  18. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.N.

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division`s total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division`s programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  19. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.N.

    1992-04-01

    The Energy Division is one of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge Laboratory. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1991. The division's total expenditures in FY 1991 were $39.1 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 124 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The Energy Division's programmatic activities focus on three major areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities cover energy and resource analysis, the preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, analysis of emergency preparedness for natural and technological disasters, analysis of the energy and environmental needs of developing countries, technology transfer, and analysis of civilian transportation. Energy conservation technologies include electric power systems, building equipment (thermally activated heat pumps, advanced refrigeration systems, novel cycles), building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and technical issues for improving energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems concentrate on research for sponsors within the US military on improving the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  20. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, P.P.

    1994-07-01

    One of 17 research divisions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY1993. Energy Division is committed to (1) understanding the mechanisms by which societies make choices in energy use; (2) improving society`s understanding of the environmental, social, and economic implications of technological change; (3) developing and transferring energy-efficient technologies; (4) improving transportation policy and planning; (5) enhancing basic knowledge in the social sciences as related to energy and associated issues. Energy Division`s expenditures in FY1993 totaled $42 million. The work was supported by the US DOE, DOD, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 126.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and computer sciences and data systems. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy use and delivery technologies, and (3) transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on emergency preparedness, transportation analysis, and analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries. Energy use and delivery technologies focus on electric power systems, building equipment, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Transportation systems research is conducted both to improve the quality of civilian transportation and for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination.

  1. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a “once-through” option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were

  2. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A.; Wilson, C.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy`s Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  3. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Najafabadi, Mojgan Mortazavi; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED), renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g) was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression.

  4. Real-space finite-difference approach for multi-body systems: path-integral renormalization group method and direct energy minimization method.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Akira; Kojo, Masashi; Hirose, Kikuji; Goto, Hidekazu

    2011-11-01

    The path-integral renormalization group and direct energy minimization method of practical first-principles electronic structure calculations for multi-body systems within the framework of the real-space finite-difference scheme are introduced. These two methods can handle higher dimensional systems with consideration of the correlation effect. Furthermore, they can be easily extended to the multicomponent quantum systems which contain more than two kinds of quantum particles. The key to the present methods is employing linear combinations of nonorthogonal Slater determinants (SDs) as multi-body wavefunctions. As one of the noticeable results, the same accuracy as the variational Monte Carlo method is achieved with a few SDs. This enables us to study the entire ground state consisting of electrons and nuclei without the need to use the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Recent activities on methodological developments aiming towards practical calculations such as the implementation of auxiliary field for Coulombic interaction, the treatment of the kinetic operator in imaginary-time evolutions, the time-saving double-grid technique for bare-Coulomb atomic potentials and the optimization scheme for minimizing the total-energy functional are also introduced. As test examples, the total energy of the hydrogen molecule, the atomic configuration of the methylene and the electronic structures of two-dimensional quantum dots are calculated, and the accuracy, availability and possibility of the present methods are demonstrated.

  5. An analytical version of the free-energy-minimization method for the equation of state of stellar plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daeppen, W.

    1980-11-01

    In the free energy method statistical mechanical models are used to construct a free energy function of the plasma. The equilibrium composition for given temperature and density is found where the free energy is a minimum. Until now the free energy could not be expressed analytically, because the contributions from the partially degenerate electrons and from the inner degrees of freedom of the bound particles had to be evaluated numerically. In the present paper further simplifications are made to obtain an analytic expression for the free energy. Thus the minimum is rapidly found using a second order algorithm, whereas until now numerical first order derivatives and a steepest- descent method had to be used. Consequently time-consuming computations are avoided and the analytical version of the free energy method has successfully been incorporated into the stellar evolution programmes at Geneva Observatory. No use of thermodynamical tables is made, either. Although some accuracy is lost by the simplified analytical expression, the main advantages of the free energy method over simple ideal-gas and Sacha-equation subprogrammes (as used in the stellar programmes mentioned) are still kept. The relative errors of the simplifications made here are estimated and they are shown not to exceed 10% altogether. Densities up to those encountered in low-mass main-sequence stars can be treated within the region of validity of the method. Higher densities imply less accurate results. Nonetheless they are consistent so that they cannot disturb the numerical integration of the equilibrium equation in the stellar evolution model. The input quantities of the free energy method presented here are either temperature and density or temperature and pressure, the latter require a rapid numerical Legendre transformation which has been developed here.

  6. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  7. Progress of an electrohydraulic total artificial heart system with a separate energy converter.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, E; Taenaka, Y; Nakamura, M; Endo, S; Takano, H; Koshiji, K; Fukui, Y; Murai, T; Tsukahara, K

    1999-01-01

    We have been developing an electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) system. The system consists of diaphragm blood pumps, an abdominally placed energy converter, an internal controller, a transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) system, a transcutaneous optical information transfer system, and internal and external lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The energy converter was optimized to obtain better oil transfer. Maximum cardiac output and efficiency of the EHTAH were increased from 8 L/min to 10 L/min and from 10% to 12%, respectively. The volume of the energy converter was reduced from 280 to 210 ml. The pumping unit was successfully implanted in 68-85 kg calves without anatomic problems, and the calves survived up to 10 days with good circulatory results. The maximum temperature rise of the implanted energy converter was only 1 degrees C. Stable performance of the TET system was confirmed in goats for more than 1 month. DC-DC energy transfer efficiency with 20 W of energy transmission remained within the range of 80% to 85%, and no significant temperature rise was observed in the implanted circuit. The internal Li-ion battery was also evaluated in a goat, and the maximum temperature rise during the charging period was 1.5 degrees C, while the charging and discharging times were 72 and 58 min, respectively. We conclude that our system has progressed in its development as a practical implantable system.

  8. An investment framework for clean energy and development: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-15

    This paper responds to the Development Committee Communique of April 2006 requesting the World Bank to review existing financial instruments and explore the potential value of new financial instruments to accelerate investment in clean energy. It builds on the report 'Clean Energy and Development: Towards an Investment Framework' that was presented to the Development Committee at the April 2006 Spring Meeting and concludes: The major financing gap for the energy for development and energy access agendas can be met by deepening and broadening energy sector policy reform to attract private sector investments and additional public sector financing. A long-term stable global regulatory framework, with differentiated responsibilities, is needed to stimulate private investments and provide predictability. The Bank proposes the development of a number of options to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. Risks of weather-related disasters need to be integrated into poverty and sustainable development strategies with a combination of public and private sector resources. Clean energy will address the following issues that affect poor people and undermine progress on many of the Millennium Development Goals: Pollution at the household level, especially indoor air pollution, which adversely affects human health; Environmental impacts at the local, national and regional level, including urban air pollution and acid deposition, which affects human health and ecological systems; and The adverse impacts of greenhouse gas emissions from the production of energy on agricultural productivity, water resources, human health, human settlements and ecological systems. 11 figs., 2 tabs., 2 annexes.

  9. 78 FR 38028 - Duke Energy Progress, Inc.; Notice of Video Conference To Discuss Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Progress, Inc.; Notice of Video Conference To Discuss Yadkin-Pee... July 1, 2013, from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. (Eastern Time), NMFS will host a video conference to describe...

  10. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-15

    The principal objective of the work is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting the energy requirements of citrus fruit processing that will substantially reduce the overall energy usage of citrus processing plants. The components which will make up the alternative systems include: evaporators, dryers, refrigeration units, heat pumps, heat engines, heat exchangers, thermal storage units, and ancillary components. These components will be used to form the five operational units of the citrus processing plant. These operational units are: evaporation, drying, refrigeration, pasteurizing and canning, and the plant electrical load that consists of operations such as conveying and juice extraction. The five operational units are then interrelated to varying degrees with respect to energy exchange to form different types of alternative systems. The approach, work plan, and progress of technical work are summarized. (MCW)

  11. Minimal skin dose increase in longitudinal rotating biplanar linac-MR systems: examination of radiation energy and flattening filter design.

    PubMed

    Keyvanloo, A; Burke, B; St Aubin, J; Baillie, D; Wachowicz, K; Warkentin, B; Steciw, S; Fallone, B G

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic fields of linac-MR systems modify the path of contaminant electrons in photon beams, which alters patient entrance skin dose. Also, the increased SSD of linac-MR systems reduces the maximum achievable dose rate. To accurately quantify the changes in entrance skin dose, the authors use EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculations that incorporate 3D magnetic field of the Alberta 0.5 T longitudinal linac-MR system. The Varian 600C linac head geometry assembled on the MRI components is used in the BEAMnrc simulations for 6 MV and 10 MV beam models and skin doses are calculated at an average depth of 70 μm using DOSXYZnrc. 3D modeling shows that magnetic fringe fields decay rapidly and are small at the linac head. SSDs between 100 and 120 cm result in skin-dose increases of between ~6%-19% and ~1%-9% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. For 6 MV, skin dose increases from ~10.5% to ~1.5% for field-size increases of 5  ×  5 cm(2) to 20  ×  20 cm(2). For 10 MV, skin dose increases by ~6% for a 5  ×  5 cm(2) field, and decreases by ~1.5% for a 20  ×  20 cm(2) field. Furthermore, the proposed reshaped flattening filter increases the dose rate from the current 355 MU min(-1) to 529 MU min(-1) (6 MV) or 604 MU min(-1) (10 MV), while the skin-dose increases by only an additional ~2.6% (all percent increases in skin dose are relative to D max). This study suggests that there is minimal increase in the entrance skin dose and minimal/no decrease in the dose rate of the Alberta longitudinal linac-MR system. The even lower skin dose increase at 10 MV offers further advantages in future designs of linac-MR prototypes. PMID:27050044

  12. Minimal skin dose increase in longitudinal rotating biplanar linac-MR systems: examination of radiation energy and flattening filter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvanloo, A.; Burke, B.; St. Aubin, J.; Baillie, D.; Wachowicz, K.; Warkentin, B.; Steciw, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic fields of linac-MR systems modify the path of contaminant electrons in photon beams, which alters patient entrance skin dose. Also, the increased SSD of linac-MR systems reduces the maximum achievable dose rate. To accurately quantify the changes in entrance skin dose, the authors use EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculations that incorporate 3D magnetic field of the Alberta 0.5 T longitudinal linac-MR system. The Varian 600C linac head geometry assembled on the MRI components is used in the BEAMnrc simulations for 6 MV and 10 MV beam models and skin doses are calculated at an average depth of 70 μm using DOSXYZnrc. 3D modeling shows that magnetic fringe fields decay rapidly and are small at the linac head. SSDs between 100 and 120 cm result in skin-dose increases of between ~6%-19% and ~1%-9% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. For 6 MV, skin dose increases from ~10.5% to ~1.5% for field-size increases of 5  ×  5 cm2 to 20  ×  20 cm2. For 10 MV, skin dose increases by ~6% for a 5  ×  5 cm2 field, and decreases by ~1.5% for a 20  ×  20 cm2 field. Furthermore, the proposed reshaped flattening filter increases the dose rate from the current 355 MU min-1 to 529 MU min-1 (6 MV) or 604 MU min-1 (10 MV), while the skin-dose increases by only an additional ~2.6% (all percent increases in skin dose are relative to D max). This study suggests that there is minimal increase in the entrance skin dose and minimal/no decrease in the dose rate of the Alberta longitudinal linac-MR system. The even lower skin dose increase at 10 MV offers further advantages in future designs of linac-MR prototypes.

  13. Minimal skin dose increase in longitudinal rotating biplanar linac-MR systems: examination of radiation energy and flattening filter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvanloo, A.; Burke, B.; St. Aubin, J.; Baillie, D.; Wachowicz, K.; Warkentin, B.; Steciw, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic fields of linac-MR systems modify the path of contaminant electrons in photon beams, which alters patient entrance skin dose. Also, the increased SSD of linac-MR systems reduces the maximum achievable dose rate. To accurately quantify the changes in entrance skin dose, the authors use EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculations that incorporate 3D magnetic field of the Alberta 0.5 T longitudinal linac-MR system. The Varian 600C linac head geometry assembled on the MRI components is used in the BEAMnrc simulations for 6 MV and 10 MV beam models and skin doses are calculated at an average depth of 70 μm using DOSXYZnrc. 3D modeling shows that magnetic fringe fields decay rapidly and are small at the linac head. SSDs between 100 and 120 cm result in skin-dose increases of between ~6%–19% and ~1%–9% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. For 6 MV, skin dose increases from ~10.5% to ~1.5% for field-size increases of 5  ×  5 cm2 to 20  ×  20 cm2. For 10 MV, skin dose increases by ~6% for a 5  ×  5 cm2 field, and decreases by ~1.5% for a 20  ×  20 cm2 field. Furthermore, the proposed reshaped flattening filter increases the dose rate from the current 355 MU min‑1 to 529 MU min‑1 (6 MV) or 604 MU min‑1 (10 MV), while the skin-dose increases by only an additional ~2.6% (all percent increases in skin dose are relative to D max). This study suggests that there is minimal increase in the entrance skin dose and minimal/no decrease in the dose rate of the Alberta longitudinal linac-MR system. The even lower skin dose increase at 10 MV offers further advantages in future designs of linac-MR prototypes.

  14. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Counce, D.M.; Wolff, P.P.

    1993-04-01

    Energy Division`s mission is to provide innovative solutions to energy and related Issues of national and global importance through interdisciplinary research and development. Its goals and accomplishments are described in this annual progress report for FY 1992. Energy Division`s total expenditures in FY 1992 were $42.8 million. The work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the US Department of Defense, many other federal agencies, and some private organizations. Disciplines of the 116.5 technical staff members include engineering, social sciences, physical and life sciences, and mathematics and statistics. The division`s programmatic activities cover three main areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) energy conservation technologies, and (3) military transportation systems. Analysis and assessment activities involve energy and resource analysis, preparation of environmental assessments and impact statements, research on waste management, technology transfer, analysis of energy and environmental needs in developing countries, and civilian transportation analysis. Energy conservation technologies focus on electric power systems, building envelopes (walls, foundations, roofs, attics, and materials), and methods to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings. Military transportation systems conduct research for sponsors within the US military to improve the efficiency of military deployment, scheduling, and transportation coordination. Much of Energy Division`s research is valuable to other organizations as well as to sponsors. This information is disseminated by the staff`s involvement in professional and trade organizations and workshops; joint research with universities and private-sector firms; collaboration with state and local governments; presentation of work at conferences; and publication of research results in journals, reports, and conference proceedings.

  15. Hybridization of physical cleaning and quorum quenching to minimize membrane biofouling and energy consumption in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Weerasekara, Nuwan A; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2014-12-15

    Membrane fouling and energy consumption are interconnected and considered as a bottleneck in membrane bioreactor (MBR) applications. This study investigated synergistic combinations of quorum quenching (QQ) and physical cleaning under different cleaning conditions and aeration intensities with respect to fouling control and energy saving. The MBR operated with periodic air backpulsing had a lower fouling tendency compared with the reactor operated with relaxation. Frequent physical cleanings mitigated the membrane fouling, but irreversible fouling inevitably occurred over time. A significant improvement in fouling control was accomplished when QQ was coupled with physical cleanings, particularly in the filtration/relaxation mode. The submerged QQ vessel helped operate the MBRs stably even at the lowest end of aeration intensity (51 s(-1) in G value), without any significant loss of membrane permeability. The specific membrane filtration energy of the QQMBR remained low and independent of aeration intensities tested, whereas that of the normal MBR sharply increased with decreased aeration rates. The QQMBR with low aeration intensity (51 s(-1)) reduced approximately 27% of the specific aeration energy required for the MBR operated at high aeration intensity (103 s(-1)). QQ bacteria should hamper the formation of a biofilm on the membrane surface, but mixed liquor properties and treatment performances were not affected by the QQ activity.

  16. The Energy-Related Inventions Program: A decade of commercial progress

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. ); Wilson, C.R. )

    1991-12-01

    This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy's Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.

  17. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual progress report, September 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  18. Progress in Energy Storage Technologies: Models and Methods for Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, Schuyler W.

    Climate change and other sustainability challenges have led to the development of new technologies that increase energy efficiency and reduce the utilization of finite resources. To promote the adoption of technologies with social benefits, governments often enact policies that provide financial incentives at the point of purchase. In their current form, these subsidies have the potential to increase the diffusion of emerging technologies; however, accounting for technological progress can improve program success while decreasing net public investment. This research develops novel methods using experience curves for the development of more efficient subsidy policies. By providing case studies in the field of automotive energy storage technologies, this dissertation also applies the methods to show the impacts of incorporating technological progress into energy policies. Specific findings include learning-dependent tapering subsidies for electric vehicles based on the lithium-ion battery experience curve, the effects of residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries on emerging technology cost competitiveness, and a cascading diffusion assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle subsidy programs. Notably, the results show that considering learning rates in policy development can save billions of dollars in public funds, while also lending insight into the decision of whether or not to subsidize a given technology.

  19. Colorado School of Mines Low Energy Nuclear Physics Project technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.

    1990-01-05

    This report summarizes the activity and accomplishments of the Colorado School of Mines Low Energy Nuclear Physics project during the calendar year 1989. Many of the projects which were anticipated in the original grant proposal have been completed. Among these completed projects we include of study of the radiative capture of low energy protons on {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 11}B. Preliminary measurements of the branching ratios and yields of these reactions were reported in last year's Technical Progress Report. These measurements are now complete and have been used to extract the respective astrophysical S-factors and the corresponding thermonuclear reactivities. While not complete, progress has been made in some of the other originally proposed studies. Among these include a fairly extensive study of the interaction of low energy deuterons with {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. In the course of this study we have made a solid observation of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect in the D-{sup 6}Li system. Progress has been made in our study of the radiative capture of alpha particles by deuterons, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 7}Li but considerable work remains in these studies. In our earlier reports we noted the observation of d-d reactions during the bombardment of deuterated targets with energetic beams of protons, alpha particles, and other light-to-medium ions. We believe we now understand this phenomenon and feel it has some fairly significant consequences both for our studies and for those of other researchers. Our susceptibility to mob hysteria led us to invest a significant effort in cold nuclear fusion, both employing a fairly unique accelerator based approach at CSM and as one of the gamma ray diagnosticians on the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Cold Fusion Task Force.

  20. Base program on energy related research. Quarterly technical progress report, February--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Progress reports are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil and gas; advanced systems applications; environmental technologies; and applied energy science. Oil and gas research includes: CROW {sup TM} process modeling; and miscible-immiscible gas injection processes. Advanced systems applications covers: development and optimization of a process for the production of a premium sold fuel from western US coals; development of an on-line alkali monitoring probe; optimization of the recycle oil process for eastern oil shale; and process support and development. Environmental technologies has solid waste management; and remediation of contaminated soils.

