Science.gov

Sample records for energy particle detectors

  1. Techniques for precise energy calibration of particle pixel detectors.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, M; Campbell-Ricketts, T; Bahadori, A; Empl, A

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate techniques to improve the accuracy of the energy calibration of Timepix pixel detectors, used for the measurement of energetic particles. The typical signal from such particles spreads among many pixels due to charge sharing effects. As a consequence, the deposited energy in each pixel cannot be reconstructed unless the detector is calibrated, limiting the usability of such signals for calibration. To avoid this shortcoming, we calibrate using low energy X-rays. However, charge sharing effects still occur, resulting in part of the energy being deposited in adjacent pixels and possibly lost. This systematic error in the calibration process results in an error of about 5% in the energy measurements of calibrated devices. We use FLUKA simulations to assess the magnitude of charge sharing effects, allowing a corrected energy calibration to be performed on several Timepix pixel detectors and resulting in substantial improvement in energy deposition measurements. Next, we address shortcomings in calibration associated with the huge range (from kiloelectron-volts to megaelectron-volts) of energy deposited per pixel which result in a nonlinear energy response over the full range. We introduce a new method to characterize the non-linear response of the Timepix detectors at high input energies. We demonstrate improvement using a broad range of particle types and energies, showing that the new method reduces the energy measurement errors, in some cases by more than 90%.

  2. Techniques for precise energy calibration of particle pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Campbell-Ricketts, T.; Bahadori, A.; Empl, A.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate techniques to improve the accuracy of the energy calibration of Timepix pixel detectors, used for the measurement of energetic particles. The typical signal from such particles spreads among many pixels due to charge sharing effects. As a consequence, the deposited energy in each pixel cannot be reconstructed unless the detector is calibrated, limiting the usability of such signals for calibration. To avoid this shortcoming, we calibrate using low energy X-rays. However, charge sharing effects still occur, resulting in part of the energy being deposited in adjacent pixels and possibly lost. This systematic error in the calibration process results in an error of about 5% in the energy measurements of calibrated devices. We use FLUKA simulations to assess the magnitude of charge sharing effects, allowing a corrected energy calibration to be performed on several Timepix pixel detectors and resulting in substantial improvement in energy deposition measurements. Next, we address shortcomings in calibration associated with the huge range (from kiloelectron-volts to megaelectron-volts) of energy deposited per pixel which result in a nonlinear energy response over the full range. We introduce a new method to characterize the non-linear response of the Timepix detectors at high input energies. We demonstrate improvement using a broad range of particle types and energies, showing that the new method reduces the energy measurement errors, in some cases by more than 90%.

  3. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  4. HgI sub 2 low energy beta particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.S.; Squillante, M.R.; Entine, G. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports on a HgI{sub 2} device structure designed and tested which allows HgI{sub 2} to be used to make low energy beta particle detectors. The devices detected tritium beta particles with about a 25% efficiency. In addition, an encapsulation scheme was identified which has the potential to protect the devices while permitting most of the beta particles to reach the active region.

  5. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, D.D.; Elliott, J.P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins projecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array. 5 figs.

  6. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, Darryl D.; Elliott, John P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins porjecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array.

  7. HgI2 low energy beta particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, K. S.; Squillante, M. R.; Entine, G.

    1990-01-01

    An HgI2 device structure was designed and tested which allows HgI2 to be used to make low-energy beta-particle detectors. The devices detected tritium beta particles with an efficiency of about 25 percent. A protective encapsulant has been developed which should protect the devices for up to 20 years and will attenuate only a small fraction of the beta particles. It is noted that the devices hold significant promise to provide a practical alternative to liquid scintillation counters and gas flow-through proportional counters.

  8. The High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) for the CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparvoli, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    We present the advanced High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) developed to be installed on the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), launch scheduled by the end of 2016. The HEPD instrument aims at studying the temporal stability of the inner Van Allen radiation belts and at investigating precipitation of trapped particles induced by magnetospheric, ionosferic and tropospheric EM emissions, as well as by the seismo-electromagnetic and anthropogenic disturbances. In occasion of many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, several measurements, on ground and by experiments on LEO satellites revealed: electromagnetic and plasma perturbations, and anomalous increases of high-energy Van Allen charged particle flux. The precipitation of trapped electrons and protons (from a few MeV to several tens of MeV) could be induced by diffusion of particles pitch-angle possibly caused by the seismo-electromagnetic emissions generated before (a few hours) earthquakes. Due to the longitudinal drift along a same L-shell, anomalous particle bursts of precipitating particles could be detected by satellites not only on the epicentral area of the incoming earthquake, but along the drift path. Moreover, the opposite drift directions of positive and negative particles could allow reconstructing the longitude of the earthquake focal area. Although, the earthquake prediction is not within the reach of current knowledge, however the study of the precursors aims at collecting all relevant information that can infer the spatial and temporal coordinates of the seismic events from measurements. At this purposes, it is essential to detect particles in a wide range of energies (because particles of different energies are sensitive to different frequencies of seismo-electromagnetic emissions), with a good angular resolution (in order to separate fluxes of trapped and precipitating particles), and excellent ability to recognize the charge (that determines the direction of the longitudinal drift

  9. A rocket-borne energy spectrometer using multiple solid-state detectors for particle identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, K. L.; Smith, L. G.; Voss, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment using energy spectrometers that allows particle identification by the use of multiple solid-state detectors is described. The instrumentation provides information regarding the energy spectrum, pitch-angle distribution, and the type of energetic particles present in the ionosphere. Particle identification was accomplished by considering detector loss mechanisms and their effects on various types of particles. Solid state detectors with gold and aluminum surfaces of several thicknesses were used. The ratios of measured energies for the various detectors were compared against known relationships during ground-based analysis. Pitch-angle information was obtained by using detectors with small geometrical factors mounted with several look angles. Particle flux was recorded as a function of rocket azimuth angle. By considering the rocket azimuth, the rocket precession, and the location of the detectors on the rocket, the pitched angle of the incident particles was derived.

  10. STRV RADMON: An integrated high-energy particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin; Soli, George; Blaes, Brent; Tardio, Gemma

    1993-01-01

    The RADMON (Radiation Monitor) was developed as a compact device with a 4-kbit SRAM particle detector and two p-FET total dose monitors. Thus it can be used as a spacecraft radiation alarm and in situ total dose monitor. This paper discusses the design and calibration of the SRAM for proton, alpha, and heavy ion detection. Upset rates for the RADMON, based on a newly developed space particle flux algorithm, are shown to vary over eight orders of magnitude. On the STRV (Space Technology Research Vehicle) the RADMON's SRAM will be used to detect trapped protons, solar flares, and cosmic rays and to evaluate our ability to predict space results from ground tests.

  11. STRV RADMON: An integrated high-energy particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin; Soli, George; Blaes, Brent; Tardio, Gemma

    1993-01-01

    The RADMON (Radiation Monitor) was developed as a compact device with a 4-kbit SRAM particle detector and two p-FET total dose monitors. Thus it can be used as a spacecraft radiation alarm and in situ total dose monitor. This paper discusses the design and calibration of the SRAM for proton, alpha, and heavy ion detection. Upset rates for the RADMON, based on a newly developed space particle flux algorithm, are shown to vary over eight orders of magnitude. On the STRV (Space Technology Research Vehicle) the RADMON's SRAM will be used to detect trapped protons, solar flares, and cosmic rays and to evaluate our ability to predict space results from ground tests.

  12. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  13. Delta-doped hybrid advanced detector for low energy particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delta-doped hybrid advanced detector (HAD) is provided which combines at least four types of technologies to create a detector for energetic particles ranging in energy from hundreds of electron volts (eV) to beyond several million eV. The detector is sensitive to photons from visible light to X-rays. The detector is highly energy-sensitive from approximately 10 keV down to hundreds of eV. The detector operates with milliwatt power dissipation, and allows non-sequential readout of the array, enabling various advanced readout schemes.

  14. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, A.

    2015-04-01

    With the first three years of the LHC running complete, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond has been used extensively in beam condition monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. The lessons learned in constructing the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM), Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) and the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) all of which are based on CVD diamond with the goal of elucidating the issues that should be addressed for future diamond based detector systems. The first beam test results of prototype diamond devices with 3D detector geometry should further enhance the radiation tolerance of this material.

  15. Detector and Electronic Developments for Low Energy Multi Particle Break-up Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengblad, Olof

    2007-11-01

    The study of excited states of unbound light nuclei includes the simultaneous detection of several charge particles emitted with very low energy. This puts several constrains on the detection system to be used. For the detectors, high segmentation is needed to be able to detect several coincident particles without an exponential drop in efficiency. The high segmentation of the detectors leads to experiments with an increased amount of electronic channels. For very dedicated experiment integrated electronic chips can be prepared, but in many cases where the detector set-up are frequently being changed, one still have to rely on more traditional analogue electronic circuits. News in the field of charge particle detection will be discussed.

  16. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Chuirazzi, William; Cao, Lei

    2017-03-01

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a 241Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 μm at -550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field.

  17. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  18. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  19. The UCSD high energy X-ray timing experiment cosmic ray particle anticoincidence detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hink, P. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pelling, M. R.; Macdonald, D. R.; Gruber, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The HEXTE, part of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), is designed to make high sensitivity temporal and spectral measurements of X-rays with energies between 15 and 250 keV using NaI/CsI phoswich scintillation counters. To achieve the required sensitivity it is necessary to provide anticoincidence of charged cosmic ray particles incident upon the instrument, some of which interact to produce background X-rays. The proposed cosmic ray particle anticoincidence shield detector for HEXTE uses a novel design based on plastic scintillators and wavelength-shifter bars. It consists of five segments, each with a 7 mm thick plastic scintillator, roughly 50 cm x 50 cm in size, coupled to two wavelength-shifter bars viewed by 1/2 inch photomultiplier tubes. These segments are configured into a five-sided, box-like structure around the main detector system. Results of laboratory testing of a model segment, and calculations of the expected performance of the flight segments and particle anticoincidence detector system are presented to demonstrate that the above anticoincidence detector system satisfies its scientific requirements.

  20. High-energy detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  1. The High-Energy Particle Detector on board of the CSES mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Vincenzo; Palma, Francesco; Sotgiu, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    The High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) is a range-calorimeter for the near-Earth measurement of electrons, protons and light nuclei fluxes up to few hundreds of MeV. HEPD will fly on board of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), scheduled to be launched in July/August 2017. This mission will investigate possible correlations between geomagnetic properties (electromagnetic wave emissions, plasma properties and particle fluxes in the ionosphere and magnetosphere) and seismic events. The study of the solar-terrestrial environment, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), Solar Energetic Particles (SEPS) events and low-energy cosmic rays are also within the scientific objectives of this mission. A detailed description of the HEPD and its characteristics will be reported.

  2. The High Energy Particle Detector on Board of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparvoli, Roberta; Palma, Francesco; Panico, Beatrice; Sotgiu, Alessandro; Vitale, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    The study of the Van Allen belts temporal stability is among the main objectives of the China Seismo- Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) space mission, as well as the study of other electromagnetic disturbances with possible seismic origin. In parallel to this, the CSES mission will address issues of heliospheric and magnetospheric physics, by measuring the cosmic radiation around the Earth.The CSES satellite, developed by a Chinese-Italian collaboration, will be launched in the first half of 2017 and inserted into a circular Sun-synchronous orbit with 98° inclination and 500 km altitude. The expected lifetime is 5 years. CSES hosts several instruments on board: 2 magnetometers, an electric field detector, a plasma analyser, a Langmuir probe and a High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD). The HEPD detector, responsibility of the Italian side of the CSES collaboration, will measure electrons (3 - 100 MeV) and protons (30 - 300 MeV) along CSES orbit. It consists of a segmented layer of plastic scintillators for the trigger and a calorimeter constituted by a tower of plastic scintillator counters and a LYSO plane. The direction of the incident particle is provided by two planes of double-side silicon micro-strip detectors placed in front of the trigger. Topic of this talk is the technical description of the HEPD and its main characteristics.

  3. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  4. Qualification of coolants and cooling pipes for future high-energy-particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Sorin; Tavlet, Marc

    2001-12-01

    In the next generation of high-energy-particle detectors to be installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, materials and components will be exposed to a significant level of ionising radiation. Silicon detectors and related electronics will have to be cooled down to -20 °C and therefore appropriate cooling fluids and cooling pipes have to be selected. Analytical methods such as UV-visible and FT-IR spectrometries, electronic microscopy and gas chromatography were used to characterise the radiation-induced effects on some organic coolants irradiated with both gamma and neutron fields. Some impurities were identified as a major source for radio-induced polymerisation and also for hydrofluoric acid (HF) evolution. Mechanical tests were performed to assess the operability of the rubber hoses and plastic pipes. Possible synergistic effects between the pipe material and the environment had to be considered.

  5. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  6. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  7. The joint NASA/Goddard-University of Maryland research program in charged particle and high energy photon detector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress made in the following areas is discussed: low energy ion and electron experiments; instrument design for current experiments; magnetospheric measurement of particles; ion measurement in the earth plasma sheet; abundance measurement; X-ray data acquisition; high energy physics; extragalactic astronomy; compact object astrophysics; planetology; and high energy photon detector technology.

  8. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  9. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  10. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  11. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  12. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-12-31

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

  14. The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Goronwy Tudor

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

  15. Progress in the optoelectronic analog signal transfer for high energy particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Radeka, V.

    1992-05-01

    We report the progress in the development of a radiation hard Optoelectronic analog system to transfer particle detector signals with high accuracy. We will present the motivation of this study, the operating principle of the optoelectronic system, the system noise study, the recent R D efforts on radiation effect, temperature stability, and the realization of an integrated l {times} l6 optical modulator. The issue of photon source for driving such a large-scale optoelectronic modulators is a major concern. We will address this problem by examining different possible photon sources and comment on other possible alternative for signal transfer.

  16. Delta-doped CCD's as low-energy particle detectors and imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The back surface of a thinned charged-coupled device (CCD) is treated to eliminate the backside potential well that appears in a conventional thinned CCD during backside illumination. The backside of the CCD includes a delta layer of high-concentration dopant confined to less than one monolayer of the crystal semiconductor. The thinned, delta-doped CCD is used to detect very low-energy particles that penetrate less than 1.0 nm into the CCD, including electrons having energies less than 1000 eV and protons having energies less than 10 keV.

  17. Characterization of alpha-particle tracks in cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors at various incident energies and angles.

    PubMed

    Mheemeed, A K; Hussein, A Kh; Kheder, R B

    2013-09-01

    Cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors were irradiated with alpha particles in the energy range from 1 to 5 MeV at incident angles from 20° to 90°, using an (241)Am source. After etching in a 2.5 N NaOH solution kept at 60 °C for various periods, the diameters of the major and minor axes of the track openings, track growing rate, track etch rate, etching ratio, and track length were found as a function of energies and incident angles. The measured track parameters were compared to calculated values, and the etching ratio was formulated as a Durrani-Green's function of the incident energy and angle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metamaterials for Cherenkov Radiation Based Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tyukhtin, A. V.; Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.

    2009-01-22

    Measurement of Cherenkov radiation (CR) has long been a useful technique for charged particle detection and beam diagnostics. We are investigating metamaterials engineered to have refractive indices tailored to enhance properties of CR that are useful for particle detectors and that cannot be obtained using conventional media. Cherenkov radiation in dispersive media with a large refractive index differs significantly from the same effect in conventional detector media, like gases or aerogel. The radiation pattern of CR in dispersive metamaterials presents lobes at very large angles with respect to particle motion. Moreover, the frequency and particle velocity dependence of the radiated energy can differ significantly from CR in a conventional dielectric medium.