  1. Biomass energy technology annual technical progress report, FY 1982. Volume II. Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The goal of the BET program is to conduct an integrated R and D program for feedstock production and conversion of organic materials to economically produce energy products that will significantly contribute to meeting long-term US energy needs. In feedstock production, laboratory investigations are being performed to reduce the risks associated with the production of microalgal oils that can be used for energy applications and high-value chemical substitutes. Research also is being done on the biochemical mechanisms that control hydrocarbon production by macroalgal species. There has been significant progress in the DOE Short-Rotation Woods Crops Program aimed at increasing yields of biomass through both improved traditional/conventional silvicultural techniques and short-rotation intensive culture. Studies that evaluate the potential of milkweed as an energy feedstock were completed in FY 1982. In thermochemical conversion, evaluations of a variety of high-performance gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas and synthesis gas were concluded in FY 1982. Free market forces are expected to stimulate private sector interest in developing the technology and marketing needed to commercialize medium-Btu gasification systems. Medium-Btu gases have numerous beneficial industrial applications, and this technology is close to entry into the marketplace. Progress has been made in FY 1982 toward understanding the basic mechanisms and kinetics affecting the thermochemical processing of biomass through fast pyrolysis and direct liquefaction techniques. In biochemical conversion, fundamental research is being performed on the anaerobic digestion process. FY 1982 research activities also included laboratory-scale experiments on photobiological methods for hydrogen production. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the 3 program areas for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  2. Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132,000. PMID:22843348

  3. Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132,000.

  4. Minimization of the energy storage requirements of a stand-alone wind power installation by means of photovoltaic panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldellis, J. K.; Kostas, P.; Filios, A.

    2006-07-01

    Autonomous wind power systems are among the most interesting and environmentally friendly technological solutions for the electrification of remote consumers. In many cases, however, the battery contribution to the initial or the total operational cost is found to be dominant, discouraging further penetration of the available wind resource. This is basically the case for areas possessing a medium-low wind potential. On the other hand, several isolated consumers are located in regions having the regular benefit of an abundant and reliable solar energy supply. In this context the present study investigates the possibility of reducing the battery size of a stand-alone wind power installation by incorporating a small photovoltaic generator. For this purpose an integrated energy production installation based exclusively on renewable energy resources is hereby proposed. Subsequently a new numerical algorithm is developed that is able to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system. According to the results obtained by long-term experimental measurements, the introduction of the photovoltaic panels considerably improves the operational and financial behaviour of the complete installation owing to the imposed significant battery capacity diminution. Copyright

  5. Solar Energy: Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices (Small 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Nanoengineered materials and structures can harvest light efficiently for photovoltaic applications. Device structure design optimization and material property improvement are equally important for high performance. On page 2536, X. Mo, Z. Fan, and co-workers summarize the design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices to assist with a better understanding of device physics. PMID:27167321

  6. Solar Energy: Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices (Small 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Nanoengineered materials and structures can harvest light efficiently for photovoltaic applications. Device structure design optimization and material property improvement are equally important for high performance. On page 2536, X. Mo, Z. Fan, and co-workers summarize the design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices to assist with a better understanding of device physics.

  7. Progress report to the Department of Energy in support of basic energy and policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Research areas include: light path of carbon reduction in photosynthesis: heat transfer in coal-ash slags; mechanism of plant cell enlargement in Gymnosperms; emulsion stability in enhanced oil recovery; selective transfer phenomenon in friction and wear; conceptual design of the Purdue Compact Torus/Passive Liner Fusion Reactor; integration of farm level alcohol production consistent with the economic and labor constraints of a farming operation, and newsmedia coverage of selected energy policy proposals.

  8. Base program on energy related research. Quarterly technical progress report, August--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following area of studies: oil and gas; advanced systems applications; environmental technologies; and applied energy science. Oil and gas includes the following tasks: CROW{sup TM} process modeling; and miscible-immiscible gas injection processes. Advanced systems applications covers: development and optimization of a process for the production of a premium solid fuel from Western U.S. coals; development of an on-line alkali monitoring probe; optimization of the recycle oil process for Eastern oil shale; and process support and development. Tasks in the environmental technologies are: solid waste management; and remediation of contaminated soils. Applied energy science covers heavy oil/plastics co-processing.

  9. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics. Technical progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-12-31

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs.

  10. Minimization of a free-energy-like potential for non-equilibrium flow systems at steady state

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines a new formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which gives a conditional derivation of the ‘maximum entropy production’ (MEP) principle for flow and/or chemical reaction systems at steady state. The analysis uses a dimensionless potential function ϕst for non-equilibrium systems, analogous to the free energy concept of equilibrium thermodynamics. Spontaneous reductions in ϕst arise from increases in the ‘flux entropy’ of the system—a measure of the variability of the fluxes—or in the local entropy production; conditionally, depending on the behaviour of the flux entropy, the formulation reduces to the MEP principle. The inferred steady state is also shown to exhibit high variability in its instantaneous fluxes and rates, consistent with the observed behaviour of turbulent fluid flow, heat convection and biological systems; one consequence is the coexistence of energy producers and consumers in ecological systems. The different paths for attaining steady state are also classified. PMID:20368250

  11. Reducing start-up time and minimizing energy losses of Microbial Fuel Cells using Maximum Power Point Tracking strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molognoni, Daniele; Puig, Sebastià; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Liberale, Alessandro; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Callegari, Arianna; Colprim, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are considered to be an environmental friendly energy conversion technology. The main limitations that delay their industrialization include low current and power densities achievable and long start-up times. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has been proposed as a method to enhance MFCs electrical performances. However, the specialized literature is still lacking of experimental works on scaled-up reactors and/or real wastewater utilization. This study evaluates the impact of a MPPT system applied to MFCs treating swine wastewater in terms of start-up time and long-term performance. For this purpose, two replicate cells were compared, one with applied MPPT control and one working with fixed resistance. Both MFCs were continuously fed with swine wastewater to validate the control system under real and dynamic conditions. The study demonstrated that the automatic resistance control was able to reduce the start-up time of about one month. Moreover, MPPT system increased of 40% the Coulombic efficiency at steady-state conditions, reduced energy losses associated with anode and cathode reactions and limited methanogenic activity in the anode chamber. A power density of 5.0 ± 0.2 W m-3 NAC was achieved feeding the system at an organic loading rate of 10 kg COD m-3 d-1.

  12. Duke University High Energy Physics; Progress report, December 1, 1990--March 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    The research program of the Duke High Energy Physics Group is described in this Progress Report and a separate Proposal containing their plans for 1994. These two documents are supplemented by compilations of selected publications, thesis abstracts, and the curriculum vitae of the eleven Ph.D. physicists who are carrying out this research program. This Progress Report contains a review of the research which has been done over the first half (1992 and 1993 to date) of the current three-year DOE grant, plus some earlier research to establish a broader perspective of the research interests. High energy physics research at Duke has three components. The first, Task A, is based upon experiments carried out at Fermilab`s Tevatron Collider. The group is finishing the analysis of data from their first collider experiment (E735), a study of inclusive particle production from {bar p} p collisions at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV. The second component of the research, Task B, deals primarily with heavy flavor physics. The third part of the research program, Task D, deals with preparation for research at the SSC. The authors have been active in the development of tracking detectors for the SSC since 1989, and are now concentrating on the design and construction of straw tube drift chambers for the solenoid detector.

  13. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-01

    Meeting the growing global energy demand is one of the important challenges of the 21st century. Currently over 80% of the world's energy requirements are supplied by the combustion of fossil fuels, which promotes global warming and has deleterious effects on our environment. Moreover, fossil fuels are non-renewable energy and will eventually be exhausted due to the high consumption rate. A new type of alternative energy that is clean, renewable and inexpensive is urgently needed. Several candidates are currently available such as hydraulic power, wind force and nuclear power. Solar energy is particularly attractive because it is essentially clean and inexhaustible. A year's worth of sunlight would provide more than 100 times the energy of the world's entire known fossil fuel reserves. Photocatalysis and photovoltaics are two of the most important routes for the utilization of solar energy. However, environmental protection is also critical to realize a sustainable future, and water pollution is a serious problem of current society. Photocatalysis is also an essential route for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater. A type of compound with the defined structure of perovskite (ABX3) was observed to play important roles in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. These materials can be used as photocatalysts for water splitting reaction for hydrogen production and photo-degradation of organic dyes in wastewater as well as for photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and light absorbers in perovskite-based solar cells for electricity generation. In this review paper, the recent progress of perovskites for applications in these fields is comprehensively summarized. A description of the basic principles of the water splitting reaction, photo-degradation of organic dyes and solar cells as well as the requirements for efficient photocatalysts is first provided. Then, emphasis is placed on the designation and strategies for perovskite catalysts to improve their

  14. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-01

    Meeting the growing global energy demand is one of the important challenges of the 21st century. Currently over 80% of the world's energy requirements are supplied by the combustion of fossil fuels, which promotes global warming and has deleterious effects on our environment. Moreover, fossil fuels are non-renewable energy and will eventually be exhausted due to the high consumption rate. A new type of alternative energy that is clean, renewable and inexpensive is urgently needed. Several candidates are currently available such as hydraulic power, wind force and nuclear power. Solar energy is particularly attractive because it is essentially clean and inexhaustible. A year's worth of sunlight would provide more than 100 times the energy of the world's entire known fossil fuel reserves. Photocatalysis and photovoltaics are two of the most important routes for the utilization of solar energy. However, environmental protection is also critical to realize a sustainable future, and water pollution is a serious problem of current society. Photocatalysis is also an essential route for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater. A type of compound with the defined structure of perovskite (ABX3) was observed to play important roles in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. These materials can be used as photocatalysts for water splitting reaction for hydrogen production and photo-degradation of organic dyes in wastewater as well as for photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and light absorbers in perovskite-based solar cells for electricity generation. In this review paper, the recent progress of perovskites for applications in these fields is comprehensively summarized. A description of the basic principles of the water splitting reaction, photo-degradation of organic dyes and solar cells as well as the requirements for efficient photocatalysts is first provided. Then, emphasis is placed on the designation and strategies for perovskite catalysts to improve their

  15. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  16. Supramolecular structures for photochemical energy conversion. Technical progress report, 1993--1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This research project is concerned with the design, synthesis and study by photochemical and spectroscopic methods of complex molecular devices that mimic some important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. Properly engineered molecules of this type can functionally mimic photosynthetic light harvesting (singlet-singlet energy transfer between chromophores), photoprotection from light-initiated singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoid polyenes), and, most importantly, photoinduced multistep electron transfer to generate charge-separated states that preserve some of the photon energy as chemical potential. During the last three years, progress has been made on several fronts, all of which are related to the overall goal. A biomimetic system based on carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads has been constructed that demonstrates photoinduced transmembrane charge separation which in turn drives transmembrane proton transfer. Another investigation has focused on the use of proton transfer reactions to stabilize the initial products of photoinduced electron transfer and thereby increase the yield of long-lived charge separation. A third study has investigated the influence of rigid molecular geometries and short donor-acceptor separations on photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Finally, generation and quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by chlorophyll aggregates has been studied. All four studies are described and results are discussed.

  17. Validation of Five Minimally Obstructive Methods to Estimate Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Young Adults in Semi-Standardized Settings

    PubMed Central

    Schneller, Mikkel B.; Pedersen, Mogens T.; Gupta, Nidhi; Aadahl, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen participants performed a standardized and semi-standardized protocol including seven daily life activity types, while having their EE measured by indirect calorimetry. Simultaneously, physical activity was quantified by an ActivPAL3, two ActiGraph GT3X+’s and an Actiheart. EE was estimated by the standard ActivPAL3 software (ActivPAL), ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph) and Actiheart (Actiheart), and by a combination of activity type recognition via Acti4 software and activity counts per minute (CPM) of either a hip- or thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip + Acti4 and AGthigh + Acti4). At group level, estimated physical activities EE by Actiheart (MSE = 2.05) and AGthigh + Acti4 (MSE = 0.25) were not significantly different from measured EE by indirect calorimetry, while significantly underestimated by ActiGraph, ActivPAL and AGhip + Acti4. AGthigh + Acti4 and Actiheart explained 77% and 45%, of the individual variations in measured physical activity EE by indirect calorimetry, respectively. This study concludes that combining accelerometer data from a thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ with activity type recognition improved the accuracy of activity specific EE estimation against indirect calorimetry in semi-standardized settings compared to previously validated methods using CPM only. PMID:25781506

  18. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  19. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion. Progress report, January 1, 1988--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.D.

    1988-12-31

    The program involves the investigation of excitation transport and electron transfer in complex systems. In the area of electron transfer, we have been studying electron back transfer following donor-acceptor photoinduced electron transfer. We are addressing this problem both theoretically and experimentally. In the area of excitation transport, we have been examining transport in solid solutions, liquid solutions, and in clustered excitation transport systems. Again, we are pursuing both experimental and theoretical approaches. The problem of electron back transfer between photogenerated ions is of central importance in both artificial and biological solar energy conversion. Once an electron has been transferred from an optically excited donor to an acceptor, back transfer competes with the ability of the radical ions to go on to do useful chemistry. We are studying the back transfer process using picosecond transient grating experiments in conjunction with time resolved and steady state fluorescence quenching measurements. The transient grating experiments makes the back transfer process a direct experimental observable, while the fluorescence experiments allow the forward transfer to be examined. By combining the experiments, a complete picture emerges. 10 refs.

  20. Fossil Energy Program quarterly progress report for the period ending June 30, 1985. [Ni-Fe aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1 through June 30, 1985, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by DOE Office of Fossil Energy, DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in Appendix A. Summaries and progress reports are presented for the following: (1) materials research and development; (2) fossil energy enviromental programs; (3) coal conversion development; (4) process analysis and development; (5) generalized equilibrium models of liquids and gaseous fuels supply; (6) fluidized bed combustion joint program; and (7) coal chemistry.

  1. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are ``Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}n) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),`` NIKHEF Proposal 93-09, ``Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and ``Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this past year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year. In addition, we have continued to make progress on data analysis and publication of results of previous measurements at Bates, LAMPF, and NIKHEF.

  2. A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline.

  3. Progress Report on BSST-Led US Department of Energy Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, D. T.; Lagrandeur, J. W.

    2010-09-01

    As global consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, the need to find technologies that can help reduce this rate of consumption, particularly in passenger vehicles, is imperative. This paper provides a progress report on the BSST-led US Department of Energy-sponsored automotive thermoelectric waste heat recovery project, which has transitioned from phase 3 and is completing phase 4. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) development will be discussed, including modeling and thermal cycling of subassemblies. The design includes the division of the TEG into different temperature zones, where the subassembly materials and aspect ratios are optimized to match the temperature gradients for the particular zone. Test results for a phase 3 quarter-scale device of the phase 4 high-temperature TEG will be discussed, where power outputs of up to 125 W were achieved on a 600°C hot-air test bench. The design of the TEG, which uses high-power-density segmented thermoelectric elements, has evolved from a planar design in phase 3 to a cylindrical design in phase 4. The culmination of phase 4 includes testing of the generator on a dynamometer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with a high-performance production engine.

  4. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  6. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1982 on Energy Conversion Research and Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the continued design work for the low mass flow train superheater. The detailed design of this component continued and the overall arrangement drawing for the superheater and air heater was finalized. The air heater procurement reached the point of contract award, but the actual purchase order award was held up pending receipt of additional funding from the Department of Energy. Testing activity reported includes two additional tests in the LMF1C series, which concludes this test series. Test data are presented, along with preliminary analyses for the combustor, nozzle, diagnostic channel, diffuser, radiant furnace/secondary combustor and Materials Test Module. In addition to the nitrogen oxide test measurements, corrosion and erosion rates for the boiler tube specimens and the materials test module are reported.

  7. Elementary particles and high energy phenomena. Progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental program in 1979 was directed toward the preparation of two major detectors: the new multiparticle spectrometer facility for the Fermilab tagged photon beam and the lepton/total energy detector (MAC) for PEP. The two large Cerenkov counters were installed and made operational during a test beam run at Fermilab and substantial progress was made on the track reconstruction programs. The MAC central drift chamber was completed and delivered at SLAC and operational tests were started. Work produced by the theory group included studies of color separation in multi-hadron jet production, diffractive jet production in photo-induced reactions, the relation between the several generations of leptons and quarks, tests of unified gauge theories, gauge hierarchies, and several problems in grand unified theories.

  8. Enamel caries initiation and progression following low fluence (energy) argon laser and fluoride treatment.

    PubMed

    Hicks, M J; Flaitz, C M; Westerman, G H; Blankenau, R J; Powell, G L; Berg, J H

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low fluence argon laser (AL) and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) treatment on caries initiation (CI) and progression (CP) in human enamel. Twenty caries-free molars were divided into tooth quarters. Tooth quarters from each specimen were assigned to one of four groups: 1) Control; 2) AL Only; 3) AL before APF; 4) APF before AL. AL was at 0.25 watts for 10 seconds (12.0 +/- 0.5 J/cm2). APF treatment was with a 1.23% gel for 4 minutes. Lesions were created in two treated, sound enamel windows per tooth quarter with an acidified gel. After CI and CP, sections were obtained and imbibed with water for polarized light study. Mean body of the lesion (BL) depths were determined and compared among groups (ANOVA & DMR). After CI, BL depths were: 189 +/- 29 micrometers for Control, 133 +/- 23 micrometers for AL only; 91 +/- 17 micrometers for AL before APF; and 83 +/- 14 micrometers for APF before AL. After CP, BL depths were: 321 +/- 43 micrometers for Control, 206 +/- 35 micrometers for AL only; 118 +/- 21 micrometers for AL before APF; and 114 +/- 19 micrometers for APF before AL. After CI and CP, argon laser irradiation alone resulted in significant reductions in lesion depth when compared with controls (p<0.05). APF treatment before or after argon laser exposure resulted in a significant reduction in lesion depth when compared with AL alone or control groups (p<0.05). Caries initiation and progression in vitro are affected to a significant extent when low fluence (energy) argon laser irradiation of sound enamel alone or in conjunction with APF treatment is done. This caries-protective effect occurs at an argon laser fluence (energy) that is capable of polymerizing visible light-cured resins. PMID:8634203

  9. Energy technology X - A decade of progress; Proceedings of the Tenth Conference, Washington, DC, February 28-March 2, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R. F.