  19. Single-crystal CVD diamond detector for low-energy charged particles with energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Yuki Sato; Hiroyuki Murakami; Takehiro Shimaoka; Masakatsu Tsubota; Junichi, H. Kaneko

    2015-07-01

    The performance of a diamond detector made of a single-crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition was studied for charged particles, having energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV. Energy peaks of these low-energy ions were clearly observed. However, we observed that the pulse height for individual incident ion decreases with increasing atomic number of the ions. We estimated the charge collection efficiency of the generated charge carriers by charged particle incident. The charge collection above ∼95% is achieved for helium (He{sup +}) with the energy above 1.5 MeV. On the other hand, the charge collection efficiency for heavy-ions shows wrong values compared with that of He{sup +}, ∼70% for silicon (Si{sup +}) and 35 to 40% for gold (Au{sup 3+}), at the same incident energy range, respectively. (authors)

  20. Structural design of a high energy particle detector using liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Timothy John; /Minnesota U.

    1997-02-01

    This thesis presents a design for a 10,000 ton liquid scintillator neutrino detector being considered for the MINOS project at Fermilab. Details of designing, manufacturing, and assembling the active detector components are presented. The detector consists of 1080 magnetized steel absorber planes alternating with 1080 active detector planes. Each active plane is made up of plastic extrusions divided into nearly 400 cells for positional resolution. Life tests on the plastic extrusions determine their feasibility for containing the scintillator. The extrusions are sealed at the bottom, filled with liquid scintillator, and have an optical fiber running the entire length of each cell. The fibers terminate at the top of each extrusion in a manifold. An optical-fiber-light-guide connects the fibers in each manifold to a photo-detector. The photo-detector converts the light signals from the scintillator and optical fibers into electrical impulses for computer analysis.

  1. The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Wilken, B.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4pi angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z greater than or equal to 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV, for electrons from 15 keV to greater than 11 MeV, and for the elemental species helium through iron from approximately 10 keV/nucl to 15 MeV/nucl. Two bidirectional telescopes, mounted on a stepping platform, employ magnetic deflection, energy loss versus energy, and time-of-flight techniques to provide 64 rate channels and pulse height analysis of priority selected events. The EPD data system provides a large number of possible operational modes from which a small number will be selected to optimize data collection during the many encounter and cruise phases of the mission. The EPD employs a number of safeing algorithms that are to be used in the event that its self-checking procedures indicate a problem. The instrument and its operation are described.

  2. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  3. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  4. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  5. The Sisyphus particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soberman, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The particle measurement subsystem planned for the MJS 77 mission is described. Scientific objectives with respect to Saturn's rings are as follows: (1) measure particles outside the visible rings, including particulates orbiting in more distant rings and particles scattered out of visible rings, (2) measure meteoroid environment in vicinity of Saturn, and (3) develop an understanding of the dynamics of the rings with respect to their collisional interaction with the environment.

  6. A low-noise wide-dynamic-range event-driven detector using SOI pixel technology for high-energy particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sumeet; Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a low-noise wide-dynamic-range pixel design for a high-energy particle detector in astronomical applications. A silicon on insulator (SOI) based detector is used for the detection of wide energy range of high energy particles (mainly for X-ray). The sensor has a thin layer of SOI CMOS readout circuitry and a thick layer of high-resistivity detector vertically stacked in a single chip. Pixel circuits are divided into two parts; signal sensing circuit and event detection circuit. The event detection circuit consisting of a comparator and logic circuits which detect the incidence of high energy particle categorizes the incident photon it into two energy groups using an appropriate energy threshold and generate a two-bit code for an event and energy level. The code for energy level is then used for selection of the gain of the in-pixel amplifier for the detected signal, providing a function of high-dynamic-range signal measurement. The two-bit code for the event and energy level is scanned in the event scanning block and the signals from the hit pixels only are read out. The variable-gain in-pixel amplifier uses a continuous integrator and integration-time control for the variable gain. The proposed design allows the small signal detection and wide dynamic range due to the adaptive gain technique and capability of correlated double sampling (CDS) technique of kTC noise canceling of the charge detector.

  7. The atmosphere as particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  8. The atmosphere as particle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  9. Modeling of low-energy charged particles passage through GAMMA-400 gamma-telescope thermal insulation and two- layer plastic scintillation detectors used as anticoincidence shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Kheymits, M. D.; Yurkin, Yu T.

    2016-02-01

    The results of low-energy charged particles passage through GAMMA-400 gamma- telescope thermal insulation and two-layer plastic scintillation detectors used as anticoincidence shield are presented. An existing GEANT4 GAMMA-400 model is used. Effects of thermal insulation on charged particle passage are investigated. These results will be used to testing the effect of low-energy charged particles flux on GAMMA-400 gamma-quanta registration capabilities. Sufficiently large energy deposition in two-layer plastic anticoincidence scintillation detectors might interfere with high-energy particle registration and identification. However, GAMMA-400 detection capabilities are not affected by this, as the energy deposition in the lower layer of S3 is less than 1.5 MeV in all simulated cases. This value is less than threshold for high energy particles identification start (2.5 MeV). It makes impossible to incorrectly identify a low-energy charged particle energy deposition as backsplash from a high-energy gamma-quantum.

  10. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  11. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-29

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  12. Particle Detectors Subatomic Bomb Squad

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The manner in which particle physicists investigate collisions in particle accelerators is a puzzling process. Using vaguely-defined “detectors,” scientists are able to somehow reconstruct the collisions and convert that information into physics measurements. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln sheds light on this mysterious technique. In a surprising analogy, he draws a parallel between experimental particle physics and bomb squad investigators and uses an explosive example to illustrate his points. Be sure to watch this video… it’s totally the bomb.

  13. Detector for Particle Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A. (Inventor); Schwindt, Christian J. (Inventor); Mattson, Carl B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for detecting and quantizing particle fallout contamination particles which are collected on a transparent disk or other surface employs an optical detector, such as a CCD camera, to obtain images of the disk and a computer for analyzing the images. From the images, the computer detects, counts and sizes particles collected on the disk The computer also determines, through comparison to previously analyzed images, the particle fallout rate, and generates an alarm or other indication if the rate exceeds a maximum allowable value. The detector and disk are disposed in a housing having an aperture formed therein for defining the area on the surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout. A light source is provided for evenly illuminating the disk. A first drive motor slowly rotates the disk to increase the amount of its surface area which is exposed through the aperture to the particle fallout. A second motor is also provided for incrementally scanning the disk in a radial direction back and forth over the camera so that the camera eventually obtains images of the entire surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout.

  14. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  15. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  16. The Particle-Gamma Detector GODDESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkiewicz, A.; Cizewski, J. A.; Baugher, T.; Burcher, S.; Hardy, S.; Lonsdale, S.; Shand, C.; Pain, S. D.; Marsh, I.; Jones, K. L.; Peters, W. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Kozub, R. L.; Afanasieva, L.; Blackmon, J. C.

    2014-09-01

    Transfer reactions in inverse kinematics provide a powerful probe of the single-particle structure of nuclei far from stability. The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder (CARIBU) at ATLAS produces exotic nuclei near possible r-process paths and makes them available for study. Gammasphere ORRUBA: Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) employs the large internal geometry of the high-resolution γ-ray detector Gammasphere to instrument the large-area position-sensitive particle detector ORRUBA. This coupling of Gammasphere and ORRUBA allows high-efficiency, high-resolution measurements of surrogate reactions for neutron capture, collective excitations via inelastic scattering, pickup reactions (such as (d,t)), and stripping reactions (e.g. (d,p)). Results from commissioning measurements and plans for future experiments will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  17. Surface Particle Detectors in Space Weather forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot

    Recently several groups report on the development of the alarm system based on the surface particle detector data. Among them are high-latitude neutron monitors network "Spaceship Earth", coordinated by the group from Bartol Research Center; Muon network coordinated by the group from Shinshu University and Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center. In the presented report, based on the information content of data from particle detectors of Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) we made attempt to review possibility of surface particle detectors in Space Weather forecasts. Particle monitors located at ASEC at 1000, 2000 and 3200 m altitudes (40˚25 N, 44˚15 E; Vertical cut-off rigidity in 2007: 7.1 GV) detect charged and neutral components of the secondary cosmic rays with different energy thresholds and various angles of incidence. ASEC monitors reliably detect the highest energy CR due to unique geographical location and large underground high energy muon detector. Forecasting of the Solar Energetic Proton (SEP) events by surface particle detectors is based on the detection of the Ground Level Enhancements (GLE). Unfortunately not all SEPs contain particles energetic enough to produce GLE, therefore, the efficiency of the warnings will not be very high. Nonetheless, we can expect that the major events, (like 1859, 1956, 1972, 1989) with high probability will generate GLEs and surface detectors can provide forewarnings on upcoming abundant SEP particles. With the exception of the event on 20 January, when due to very good magnetic connection of the flare site with earth, all relativistic particles seem to come simultaneously, the enhancements of GeV solar particles detected by surface particle detectors can alert on upcoming severe radiation storm. The alerts from middle and low latitude monitors are even more important compared to high latitude networks, because of lower probability of false alarms. If an enhancement occurs at monitors with large cutoff

  18. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  19. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  20. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  1. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Grant NAG5-5084 was awarded to support the participation of South West Research Institute (SwRI) in building the energy per unit charge particle detectors for the Cusp Transient Features Campaign and analysis of flight data from these instruments. The detectors are part of an instrumented payload (Rocket 36.152, Dr. R. Pfaff, P.I.) launched from Svalbard on December 3, 1997, into the dark cusp. The particle instruments, a Cusp Electron Detector (CED) and a Cusp Ion Detector (CID), built on this project, provided differential energy and angular measurements along the rocket trajectory throughout the flight.

  2. Resource Letter PD-1 on Particle Detectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trower, W. Peter

    1970-01-01

    Intended to guide college physicists to literature on nuclear and sub-nuclear particle detectors. The paper contains a discussion of (1) interactions of particles with matter and (2) individual particle detectors, each section being followed by an annotated bibliography of selected reference materials. Rankings are given to the articles on the…

  3. Diamond detector for alpha-particle spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, J A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Martín Sánchez, A; Martel, I

    2014-08-01

    An artificially grown high purity diamond was used as a detector for alpha-particle spectrometry. Diamond detectors can match the performance of silicon detectors employed in standard continuous air monitoring systems. Its radiation hardness and electronic properties make them ideal to work under extreme condition such as high temperature and ambient lights. A 50 μm thickness single-crystal diamond detector has been compared with a 300 μm passivated implanted planar silicon detector, under ambient conditions.

  4. Proposal for a Universal Particle Detector Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, J. C.; Cain, R. P; Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Particle Detector Experiment (UPDE), which consists of parallel planes of two diode laser beams of different wavelengths and a large surface metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) impact detector, is proposed. It will be used to perform real-time monitoring of contamination particles and meteoroids impacting the spacecraft surface with high resolution of time, position, direction, and velocity. The UPDE will discriminate between contaminants and meteoroids, and will determine their velocity and size distribution around the spacecraft environment. With two different color diode lasers, the contaminant and meteroid composition will also be determined based on laboratory calibration with different materials. Secondary particles dislodged from the top aluminum surface of the MOS detector will also be measured to determine the kinetic energy losses during energetic meteoroid impacts. The velocity range of this instrument is 0.1 m/s to more than 14 km/s, while its size sensitivity is from 0.2 microns to millimeter-sized particles. The particulate measurements in space of the kind proposed will be the first simultaneous multipurpose particulate experiment that includes velocities from very slow to hypervelocities, sizes from submicrometer- to pellet-sized diameters, chemical analysis of the particulate composition, and measurements of the kinetic energy losses after energetic impacts of meteroids. The experiment will provide contamination particles and orbital debris data that are critically needed for our present understanding of the space environment. The data will also be used to validate contamination and orbital debris models for predicting optimal configuration of future space sensors and for understanding their effects on sensitive surfaces such as mirrors, lenses, paints, and thermal blankets.

  5. Proposal for a universal particle detector experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesho, J. C.; Cain, R. P.; Uy, O. M.

    The Universal Particle Detector Experiment (UPDE), which consists of parallel planes of two diode laser beams of different wavelengths and a large surface metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) impact detector, is proposed. It will be used to perform real-time monitoring of contamination particles and meteoroids impacting the spacecraft surface with high resolution of time, position, direction, and velocity. The UPDE will discriminate between contaminants and meteoroids, and will determine their velocity and size distribution around the spacecraft environment. With two different color diode lasers, the contaminant and meteroid composition will also be determined based on laboratory calibration with different materials. Secondary particles dislodged from the top aluminum surface of the MOS detector will also be measured to determine the kinetic energy losses during energetic meteoroid impacts. The velocity range of this instrument is 0.1 m/s to more than 14 km/s, while its size sensitivity is from 0.2 microns to millimeter-sized particles. The particulate measurements in space of the kind proposed will be the first simultaneous multipurpose particulate experiment that includes velocities from very slow to hypervelocities, sizes from submicrometer- to pellet-sized diameters, chemical analysis of the particulate composition, and measurements of the kinetic energy losses after energetic impacts of meteroids. The experiment will provide contamination particles and orbital debris data that are critically needed for our present understanding of the space environment. The data will also be used to validate contamination and orbital debris models for predicting optimal configuration of future space sensors and for understanding their effects on sensitive surfaces such as mirrors, lenses, paints, and thermal blankets.

  6. Multiple measurements of time of flight, position and energy deposit of ionizing particles by solid state detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codino, Antonio

    1997-03-01

    A telescope made of silicon strip detectors performing simultaneous measurements of position, time and energy deposit has been constructed and operated. The telescope has been tested with a pion beam of 4 GeV/c at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The intrinsic time resolution of the telescope measured in the beam test is 61+/-7 ps. This unprecedented time resolution is achieved by the multiple sampling of the time of flight. Future developments of this telescope aiming at the construction of a new, analogous instrument of large sensitive area are considered (LATIN project).

  7. CVD diamond alpha-particle detectors with different electrode geometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linjun; Lou, Yanyan; Su, Qingfeng; Shi, Weimin; Xia, Yiben

    2005-10-17

    In this paper, two types of detectors, one with a coplanar and the other with a sandwich geometry using an identical CVD diamond film, were fabricated in order to investigate the effects of the film microstructure on the performance of diamond film alpha-particle detectors. An average charge collection efficiency of 42.9% for the coplanar structure and of 37.4% for the sandwich structure detectors was obtained, respectively. Raman scattering studies directly demonstrated that the different counts, collection efficiencies and photocurrents of the two types of detectors mainly resulted from the different micro-structural features between the final growth side and the nucleation side of the diamond film. Under alpha particle irradiation the detector with sandwich geometry had a similar trend on energy resolution with coplanar geometry under different applied electric field. A good energy resolution of 1.1% was obtained for both detectors.

  8. Radiation and particle detector and amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, K. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A radiation or charged particle detector is described which incorporates a channel multiplier structure to amplify the detected rays or particles. The channel multiplier structure has a support multiplying element with a longitudinal slot along one side. The element supports a pair of plates positioned contiguous with the slot. The plates funnel the particles or rays to be detected into the slotted aperture and the element, thus creating an effectively wide aperture detector of the windowless type.

  9. The Joint NASA/Goddard-University of Maryland Research Program in Charged Particle and High Energy Photon Detector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipavich, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Univ. of Maryland portion investigated the following areas. The Space Physics Group performed studies of data from the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft CHEM experiment and found that the ratio of solar wind to photospheric abundances decreased rather smoothly with the first ionization potential (FIP) of the ion with the low FIP ion being about a factor of two overabundant. Carbon and hydrogen fit this trend particularly well. Several occurrences were analyzed of field aligned beams observed when CCE was upstream of the Earth's bow shock. Also using CHEM data, ring current intensity and composition changes during the main and recovery phases of the great geomagnetic storm that occurred in February 1986 was examined in detail. Still using CHEM data, ring current characteristics were examined in a survey of 20 magnetic storms ranging in size from -50 nT to -312 nT. A study was done of energetic ion anisotropy characteristics in the Earth's magnetosheath region using data from the UMD/MPE experiment on ISEE-1. The properties were analyzed of approx. 30 to 130 keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE-3 spacecraft during 1978 to 1979. Work from NASA-Goddard include studies from the High Energy Cosmic Ray Group, Low Energy Cosmic Ray Group, Low Energy Gamma Ray Group, High Energy Astrophysics Theory Group, and the X ray Astronomy Group.