    The characterization, development, and availability of various energy sources for large scale energy production are discussed. Attention is given to government, industry, and international policies on energy resource development and implementation. Techniques for energy analysis, planning, and regulation are examined, with consideration given to conservation practices, military energy programs, and financing schemes. Efficient energy use is examined, including energy and load management, building retrofits, and cogeneration installations, as well as waste heat recovery. The state of the art of nuclear, fossil, and geothermal power extraction is investigated, with note taken of synthetic fuels, fluidized bed combustion, and pollution control in coal-powered plants. Finally, progress in renewable energy technologies, including solar heating and cooling, biomass, and large and small wind energy conversion devices is described. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  10. Energy-minimized structures and packing states of a homologous series of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines: a molecular mechanics study on the diglyceride moieties.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Wang, Z Q; Lin, H N; Huang, C

    1993-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholines or C(X):C(Y)PC, quantitatively the most abundant lipids in animal cell membranes, are structurally composed of two parts: a headgroup and a diglyceride. The diglyceride moiety consists of the glycerol backbone and two acyl chains. It is the wide diversity of the acyl chains, or the large variations in X and Y in C(X):C(Y)PC, that makes the family of phosphatidylcholines an extremely complex mixture of different molecular species. Since most of the physical properties of phospholipids with the same headgroup depend strongly on the structures of the lipid acyl chains, the energy-minimized structure and steric energy of each diglyceride moiety of a series of 14 molecular species of phosphatidylcholines with molecular weights identical to that of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine without the headgroup are determined in this communication by molecular mechanics (MM) calculations. Results of two types of trans-bilayer dimer for each of the 14 molecular species of phosphatidylcholines are also presented; specifically, the dimeric structures are constructed initially based on the partially interdigitated and mixed interdigitated packing motifs followed subsequently by the energy-minimized refinement with MM calculations. Finally, tetramers with various structures to model the lateral lipid-lipid interactions in a lipid bilayer are considered. Results of laborious MM calculations show that saturated diacyl C(X):C(Y)PC with delta C/CL values greater than 0.41 prefer topologically to assemble into tetramers of the mixed interdigitated motif, and those with delta C/CL values less than 0.41 prefer to assemble into tetramers with a repertoire of the partially interdigitated motif. Here, delta C/CL, a lipid asymmetry parameter, is defined as the normalized acyl chain length difference between the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains for a C(X):C(Y)PC molecule; an increase in delta C/CL value is an indication of increasing asymmetry between the two lipid acyl chains. These

  11. Development of a commercial building/site evaluation framework for minimizing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transportation and building systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Brent A.

    In urbanized areas, building and transportation systems generally comprise the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Realization of global environmental sustainability depends upon efficiency improvements of building and transportation systems in the built environment. The selection of efficient buildings and locations can help to improve the efficient utilization of transportation and building systems. Green building design and rating frameworks provide some guidance and incentive for the development of more efficient building and transportation systems. However, current frameworks are based primarily on prescriptive, component standards, rather than performance-based, whole-building evaluations. This research develops a commercial building/site evaluation framework for the minimization of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transportation and building systems through building/site selection. The framework examines, under uncertainty, multiple dimensions of building/site operation efficiencies: transportation access to/from a building site; heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and domestic hot water; interior and exterior lighting; occupant conveyances; and energy supply. With respect to transportation systems, the framework leverages regional travel demand model data to estimate the activity associated with home-based work and non-homebased work trips. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is used to quantify the dispersion in the estimated trip distances, travel times, and mode choice. The travel activity estimates are linked with a variety of existing calculation resources for quantifying energy consumption and GHG emissions. With respect to building systems, the framework utilizes a building energy simulation approach to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions. The building system calculation procedures include a sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo analysis to account for the impacts of input parameter uncertainty on

  12. Base program on energy related research. Quarterly progress report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Brief progress reports are presented for the following tasks: oil and gas; advanced systems applications; environmental technologies; applied energy science; and remediation. Oil and gas includes the following subtasks: CROW{trademark} process modeling; miscible/immiscible gas injection processes; development of a portable data acquisition system and coalbed methane simulator; and tank bottom waste processing using the TaBooRR{trademark} process. Advanced systems applications include; development and optimization of a process for the production of a premium solid fuel from Western U.S. coals; process support and development; and Easter shale oil residue as an asphalt additive. Environmental technologies include: Conditioning and hydration reactions associated with Clean Coal Technology ash disposal/utilization; remediation of contaminated soil; Syn-Ag{trademark} Process--Coal combustion ash management option; Maxi-Acid{trademark} Process--in-situ amelioration of acid mine drainage; and spill test facility data base; Applied energy science includes: heavy/oil plastics co-processing; and fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Remediation covers North site remediation.

  13. Electrochemical energyprogress towards a cleaner future: lead/acid batteries and the competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) with conventional architecture may be capable of a range of 72-80 km (45-50 miles) with a 35 Wh kg -1 lead/acid battery with a weight equal to 25% of that of the vehicle. An improved vehicle (such as the GM Impact) with lower energy utilization and architecture that allows greater battery weight may attain 160 km (100 miles). A battery corresponding to the mid-term goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium in an Impact-type vehicle could allow 480 km (300 miles) range. It remains to be seen if this will be technically and economically attained. The EV is more likely to be made practical with the development of a satisfactory polymer-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which will involve the same recharging logistics as those of a gasoline vehicle, with much improved energy efficiency. Considerable progress is still required, but one major problem, the amount of platinum catalyst required per vehicle, appears to have been overcome. A loading of 0.15 g/kW now appears to be feasible, so major production of such vehicles will allow platinum producers to keep pace. The advent of the PEM-fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle wiil open up a larger market for rechargeable bateries than that for vehicles which use traction batteries alone. Economics seem to point to the fact that such vehicles will use lead/acid batteries for the hybrid peak power and regenerative braking element.

  14. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  15. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  16. Recent Progress Made in the Development of High-Energy UV Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the status of an all-solid-state UV converter development for ozone sensing applications is discussed. A high energy Nd:YAG laser for pumping the UV converter arrangement was recently reported. The pump is an all-solid-state, single longitudinal mode, and conductively cooled Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength. Currently, this pump laser provides an output pulse energy of greater than 1J/pulse at 50 Hz PRF and a pulsewidth of 22 ns with an electrical-to-optical system efficiency of greater than 7% and a M(sup 2) value of approx. 2. The spatial profile of the output beam is a rectangular super Gaussian. This Nd:YAG pump laser has been developed to pump the nonlinear optics based UV converter arrangement to generate 320 nm and 308 nm wavelengths by means of 532 nm wavelength. Previously, this UV converter arrangement has demonstrated IR-to-UV conversion efficiency of 24% using a flash lamp pumped laser providing a round, flat top spatial profile. Recently, the UV converter was assembled and tested at NASA LaRC for pumping with the diode pumped Nd:YAG laser. With current spatial profile, the UV converter was made operational. Current efforts to maximize the nonlinear conversion efficiency by refining its spatial profile to match RISTRA OPO requirements are progressing.

  17. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Brief progress reports are presented under the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental Government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels research covers; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government program includes: feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region: Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade PBO crude oil database; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; chemical EOR workshop; and organization of UNITAR 6th International conference of Heavy Crude and Tar Sands.

  18. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are {open_quotes}Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),{close_quotes} NIKHEF Proposal 93-09 {open_quotes}Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and {open_quotes}Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP) for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this part year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year.

  19. Exploratory energy research program of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Annual progress report, June 1, 1982- May 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported for the following: solar energy laboratory for the roof of Holmes Hall; a freon boiler for alternate energy power cycles; boiling heat transfer in geothermal systems; building energy conservation in Hawaii; combustion properties of biomass pyrolysis products; concentrator solar cell development; materials problems in natural energy development; sail-assisted technology for Pacific marine transportation; electrochemical evaluation of hydrogen systems storage in transition metal hydrides; seismic and thermal properties of Hawaiian basalts; chemical dynamics of OTEC chlorination; and studies of the interaction of hydrogen and deuterium with transition metals and their alloys at high pressure.

  20. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory...

  1. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Thews, R.L.; Scadron, M.D.; Patrascioiu, A.; Sucipto, E.

    1986-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: dynamical quark mass in QCD; quark s-d self energy in QFD; theory of nonleptonic weak decays; decays of heavy-quark mesons; quarks in nuclei; nonperturbative effects in non-abelian quantum field theory; whether perturbation theory is the asymptotic expansion in lattice gauge theories; and expanding in the gradient at weak coupling. 16 refs. (LEW)

  2. 76 FR 77561 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; (Levy County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... FR 74,532 (Dec. 8, 2008) (ADAMS Accession No. ML083430114). On February 6, 2009, the Nuclear.... ML090371107). \\2\\ Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, 74 FR... facility, including searches of hand-carried items such as briefcases or backpacks. Signs no larger than...

  3. "Neuro-semeiotics" and "free-energy minimization" suggest a unified perspective for integrative brain actions: focus on receptor heteromers and Roamer type of volume transmission.

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Guidolin, Diego; Marcoli, Manuela; Genedani, Susanna; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Maura, Guido; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Two far-reaching theoretical approaches, namely "Neuro-semeiotics" (NS) and "Free-energy Minimization" (FEM), have been recently proposed as frames within which to put forward heuristic hypotheses on integrative brain actions. In the present paper these two theoretical approaches are briefly discussed in the perspective of a recent model of brain architecture and information handling based on what we suggest calling Jacob's tinkering principle, whereby "to create is to recombine!". The NS and FEM theoretical approaches will be discussed from the perspective both of the Roamer-Type Volume Transmission (especially exosome-mediated) of intercellular communication and of the impact of receptor oligomers and Receptor-Receptor Interactions (RRIs) on signal recognition/decoding processes. In particular, the Bio-semeiotics concept of "adaptor" will be used to analyze RRIs as an important feature of NS. Furthermore, the concept of phenotypic plasticity of cells will be introduced in view of the demonstration of the possible transfer of receptors (i.e., adaptors) into a computational network via exosomes (see also Appendix). Thus, Jacob's tinkering principle will be proposed as a theoretical basis for some learning processes both at the network level (Turing-like type of machine) and at the molecular level as a consequence of both the plastic changes in the adaptors caused by the allosteric interactions in the receptor oligomers and the intercellular transfer of receptors. Finally, on the basis of NS and FEM theories, a unified perspective for integrative brain actions will be proposed. PMID:25175453

  4. "Neuro-semeiotics" and "free-energy minimization" suggest a unified perspective for integrative brain actions: focus on receptor heteromers and Roamer type of volume transmission.

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Guidolin, Diego; Marcoli, Manuela; Genedani, Susanna; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Maura, Guido; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Two far-reaching theoretical approaches, namely "Neuro-semeiotics" (NS) and "Free-energy Minimization" (FEM), have been recently proposed as frames within which to put forward heuristic hypotheses on integrative brain actions. In the present paper these two theoretical approaches are briefly discussed in the perspective of a recent model of brain architecture and information handling based on what we suggest calling Jacob's tinkering principle, whereby "to create is to recombine!". The NS and FEM theoretical approaches will be discussed from the perspective both of the Roamer-Type Volume Transmission (especially exosome-mediated) of intercellular communication and of the impact of receptor oligomers and Receptor-Receptor Interactions (RRIs) on signal recognition/decoding processes. In particular, the Bio-semeiotics concept of "adaptor" will be used to analyze RRIs as an important feature of NS. Furthermore, the concept of phenotypic plasticity of cells will be introduced in view of the demonstration of the possible transfer of receptors (i.e., adaptors) into a computational network via exosomes (see also Appendix). Thus, Jacob's tinkering principle will be proposed as a theoretical basis for some learning processes both at the network level (Turing-like type of machine) and at the molecular level as a consequence of both the plastic changes in the adaptors caused by the allosteric interactions in the receptor oligomers and the intercellular transfer of receptors. Finally, on the basis of NS and FEM theories, a unified perspective for integrative brain actions will be proposed.

  5. High spectral and spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery for quantifying Russian wheat aphid infestation in wheat using the constrained energy minimization classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirik, Mustafa; Ansley, R. James; Steddom, Karl; Rush, Charles M.; Michels, Gerald J.; Workneh, Fekede; Cui, Song; Elliott, Norman C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of insect infestation in agricultural crops are of major ecological and economic interest because of reduced yield, increased cost of pest control and increased risk of environmental contamination from insecticide application. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia) is an insect pest that causes damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We proposed that concentrated RWA feeding areas, referred to as "hot spots," could be identified and isolated from uninfested areas within a field for site specific aphid management using remotely sensed data. Our objectives were to (1) investigate the reflectance characteristics of infested and uninfested wheat by RWA and (2) evaluate utility of airborne hyperspectral imagery with 1-m spatial resolution for detecting, quantifying, and mapping RWA infested areas in commercial winter wheat fields using the constrained energy minimization classifier. Percent surface reflectance from uninfested wheat was lower in the visible and higher in the near infrared portions of the spectrum when compared with RWA-infested wheat. The overall classification accuracies of >89% for damage detection were achieved. These results indicate that hyperspectral imagery can be effectively used for accurate detection and quantification of RWA infestation in wheat for site-specific aphid management.

  6. Sensitization and quenching in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. Progress report, February 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Cristol, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    Extensive data from Stern-Volmer, Lamola-Hammond, and Ilenda-Daughenbaugh-Cristol quenching kinetics have now been accumulated on photosolvolysis in t-butyl alcohol for benzyl chloride and a number of meta and para substituted benzyl chlorides. Evidence for the existence of two triplet states, one relatively short-lived (tau 0-2 nsec) which gives solvolysis product and a second, relatively long-lived (tau 5-26 nsec), which does not give product, but instead is energy wasting, has been accumulated. The system, p-acetobenzyl chloride, has been investigated in detail. A method for quenching of singlet states for measurement of singlet lifetimes in the 100 picosecond to nanosecond range is being developed. Preliminary work on benzyl acetate photosolvolysis has been conducted. Some work on the goemetrical requirements for intra-molecular excitation transfer in bichromophoric molecules has been conducted. Several dienes related to norbornadiene have been prepared and preparative photoisomerizations to quadricyclene analogues have been carried out. Considerable attention has been given to certain di-..pi..-methane rearrangements, work on most of which is still in progress. One system, the ethyl ester of dibenzobarrelene-7-carboxylic acid, has been scrutinized in detail.

  7. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen under a very powerful microscope called an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease.

  8. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  9. Progress in safety and environmental aspects of inertial fusion energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Meier, W R

    2000-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is making significant progress in several areas related to the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of inertial fusion energy (IFE). A detailed accident analysis has been completed for the HYLIFE-II power plant design. Additional accident analyses are underway for both the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero designs. Other S and E work at LLNL has addressed the issue of the driver-chamber interface and its importance for both heavy-ion and laser-driven IFE. Radiation doses and fluences have been calculated for final focusing mirrors and magnets and shielding optimization is underway to extend the anticipated lifetimes for key components. Target designers/fabrication specialists have been provided with ranking information related to the S and E characteristics of candidate target materials (e.g., ability to recycle, accident consequences, and waste management). Ongoing work in this area will help guide research directions and the selection of target materials. Published and continuing work on fast ignition has demonstrated some of the potentially attractive S and E features of such designs. In addition to reducing total driver energies, fast ignition may ease target fabrication requirements, reduce radiation damage rates, and enable the practical use of advanced (e.g., tritium-lean) labels with significantly reduced neutron production rates, the possibility of self-breeding targets, and dramatically increased flexibility in blanket design. Domestic and international collaborations are key to success in the above areas. A brief summary of each area is given and plans for future work are outlined.

  10. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1994-09-01

    The authors concentrate on modeling, analysis and large scale scientific computation of combustion and flame propagation phenomena, with emphasis on the transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. In the transition process a flame passed through a stages exhibiting increasingly complex spatial and temporal patterns which serve as signatures identifying each stage. Often the transitions arise via bifurcation. The authors investigate nonlinear dynamics, bifurcation and pattern formation in the successive stage of transition. They describe the stability of combustion waves, and transitions to combustion waves exhibiting progressively higher degrees of spatio-temporal complexity. One aspect of this research program is the systematic derivation of appropriate, approximate models from the original models governing combustion. The approximate models are then analyzed. The authors are particularly interested in understanding the basic mechanisms affecting combustion, which is a prerequisite to effective control of the process. They are interested in determining the effects of varying various control parameters, such as Nusselt number, Lewis number, heat release, activation energy, Damkohler number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number, Peclet number, etc. The authors have also considered a number of problems in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), in which combustion waves are employed to synthesize advanced materials. Efforts are directed toward understanding fundamental mechanisms. 167 refs.

  11. Thermoeconomics of energy systems. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Tribus, M.; El-Sayed, Y.M.

    1981-05-15

    This progress report consists of three reprints on the subject. A paper, Thermoeconomic Analysis of an Industrial Process, was published December 29, 1980. This expository analysis illustrates how to use thermoeconomic techniques to reduce energy use and costs for an industrial process. The example chosen is the final finishing steps in the making of an industrial chemical. The second paper, the Strategic Use of Thermoeconomic Analysis for Process Improvement, was for presentation at the AIChE national meeting in Detroit, Michigan, August, 1981. A strategy is proposed for using thermoeconomics (second law analysis and principles of engineering economy) to find ways to improve process designs. Also included is a Specific Strategy for the Improvement of Process Economics Through Thermoeconomic Analysis, to be presented at the 2nd World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Montreal, Canada, October, 1981. It discusses methods of engineering economy and thermodynamics combined to reveal the cost associated with irreversibility and point the way to design improvements. A numerical example for a gas turbine is given.

  12. Logarithmic superconformal minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Tartaglia, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The higher fusion level logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';n) have recently been constructed as the diagonal GKO cosets {(A_1^{(1)})_k\\oplus (A_1^ {(1)})_n}/ {(A_1^{(1)})_{k+n}} where n ≥ 1 is an integer fusion level and k = nP/(P‧- P) - 2 is a fractional level. For n = 1, these are the well-studied logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(P,P')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';1). For n ≥ 2, we argue that these critical theories are realized on the lattice by n × n fusion of the n = 1 models. We study the critical fused lattice models {\\cal LM}(p,p')_{n\\times n} within a lattice approach and focus our study on the n = 2 models. We call these logarithmic superconformal minimal models {\\cal LSM}(p,p')\\equiv {\\cal LM}(P,P';2) where P = |2p - p‧|, P‧ = p‧ and p, p‧ are coprime. These models share the central charges c=c^{P,P';2}=\\frac {3}{2}\\big (1-{2(P'-P)^2}/{P P'}\\big ) of the rational superconformal minimal models {\\cal SM}(P,P'). Lattice realizations of these theories are constructed by fusing 2 × 2 blocks of the elementary face operators of the n = 1 logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p'). Algebraically, this entails the fused planar Temperley-Lieb algebra which is a spin-1 Birman-Murakami-Wenzl tangle algebra with loop fugacity β2 = [x]3 = x2 + 1 + x-2 and twist ω = x4 where x = eiλ and λ = (p‧- p)π/p‧. The first two members of this n = 2 series are superconformal dense polymers {\\cal LSM}(2,3) with c=-\\frac {5}{2}, β2 = 0 and superconformal percolation {\\cal LSM}(3,4) with c = 0, β2 = 1. We calculate the bulk and boundary free energies analytically. By numerically studying finite-size conformal spectra on the strip with appropriate boundary conditions, we argue that, in the continuum scaling limit, these lattice models are associated with the logarithmic superconformal models {\\cal LM}(P,P';2). For system size N, we propose finitized Kac character formulae of the form q^{-{c^{P,P';2}}/{24}+\\Delta ^{P,P';2} _{r

  13. AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined quarterly progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1982-1986 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. This report is divided into parts and chapters with each part describing projects related to a particular fossil energy technology. Chapters within a part provide details of the various projects associated with that technology. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program. Plans for the program will be issued annually. A draft of the program plan for FY 1982 to 1986 has been prepared and is in the review process. The implementation of these plans will be reflected by these quarterly progress reports, and this dissemination of information will bw augmented by topical or final reports as appropriate.