  10. Nuclear Track Detectors. Searches for Exotic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, G.; Togo, V.

    We used Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) CR39 and Makrofol for many purposes: (i) Exposures at the SPS and at lower energy accelerator heavy ion beams for calibration purposes and for fragmentation studies. (ii) Searches for GUT and Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles (IMM), nuclearites, Q-balls and strangelets in the cosmic radiation. The MACRO experiment in the Gran Sasso underground lab, with ˜1,000 m2 of CR39 detectors (plus scintillators and streamer tubes), established an upper limit for superheavy GUT poles at the level of 1.4 × 10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1for 4 ×10-5<β<1. The SLIM experiment at the high altitude Chacaltaya lab (5,230 m a.s.l.), using 427 m2 of CR39 detectors exposed for 4.22 years, gave an upper limit for IMMs of ˜1.3 × 10-15 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The experiments yielded interesting upper limits also on the fluxes of the other mentioned exotic particles. (iii) Environmental studies, radiation monitoring, neutron dosimetry.

  11. Coaxial charged particle energy analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael A. (Inventor); Bryson, III, Charles E. (Inventor); Wu, Warren (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A non-dispersive electrostatic energy analyzer for electrons and other charged particles having a generally coaxial structure of a sequentially arranged sections of an electrostatic lens to focus the beam through an iris and preferably including an ellipsoidally shaped input grid for collimating a wide acceptance beam from a charged-particle source, an electrostatic high-pass filter including a planar exit grid, and an electrostatic low-pass filter. The low-pass filter is configured to reflect low-energy particles back towards a charged particle detector located within the low-pass filter. Each section comprises multiple tubular or conical electrodes arranged about the central axis. The voltages on the lens are scanned to place a selected energy band of the accepted beam at a selected energy at the iris. Voltages on the high-pass and low-pass filters remain substantially fixed during the scan.

  12. Gamma-ray detection efficiency of the microchannel plate installed as an ion detector in the low energy particle instrument onboard the GEOTAIL satellite.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y T; Yoshikawa, I; Yoshioka, K; Terasawa, T; Saito, Y; Mukai, T

    2007-03-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP) assembly has been used as an ion detector in the low energy particle (LEP) instrument onboard the magnetospheric satellite GEOTAIL. Recently the MCP assembly has detected gamma rays emitted from an astronomical object and has been shown to provide unique information of gamma rays if they are intense enough. However, the detection efficiency for gamma rays was not measured before launch, and therefore we could not analyze the LEP data quantitatively. In this article, we report the gamma-ray detection efficiency of the MCP assembly. The measured efficiencies are 1.29%+/-0.71% and 0.21%+/-0.14% for normal incidence 60 and 662 keV gamma rays, respectively. The incident angle dependence is also presented. Our calibration is crucial to study high energy astrophysical phenomena by using the LEP.

  13. Quenching gas for detectors of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1974-01-22

    Operation of detectors of charged particles such as wire counters and Geiger-Muller tubes is improved by filling the counters with a quenching-gas mixture of argon, isobutane and methylchloroform. (Official Gazette)

  14. Cadmium zinc telluride charged particle nuclear detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, J.E. |; James, R.B.; Antolak, A.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the improvements in understanding of transport phenomena in cadmium zinc telluride radiation sensors achieved through studies of alpha particle response and spatially resolved photoconductivity mapping. Alpha particle response waveforms and photocurrent profiles both indicate non-uniformities in the electric field which may have detrimental effects on detector performance. Identifying and eliminating the sources of these nonuniformities will ultimately lead to improved detector performance.

  15. Solar wind iron charge states as identifiers of coronal mass ejections and the characterization of a new low energy particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepri, Susan Therese

    2004-08-01

    We examine Fe charge state distributions in the solar wind. The ionic composition of the solar wind directly reflects corona conditions within 4 5 solar radii. Charge state information can be used to determine coronal electron temperatures of source region plasma. Examination of the Fe charge states obtained by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), shows a high correlation of the abundance ratio of Fe≥16+/FeTot > 10% with interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed at 1 A.U. We designate these as “hot ICMEs” due to their associated high charge states. We use the abundance ratio to develop a threshold average Fe charge state, threshold , applicable to charge state data from other spacecraft unable to determine charge state abundances. Applying the threshold to in-ecliptic data from ACE and data from Ulysses along its polar orbit, we identify hot ICMEs as a function of latitude. We find a factor of four fewer hot ICMEs at high latitude than in the ecliptic. After studying features on the Sun near the time of the ICME eruption, we determine that solar flares are likely the source of the observed high Fe charge states. This result has important implications in understanding the relationship between solar flares and CMEs. For years, a controversy has existed over the causal relationship between flares and CMEs. Now, through the work of this thesis, compositional data provides convincing evidence of an association of flares and CMEs. In addition, we also characterize a new delta-doped charge-coupled device (CCD). The new delta-doped CCD has a dead layer that is ˜1/10 th the thickness of previous SSDs used in ACE/SWIGS. Using this detector, we are able to detect H+ and N+ ions with energies ranging from 1 10 keV in the laboratory. This is a remarkable increase in sensitivity for solid-state particle detectors which currently can only detect particles with energies >30 keV. Application of

  16. High resolution micro-pattern gas detectors for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhtman, L.; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrovnikov, V.; Bondar, A.; Fedotovich, G.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Maltsev, T.; Nikolenko, D.; Rachek, I.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-07-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors (MPGDs) allow operation at very high background particle flux with high efficiency and spatial resolution. This combination of parameters determines the main application of these detectors in particle physics experiments: precise tracking in the areas close to the beam and in the end-cap regions of general-purpose detectors. MPGDs of different configurations have been developed and are under development for several experiments in the Budker INP. The system of eight two-coordinate detectors based on a cascade of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) is working in the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider in the tagging system that detects electrons and positrons that lost their energy in two-photon interactions and left the equilibrium orbit due to a dedicated magnetic system. Another set of cascaded GEM detectors is developed for the almost-real Photon Tagging System (PTS) of the DEUTRON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring. The PTS contains three very light detectors with very high spatial resolution (below 50 μm). Dedicated detectors based on cascaded GEMs are developed for the extracted electron beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider. These devices will allow precise particle tracking with minimal multiple scattering due to very low material content. An upgrade of the coordinate system of the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 collider is proposed on the basis of the resistive micro-WELL (μ-rWELL). A research activity on this subject has just started.

  17. Development of compact particle detectors for space based instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barner, Lindsey; Grove, Andrew; Mohler, Jacob; Sisson, Caleb; Roth, Alex; Kryemadhi, Abaz

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are new photon-detectors which have been increasingly used in particle physics. Their small size, good single photon resolution, simple readout, and immunity to magnetic fields offers benefits compared to traditional photomultipliers. LYSO and CeBr3 crystals are relatively new scintillators with high stopping power, very good light yield and fast decay time. The response of these detectors to low energy gamma rays will be presented. NASA Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium.

  18. Liquid Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G.

    2010-03-30

    Large open volume (not segmented) liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long-baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the 'Fermat surface', and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long-baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long-baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long-baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

  19. Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by ~ 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

  20. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  1. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  2. The Joint NASA/Goddard-University of Maryland Research Program in Charged Particle and High Energy Photon Detector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Having recognized at an early stage the critical importance of maintaining detector capabilities which utilize state of the art techniques, a joint program was formulated. This program has involved coordination of a broad range of efforts and activities including joint experiments, collaboration in theoretical studies, instrument design, calibrations, and data analysis. Summaries of the progress made to date are presented. A representative bibliography is also included.

  3. The hyperion particledetector array

    DOE PAGES

    Hughes, R. O.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; ...

    2017-03-08

    Hyperion is a new high-efficiency charged-particle γ-ray detector array which consists of a segmented silicon telescope for charged-particle detection and up to fourteen high-purity germanium clover detectors for the detection of coincident γ rays. The array will be used in nuclear physics measurements and Stockpile Stewardship studies and replaces the STARLiTeR array. In conclusion, this article discusses the features of the array and presents data collected with the array in the commissioning experiment.

  4. The hyperion particledetector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. O.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Ota, S.; Fisher, S.; Parker, J.; Beausang, C. W.; Dag, M.; Humby, P.; Koglin, J.; McCleskey, E.; McIntosh, A. B.; Saastamoinen, A.; Tamashiro, A. S.; Wilson, E.; Wu, T. C.