  14. Recent Progress in Understanding Energy Transfer in Solar Flares Resulting from Coordinated IRIS, SDO, and Hinode Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, K.

    2015-12-01

    Flares are the most energetic events that take place on the Sun, and studying them results in a wealth of information about the energy transfer between the solar corona and lower layers of the atmosphere. Prior to a flare, magnetic fields in the photosphere and chromosphere are stressed until a trigger causes energy release in the corona. Manifestations of this energy release are accelerated electrons high in the corona, increased intensity in post-flare arcades and chromospheric footpoint brightenings. Chromospheric evaporation at flare footpoints gives insight into the particular energy release mechanisms during solar flares. Progress in understanding the energy storage, release and deposition of energy during solar flares has come thanks to coordinated observations between IRIS, SDO and Hinode. In this talk, I will review recent results from these coordinated efforts, including observations of reconnection outflows, chromospheric evaporation, turbulence in flare loop tops, and flare triggering.

  15. What is minimally invasive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Ericson, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.

  16. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters. Progress report: January 1, 1990--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, K.H.; Nguyen, C.; Riley, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    The authors report here progress made during the three year period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1993, for the Department of Energy Three-Year Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER40446, third year. A major part of the work has been associated with nucleon-nucleon (N-N) research carried out at the Nucleon Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). During this period they also completed data acquisition and analyses of a TRIUMF experiment, but they have no further plans for experimental work at TRIUMF. Other research has been and will be continued to be carried out at BNL, and involves two rare kaon decay experiments, BNL E791, now completed, and a second generation rare kaon decay experiment, E871, which has just this summer completed an engineering test run. The authors are now also members of a proposed experiment, STAR, (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) to be carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility, RHIC, at BNL. The past three years have been a time of rapid change in the focus of the experimental program. A LAMPF experiment, E1097, in which they spent a large amount of effort during the past three years, was terminated due to funding shortages after they had fabricated the detector, but before data acquisition, and consequently they increased their participation in the rare kaon experiment at BNL, E871. It now appears that there will be no LAMPF N-N program after 1993, so that the research efforts will concentrate on the BNL rare kaon decay measurement, E871, and on STAR. The authors expect that STAR, which requires the fabrication of a large colliding beam detector facility, will use an increasing amount of their research efforts during the next few years. In what follows they describe recent progress on the LAMPF and TRIUMF N-N measurements, on the BNL rare kaon decay work, and on the initial work with the STAR group.

  17. Progress in heavy ion drivers inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; de Hoon, M.J.L.; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-03-01

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents ({approx}100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies ({approx}1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will

  18. Progress in Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy: From Scaled Experiments to the Integrated Research Experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Ahle, L E; Baca, D; Bangerter, R O; Bieniosek, F M; Celata, C M; Chacon-Golcher, E; Davidson, R C; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Franks, R M; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Henestroza, E; de Hoon, M J; Kaganovich, I; Karpenko, V P; Kishek, R A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Meier, W R; Molvik, W; Olson, C; Prost, L R; Qin, H; Rose, D; Sabbi, G L; Sangster, T C; Seidl, P A; Sharp, W M; Shuman, D; Vay, J L; Waldron, W L; Welch, D; Yu, S S

    2001-07-10

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (approx 100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies ({approx} 1 - 10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tun depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now beginning at LBNL. The mission of the HCX is to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  19. Advanced research and technology development fossil energy materials program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    This is the fourth combined quarterly progress report for those projects that are part of the Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. The objective is to conduct a program of research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Work performed on the program generally falls into the Applied Research and Exploratory Development categories as defined in the DOE Technology Base Review, although basic research and engineering development are also conducted. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating cntractor organizations. All subcontractor work is monitored by Program staff members at ORNL and Argonne National Laboratory. This report is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1981 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  20. Tank Closure Progress at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, K.D.; Butterworth, St.W.; Lockie, K.A.

    2008-07-01

    Significant progress has been made at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to empty, clean and close radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility (TFF). The TFF includes eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks and four smaller, 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) stainless steel tanks, along with tank vaults, interconnecting piping, and ancillary equipment. The TFF tanks have historically been used to store a variety of radioactive liquid waste, including wastes associated with past spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Although four of the large storage tanks remain in use for waste storage, the other seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks have been emptied of waste, cleaned and filled with grout. A water spray cleaning system was developed and deployed to clean internal tank surfaces and remove remaining tank wastes. The cleaning system was effective in removing all but a very small volume of solid residual waste particles. Recent issuance of an Amended Record of Decision (ROD) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and a Waste Determination complying with Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005, has allowed commencement of grouting activities on the cleaned tanks. The first three 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were grouted in the Fall of 2006 and the fourth tank and the seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks were filled with grout in 2007 to provide long-term stability. It is currently planned that associated tank valve boxes and interconnecting piping, will be stabilized with grout as early as 2008. (authors)

  1. Tank Closure Progress at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, K.A.; Suttora, L.C.; Quigley, K.D.; Stanisich, N.

    2007-07-01

    Significant progress has been made at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to clean and close emptied radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility (TFF). The TFF includes eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks and four smaller, 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) stainless steel tanks, along with tank vaults, interconnecting piping, and ancillary equipment. The TFF tanks have historically been used to store a variety of radioactive liquid waste, including wastes associated with past spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Although four of the large storage tanks remain in use for waste storage, the other seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks have been emptied of waste and cleaned in preparation of final closure. A water spray cleaning system was developed and deployed to clean internal tank surfaces and remove remaining tank wastes. The cleaning system was effective in removing all but a very small volume of solid residual waste particles. Recent issuance of an Amended Record of Decision (ROD) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and a Waste Determination complying with Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005, has allowed commencement of grouting activities on the cleaned tanks. In November 2006, three of the 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were filled with grout to provide long-term stability. It is currently planned that all seven cleaned 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks, as well as the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks and all associated tank vaults and interconnecting piping, will be stabilized with grout as early as 2008. (authors)

  2. Fossil Energy Program Annual Progress Report for April 1, 2002, Through March 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2003-06-19

    The mission of the Fossil Energy Program is to conduct research and development that contribute to the advancement of fossil energy technologies. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil Energy Program research and development activities, performed for the Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Projects on the ORNL Fossil Energy Program are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE National Petroleum Technology Office, and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The ORNL Fossil Energy Program shares with DOE Oak Ridge Operations technical management responsibility for all activities on the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program. The Advanced Research Materials Program includes research at other DOE and government laboratories, at universities, and at industrial organizations.

  3. Advanced Researech and Technology Development fossil energy materials program: Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the ARandTD Fossil Energy Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined semiannual progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure in which projects are organized according to materials research thrust areas. These areas are (1) Structural Ceramics, (2) Alloy Development and Mechanical Properties, (3) Corrosion and Erosion of Alloys, and (4) Assessments and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  4. Technical review of the SWELL product. Second quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, G.

    1998-03-23

    This progress report describes design and marketing efforts made to reduce the cost of the product, and reassess its market potential in light of reduced manufacturing costs and modified design. Marketing has looked at applications in agriculture, the turf grass industry, and golf coarse applications. The new controller offers energy efficiency in control of valves and minimization of costs associated with hard wired systems.

  5. Energy Productivity: Key to Environmental Protection and Economic Progress. Worldwatch Paper 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    This report examines various topics and issues related to worldwide energy productivity and energy conservation. Following an introduction, these issues are considered in 6 sections focusing on: (1) energy demand projections (with data on 1982 energy consumption in selected countries); (2) continued industrial efficiency gains (including data on…

  6. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  7. Principle of minimal work fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality =e-β Δ F , a change in the fluctuations of e-β W may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-β W converges towards the theoretical value e-β Δ F, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and Δ F is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-β W. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052132].

  8. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  9. [Minimal Change Esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2016-01-25

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a condition which develops when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and long-term complications. GERD can be divided into erosive reflux disease and non-erosive reflux disease based on endoscopic findings defined by the presence of mucosal break. The Los Angeles classification excludes minimal changes as an evidence of reflux esophagitis because of poor interobserver agreement. In the Asian literature, minimal changes are considered as one of the endoscopic findings of reflux esophagitis, but the clinical significance is still controversial. Minimal change esophagitis is recognized quite frequently among patients with GERD and many endoscopists recognize such findings in their clinical practice. This review is intended to clarify the definition of minimal change esophagitis and their histology, interobserver agreement, and symptom association with GERD.

  10. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  11. 76 FR 28016 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the following... Carter, (678) 245-3083, mark.carter@ferc.gov . j. Deadline for filing comments, motions to intervene, and... (P-2206-041) on any comments or motions filed. k. Description of Application: Progress...

  12. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics. Technical progress report, June 15, 1991--June 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses progress on the following research: quark cluster model; solving quantum field theories in non-perturbative regime;relativistic wave equations, quarkonia and electron-positron resonances; nuclear dependence at large transverse momentum; factorization at the order of power corrections; single-spin asymmetries; and hadronic photon production. (LSP)

  13. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. The green hydrogen report. The 1995 progress report of the Secretary of Energy`s Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the idea that hydrogen and electricity, ultimately derived from renewable technologies, will serve as the clean, inexhaustible energy carriers in the next century. The widespread introduction of these energy forms would dramatically reduce the nation`s air pollution, enhance its energy security, and ameliorate potential global climate problems. The topics of the report include the role of hydrogen, research priorities, and use of hydrogen in surface transportation and aircraft.

  15. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  16. U.C. Davis high energy particle physics research: Technical progress report -- 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    Summaries of progress made for this period is given for each of the following areas: (1) Task A--Experiment, H1 detector at DESY; (2) Task C--Experiment, AMY detector at KEK; (3) Task D--Experiment, fixed target detectors at Fermilab; (4) Task F--Experiment, PEP detector at SLAC and pixel detector; (5) Task B--Theory, particle physics; and (6) Task E--Theory, particle physics.

  17. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  18. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent.

  19. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report describes work done by staff of the Energy Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during FY 1986. The work of the Division is quite diversified, but it can be divided into four research themes: (1) technology for improving the productivity of energy use; (2) technology for electric power systems; (3) analysis and assessment of energy and environmental issues, policies, and technologies; and (4) data systems research and development (R and D). The research is supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), numerous other federal agencies, and some private organizations. 190 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Accelerating progress toward operational excellence of fossil energy plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Turton, R. Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTARTM). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This paper will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture.

  1. Energy Efficient Florida Educational Facilities: Phase VI. Progress Report: Phase I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.

    A Florida study examined differences in energy uses in two adjacent portable classrooms to determine if these types of facilities can be made more energy efficient through retrofitting. Retrofitting included an efficient lighting system, new air conditioners, and reflective white metal roofs. Data show the white metal roofing reduced roof,…

  2. Developing a Learning Progression for Energy and Casual Reasoning in Socio-Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious environmental challenges we are facing today. Two science topics are important for students to understand how and why people's everyday energy consumption activities contribute to global warming. These two topics are: carbon-transforming processes and energy. They have been recognized as core content…

  3. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly topical progress report, April 1, 1981-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Activities included the identification and delineation of geothermal prospects, the comparison of conventional energy use patterns with geothermal sources, the preparation of area development plans and the compilation of detailed economic and energy data for each area. Current emphasis is on commercialization. (MHR)

  4. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, W.

    1980-06-01

    The format of this report follows approximately the organizational structure of the Energy Division, with each chapter summarizing the activities of one section of the division; a separate abstract was prepared for each of the six chapters. The executive summary of this report, however - in order to give the reader a more-unified and coherent overview of the whole division - was organized into five major topic areas: (1) Analysis and Assessment; (2) Conservation, Solar, and Renewable Energy Technology Development; (3) Energy Models and Data; (4) Emergency Technology and Civil Defense; and (5) Research Utilization. A final part of the report, Presentation of Research Results, lists the following: awards and professional activities; publications; subcontractor publications; student papers and theses; oral presentations; workshops and conferences organized by Energy Division staff; Advisory Committee; seminar speakers; Energy Division subcontractors by company; and patent applications.

  5. Recurrent neural networks for building energy use prediction and system identification -- A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kreider, J.F.; Curtiss, P.; Dodier, R.; Krarti, M.; Claridge, D.E.; Haberl, J.S.

    1995-11-01

    Following several successful applications of feedforward neural networks (NNs) to the building energy prediction problem a more difficult problem has been addressed recently: namely, the prediction of building energy consumption well into the future without knowledge of immediately past energy consumption. This paper reports results of a recent study of six months of hourly data recorded at the Zachry Engineering Center (ZEC) in College Station, Texas. An early study demonstrated the success of NNs used as predictors for hourly consumption of electricity, chilled water and hot water for the ZEC. Relatively simple networks with less than a dozen inputs were able to predict these three hourly, whole building energy end uses to within errors of 5--10% RMS, the difference depending on the specifics of energy type and time of year. These predictions were made for selected future months given network training data of between one and three past months. Inputs to these networks included measured energy consumption for one or two immediately past hours. Such data are available, for example, if one is trying to conduct hourly diagnostics on heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings. The success of this study prompted a second study of a more difficult problem. In this case, the goal was to predict energy consumption into the future without knowledge of consumption of the various energies for the immediate past. Such a prediction is of value when estimating what a building, retrofitted with energy conservation features, would have consumed had it not been retrofitted. This prediction can be compared to actual consumption to estimate the savings, if any, that accrue due to the installation of the energy conservation subsystems or components. Because one is predicting for several months, not for one hour, into the future, the problem is more difficult. Results presented show that recurrent NNs can be used for this prediction task.

  6. Research in high energy physics. Progress report, 1 July 1993--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.; Block, M.; Buchholz, D.

    1994-07-01

    Progress on Task A centered around data analysis. E835 is now approved. It will extend E760 studies, exploring new charmonium states and featuring an upgraded detector system plus operation at 4--6 times higher luminosity. Results are given on E760 analysis. Task B has 10 papers that have either appeared in print, or have been prepared for publication. They break down into four categories; experimental physics, theoretical physics, and computer computational techniques. They are described here along with an exciting new experimental proposal to use Da{Phi}ne, the {Phi} factory that is being constructed at Frascati National Laboratory. Progress for Task C which includes participating in the D0 project at TeV I, and the photoproduction experiment, E687, at TeV II is given. While Northwestern is not participating in the top quark physics group at D0, they have been involved in the data analysis and the discussions that led to the limits on the top quark mass. Task D comprises the shared services for the Northwestern DOE contract. This includes the maintenance and operation of all computers within the HEP group. The projects supported by Task D during the past year are given. Task E progress was to resolve the apparent conflict between EMC, SMC, and SLAC results on nucleon structure functions and Bjorken sum rules. Task F covered research in hadronic decay of the tau, thermal field theory, plasma effects in astrophysics, and heavy quarkonium. Task G covers E665, a general purpose muon scattering experiment which can detect both the scattered muon and most charged and neutral hadrons produced in the forward region. The Northwest group has collaborated very closely in the past year with the Harvard group on analyses of structure functions and vector meson production in the 1991 data sample.

  7. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  8. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    In this report, the DOE Geothermal Program activities were split between Core Research and Industrial Development. The technical areas covered are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology (including Hot Dry Rock Research and The Geyser Cooperation), and Conversion Technology (power plants, materials, and direct use/direct heat). Work to design the Lake County effluent pipeline to help recharge The Geysers shows up here for the first time. This Progress Report is another of the documents that are reasonable starting points in understanding many of the details of the DOE Geothermal Program. (DJE 2005)

  9. Nonlinear transient analysis by energy minimization: A theoretical basis for the ACTION computer code. [predicting the response of a lightweight aircraft during a crash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The formulation basis for establishing the static or dynamic equilibrium configurations of finite element models of structures which may behave in the nonlinear range are provided. With both geometric and time independent material nonlinearities included, the development is restricted to simple one and two dimensional finite elements which are regarded as being the basic elements for modeling full aircraft-like structures under crash conditions. Representations of a rigid link and an impenetrable contact plane are added to the deformation model so that any number of nodes of the finite element model may be connected by a rigid link or may contact the plane. Equilibrium configurations are derived as the stationary conditions of a potential function of the generalized nodal variables of the model. Minimization of the nonlinear potential function is achieved by using the best current variable metric update formula for use in unconstrained minimization. Powell's conjugate gradient algorithm, which offers very low storage requirements at some slight increase in the total number of calculations, is the other alternative algorithm to be used for extremely large scale problems.

  10. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  11. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  12. Minimizing Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, LuAnn W.; McGrath, Loraine

    1983-01-01

    Nursing administrators can minimize promotion trauma and its unnecessary cost by building awareness of the transition process, clarifying roles and expectations, and attending to the promoted employee's needs. This article will help nursing administrators develop a concept of manager care combined with programs for orientation of new managers,…

  13. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  14. A public work in progress: Incorporating energy efficiency into guide specifications for new federal construction

    SciTech Connect

    Morehouse, Tom; Mauritz, Donald; Shugars, John

    2002-05-17

    Guide specifications, the templates from which individual building project specifications are developed, should require energy efficient products and design. Incorporating energy efficiency requirements into guide specification for building envelopes, mechanical and electrical equipment, and installed special purpose equipment can result in substantial long term reductions in energy consumption and operating cost for federal facilities. This presentation builds on the concepts introduced in a previous Summer Study paper on integrating efficiency requirements into guide specifications (Coleman 2000). The authors address current efforts to incorporate energy efficiency recommendations into the Department of Defense (DOD) Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) and Uni fied Facilities Guide Specification (UFGS) (DOD 2002). This initiative unifies guide specifications of the military services and those of other federal agencies. An example of the impact guide specifications have on military housing is presented along with a brief discussion of other efficiency standards and programs. The paper concludes by suggesting actions federal agencies can take to facilitate this process.