    2017-06-01

    Hyperion is a new high-efficiency charged-particle γ-ray detector array which consists of a segmented silicon telescope for charged-particle detection and up to fourteen high-purity germanium clover detectors for the detection of coincident γ rays. The array will be used in nuclear physics measurements and Stockpile Stewardship studies and replaces the STARLiTeR array. This article discusses the features of the array and presents data collected with the array in the commissioning experiment.

  5. A search for the higgs boson and a search for dark-matter particle with jets and missing transverse energy at collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2013-05-01

    Finding the standard model Higgs boson and discovering beyond-standard model physics phenomena have been the most important goals for the high-energy physics in the last decades. In this thesis, we present two such searches. First is the search for the low mass standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a vector boson; second is the rst search for a dark-matter candidate (D) produced in association with a top quark (t) in particle colliders. We search in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse energy { a signature characterized by complicated backgrounds { in data collected by the CDF detector with proton-antiproton collisions at p s = 1:96 TeV. We discuss the techniques that have been developed for background modeling, for discriminating signal from background, and for reducing background resulting from detector e ects. In the Higgs search, we report the 95% con dence level upper limits on the pro- duction cross section across masses of 90 to 150 GeV/c2. The expected limits are improved by an average of 14% relative to the previous analysis. The Large Hadron Collider experiments reported a Higgs-like particle with mass of 125 GeV/c2 by study- ing the data collected in year 2011/12. At a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV/c2, our observed (expected) limit is 3.06 (3.33) times the standard model prediction, corre- sponding to one of the most sensitive searches to date in this nal state. In the dark matter search, we nd the data are consistent with the standard model prediction, thus set 95% con dence level upper limits on the cross section of the process p p ! t + D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The xviii upper limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with masses in the range of 0 􀀀 150 GeV/c2.

  6. First Results from the ISS-RAD Charged Particle Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semones, Edward; Zeitland, Cary

    2016-01-01

    The Charged Particle Detector (CPD) subsystem of the ISS-RAD detector has been making measurements of high-energy charged and neutral particles since the unit was deployed on Feb. 1, 2016. The CPD is nearly identical to the MSL-RAD instrument, but onboard data processing has been significantly modified to meet ISS requirements. We will present dose rates and LET spectra obtained over the first six months of operations, as well as preliminary results obtained from the limited sample of pulse-height analyzed raw data that has been telemetered to Earth.

  7. Particle identification for the P¯ANDA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, C.; Ahmed, G.; Britting, A.; Bühler, P.; Cowie, E.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Düren, M.; Dutta, D.; Eyrich, W.; Föhl, K.; Glazier, D. I.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hoek, M.; Hohler, R.; Lehmann, A.; Lehmann, D.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Koch, P.; Kröck, B.; Marton, J.; Merle, O.; Montgomery, R.; Peters, K.; Reinicke, S.; Rosner, G.; Roy, B.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Seitz, B.; Sfienti, C.; Suzuki, K.; Uhlig, F.; Vodopianov, A. S.; Watts, D. P.; Yu, W.

    2011-05-01

    Cooled antiproton beams of unprecedented intensities in the momentum range of 1.5-15 GeV/ c will be used for the P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR to perform high precision experiments in the charmed quark sector. The proposed P¯ANDA detector is a 4π internal target spectrometer at the HESR allowing the detection and identification of neutral and charged particles generated within the total energy range of the antiproton annihilation products. The detector is divided in a forward spectrometer and a target spectrometer. The charged particle identification in the latter is performed by ring imaging Cherenkov counters employing the DIRC principle.

  8. Innovative particle detector for future heliophysics missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomier, Matthieu; Techer, Jean-Denis; Morel, Xavier

    Innovative particle detectors are needed for future heliophysics missions in order to access to high-time resolution phenomena within limited resources. One of the main challenges is to accurately monitor solar wind plasmas from non-spinning platforms. Such an innovative particle detector which is based on a new optical concept allows the coverage of 4pi str solid angle with only two sensor heads. It fits the need of all-sky thermal plasma measurements on three axis stabilized spacecraft which are the most commonly used platforms for heliophysics missions with imaging capabilities. This 3D field-of-view plasma analyzer also takes advantage of the new possibilities offered by the development of an ultra low-power multichannel charge sensitive amplifier used for the imaging detector of the instrument. We present the design and measured performances of a prototype model that will fly on a test rocket in 2014. One of the possible applications of this innovative particle detector is the investigation of electron time scale phenomena in the turbulent solar wind of the inner heliosphere with unprecedented time resolution below 10 msec.

  9. The joint NASA/Goddard-University of Maryland research program in charged particle and high energy photon detector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The first measurements of Fe charge states in two coronal hole-association high speed streams, using the sensor on ISEE-3, are presented. Eight event intervals from the January to June 1983 timeframe were chosen for the study of magnetotail dynamics and its relationship to substorm activity and the possible formation of plasmoids. Techniques are being explored for measurement of secondary electrons which are characteristically emitted when ions hit a target material. Efforts are continuing to understand kilometer wavelength shock associated radio events. An all-sky survey of fast X-ray transients of duration of 5 to 10,000 s was completed. Research using high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources in the 20 keV to 20 MeV range to search for and study narrow lines in low-energy gamma-ray spectrum continues. Research in high energy radiation from pulsars is being conducted.

  10. A new detector array for charged particle spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowin, R. L.; Watson, D. L.; Chappell, S. P. G.; Clarke, N. M.; Freer, M.; Fulton, B. R.; Cunningham, R. A.; Curtis, N.; Dillon, G. K.; Lilley, J.; Jones, C. D.; Lee, P.; Rae, W. D. M.

    1999-02-01

    A compact and highly segmented detector array consisting of 44 gas-silicon-caesium iodide, position sensitive, particle identification detector telescopes and up to 10 position-sensitive, silicon strip detectors has been constructed for the study of light-ion-heavy-ion reactions including cluster break-up in the energy range 5-15MeV/nucleon. The detectors are housed in a purpose built vacuum chamber. The telescopes are placed in fixed positions, covering the forward hemisphere from 3 to 30° in the laboratory with the target placed at 535mm from the front of the telescopes or 6-52° with the target placed at 215mm. The strip detectors are placed in any of 30 fixed positions in the forward hemisphere. For 85MeV 12C ions the telescope energy resolution (gas plus silicon) is 345keV with an angular resolution of 0.03°. Using the gas-silicon section ions with Z up to 21 can be identified. For ions that pass through the silicon isotopic identification is achieved using the silicon-CsI combination. The strip detector energy resolution is 200keV, with an angular resolution of 0.1°.

  11. Particle Detectors: Research and Development at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, C. W.

    2008-04-21

    Over the past 15 years a worldwide Detector R and D Programme has made the LHC experiments possible. These experiments operate at a new level of event rate and detection capabilities. Based on these advances, Detector R and D is continuing at CERN in close collaboration with University and Research Institutes. Several main directions are being pursued for solid-state and gaseous tracking devices, advanced crystal and noble liquid calorimetry, particle identification methods, and advanced signal-processing techniques. This effort is directed towards experiments at even higher collision rates at the LHC, the requirements for the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders and for applications outside particle physics, such as medical diagnostics instrumentation. We shall illustrate this challenging, stimulating and creative programme with examples and show how these developments are taking place in close collaboration between CERN and institutions around the globe.

  12. Development of a large-area silicon α-particle detector.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linh T; Prokopovich, Dale A; Lerch, Michael L F; Petasecca, Marco; Siegele, Rainer; Reinhard, Mark I; Perevertaylo, Vladimir; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2014-09-01

    Circular ion-implanted silicon detector of α-particles with a large, 5-cm(2), sensitive area has been developed. An advantage of the detector is that the detector surface is easily cleanable with chemicals. The hardened surface of the detector shows no signs of deterioration of the spectroscopic and electrical characteristics upon repeated cleaning. The energy resolution along the diameters of the detector was (1.0±0.1)% for the 5.486-MeV α-particles. Detailed tests of the charge collection efficiency and uniformity of the detector entrance window were also performed with a 5.5-MeV He(2+) microbeam.