  15. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly topical progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1981-03-31

    The tasks, objectives and completed work are discussed for the legislative and institutional program, cities program, geothermal applications utilization technology, and outreach. The work on the Maryvale Terrace development and the New Mexico Energy Institute are described. (MHR)

  16. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-01-19

    The energy storage research and development effort within the VT Program is responsible for researching and improving advanced batteries and ultracapacitors for a wide range of vehicle applications, including HEVs, PHEVs, EVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs).

  17. Progress in making hot dry rock geothermal energy a viable renewable energy resource for America in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    An enormous geothermal energy resource exists in the form of rock at depth that is hot but essentially dry. For more than two decades, work has been underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate the technology to transport the energy in hot dry rock (HDR) to the surface for practical use. During the 1980`s, the world`s largest, deepest and hottest HDR reservoir was created at the Fenton Hill HDR test facility in northern New Mexico. The reservoir is centered in rock at a temperature of about 460 F at a depth of about 11,400 ft. After mating the reservoir to a fully automated surface plant, heat was mined at Fenton Hill for a total period of almost a year in a series of flow tests conducted between 1992 and 1995. These tests addressed the major questions regarding the viability of long-term energy extraction from HDR. The steady-state flow tests at Fenton Hill showed that energy can be produced from an HDR reservoir on a routine basis and that there are no major technical obstacles to implementation of this heat mining technology. Additional brief special flow tests also demonstrated that the energy output from HDR systems can be rapidly increased in a controlled manner to meet sudden changes in power demand.

  18. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. Progress report for FY92

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  19. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report covers work done during FY 1983 by the staff of the Energy Division and its subcontractors and by colleagues in other Oak Ridge National Laboratory divisions working on Energy Division projects. The work can be divided into four areas: (1) analysis and assessment, (2) models and data systems, (3) research to improve the efficiency of energy use and to improve electric power transmission and distribution, and (4) research utilization. Support came principally from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the US Department of Defense, but also from a number of other agencies and organizations. Analysis and assessment included work on (a) environmental issues, including those deriving from the preparation of environmental impact statements; (b) energy and resource analysis; and (c) emergency preparedness. The models and data systems area involved research on evaluating and developing energy, environment, and engineering simulation models and on devising large data management systems, evaluating user data requirements, and compiling data bases. Research on improving the efficiency of energy use was focused primarily on the buildings and electricity sectors. A major effort on heat pump technology, which includes both heat-activated and electrically driven systems, continues. An important aspect of all the work was research utilization. Since the Energy Division is doing applied research, results are, by definition, intended to solve problems or answer questions of DOE and other sponsors. However, there are other users, and research utilization activities include technology transfer, commercialization efforts, outreach to state and regional organizations, and, of course, information dissemination.

  20. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-01-28

    The energy storage research and development effort within the VT Program is responsible for researching and improving advanced batteries and ultracapacitors for a wide range of vehicle applications, including HEVs, PHEVs, EVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). Over the past few years, the emphasis of these efforts has shifted from high-power batteries for HEV applications to high-energy batteries for PHEV and EV applications.

  1. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  2. Considerations for Solar Energy Technologies to Make Progress Towards Grid Price Parity

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Michael; Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Horowitz, Kelsey; Remo, Timothy; Feldman, David; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-07

    In this seminar the component costs for solar photovoltaics module and system prices will be highlighted. As a basis for comparison to other renewable and traditional energy options, the metric of focus will be total lifecycle cost-of-energy (LCOE). Several innovations to traditional photovoltaics technologies (including crystalline silicon, CdTe, and CIGS) and developing technologies (including organics and perovskites) that may close the gaps in LCOE will be discussed.

  3. Seasonal thermal energy storage. Program progress report, April 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    The objective of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program is to demonstrate the economic storage and retrieval of thermal energy on a seasonal basis, using heat or cold available from waste sources or other sources during a surplus period to reduce peak period demand, reduce electric utilities peaking problems, and contribute to the establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program is toward utilization of ground-water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage. The program has the further objective of evaluating other methods of seasonal storage, both from existing literature and by following current work in other countries. The STES Program is divided into an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Demonstration Task for demonstrating the commercialization potential of aquifer thermal energy storage technology using an integrated system approach to multiple demonstration projects and a parallel Technical Support Task designed to provide support to the overall STES Program, and to reduce technological and institutional barriers to the development of energy storage systems prior to significant investment in demonstration or commercial facilities. During this initial STES program reporting period, program plans were completed, and the Work Breadkdown Structure, budget, schedules, and reporting/review procedures were developed. Responsibility was assumed for existing, ongoing STES contracts and projects.

  4. Nevada`s energy research strategy. Progress report, September 30, 1991--September 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McNelis, D.N.

    1992-10-01

    This document was produced by the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) under a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research as part of the DOE-Experimental Program for the Simulation of Competitive Research (DOE-EPSCoR). The document develops Nevada`s strategies for the UCCSN to broaden and deepen energy-related research over the next five years in hydrology sciences, environmental biology and chemistry, chemical physics, and global change. A strategy was also developed to support energy-related research with education and human resources in science, math and engineering. A key concept of these strategies is continued success under the DOE-EPSCOR program. Participation in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Basic Energy Science and Global Climate Change programs in collaboration with the Nevada Test Site and DOE multi-program laboratories is also part of Nevada`s strategy for success in energy-related research.

  5. Progress with high-field superconducting magnets for high-energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ~10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb$_3$Sn superconductors. Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ~15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, this review discusses the status and main results of Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  6. Progress with high-field superconducting magnets for high-energy colliders

    DOE PAGES

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ~10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb$_3$Sn superconductors.more » Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ~15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, this review discusses the status and main results of Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.« less

  7. Progress with High-Field Superconducting Magnets for High-Energy Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ˜10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb3Sn superconductors. Nb3Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ˜15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. This review discusses the status and main results of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  8. A minimally invasive tracer protocol is effective for assessing the response of leucine kinetics and oxidation to vaccination in chronically energy-deficient adult males and children.

    PubMed

    Kurpad, A V; Jahoor, F; Borgonha, S; Poulo, S; Rekha, S; Fjeld, C R; Reeds, P J

    1999-08-01

    In disadvantaged populations, recurrent infections lead to a loss of body nitrogen and worsen nutritional status. The resulting malnutrition, in its turn, produces a greater susceptibility to infection. This study aimed to examine the ability of a new minimally invasive tracer protocol to measure leucine oxidation, and then to use it to quantify the effect of vaccination on leucine kinetics and oxidation. Undernourished men (n = 5; body mass index 16.3 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2)) and children (n = 9; age 4.1 +/- 0.6 y; weight-for-age Z-score -2.3 +/- 0.7) underwent metabolic studies 6 d before and 1 d after vaccination with diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT). The tracer protocol was performed in the fed state and involved two 3-h sequential periods of frequent (20 min) oral doses of NaH(13)CO(3) or [1-(13)C] leucine. Frequent breath samples and urine collections were made. Blood samples were obtained from the men and used for the determination of the isotopic enrichment of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid. The prevaccination oxidation of leucine (percentage of dose +/- SD) was 18.1 +/- 2.3 (men) and 16.7 +/- 3.8 (children). One day after vaccination, these values had risen to 19. 9 +/- 1.9 (P < 0.05) in the men and to 19.5 +/- 4.6 (P < 0.01) in the children. In the adults, vaccination was associated with a rise in whole-body protein breakdown [mg protein/(kg.h)] from 200 +/- 40 to 240 +/- 10 (P < 0.05). A minor simulated infection increases leucine catabolism in undernourished humans and this new, minimally invasive protocol is sufficiently sensitive to measure these changes.

  9. Fossil Energy Program annual progress report for April 1996 through March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1997-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fossil Energy Program research and development activities, performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, cover the areas of coal, clean coal technology, gas, petroleum, and support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The coal activities include materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing of coal to produce liquid or gaseous fuels; and coal combustion research. The work in support of gas technologies includes activities on the Advanced Turbine Systems Program, primarily in the materials and manufacturing aspects. Several activities are contributing to petroleum technologies in the areas of computational tools for seismic analysis and the use of bioconversion for the removal of impurities from heavy oils. This report contains 32 papers describing the various research activities, arranged under the following topical sections: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; bioprocessing research; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supply modeling and research; and advanced turbine systems.

  10. Results at Mallik highlight progress in gas hydrate energy resource research and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent studies that project the role of gas hydrates in the future energy resource management are reviewed. Researchers have long speculated that gas hydrates could eventually be a commercial resource for the future. A Joint Industry Project led by ChevronTexaco and the US Department of Energy is designed to characterize gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. Countries including Japan, canada, and India have established large gas hydrate research and development projects, while China, Korea and Mexico are investigating the viability of forming government-sponsored gas hydrate research projects.

  11. 2012 U.S. Department of Energy: Joint Genome Institute: Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, David

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) is to serve the diverse scientific community as a user facility, enabling the application of large-scale genomics and analysis of plants, microbes, and communities of microbes to address the DOE mission goals in bioenergy and the environment. The DOE JGI's sequencing efforts fall under the Eukaryote Super Program, which includes the Plant and Fungal Genomics Programs; and the Prokaryote Super Program, which includes the Microbial Genomics and Metagenomics Programs. In 2012, several projects made news for their contributions to energy and environment research.

  12. ERIP Project No. 670, Nevada Energy Control Systems, Inc.. Final techincal progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimber, D.J.

    1998-02-11

    In order to gauge the effectiveness of the ERIP Project No. 670, Nevada Energy Control Systems, Inc., Grant Number DE-FG01-96EE15670, the Statement of Work must be compared to the achievements by NECSI during the grant period. The following report reflects the aforementioned statement and is coordinated directly with it. The project goal is to gather data and test in order to validate earlier tests of energy savings,safety,reliability and practicality of the NECSI Evaporator Fan Controller in order to fully commercialize and market the product.

  13. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. Progress report for FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z{sup 0} with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R&D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  14. Research in high energy physics. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, S.L.; Tata, X.

    1996-11-01

    The high energy physics research program at the University of Hawaii is directed toward the study of the properties of the elementary particles and the application of the results of these studies to the understanding of the physical world. Experiments using high energy accelerators are aimed at searching for new particles, testing current theories, and measuring properties of the known particles. Experiments using cosmic rays address particle physics and astrophysical issues. Theoretical physics research evaluates experimental results in the context of existing theories and projects the experimental consequences of proposed new theories.

  15. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  16. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  17. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  18. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  19. 10 CFR 850.25 - Exposure reduction and minimization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exposure reduction and minimization. 850.25 Section 850.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.25 Exposure reduction and minimization. (a) The responsible employer must ensure that no worker...

  20. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  1. Progress in hydrogen energy; Proceedings of the National Workshop on Hydrogen Energy, New Delhi, India, July 4-6, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, R. P.

    1987-06-01

    The present conference on the development status of hydrogen energy technologies considers electrolytic hydrogen production, photoelectrolytic hydrogen production, microorganic hydrogen production, OTEC hydrogen production, solid-state materials for hydrogen storage, and a thin-film hydrogen storage system. Also discussed are the cryogenic storage of hydrogen; liquid hydrogen fuel for ground, air, and naval vehicles; hydrogen-fuel internal combustion engines; the use of hydrogen for domestic, commercial, and industrial applications; hydrogen fuel-cell development; enzyme electrodes for the use of hydrogen-rich fuels in biochemical fuel cells; an analysis of H2-O2 MHD generators; and hydrogen energy technology characterization and evaluation on the basis of an input-output structure.

  2. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle. (LSP)

  3. Conservation of energy in monoammonium and diammonium phosphate fertilizer granulation plants. Final progress report No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Work done during the last three years to further commercialize pipe-cross reactor (PCR) technology in the production of granular homogeneous NPKS, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizers is summarized. The theory of granulation, the energy savings when replacing conventional ammoniation-granulation with PCR melt granulation, investment cost and payback, etc. are discussed in detail. (MHR)

  4. Indiana University High Energy Physics, Task A. Technical progress report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brabson, B.; Crittenden, R.; Dzierba, A.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses research at Indians University on the following high energy physics experiments: A search for mesons with unusual quantum numbers; hadronic states produced in association with high-mass dimuons; FNAL E740 (D0); superconducting super collider; and OPAL experiment at CERN.

  5. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report for December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-22

    Research programs from the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) are briefly described. Topics include enhanced recovery, studies on reservoir rock, microbial EOR, development of analytical techniques for petroleum analysis, and imaging techniques applied to fluids study in porous media. (CBS)

  6. Organic photochemical storage of solar energy. Progress report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G. II

    1980-02-01

    Study of valence isomerization of organic compounds has focused on two mechanisms of photosensitization involving either electron donor-acceptor interaction or energy transfer. The quenching of fluorescent sensitizers by isomerizable substrates results in the formation of excited complexes. These sensitizer-substrate pairs are highly polarized, leading to changes in bond order for the substrates. For several substrates such as quadricyclene, hexamethyldewarbenzene, and a nonbornadiene derivative, this perturbation results in efficient valence isomerization. Isomerization observed on irradiation of charge transfer complexes of isomerizable substrates is consistent with a similar exciplex - template mechanism. The energy transfer mechanism of photosensitization has been studied by measuring the temperature dependence of quantum yield for isomerization of dimethyl norbornadiene-2,3-dicarboxylate sensitized by benzanthrone. From temperature and quencher concentration profiles quenching constants have been obtained which are consistent with an endoergic triplet energy transfer mechanism. The thermal upconversion of the low energy triplet of benzanthrone results in a threefold increase in isomerization quantum yield over a 90/sup 0/ temperature range.

  7. Support services for the Office of Energy efficiency and renewable energy. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., under Contract No. DE-AC01-94CE34027, provides technical and economic analysis support services to the Advanced Utility Concepts Division (AUCD) of DOE. Energetics, Inc. is a subcontractor to R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc. The work performed under this contract is mainly for the DOE Hydrogen R&D Program, although a limited amount of activities are also undertaken for the DOE Battery Energy Storage Program.

  8. Energy savings by means of fuel-cell electrodes in electro-chemical industries. Progress report for the period February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Ilan, A.; Juda, W.; Allen, R.J.; Lindstrom, R.W.

    1980-05-30

    Zinc electrowinning data are presented for bench-scale experiments carried out under steady-state conditions with two different current densities, a fixed sulfuric acid concentration and a zinc ion concentration that was varied over a wide range. An optimum range of zinc ion concentrations is identified, which minimizes the energy consumption per pound of zinc deposited at the cathode.

  9. 10 CFR 20.1406 - Minimization of contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimization of contamination. 20.1406 Section 20.1406... License Termination § 20.1406 Minimization of contamination. (a) Applicants for licenses, other than early... procedures for operation will minimize, to the extent practicable, contamination of the facility and...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1406 - Minimization of contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimization of contamination. 20.1406 Section 20.1406... License Termination § 20.1406 Minimization of contamination. (a) Applicants for licenses, other than early... procedures for operation will minimize, to the extent practicable, contamination of the facility and...

  11. Pion correlations and calorimeter design for high energy heavy ion collisions. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.

    1997-04-01

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An updated multi-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-pion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au + Au reaction, taken with full event characterization.

  12. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications. Progress report, July 15, 1992--July 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.

    1993-02-01

    This work strives to develop high average power FELs at voltages below I MV allowing for smaller and less costly power supplies. To achieve operation of an FEL with 100 GHZ {approx_lt} f {approx_lt} 150 GHz and with relatively modest voltage, we have been investigating the use of small period ({lambda}{sub {omega}} {approximately} 1 cm) planar wiggler magnets together with sheet electron beams. The sheet beam geometry allows for an FEL interaction region in the form of a narrow slit with high wiggler field at the center plane where the electrons are concentrated. The total current and power may then be increased without making current density excessive by increasing the wide dimension of the sheet beam. Sheet beam FEL design parameters for both a Proof-of-Principle (PoP) FEL experiment, which is current in progress, and an ITER relevant FEL design are shown. A central issue in the sheet beam FEL concept is propagation of the beam through the interaction region without excessive interception by the walls. In section 2 below we describe a successful experimental demonstration of sheet beam propagation through a 56 period uniform wiggler. Cold testing and initial hot test operation of the (PoP) FEL amplifier are also described. Finally, we present a theoretical investigation of the bandwidth of an FEL amplifier with a tapered wiggler operating in saturation is described.

  13. Strong interactions studies with medium energy probes. Progress report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.

    1994-09-01

    This progress report refers to the period August 1993 to September 1994, which includes the second year of the three year period December 1, 1992--November 30, 1995 of our existing research contract. The budget proposal for the third year, December 1, 1994 to November 30, 1995 as originally approved, is also presented. As anticipated in our 1992--1995 proposal, Fermilab E760/E835 on high precision charmonium spectroscopy has remained a major part of our preoccupation and commitment during the last year, and it will remain so in the forthcoming year. In early 1994 we joined the collaboration of the Brookhaven experiment E852 on the spectroscopy of states with exotic quantum numbers. The first successful three month run of E852 was completed on July 31 and preliminary data analysis has been started. Some new commitments have resulted from this collaboration and a separate proposal for supplemental financial support is being prepared for them. At Los Alamos our experiment {number_sign}1274 on search of extremely neutron rich exotic nuclei by pion absorption began making initial measurements a month ago and is expected to take data during the period October 15--November 30, 1994. In addition to the above on-going programs, our Bates proposal (94-01) for a definitive measurement of the quenching of the longitudinal response in quasi-free scattering of electrons from nuclei has been approved with high priority for 600 hours of beam time, and we expect to start the experiment in late 1995.

  14. Renewable energy power in U. S. electric utility applications past progress, current status, future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    De Meo, E.A.

    1985-02-01

    During the past ten years, over two billion dollars of public and private funds have been applied toward the development of new renewable power sources. The efforts conducted over this period have led to several primary results: Lofty dreams of large energy contributions by year 2000 have been replaced by realistic projections and the realization that successful development of new power technologies takes a number of years. We have also come to realize that a contribution of one or two percent of U.S. energy needs by year 2000 from a new technology would represent a truly significant achievement, would imply productive capital investments of tens of billions of dollars, and would signal the emergence of a very healthy power option whose ultimate role would be influenced primarily by normal market forces.

  15. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) program. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Work is reported on the development of two superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units. One is a 30-MJ unit for use by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to stabilize power oscillations on their Pacific AC Intertie, and the second is a 1- to 10-GWh unit for use as a diurnal load leveling device. Emphasis has been on the stabilizing system. The manufacturing phase of the 30-MJ superconducting coil was initiated and the coil fabrication has advanced rapidly. The two converter power transformers were manufactured, successfully factory tested, and shipped. One transformer reached the Tacoma Substation in good condition; the other was dropped enroute and has been returned to the factory for rebuilding. Insulation of the 30-MJ coil has been examined for high voltage effects apt to be caused by transients such as inductive voltage spikes from the protective dump circuit. The stabilizing system converter and protective energy dump system were completed, factory tested, and delivered.

  16. High resolution energy loss research: Si compound ceramics and composites. [1990 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R W; Lin, S H

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses proposed work on silicon compound ceramics and composites. High resolution composition and structure analysis of interfaces in ceramic and metal matrix composites and certain grain boundaries in silicon and its interfaces with oxides and nitrides is proposed. Composition and bonding analysis will be done with high spatial resolution (20 Angstroms or better) parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy using a field emission analytical electron microscope. Structural analysis will be done at the 1.8 Angstrom resolution level at 200kV by HREM. Theoretical electron energy loss cross section computations will be used to interpret electronic structure of these materials. Both self-consistent field MO and multiple scattering computational methods are being done and evaluated.

  17. Advanced Energy Storage Life and Health Prognostics (INL) FY 2012 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop methodologies that will accurately estimate state-of-health (SOH) and remaining useful life (RUL) of electrochemical energy storage devices using both offline and online (i.e., in-situ) techniques through: · A statistically robust offline battery calendar life estimator tool based on both testing and simulation, and · Novel onboard sensor technology for improved online battery diagnostics and prognostics.

  18. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics]. Technical progress report, [October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities.

  19. Progression of Technology Education for Atomic Energy Engineering in Tsuyama National College of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Manabu; Kobayashi, Toshiro; Okada, Tadashi; Sato, Makoto; Sasai, Yuji; Konishi, Daijiro; Harada, Kanji; Taniguchi, Hironari; Toya, Hideaki; Inada, Tomomi; Sori, Hitoshi; Yagi, Hideyuki

    This paper describes the achievements of a program in which technology education is provided to cultivate practical core engineers for low-level radiation. It was made possible by means of (1) an introductory education program starting at an early age and a continuous agenda throughout college days and (2) regional collaboration. First, with regard to the early-age introductory education program and the continuous education agenda, the subjects of study related to atomic energy or nuclear engineering were reorganized as “Subjects related to Atomic Power Education” for all grades in all departments. These subjects were included in the syllabus and the student guide book, emphasizing a continuous and consistent policy throughout seven-year college study, including the five-year system and additional two-year advanced course. Second, to promote practical education, the contents of lectures, experiments, and internships were enriched and realigned in collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Okayama University and The Cyugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. In addition to the expansion and rearrangement of atomic power education, research on atomic power conducted for graduation thesis projects were undertaken to enhance the educational and research activities. In consequence, it has been estimated that there is now a total of fourteen subject areas in atomic energy technology, more than eight-hundred registered students in the department, and thirteen members of the teaching staff related to atomic energy technology. Furthermore, the “Tsuyama model” is still being developed. This program was funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  20. Energy efficient louver and blind. Technical progress report for Quarter 2, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Khajavi, S.

    1996-07-26

    In this quarter we jumped ahead and performed Task 5 which is testing to get empirical energy saving data. One 4` X 3` horizontal Incredibling prototype and one black and one white conventional control blinds with the same size were delivered to the Lawrence Berekely Laboratories Mobile Test Facility in Reno. The blinds are still in testing since we had only two sunny days in the month of June and we encountered some hardware problem with the computers at the lab.

  1. Thermoeconomics of energy systems. Progress report, 1 October 1979-1 June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tribus, M.; El-Sayed, Y.M.

    1980-06-13

    A method for combining thermodynamic and economic analyses is described. The purpose is to make the economic consequences of design decisions apparent during the design process. In conventional methods of design, the thermodynamic and economic analyses are conducted sequentially. By developing a method for treating the two disciplines concurrently it is hoped that better designs will result. The method is similar in philosophy to conventional approaches to thermodynamic analyses. The system is divided into sub-systems upon which energy, entropy, material and economic balances are made. In addition to tracking the thermodynamic variables (temperature, pressure, composition, energy, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, etc.) the thermoeconomic approach also tracks the destruction of generalized availability (essergy destruction) and generalized value (essergy added value and capital destruction). These are called to the designer's attention by a series of measures applied to each zone defining (in a manner analagous to second law efficiencies) the maximum attainable economic improvement associated with each zone. A simplified gas turbine cycle is used to illustrate, in a step-by-step analysis, how the method works. Numerical examples are also given for more complex systems.

  2. Conformational characteristics of dimeric subunits of RNA from energy minimization studies. Mixed sugar-puckered ApG, ApU, CpG, and CpU.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, P; Ponnuswamy, P K

    1981-09-01

    Following the procedure described in the preceding article, the low energy conformations located for the four dimeric subunits of RNA, ApG, ApU, CpG, and CpU are presented. The A-RNA type and Watson-Crick type helical conformations and a number of different kinds of loop promoting ones were identified as low energy in all the units. The 3E-3E and 3E-2E pucker sequences are found to be more or less equally preferred; the 2E-2E sequence is occasionally preferred, while the 2E-3E is highly prohibited in all the units. A conformation similar to the one observed in the drug-dinucleoside monophosphate complex crystals becomes a low energy case only for the CpG unit. The low energy conformations obtained for the four model units were used to assess the stability of the conformational states of the dinucleotide segments in the four crystal models of the tRNAPhe molecule. Information on the occurrence of the less preferred sugar-pucker sequences in the various loop regions in the tRNAPhe molecule has been obtained. A detailed comparison of the conformational characteristics of DNA and RNA subunits at the dimeric level is presented on the basis of the results.

  3. Minimal Intensity Physical Activity (Standing and Walking) of Longer Duration Improves Insulin Action and Plasma Lipids More than Shorter Periods of Moderate to Vigorous Exercise (Cycling) in Sedentary Subjects When Energy Expenditure Is Comparable

    PubMed Central

    Duvivier, Bernard M. F. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Bremers, Michelle A.; van Crombrugge, Glenn; Menheere, Paul P. C. A.; Kars, Marleen; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that excessive sitting time is associated with increased health risk, independent of the performance of exercise. We hypothesized that a daily bout of exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity during the rest of the day on insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighteen healthy subjects, age 21±2 year, BMI 22.6±2.6 kgm−2 followed randomly three physical activity regimes for four days. Participants were instructed to sit 14 hr/day (sitting regime); to sit 13 hr/day and to substitute 1 hr of sitting with vigorous exercise 1 hr (exercise regime); to substitute 6 hrs sitting with 4 hr walking and 2 hr standing (minimal intensity physical activity (PA) regime). The sitting and exercise regime had comparable numbers of sitting hours; the exercise and minimal intensity PA regime had the same daily energy expenditure. PA was assessed continuously by an activity monitor (ActivPAL) and a diary. Measurements of insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) and plasma lipids were performed in the fasting state, the morning after the 4 days of each regime. In the sitting regime, daily energy expenditure was about 500 kcal lower than in both other regimes. Area under the curve for insulin during OGTT was significantly lower after the minimal intensity PA regime compared to both sitting and exercise regimes 6727.3±4329.4 vs 7752.0±3014.4 and 8320.4±5383.7 mU•min/ml, respectively. Triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B plasma levels improved significantly in the minimal intensity PA regime compared to sitting and showed non-significant trends for improvement compared to exercise. Conclusions One hour of daily physical exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity on insulin level and plasma lipids if the rest of the day is spent sitting. Reducing inactivity by increasing the time spent walking/standing is more effective than one hour of

  4. Research Results Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

  5. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  6. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1992-07-01

    Emphasis has been on combustion and flame propagation. The research program was on modeling, analysis and computation of combustion phenomena, with emphasis on transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation were investigated in the transition. Stability of combustion waves, and transitions to complex waves are described. Combustion waves possess large activation energies, so that chemical reactions are significant only in thin layers, or reaction zones. In limit of infinite activation energy, the zones shrink to moving surfaces, (fronts) which must be found during the analysis, so that (moving free boundary problems). The studies are carried out for limiting case with fronts, while the numerical studies are carried out for finite, though large, activation energy. Accurate resolution of the solution in the reaction zones is essential, otherwise false predictions of dynamics are possible. Since the the reaction zones move, adaptive pseudo-spectral methods were developed. The approach is based on a synergism of analytical and computational methods. The numerical computations build on and extend the analytical information. Furthermore, analytical solutions serve as benchmarks for testing the accuracy of the computation. Finally, ideas from analysis (singular perturbation theory) have induced new approaches to computations. The computational results suggest new analysis to be considered. Among the recent interesting results, was spatio-temporal chaos in combustion. One goal is extension of the adaptive pseudo-spectral methods to adaptive domain decomposition methods. Efforts have begun to develop such methods for problems with multiple reaction zones, corresponding to problems with more complex, and more realistic chemistry. Other topics included stochastics, oscillators, Rysteretic Josephson junctions, DC SQUID, Markov jumps, laser with saturable absorber, chemical physics, Brownian movement, combustion synthesis, etc.

  7. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaledexperiments to the integrated research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek,F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; deHoon, M.J.L.; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-06-22

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents ({approx}100s Amperesheam) and ion energies ({approx}1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions. and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial Fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned.

  8. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  9. Minimal E6 unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  10. Progress in development of neutron energy spectrometer for deuterium plasma operation in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, H. Yamashita, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Morishima, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sakai, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.; Cheon, M. S.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.

    2014-11-15

    Two types of DD neutron energy spectrometer (NES) are under development for deuterium plasma operation in KSTAR to understand behavior of beam ions in the plasma. One is based on the state-of-the-art nuclear emulsion technique. The other is based on a coincidence detection of a recoiled proton and a scattered neutron caused by an elastic scattering of an incident DD neutron, which is called an associated particle coincidence counting-NES. The prototype NES systems were installed at J-port in KSTAR in 2012. During the 2012 and 2013 experimental campaigns, multiple shots-integrated neutron spectra were preliminarily obtained by the nuclear emulsion-based NES system.

  11. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    Geothermal budget actual amounts are shown for FY 1989 -1992, broken down by about 15 categories. Here, the main Program categories are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology, Conversion Technology (power plants and materials), Industry-Coupled Drilling, Drilling Applications, Reservoir Engineering Applications, Direct Heat, Geopressured Wells Operation, and Hot Dry Rock Research. Here the title--Industry-Coupled Drilling--covered case studies of the Coso, CA, and Dixie Valley, NV, fields, and the Long Valley Exploratory Well (which had started as a magma energy exploration project, but reported here as a hydrothermal prospect evaluation well). (DJE 2005)

  12. Energy cost of wearing chemical protective clothing during progressive treadmill walking

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, J.F.; Bidwell, T.E.; Murphy, M.M.; Mello, R.P.; Harp, M.E.

    1995-03-01

    While chemical protective (CP) clothing is known to adversely affect physical performance, few data exist regarding the physiological response of wearing US military cp clothing during incremental, dynamic exercise. To quantify the effects of CP clothing on energy cost and to test the hypothesis that the mask contributes little to this effect, oxygen uptake (vo2) and ventilation (VE) were determined in 14 male soldiers who walked on a treadmill at 1.56 m -5(-1) for 20 min each at 0, 5, and 10% grades in three clothing conditions: BDU (battledress uniform only).

  13. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group. Progress report, May 1, 1980--March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.A.

    1980-12-01

    The major activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Maryland during the current contract period have been: analysis of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} events from the PLUTO detector at PETRA, design and construction of modifications to PLUTO for 2{gamma} physics, analyses of {nu}{sub {mu}}D{sub 2} bubble chamber pictures from Fermilab, completion of the {nu}{sub {mu}}e elastic scattering experiment at Fermilab, development and demonstration of an ultra cold neutron source produced by Doppler shifting, testing of equipment for the hadron jet experiment at Fermilab that is about to begin, and planning for large projects in the future.

  14. High-energy-physics studies. Progress report, Part I. Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics program at Ohio State University for 1982 is described. The following topics are discussed: a search for neutrino oscillations at LAMPF; measuring charm and beauty decays via hadronic production in a hybrid emulsion spectrometer; prompt neutrino production experiment; search for long-lived particles from neutrino interactions in a tagged emulsion spectrometer; electron-positron interactions at CESR-CLEO; a search for exotic forms of stable matter; and development of computer systems for data processing and for development of detectors. (GHT)

  15. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, R C; Lewis, D A

    1993-02-01

    The Crab-Nebula continues to be the standard candle'' of TeV gamma-ray astronomy. The Whipple Collaboration's observations of it are now confirmed by two French groups. Application of the supercuts'' technique, developed on the Crab database, has resulted in the observation of a distant, active galaxy, Markarian 421. Markarian 421 is one of 16 active galactic nuclei (AGN's) observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The EGRET observations and the expected attenuation of TeV photons from very distant AGN's gives added impetus to efforts in upgrading the present steoscopic detection system. The upgrade not only improves the sensitivity of the twin telescopes, but also reduces the energy threshold to 100 GeV, at which energy attenuation effects for distant sources are greatly reduced. During the past year the llm reflector was operated as a 37-pixel camera, with its performance matching design expectations. During the coming year, its camera will be upgraded to 109 pixels, the 10m camera electronics made to conform to the llm electronics, and both systems interfaced to a single, faster computer. Observations of Markarian 421, simultaneous with EGRET, are scheduled for May, 1993.

  16. Base program on energy related research. Quarterly progress report, May--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Accomplishments are briefly summarized for the following tasks: oil and gas; advanced systems applications; environmental technologies; applied energy science; and remediation. Subtasks under oil and gas are: CROW{trademark} process modeling; miscible/immiscible gas injection processes; development of a portable data acquisition system and coalbed methane simulator; and tank bottom waste processing using the TaBoRR{trademark} process. Subtasks for advanced system applications are: development and optimization of process for the production of premium solid fuel from Western US coals; process support and development; and Eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive. Environmental technologies cover: solid waste management; remediation of contaminated soils (Haz-Flote{trademark}); the Syn- Ag{trademark} process--coal combustion ash management option; the Maxi-acid{trademark} process--in-situ amelioration of acid mine drainage; and spill test facility data base. Subtasks for applied energy science are: heavy oil/plastics co-processing; and fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Remediation covers North site remediation.

  17. Recent progress and future prospects of high-energy peta-watt laser in LFRC, CAEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.; Zhu, Q.; Huang, X.; Zeng, X.; Wang, X.; Xie, X.; Wang, F.; Wang, X.; Zhou, K.; Deng, W.; Zhang, X.

    2008-05-01

    The laser system with output energy larger than 150 Joules, output pulse width less than 1-ps has been finished in last year in Research Center of Laser Fusion (LFRC) at China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The front-end of the system can emit 4-mJ, 1053-nm femtosecond laser by optical parametric amplification based on supercontinuum white-light injection. Then the laser is stretched to chirped pulse with 2ns pulse duration and amplified to near 200 Joules by multi-stage phosphate Nd:glass amplifiers. Subsequent amplification in a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) chain will result in a sometimes substantial lengthening of the output pulses owing to gain narrowing and uncompensated phase errors. The acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) [2] is used to modulate the amplitude and phase of ultrashort pulses in order to maintain the short pulse duration after amplification. The size of a single gratings is not enough for high energy pulse compression, Therefore we developed tiled-gratings technology. A single-pass tiled-gratings-compressor (TGC) [3] is used in this system. Real-time monitoring and on-line alignment system has been established to achieve coherent addition of the tiled gratings. Impact of vibration being eliminated to a least level, the tiled gratings can keep stable for a several hours.

  18. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1994-08-01

    This renewal proposal requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past three years we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons at CEBAF. We are part of the Hall-B Collaboration at CEBAF. We are co-spokespersons on two approved CEBAF experiments, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei, and we are preparing another, Nondiffractive Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson with Linearly Polarized Photons, for presentation to the next CEBAF PAC. We are part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger and a high-energy tagged polarized-photon beam for Hall B; some of the instrumentation for these projects is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Our recent measurements of pion scattering from {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He at LAMPF and of cluster knockout from few-body nuclei at NIKHEF have yielded very provocative results, showing the importance of the very light nuclei as a laboratory for quantifying important aspects of the nuclear many-body force. We look forward to expanding our studies of short-range forces in nuclei, particularly the very fight nuclei using electromagnetic probes and employing the extraordinary power of CEBAF and the CLAS.

  19. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research], monthly progress report for March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Accomplishments for the month of April are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nigrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process- engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams of oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; compilations and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; and horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs.

  20. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  1. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research) monthly progress report for April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved alkaline flooding methods, surfactant flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Programs covers; field projects in microbial-enhanced waterflooding and surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region -- Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; and process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components.

  2. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved alkaline flooding methods, surfactant flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Programs covers; field projects in microbial-enhanced waterflooding and surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region -- Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; and process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components.

  3. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics. Progress report 1 Oct 1979 to 30 Sep 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gasiorowicz, S.; Fishbane, P.; Kaus, P.; Riverside, U. C.; Geffen, D. A.; Wilson, W.; Suura, Hiroshi; Haqq, Emmanuel; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Kwong, Waikwok; Schonfeld, Jonathan F.; Quigg, C.; Thacker, H. B.; Moxhay, Peter; Robinett, Richard; Karl, Gabriel; Meshkov, Sydney

    1980-09-30

    Research performed in theoretical high energy physics includes: nonabelian Stokes theorem; connection between asymptotic behavior and bound states in QCD; classical solutions for gauge fields interacting with Higgs mesons; neutrino oscillations; relativistic wave equation and mass spectrum of gluonium; dynamical structures of the pion; convergence of reflectionless approximations to confining potentials; degeneracy in one-dimensional quantum mechanics; review of heavy quarks and new particles; semiclassical results on normalization of bound state wave functions; proton lifetime; quark magnetic moments and E1 radiative transitions in charmonium; lectures on quark models; inverse scattering and the upsilon family; and magnetic moments of quarks in baryons and mesons. In experimental high energy physics, the emphasis has been on strong interactions but also includes several crucial tests of the currently most important theories of elementary particle interactions. Experiments described include: electromagnetic couplings of vector mesons; direct photon production at large transverse momentum; hyperon experiments; spin effects in strong interactions; a dense detector for proton decay; and exclusive processes at large transverse momenta. (GHT)

  4. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research monthly progress report, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Accomplishments for the month of May are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuels Research covers: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteratom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program covers: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams for oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations; implementation of oil and gas technology transfer initiative; horizontal well production from fractured reservoirs; and chemical EOR workshop.

  5. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Accomplishments for the month of January are briefly described for the following tasks: energy production research; fuels research; and supplemental government programs. Energy production research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORI research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; development of improved chemical flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modifications, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuel research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen and diheteroatom containing compounds. supplemental Government program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding field project; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; DOE education initiative project; field application of foams for oil production symposium; technology transfer to independent producers; and compilations and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond formations.