  13. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardella, G.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Chatterjiee, M. B.; Castoldi, A.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Luca, S.; Gnoffo, B.; Guazzoni, C.; Francalanza, L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Martorana, N.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl) detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  14. Calibration and Readiness of the ISS-RAD Charged Particle Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, R.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is an intravehicular energetic particle detector designed to measure a broad spectrum of charged particle and neutron radiation unique to the ISS radiation environment. In this presentation, a summary of calibration and readiness of the RAD Sensor Head (RSH) - also referred to as the Charged Particle Detector (CPD) - for ISS will be presented. Calibration for the RSH consists of p, He, C, O, Si, and Fe ion data collected at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). The RSH consists of four detectors used in measuring the spectroscopy of charged particles - A, B, C, and D; high-energy neutral particles and charged particles are measured in E; and the last detector - F - is an anti-coincidence detector. A, B, and C are made from Si; D is made from BGO; E and F are made from EJ260XL plastic scintillator.

  15. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  16. Charge-collection efficiency of single-crystal CVD diamond detector for low-energy charged particles with energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of a diamond detector created from a single-crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition was studied for application in detecting charged particles having energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV. Energy peaks of different low-energy ions were clearly observed. However, we observed that the pulse height for individual incident ions decreases with increasing atomic number of the ions. We estimated the charge collection efficiency of the generated charge carriers by the incident charged particles. The charge collection efficiencies are 97.0 ± 0.7% for 2 MeV helium-ions (He+). On the other hand, compared with that of He+, silicon-ions (Si+) and gold-ions (Au3+) show low charge collection efficiency: 70.6 ± 2.2% and 29.5 ± 4.2% for 2 MeV-Si+ and 2 MeV-Au3+, respectively. We also found that the charge collection efficiency decreases as the generated charge density inside the diamond crystal increases.

  17. Polarization of silicon detectors by minimum ionizing particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Li, Z.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2000-10-01

    This work presents quantitative predictions of the properties of highly irradiated (e.g. by high-energy particles, up to an equivalent fluence of 1×10 14 n cm -2) silicon detectors operating at cryogenic temperature. It is shown that the exposure to the Minimum Ionising Particle (MIP) with counting rates of about 10 6 cm -2 s -1 can influence the electric field distribution in the detector's sensitive volume. This change in the electric field distribution and its effect on the charge collection efficiency are discussed in the frame of a model based on trapping of carriers generated by MIPs. The experiment was performed at 87 K with an infrared (1030 nm) laser to simulate MIPs.

  18. Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions measured with the PHOBOS detector in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.

    2011-02-15

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions over a wide energy range have been measured using the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of both the charged particle distributions and the multiplicity at midrapidity were measured. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted with |{eta}|<5.4, which account for between 95% and 99% of the total charged-particle emission associated with collision participants, are presented for different collision centralities. Both the midrapidity density dN{sub ch}/d{eta} and the total charged-particle multiplicity N{sub ch} are found to factorize into a product of independent functions of collision energy, {radical}(s{sub N{sub N}}), and centrality given in terms of the number of nucleons participating in the collision, N{sub part}. The total charged particle multiplicity, observed in these experiments and those at lower energies, assumes a linear dependence of (lns{sub N{sub N}}){sup 2} over the full range of collision energy of {radical}(s{sub N{sub N}})=2.7-200 GeV.

  19. Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributionsmeasured with the PHOBOS detector in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions at ultra-relativistic energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Wuosmaa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions over a wide energy range have been measured using the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The centrality dependence of both the charged particle distributions and the multiplicity at midrapidity were measured. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles emitted with |{eta}| < 5.4, which account for between 95% and 99% of the total charged-particle emission associated with collision participants, are presented for different collision centralities. Both the midrapidity density dN{sub ch}/d{eta} and the total charged-particle multiplicity N{sub ch} are found to factorize into a product of independent functions of collision energy, {radical}s{sub NN}, and centrality given in terms of the number of nucleons participating in the collision, N{sub part}. The total charged particle multiplicity, observed in these experiments and those at lower energies, assumes a linear dependence of (lns{sub NN}){sup 2} over the full range of collision energy of {radical}s{sub NN} = 2.7-200 GeV.

  20. Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel Elvira, V.

    2017-06-01

    Through the last three decades, accurate simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics (HEP) experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detector simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the precision of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents estimates of the cost and economic impact of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data with increasingly complex detectors, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software. Consequently, exploring solutions to speed up simulation and reconstruction software to satisfy the growing demand of computing resources in a time of flat budgets is a matter that deserves immediate attention. The article ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being considered, based on leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.

  1. Single-crystal CVD diamond detector for high-resolution particle spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Murakami, H.; Shimaoka, T.; Tsubota, M.; Kaneko, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    The performance of a single-crystal diamond detector, grown by chemical vapour deposition, as an energy spectrometer for charged particles was studied. The detector was able to identify four different energies of 241\\text{Am} α -particles (5.389, 5.443, 5.486, and 5.545 MeV) thanks to a superior intrinsic energy resolution of ˜0.4{%} (full width at half maximum). The electrode configuration, specifically the electric field configuration inside the diamond crystal, and the electrode materials, strongly affect the energy resolution for charged particles. The charge collection efficiency inside the diamond crystal was ˜97{%} for both electrons and holes.

  2. Detecting halo weakly interacting massive particles with a cryogenic phonon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, N.; Barnes, P.D.; Cummings, A.; Emes, J. ); Giraud-Heraud, Y. ); Haller, E.E. ); Lange, A.; Ross, R.; Sadoulet, B.; Shutt, T.; Stubbs, C. )

    1991-04-15

    If dark matter in the halo is made of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), it may be detected with a cryogenic phonon detector. Such a detector must have low energy threshold, high energy resolution, and, more importantly, good background rejection capability. It has been proposed that a good background rejection ratio can be obtained by a simultaneous measurement of phonons and ionization. To test this experimentally, we have built a 60 g Ge detector and have measured simultaneous phonon and ionization signals, each with 4 keV energy resolution. We present a simple estimate of the rejection ratios, and WIMP event rates that may be achieved by such a detector.

  3. The HEPD particle detector and the EFD electric field detector for the CSES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, L.; Ambroglini, F.; Ambrosi, G.; Ammendola, R.; Assante, D.; Badoni, D.; Belyaev, V. A.; Burger, W. J.; Cafagna, A.; Cipollone, P.; Consolini, G.; Conti, L.; Contin, A.; Angelis, E. De; Donato, C. De; Franceschi, G. De; Santis, A. De; Santis, C. De; Diego, P.; Durante, M.; Fornaro, C.; Guandalini, C.; Laurenti, G.; Laurenza, M.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lolli, M.; Manea, C.; Marcelli, L.; Marcucci, F.; Masciantonio, G.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Palmonari, F.; Panico, B.; Patrizii, L.; Picozza, P.; Pozzato, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ricci, M.; Rovituso, M.; Scotti, V.; Sotgiu, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spataro, B.; Spogli, L.; Tommasino, F.; Ubertini, P.; Vannaroni, G.; Xuhui, S.; Zoffoli, S.

    2017-08-01

    The CSES satellite, developed by Chinese (CNSA) and Italian (ASI) space Agencies, will investigate iono-magnetospheric disturbances (induced by seismicity and electromagnetic emissions of tropospheric and anthropogenic origin); will monitor the temporal stability of the inner Van Allen radiation belts and will study the solar-terrestrial coupling by measuring fluxes of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. In particular the mission aims at confirming the existences (claimed from several analyses) of a temporal correlations between the occurrence of earthquakes and the observation in space of electromagnetic disturbances, plasma fluctiations and anomalous fluxes of high-energy particles precipitating from the inner Van Allen belt. CSES will be launched in the summer of 2017 with a multi-instruments payload able to measure: e.m. fields, charged particles, plasma, TEC, etc. The Italian LIMADOU collaboration will provide the High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD), designed for detecting electrons (3-200 MeV) and proton (30-300 MeV)), and participates to develop the Electric Field Detector (EFD) conceived for measuring electric field from ∼DC up to 5 MHz.