  6. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Accomplishments for the month of July are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplement Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1. unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; analysis of the US oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil; DOE education initiative project; and technology transfer to independent producers.

  7. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research) monthly progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Accomplishments for the month of July are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Fuel Research includes: development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplement Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1. unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; analysis of the US oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil; DOE education initiative project; and technology transfer to independent producers.

  8. (National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research) monthly progress report for June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuels research includes; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; and analysis of the U. S. oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil.

  9. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] monthly progress report for June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Accomplishments for this period are described briefly under tasks for: Energy Production Research; Fuels Research; and Supplemental Government Program. Energy Production Research includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; development of improved microbial flooding methods; surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; gas flood performance prediction improvement; mobility control, profile modification, and sweep improvement in gas flooding; three-phase relative permeability research; thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluid in porous media. Fuels research includes; development of analytical methodology for analysis of heavy crudes; and thermochemistry and thermophysical properties of organic nitrogen- and diheteroatom-containing compounds. Supplemental Government Program includes: microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project; feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the midcontinent region--Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project; development of methods for mapping distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs; summary of geological and production characteristics of class 1, unstructured, deltaic reservoirs; third international reservoir characterization technical conference; process-engineering property measurements on heavy petroleum components; development and application of petroleum production technologies; upgrade BPO crude oil data base; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; and analysis of the U. S. oil resource base and estimate of future recoverable oil.

  10. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of ‘minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions. PMID:26797564

  11. Controlling molecular transport in minimal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Philipp; Riechers, Birte; Semin, Benoît; Lim, Jiseok; Johnston, Abigail; Short, Kathleen; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions in which molecular transport is a major mechanism driving the system towards its state of minimal energy. Determining the underlying mechanisms of molecular transport between droplets is challenging due to the complexity of a typical emulsion system. Here we introduce the concept of `minimal emulsions', which are controlled emulsions produced using microfluidic tools, simplifying an emulsion down to its minimal set of relevant parameters. We use these minimal emulsions to unravel the fundamentals of transport of small organic molecules in water-in-fluorinated-oil emulsions, a system of great interest for biotechnological applications. Our results are of practical relevance to guarantee a sustainable compartmentalization of compounds in droplet microreactors and to design new strategies for the dynamic control of droplet compositions.

  12. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  13. Fusion energy division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The ORNL Program encompasses most aspects of magnetic fusion research including research on two magnetic confinement programs (tokamaks and ELMO bumpy tori); the development of the essential technologies for plasma heating, fueling, superconducting magnets, and materials; the development of diagnostics; the development of atomic physics and radiation effect data bases; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; the physics and engineering of present-generation devices; and the design of future devices. The integration of all of these activities into one program is a major factor in the success of each activity. An excellent example of this integration is the extremely successful application of neutral injection heating systems developed at ORNL to tokamaks both in the Fusion Energy Division and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The goal of the ORNL Fusion Program is to maintain this balance between plasma confinement, technology, and engineering activities.

  14. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  15. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This eighth annual report of the Division covers work done during FY 1981 (October 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981). As with these documents in the past, the format follows approximately the organizational structure of the Energy Division. Chapters 2 through 6 summarize the activities of the sections of the Division: Environmental Impact Section, headed by H.E. Zittel; Regional and Urban Studies Section, R.M. Davis; Economic Analysis Section, R.B. Shelton; Data and Analysis Section, A.S. Loebl; and Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, J.W. Michel. In addition, work on a variety of projects which cut across section lines is reported in Chapter 7, Integrated Programs. These activities are under the supervision of T.J. Wilbanks, Associate Director for the Division. Separate abstracts are included for individual projects.

  16. Progress in drug development for Alzheimer's disease: An overview in relation to mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hroudová, Jana; Singh, Namrata; Fišar, Zdeněk; Ghosh, Kallol K

    2016-10-01

    Current possibilities of Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment are very limited and are based on administration of cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine) and/or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine. Newly synthesized drugs affect multiple AD pathophysiological pathways and can act as inhibitors of cholinesterases (AChE, BuChE), inhibitors of monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, MAO-B), modulators of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, modulators of amyloid-beta binding alcohol dehydrogenase and antioxidants. Effects of clinically used as well as newly developed AD drugs were studied in relation to energy metabolism and mitochondrial functions, including oxidative phosphorylation, activities of enzymes of citric acid cycle or electron transfer system, mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium homeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species and MAO activity. PMID:27094132

  17. Low energy proton capture in light nuclei. Progress report, September 1, 1993--June 8, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    Radiative capture reactions with light nuclei are of special interest in nuclear astrophysics because of their importance in the formation of the various elements. In many cases a simple direct-capture model that considers only the electromagnetic interaction is sufficient to reproduce experimental results. A direct-semidirect process may be used in which the transition amplitude is the sum of a direct term and another term representing the excitation of the target nucleus into a collective state. In cases where these approaches are not sufficient, the relative simplicity of nuclear systems with small numbers of fundamental particles allows microscopic calculations of measurable quantities from nucleon-nucleon potentials, using the multichannel resonating group model or, in some cases, Faddeev calculations. In the summer of 1990, the PI began a collaboration with Professor Henry Weller`s group at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Weller`s group has studied radiative capture reactions with polarized beams at TUNL for over a decade, developing considerable expertise in the detection of high energy gamma rays and for the analysis of the measurements. The PI has been involved in the development of a new series of experiments at beam energies below 100 keV, using the positive beam directly from the high intensity atomic beam polarized ion source. This work is the topic of the present grant, which began September 1, 1993. The main activity in the grant occurs during the summer months. Since this is the first year of the grant, most of that activity will be during the upcoming summer months. The PI will travel to TUNL in mid-June and will spend most of his time from then through August either at TUNL or working on data reduction and other calculations at West Georgia College. The PI is moving from West Georgia College (WGC) to North Georgia College (NGC) in September, 1994. He will be Professor and Chair of Physics there as he has been at WGC.

  18. [Energy related studies utilizing microline thermochronology]. Progress report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    In our first year of the current funding cycle, we have investigated three interrelated aspects of K-feldspar thermochronology; (1) the Ar diffusion properties and microstructures of K-feldspars, (2) the thermal evolution of the Valles Caldera and (3) the continued development of microanalysis. Results of TEM and light microscopy on heated and unheated samples of MH-10 K-feldspar reveal three classes of substructure are present: (1) cross hatched extinction is common and there is almost no albite/pericline twinning, only tweed microstructure; (2) 5--10 vol. % of this K-feldspar are turbid zones with complex twin and tweed structures at the sub-micron scale and numerous dislocation and strain features; (3) about 20% of the K-feldspar is comprised of 0.01 {times} 0.2-1{mu}m albite exsolution lamellae. The network of fractured/turbid zones divides the sample into blocks of approximately 50 {mu}m and the separation between albite exsolution lamellae produce K-feldspar domains of the order 0.1 {mu}m. Independent crushing and diffusion experiments suggest the scale of the largest domain is order ten`s of micron whereas the smallest domain size is inferred to be {approximately}0.1 {mu}m. Many, and perhaps most, alkali feldspars contain diffusion domains with activation energies that may vary by as much as 8 kcal/mol. An extraordinary consequence of even relatively small variations in activation energy between domains is that the shape of an age spectrum can change dramatically by varying the laboratory heating schedule. We have performed {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age spectrum experiments on K-feldspar separated from Proterozoic quartz monzonite taken from a depth of 1.76 km down the VC-2B drill hole, Valles Caldera, north-central New Mexcio.

  19. The Technological Development of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Laura A.; O'Toole, John; Eichholz, Kurt M.; Perez-Cruet, Mick J.; Fessler, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery has its roots in the mid-twentieth century with a few surgeons and a few techniques, but it has now developed into a large field of progressive spinal surgery. A wide range of techniques are now called “minimally invasive,” and case reports are submitted constantly with new “minimally invasive” approaches to spinal pathology. As minimally invasive spine surgery has become more mainstream over the past ten years, in this paper we discuss its history and development. PMID:24967347

  20. Studies in medium energy physics. Progress report and continuation proposal, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992: Addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Hoffmann, G.W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M.J.; Ray, R.L.; Read, D.E.; Worn, S.D.

    1991-12-01

    This document constitutes the (1991--1992) technical progress report and continuation proposal for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant DE-FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics; (2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind ``exploratory`` hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  1. Competition between potential energy minimization and number of contact points in two-dimension granular materials exhibiting Brazil-nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Widayani, Novitrian

    2015-09-01

    The granular materials phenomenon known as Brazil-nut effect is discussed in this work, where its grain configurations are constructed artificially as time-independent using 2-d disks. Single intruder with 2.6 cm diameter is introduced to granular bed consisted of 1.3 cm diameter disks. Each created configuration is designed similar to observed one in experiments and simulations. Potential energy and number of contact points between grains are observed between initial and final configurations. Contactopy parameter change is also discussed. As comparison results from real experiment and simulation are also presented.

  2. Minimally packed phases in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2016-03-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D = 4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d = 3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  3. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The Fusion Program carries out work in a number of areas: (1) experimental and theoretical research on two magnetic confinement concepts - the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) and the tokamak, (2) theoretical and engineering studies on a third concept - the stellarator, (3) engineering and physics of present-generation fusion devices, (4) development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques, (5) development and testing of materials for fusion devices, (6) development and testing of the essential technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, (7) development and testing of the superconducting magnets that will be needed to confine these plasmas, (8) design of future devices, (9) assessment of the environmental impact of fusion energy, and (10) assembly and distribution to the fusion community of data bases on atomic physics and radiation effects. The interactions between these activities and their integration into a unified program are major factors in the success of the individual activities, and the ORNL Fusion Program strives to maintain a balance among these activities that will lead to continued growth.

  4. Medium energy nuclear physics research. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Experiment 87-02: Threshold Electrodisintegration of the Deuteron at High Q{sup 2}; Measurement of the 5th Structure Function in Deuterium and {sup 12}C; Single-Particle Densities of sd-Shell Nuclei; Experiment 84-28: Transverse Form Factors of {sup 117}Sn; Experiment 82-11: Elastic Magnetic Electron Scattering from {sup 13}C; Experiment 89-09: Measurement of the Elastic Magnetic Form Factor of {sup 3}He at High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 89-15: Coincidence Measurement of the D(e,e{prime}p) Cross-Section at Low Excitation Energy and High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 87-09: Measurement of the Quadrupole Contribution to the N {yields} {Delta} Excitation; Experiment E-140: Measurement of the x-, Q{sup 2} and A-Dependence of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}; PEP Beam-Gas Event Analysis: Physics with the SLAC TPC/2{gamma} Detector; Drift Chamber Tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Experiment PR-89-031: Multi-nucleon Knockout Using the CLAS Detector; Electronics Design for the CLAS Region 1 Drift Chamber; Color Transparencies in the Electroproduction of Nucleon Resonances; and Experiment PR-89-015: Study of Coincidence Reactions in the Dip and Delta-Resonance Regions.

  5. Energy transformations in organometallic complexes. Progress report, July 1, 1984-September 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary purpose of research projects performed during this report period was to characterize the fundamental photoproperties of a variety of ortho-metalated species. The proposal which was submitted and approved in 1984 describes our initial work on dichloro-bridged dimeric complexes of Ir(III) and Rh(III) with 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) and benzo(h)quinoline (bzq). During 1985 efforts have been expanded to incorporate the additional metal centers, Re(1) and Pd(II), as well as different ortho-metalating ligands including 3-methyl-2-phenylpyridine (mppy), 2-(p-tolylpyridine) (tpy), azobenzene (azb) and 2-phenylpyrimidine (ppyr). In addition, several new, mononuclear complexes of Ir(III) and Rh(III) with various combinations of metallated ppy or bzq and coordinated 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands have been prepared and studied. The goals of studies of these complexes are to provide a basis for evaluating their potential application as photocatalysts and to generally provide initial characterizations of the effects of metal-carbon sigma bonds on the identity, photophysics, and photochemistry of their low energy excited states. For purposes of organization the work described in this report is divided into four projects corresponding to the four graduate students who are currently working in this program. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Progress in directed energy control of vectors for microbes and other cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Parker, Jill E.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Vivekananda, Jeeva; Sloan, Mark A.; Stribling, Lucille J. V.

    2004-07-01

    Biosynthetic semiconductor, diazoluminomelanin (DALM), is a polymer of tyrosine, luminol, and nitrite. DALM has a very large cross section of absorption for light from ultraviolet to radio frequencies. This polymer can be made efficiently in a genetically engineered E.coli, JM109/pIC2ORNR1.1 (ATCC# 69905). We have been pursuing ways to couple electromagnetic radiation to vectors using this polymer. DNA capture elements (DCEs; formerly aptamers) have made this possible. We incorporated DCEs into the plasmid of this E. coli to direct binding to whatever microbe or cell desired and to produce DALM attached to the plasmid DNA. Using two other vectors pSV2neoNR101 or pSV2neoNR8005 (ATCC # 69617 and 69618, respectively), both propagated in the E. coli host HB101, we have also inserted genes necessary for DALM production into animal and human cell lines (mouse monocytic leukemia: ATCC # CRL- 11771, -11772, -1173, mouse mammary adenocarcinoma: ATCC# CRL-12184, -12185; and human carcinoma of the cervix: ATCC # CRL-12510). The DCE/DALM vectors can be used to tag target cells, detectable by broad-spectrum light absorbance, luminescence, or fluorescence. DCE/DALM can further be activated with light, microwave energy, or by oxidative chemistry to kill the targeted microbes or other cells.

  7. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  8. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. ERIP technical progress report {number_sign}6

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-08

    The ground carbonized RDF slurry from the grinding trials at IKA Works at approximately 50 wt.% solids was sealed in drums and shipped to the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) for the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion tests. In addition, a fuel characterization and trace component analysis was completed for this final carbonized RDF slurry fuel. This final fuel was a blend of several fuels from the pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments. As can be seen from the data, the final carbonized RDF has an exceptional heating value and volatile matter content. In addition, trace components are significantly lower than the raw RDF pellets. The report summarizes results from combustion tests and air pollution monitoring of these tests. For the upcoming time period 10/96--01/97, it is anticipated that the analysis of the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion test will be completed. This analysis includes rheology and particle size distribution analysis of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, carbon content and TCLP of the combustion ash, trace heavy metal balances around combustor, and dioxin/furan emissions. Finally, the slurry carbonization computer model and computer simulations will be completed in the next reporting period (including the waste water treatment subsystem). Based upon this computer model, initial economic estimates and optimizations of the slurry carbonization process will be completed in the next reporting period.

  9. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  10. [Minimal invasive implantology].

    PubMed

    Bruck, N; Zagury, A; Nahlieli, O

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic surgery has changed the philosophy and practice of modern surgery in all aspects of medicine. It gave rise to minimally invasive surgery procedures based on the ability to visualize and to operate via small channels. In maxillofacial surgery, our ability to see clearly the surgical field opened an entirely new world of exploration, as conditions that were once almost impossible to control and whose outcome was uncertain can be now predictably managed. in this article we will descripe the advantage of using the oral endoscope during the dental implantology procedure, and we will describe a unique implant which enable us in combination with the oral endoscope to create a maxillary sinus lift with out the need of the major surgery with all of its risks and complication.

  11. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  12. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  13. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  14. Growing green electricity: progress and strategies for use of photosystem I for sustainable photovoltaic energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khoa; Bruce, Barry D

    2014-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven via sequential action of Photosystem II (PSII) and (PSI)reaction centers via the Z-scheme. Both of these pigment-membrane protein complexes are found in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. Unlike PSII, PSI is remarkably stable and does not undergo limiting photo-damage. This stability, as well as other fundamental structural differences, makes PSI the most attractive reaction centers for applied photosynthetic applications. These applied applications exploit the efficient light harvesting and high quantum yield of PSI where the isolated PSI particles are redeployed providing electrons directly as a photocurrent or, via a coupled catalyst to yield H₂. Recent advances in molecular genetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology have merged to allow PSI to be integrated into a myriad of biohybrid devices. In photocurrent producing devices, PSI has been immobilized onto various electrode substrates with a continuously evolving toolkit of strategies and novel reagents. However, these innovative yet highly variable designs make it difficult to identify the rate-limiting steps and/or components that function as bottlenecks in PSI-biohybrid devices. In this study we aim to highlight these recent advances with a focus on identifying the similarities and differences in electrode surfaces, immobilization/orientation strategies, and artificial redox mediators. Collectively this work has been able to maintain an annual increase in photocurrent density (Acm⁻²) of ~10-fold over the past decade. The potential drawbacks and attractive features of some of these schemes are also discussed with their feasibility on a large-scale. As an environmentally benign and renewable resource, PSI may provide a new sustainable source of bioenergy. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy.

  15. [Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology]. Progress report, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In our second year of current funding cycle, we have investigated the Ar diffusion properties and microstructures of K-feldspars and the application of domain theory to natural K-feldspars. We completed a combined TEM and argon diffusion study of the effect of laboratory heat treatment on the microstructure and kinetic properties of K-feldspar. We conclude in companion papers that, with one minor exception, no observable change in the diffusion behavior occurs during laboratory extraction procedures until significant fusion occurs at about 1100{degrees}C. The effect that is observed involves a correlation between the homogenization of cryptoperthite lamelle and the apparent increase in retentivity of about 5% of the argon in the K-feldspar under study. We can explain this effect of both as an artifact of the experiment or the loss of a diffusion boundary. Experiments are being considered to resolve this question. Refinements have been made to our experimental protocol that appears that greatly enhance the retrieval of multi-activation energies from K-feldspars. We have applied the multi-domain model to a variety of natural environments (Valles Caldera, Red River fault, Appalachian basin) with some surprising results. Detailed {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39} Ar coverage of the Red River shear zone, thought to be responsible for the accommodation of a significant fraction of the Indo-Asian convergence, strongly suggests that our technique can precisely date both the termination of ductile strike-slip motion and the initiation of normal faulting. Work has continued on improving our numerical codes for calculating thermal histories and the development of computer based graphing tools has significantly increased our productivity.

  16. Growing green electricity: progress and strategies for use of photosystem I for sustainable photovoltaic energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khoa; Bruce, Barry D

    2014-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven via sequential action of Photosystem II (PSII) and (PSI)reaction centers via the Z-scheme. Both of these pigment-membrane protein complexes are found in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. Unlike PSII, PSI is remarkably stable and does not undergo limiting photo-damage. This stability, as well as other fundamental structural differences, makes PSI the most attractive reaction centers for applied photosynthetic applications. These applied applications exploit the efficient light harvesting and high quantum yield of PSI where the isolated PSI particles are redeployed providing electrons directly as a photocurrent or, via a coupled catalyst to yield H₂. Recent advances in molecular genetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology have merged to allow PSI to be integrated into a myriad of biohybrid devices. In photocurrent producing devices, PSI has been immobilized onto various electrode substrates with a continuously evolving toolkit of strategies and novel reagents. However, these innovative yet highly variable designs make it difficult to identify the rate-limiting steps and/or components that function as bottlenecks in PSI-biohybrid devices. In this study we aim to highlight these recent advances with a focus on identifying the similarities and differences in electrode surfaces, immobilization/orientation strategies, and artificial redox mediators. Collectively this work has been able to maintain an annual increase in photocurrent density (Acm⁻²) of ~10-fold over the past decade. The potential drawbacks and attractive features of some of these schemes are also discussed with their feasibility on a large-scale. As an environmentally benign and renewable resource, PSI may provide a new sustainable source of bioenergy. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. PMID:24388916

  17. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1981-11-30

    There are three distinct but not mutually exclusive areas of research in this contract, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across nearshore density fronts, and advances in understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to require distinctive biological approaches. The studies of the food web run through our work on both of the frontal regimes, but certain aspects have become subjects in their own right. We have developed a simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web which we believe to be more realistic than previous ones of its type. We have examined several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms. Methods have been developed under this contract to measure both the chelating capacity of naturally occurring organic materials and the copper concentration in the water. It has been possible to characterize the effects, both toxic and stimulatory, of copper on photosynthesis of naturally occurring phytoplankton populations. It is possible to characterize in considerable detail the course of biological events associated with meanders of the Gulf Stream. We are now in a position to explain the limits to biological productivity of the outer continental shelf of the southeastern US and the reasons why that biological production moves through the food web in the characteristic way that it does.

  18. Energy cost of wearing chemical protective clothing during progressive treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Patton, J F; Bidwell, T E; Murphy, M M; Mello, R P; Harp, M E

    1995-03-01

    While chemical protective (CP) clothing is known to adversely affect physical performance, few data exist regarding the physiological response of wearing US military CP clothing during incremental, dynamic exercise. To quantify the effects of CP clothing on energy cost and to test the hypothesis that the mask contributes little to this effect, oxygen uptake (VO2) and ventilation (VE) were determined in 14 male soldiers who walked on a treadmill at 1.56 m.s-1 for 20 min each at 0, 5, and 10% grades in three clothing conditions: BDU (battledress uniform only), MASK (BDU + M-17 protective mask), and CP clothing (MASK + overgarment, gloves and boots). In BDU's, exercise intensities expressed as %VO2max were 29, 42, and 59% at the three grades, respectively. VO2 was significantly (p < 0.01) greater at all grades (range 13 to 18%) in CP clothing compared to BDU. However, no differences in VO2 were seen between BDU and MASK at any level of exercise. VE was significantly higher at the two highest grades in CP clothing compared to BDU but when expressed relative to VO2 (VE/VO2) was significantly lower at 0% and 5% grades but not at 10%. In the MASK condition, VE was significantly lower at the 10% grade and VE/VO2 was significantly lower at all grades compared to BDU. The results show that despite the mask induced hypoventilation, VO2 is unaffected at exercise intensities up to 60% of VO2max.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Inflow Characterization for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices. FY-2010 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian

    2011-01-31

    Marine and Hydro Kinetic devices (MHK) are being widely studied as a source of renewable energy. The Marrowstone Island site is a potential location for installing MHK devices because the tidal currents observed that are sufficient for power generation. In order to quantify the effects of turbulence on MHK devices and the surrounding environment at this site, a prelimi- nary fluid flow field study was conducted here by the Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) in collaboration with the Applied Physics Lab at the University of Washington (APL-UW). This study entailed continuous The Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements from May 4, 2010 to May 22, 2010, in order to obtain information about turbulence effects during different tidal conditions. The instruments used for collecting the above measurements were deployed at the Marrowstone site using a R/V Jack Robertson provided by the University of Washington (APL-UW). All the measurements were taken at the site with an average depth of 22 m below the sea surface. ADV acquired velocity data at 32 Hz sampling frequency at 4.6 m above the seabed, and ADCP acquired velocity profile data at a sampling frequency of 2 Hz, from a height of 2.6 m above the seabed to the surface with a bin resolution of 0.5 m. The ADV and ADCP measurements showed that the horizontal velocity had a turbulence intensity of 10%. Further- more, the spectral analysis from ADV measurements showed that the flow is fully turbulent with -5/3 slope in the inertial sub-range of the spectra. Moreover, the temporal-frequency analysis showed presence of ”eddies” at high frequencies. These preliminary studies provided initial flow field and site characteristics, showed the limitations of the instruments used and highlighted changes that need to be made in the experimental setup for deployment in FY-2011 studies.

  20. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  1. Optimal battery charging, Part I: Minimizing time-to-charge, energy loss, and temperature rise for OCV-resistance battery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, A.; Han, X.; Avvari, G. V.; Raghunathan, N.; Balasingam, B.; Pattipati, K. R.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a closed-form solution to the problem of optimally charging a Li-ion battery. A combination of three cost functions is considered as the objective function: time-to-charge (TTC), energy losses (EL), and a temperature rise index (TRI). First, we consider the cost function of the optimization problem as a weighted sum of TTC and EL. We show that the optimal charging strategy in this case is the well-known Constant Current-Constant Voltage (CC-CV) policy with the value of the current in the CC stage being a function of the ratio of weighting on TTC and EL and of the resistance of the battery. Then, we extend the cost function to a weighted sum of TTC, EL and TRI and derive an analytical solution for the problem. It is shown that the analytical solution can be approximated by a CC-CV with the value of current in the CC stage being a function of ratio of weighting on TTC and EL, resistance of the battery and the effective thermal resistance.

  2. The solution structure of Ln (DOTP) 5- complexxes. A comparison of lanthanide-induced paramagnetic shifts with the MMX energy-minimized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Sherry, A. Dean; Kiefer, Garry E.

    Complexes between the trivalent lanthanide ions and the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- N,N',N″,N‴-tetra(methylene phosphonate) (DOTP) have been examined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The proton spectra of the diamagnetic La(DOTP) 5- and Lu(DOTP) 5- complexes provide evidence for very rigid chelate structures with the ethylenediamine-containing chelate rings essentially locked into a single conformation at room temperature. The activation energy for ethylenediamine chelate ring interconversions in these complexes is approximately 100 kJ mol -1, considerably higher than that reported previously for the corresponding Ln(DOTA) - complexes (DOTA is the tetraacetate analog of DOTP). Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for all 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclei in 11 Ln(DOTP) 5- complexes. The proton spectra of these complexes display unusually large lanthanide-induced shifts, one showing a spectrum in which the 1H resonances span 900 ppm. The contact and pseudocontact contributions to these shifts were separated using Reilley's temperature-independent method and the resulting pseudocontact lanthanide-induced NMR shifts were in excellent agreement with those calculated for a structure derived using MMX molecular modeling methods. The pseudocontact shifts provide evidence for Ln (DOTP) 5- chelates which have virtually identical structures along the lanthanide series, with the possible exception of Tm(DOTP) 5-.

  3. A minimal lentivirus Tat.

    PubMed Central

    Derse, D; Carvalho, M; Carroll, R; Peterlin, B M

    1991-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms found in lentiviruses employ RNA enhancer elements called trans-activation responsive (TAR) elements. These nascent RNA stem-loops are cis-acting targets of virally encoded Tat effectors. Interactions between Tat and TAR increase the processivity of transcription complexes and lead to efficient copying of viral genomes. To study essential elements of this trans activation, peptide motifs from Tats of two distantly related lentiviruses, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), were fused to the coat protein of bacteriophage R17 and tested on the long terminal repeat of EIAV, where TAR was replaced by the R17 operator, the target of the coat protein. This independent RNA-tethering mechanism mapped activation domains of Tats from HIV-1 and EIAV to 47 and 15 amino acids and RNA-binding domains to 10 and 26 amino acids, respectively. Thus, a minimal lentivirus Tat consists of 25 amino acids, of which 15 modify viral transcription and 10 bind to the target RNA stem-loop. Images PMID:1658392

  4. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a Z3 symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general Z3 violating (denoted as =) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper serves as a manual to the NMSSM mode of the program, detailing the approximations and conventions used. Catalogue identifier: ADPM_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPM_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1870890 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, fortran. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Tested on Linux 3.x. Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPM_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 785 Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The solution to the

  5. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. Annual grant progress report (FDP), January 15, 1993--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1993-10-01

    Progress on seven tasks is reported. (I)UCLA hadronization model, antiproton decay, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis: In addition to these topics, work on CP and CPT phenomenology at a {phi} factory and letters of support on the hadronization project are included. (II)ICARUS detector and rare B decays with hadron beams and colliders: Developments are summarized and some typcial events as shown; in addition, the RD5 collaboration at CERN and the asymmetric {phi} factory project are sketched. (III)Theoretical physics: Feynman diagram calculations in gauge theory; supersymmetric standard model; effects of quantum gravity in breaking of global symmetries; models of quark and lepton substructure; renormalized field theory; large-scale structure in the universe and particle-astrophysics/early universe cosmology. (IV)H dibaryon search at BNL, kaon experiments (E799/KTeV) at Fermilab: Project design and some scatterplots are given. (V)UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab. (VI)Detectors for hadron physics at ultrahigh energy colliders: Scintillating fiber and visible light photon counter research. (VII)Administrative support and conference organization.

  6. In Vivo Analysis of Protein–Protein Interactions with Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET): Progress and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sihuai; Yang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are the elementary machinery of life, and their functions are carried out mostly by molecular interactions. Among those interactions, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the most important as they participate in or mediate all essential biological processes. However, many common methods for PPI investigations are slightly unreliable and suffer from various limitations, especially in the studies of dynamic PPIs. To solve this problem, a method called Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) was developed about seventeen years ago. Since then, BRET has evolved into a whole class of methods that can be used to survey virtually any kinds of PPIs. Compared to many traditional methods, BRET is highly sensitive, reliable, easy to perform, and relatively inexpensive. However, most importantly, it can be done in vivo and allows the real-time monitoring of dynamic PPIs with the easily detectable light signal, which is extremely valuable for the PPI functional research. This review will take a comprehensive look at this powerful technique, including its principles, comparisons with other methods, experimental approaches, classifications, applications, early developments, recent progress, and prospects. PMID:27727181

  7. Progress report for a research program in theoretical high-energy physics. [Dept. of Physics, Brown Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.; Fried, H.M.; Guralnik, G.S.; Jevicki, A.; Kang, K.; Tan, C.I.

    1980-10-01

    The past year's research has dealt with a wide range of topics in High-Energy Theoretical Physics. Important new results have been found in the fields of large-N expansions in quantum field theories via an effective Hamiltonian technique, and by the method of classical field equations supplemented by quantum boundary conditions; finite lattice QCD at N/sub c/ = infinity; neutrino oscillations and natural flavor conservation in gauge theory; the vanishing of the renormalized effective potential in phi/sub 4//sup 4/ theory; a new method for treating singular differential equations; and an infrared cluster expansion in quantum field theory. In addition, substantial progress has been made in the analyses of lattice gauge theories; studies of factorization properties of mass and infrared singularities in QCD: non-hermitian quantum problems in the context of Gribov field theories; symmetry breaking via contracted groups; the calculation of Cabibbo-type angles and grand unification theories; and strong-coupling methods in gauge and nongauge field theories, using a systematic, lattice-formulated, perturbation theory, and by the extraction of relevant infrared structure.

  8. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  9. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery – a review

    PubMed Central

    Damoli, Isacco; Ramera, Marco; Paiella, Salvatore; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Bassi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years the application of a minimally invasive approach to pancreatic surgery has progressively increased. Distal pancreatectomy is the most frequently performed procedure, because of the absence of a reconstructive phase. However, middle pancreatectomy and pancreatoduodenectomy have been demonstrated to be safe and feasible as well. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is recognized as the gold standard treatment for small tumors of the pancreatic body-tail, with several advantages over the traditional open approach in terms of patient recovery. The surgical treatment of lesions of the pancreatic head via a minimally invasive approach is still limited to a few highly experienced surgeons, due to the very challenging resection and complex anastomoses. Middle pancreatectomy and enucleation are indicated for small and benign tumors and offer the maximum preservation of the parenchyma. The introduction of a robotic platform more than ten years ago increased the interest of many surgeons in minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic diseases. This new technology overcomes all the limitations of laparoscopic surgery, but actual benefits for the patients are still under investigation. The increased costs associated with robotic surgery are under debate too. This article presents the state of the art of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. PMID:26240612

  10. The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2015-05-01

    In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.

  11. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  12. Employing Diffusion Monte Carlo in the Calculation of Minimized Energy Paths of the CH3+ + H2 leftrightarrow CH5+ leftrightarrow CH3+ + H2 Reaction and its Isotopic Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Charlotte E.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2011-06-01

    Protonated methane is presumed by astrochemists to be an important intermediate in the reaction CH_3^+ + HD → CDH_4^+ → CH_2D^+ + H_2 within the interstellar medium. Understanding this reaction can also help shed light on the observed nonstatistical H/D isotopic abundance in the isotopologues of CH_3^+ within the interstellar medium. Interestingly, based on kinetic studies, Gerlich and co-workers showed that all of the reactions in the series CH3-ND_n^+ + HD → CH4-NDn+1^+ → CH2-NDn+1^+ + H_2 have identical net rate constants. This result is independent of the value of n. In previous studies of CH_5^+, we have employed Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) to study ground, and excited states. By performing the simulation in Jacobi coordinates, we can use Adiabatic DMC to study the properties of the minimized energy paths of CH_5^+ and isotopologues. To determine the minimized energy path, we calculate the quantum zero-point energy and ground state wave function as a function of the distance between the center of mass of the H_2 group and the center of mass of the CH_3^+ group over a range from 0 to 6 Å. Over this range, we find 5 distinct regions of interaction, short range repulsion region, CH_5^+ complexation, short-range fragment interaction, long-range fragment interaction, and a region of no interaction between the two fragments. Interestingly, the range of H_2/CH_3^+ distances spanned by each of the regions is roughly independent of the number or location of the deuterium atoms. Interestingly, the range of H_2/CH_3^+ distances spanned by each of the regions is roughly independent of the number or location of the deuterium atoms. O. Asvany, S. Schlemmer, D. Gerlich, Astrophys. J. 617, 685 (2004). J. B. Anderson, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1499 (1975) A. B. McCoy, A. Brown, B. J. Braams, X. Huang, Z. Jin, J. M. Bowman, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4991 (2004) C. E. Hinkle, A. B. McCoy, J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 2058 (2008) C. E. Hinkle, A. B. McCoy, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4587 (2009

  13. 4-[(1-Benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)meth-oxy]benzene-1,2-dicarbo-nitrile: crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and energy-minimization calculations.

    PubMed

    Shamsudin, Norzianah; Tan, Ai Ling; Young, David J; Jotani, Mukesh M; Otero-de-la-Roza, A; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-04-01

    In the solid state, the title compound, C18H13N5O, adopts a conformation whereby the phenyl ring and meth-oxy-benzene-1,2-dicarbo-nitrile residue (r.m.s. deviation of the 12 non-H atoms = 0.041 Å) lie to opposite sides of the central triazolyl ring, forming dihedral angles of 79.30 (13) and 64.59 (10)°, respectively; the dihedral angle between the outer rings is 14.88 (9)°. This conformation is nearly 7 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than the energy-minimized structure which has a syn disposition of the outer rings, enabling intra-molecular π-π inter-actions. In the crystal, methyl-ene-C-H⋯N(triazol-yl) and carbo-nitrile-N⋯π(benzene) inter-actions lead to supra-molecular chains along the a axis. Supra-molecular layers in the ab plane arise as the chains are connected by benzene-C-H⋯N(carbo-nitrile) inter-actions; layers stack with no directional inter-actions between them. The specified inter-molecular contacts along with other, weaker contributions to the supra-molecular stabilization are analysed in a Hirshfeld surface analysis. PMID:27375890

  14. 4-[(1-Benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)meth­oxy]benzene-1,2-dicarbo­nitrile: crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and energy-minimization calculations

    PubMed Central

    Shamsudin, Norzianah; Tan, Ai Ling; Young, David J.; Jotani, Mukesh M.; Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    In the solid state, the title compound, C18H13N5O, adopts a conformation whereby the phenyl ring and meth­oxy–benzene-1,2-dicarbo­nitrile residue (r.m.s. deviation of the 12 non-H atoms = 0.041 Å) lie to opposite sides of the central triazolyl ring, forming dihedral angles of 79.30 (13) and 64.59 (10)°, respectively; the dihedral angle between the outer rings is 14.88 (9)°. This conformation is nearly 7 kcal mol−1 higher in energy than the energy-minimized structure which has a syn disposition of the outer rings, enabling intra­molecular π–π inter­actions. In the crystal, methyl­ene-C—H⋯N(triazol­yl) and carbo­nitrile-N⋯π(benzene) inter­actions lead to supra­molecular chains along the a axis. Supra­molecular layers in the ab plane arise as the chains are connected by benzene-C—H⋯N(carbo­nitrile) inter­actions; layers stack with no directional inter­actions between them. The specified inter­molecular contacts along with other, weaker contributions to the supra­molecular stabilization are analysed in a Hirshfeld surface analysis. PMID:27375890

  15. Minimizing energy requirements for sprinkler laterals

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A computer model was developed to utilize single sprinkler pattern tests in simulating stationary lateral sprinkler systems operating under variable wind conditions. The performance of a low pressure nozzle was compared to that of a standard high pressure round nozzle on a typical multiple set lateral system.

  16. Selected examples of complications after minimally invasive treatment for urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Różański, Waldemar; Klimek, Leszek; Lipiński, Marek; Kliś, Rafał

    2012-01-01

    In recent years urologists have concentrated on the intense introduction of minimally invasive methods for the treatment of urinary tract diseases with major progress noted in the treatment of urolithiasis. Nowadays extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) are widely used in the treatment of urinary tract lithiasis. The aim of this study is to present examples of urinary tract lithiasis as the complication after minimally invasive methods used in the treatment of urolithiasis. One should remember that even minimally invasive medical procedures using the instruments retained in long-term contact with urine may be the cause of incrustation and stone formation.

  17. Progress in renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Martin, R. L.

    This is a status report on progress made in the conduct of eleven Federally-supported renewable energy programs. Considerable progress has been made in the establishment and development of an infrastructure to support sustained growth. Unique technical problems led to the research and development of materials and designs which have achieved energy conversion efficiencies of up to 25% for electricity and 92% for heat in solar thermal systems. Overall, enough real progress has been made to provide a sound technology base upon which renewable energy systems industries can reasonably continue development.

  18. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG&G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG&G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  19. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  20. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.