  4. Imaging Using Energy Discriminating Radiation Detector Array

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, Paul D.; Clajus, Martin; Tuemer, Tuemay O.; Visser, Gerard; Cajipe, Victoria

    2003-08-26

    Industrial X-ray radiography is often done using a broad band energy source and always a broad band energy detector. There exist several major advantages in the use of narrow band sources and or detectors, one of which is the separation of scattered radiation from primary radiation. ARDEC has developed a large detector array system in which every detector element acts like a multi-channel analyzer. A radiographic image is created from the number of photons detected in each detector element, rather than from the total energy absorbed in the elements. For high energies, 25 KeV to 4 MeV, used in radiography, energy discriminating detectors have been limited to less than 20,000 photons per second per detector element. This rate is much too slow for practical radiography. Our detector system processes over two million events per second per detector pixel, making radiographic imaging practical. This paper expounds on the advantages of the ARDEC radiographic imaging process.

  5. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  6. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  7. Tunnel effect measuring systems and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  8. Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Elvira, V. Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Through the last three decades, precise simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detectormore » simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the accuracy of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents the economic impact and cost of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software for increasingly complex detectors. Consequently, it becomes urgent to find solutions to speed up simulation software in order to cope with the increased demand in a time of flat budgets. The study ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being explored, by leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering of HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.« less

  9. Neutron detector using lithiated glass-scintillating particle composite

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TX; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Im, Hee-Jung [Knoxville, TN

    2009-09-01

    A neutron detector composed of a matrix of scintillating particles imbedded in a lithiated glass is disclosed. The neutron detector detects the neutrons by absorbing the neutron in the lithium-6 isotope which has been enriched from the natural isotopic ratio to a commercial ninety five percent. The utility of the detector is optimized by suitably selecting scintillating particle sizes in the range of the alpha and the triton. Nominal particle sizes are in the range of five to twenty five microns depending upon the specific scintillating particle selected.

  10. Energy resolution enhancement of mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Padgett, L.; Prickett, B.; Schnepple, W.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse processing technique has been developed which improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of mercuric iodide detectors. The technique employs a fast (100 ns) and a slow (6.4 microsec) pulse height analysis to correct for signal variations due to variations in charge trapping. The capabilities of the technique for energy resolution enhancement are discussed as well as the utility of the technique for examining the trapping characteristics of individual detectors. An energy resolution of 2.6 percent FWHM at 662 keV was achieved with an acceptance efficiency of 100 percent from a mercuric iodide detector which gives 8.3 percent FWHM using standard techniques.

  11. A single particle energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R. |; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  12. Determination of time zero from a charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Green, Jesse Andrew [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-15

    A method, system and computer program is used to determine a linear track having a good fit to a most likely or expected path of charged particle passing through a charged particle detector having a plurality of drift cells. Hit signals from the charged particle detector are associated with a particular charged particle track. An initial estimate of time zero is made from these hit signals and linear tracks are then fit to drift radii for each particular time-zero estimate. The linear track having the best fit is then searched and selected and errors in fit and tracking parameters computed. The use of large and expensive fast detectors needed to time zero in the charged particle detectors can be avoided by adopting this method and system.

  13. Study the effect of beam energy spread and detector resolution on the search for Higgs boson decays to invisible particles at a future e^+e^- circular collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Olmo; de Gruttola, Michele; Pierini, Maurizio; Podo, Alessandro; Rolandi, Gigi

    2017-02-01

    We study the expected sensitivity to measure the branching ratio of Higgs boson decays to invisible particles at a future circular e^+e^-collider (FCC-ee) in the process e^+e^-→ HZ with Z→ ℓ ^+ℓ ^- (ℓ =e or μ ) using an integrated luminosity of 3.5 ab^{-1} at a center-of-mass energy √{s}=240 GeV. The impact of the energy spread of the FCC-ee beam and of the resolution in the reconstruction of the leptons is discussed. The minimum branching ratio for a 5σ observation after 3.5 ab^{-1} of data taking is 1.7± 0.1%(stat+syst) . The branching ratio exclusion limit at 95% CL is 0.63 ± 0.22%((stat+syst)).

  14. First Results of an ADIS Type Charged Particle Detector, Taken at the NSCL Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.; McKibben, R. B.

    2004-12-01

    We report here the first results from a working ADIS-type charged particle detector for use in space missions. The ADIS system consists of three detectors, two of which are inclined at an angle to the telescope axis, forming the first detectors in a multi-element charged particle instrument. By comparing signals from the ADIS detectors, the angle of incidence of incoming particles can be determined. The ADIS system can thus replace hodoscopes using conventional position sensing detectors (PSD's). PSD's add significant complexity and require additional electronics, increasing instrument mass, power usage and, in many cases telemetry requirements. The ADIS system's angle determination requires only the processing of simple equations, easily within the capabilities of even the slowest on-board processors. Thus a light-weight, low-power ADIS based charged particle telescope is a good candidate for studying high energy charged particles in deep space. We have built a prototype ADIS telescope for laboratory testing. While the detector housing is made specifically for this system, this test model used off-the-shelf components. The prototype model was taken to the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. There the instrument was subjected to a primary beam of 48Ca, and fragment beams from that primary. Various detector systems are compared to show how the instrument response varies with respect to detector thickness and orientation. The preliminary results show that the ADIS instrument can distinguish element in the sub-Ca region with charge resolution of ~0.25e.

  15. GaAs detectors with an ultra-thin Schottky contact for spectrometry of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, S. V.; Chernykh, A. V.; Didenko, S. I.; Baryshnikov, F. M.; Burtebayev, N.; Britvich, G. I.; Chubenko, A. P.; Guly, V. G.; Glybin, Yu. N.; Zholdybayev, T. K.; Burtebayeva, J. T.; Nassurlla, M.

    2017-02-01

    For the first time, samples of particle detectors based on high-purity GaAs epilayers with an active area of 25 and 80 mm2 and an ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier were fabricated for use in the spectrometry of charged particles and their operating characteristics were studied. The obtained FWHM of 14.2 (for 25 mm2 detector) and 15.5 keV (for 80 mm2 detector) on the 5.499 MeV line of 238Pu is at the level of silicon spectrometric detectors. It was found that the main component that determines the energy resolution of the detector is a fluctuation in the number of collected electron-hole pairs. This allows us to state that the obtained energy resolution is close to the limit for VPE GaAs.

  16. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  17. Gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Maxey, David V.; Carter, James G.

    1980-01-01

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below aout 0.5 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  18. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    2000-01-27

    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

  19. [A Generator of Mono-energetic Electrons for Response Test of Charged Particle Detectors.].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Fumiyasu; Yoshida, Katsuhide; Maruyama, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a generator of mono-energetic electrons for the response test of charged particle detectors, which is used to measure fragmented particles of the carbon beam for cancer therapy. Mono-energetic electrons are extracted from (90)Sr by analyzing the energy of beta rays in the generator with a magnetic field. We evaluated performance parameters of the generator such as the absolute energy, the energy resolution and the counting rates of extracted electrons. The generator supplies mono-energetic electrons from 0.5MeV to 1.7MeV with the energy resolution of 20% in FWHM at higher energies than 1.0MeV. The counting rate of electrons is 400cpm at the maximum when the activity of (90)Sr is 298kBq. The generator was used to measure responses of fragmented-particle detectors and to determine the threshold energy of the detectors. We evaluated the dependence of pulse height variation on the detector position and the threshold energy by using the generator. We concluded this generator is useful for the response test of general charged particle detectors.

  20. HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.

    1959-04-14

    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  1. State-of-the-Art Particle Physics Detector

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States...

  2. A phoswich detector for high-energy neutrons.

    PubMed

    Takada, M; Nakamura, T

    2007-01-01

    A phoswich detector was developed to measure neutron energy spectra from a few MeV to a few hundreds MeV in aircrafts and space crafts. Radiation fields, which both crafts are exposured, consist of neutrons, gamma rays, protons, etc. The phoswich detector can measure neutrons separately from gamma rays and protons. The capability of particle discrimination was tested at HIMAC and was found to be excellent. Detector response functions to neutrons were simulated with the MCNPX code using the measured light outputs of charged particles and were measured with quasi-mono-energetic neutrons produced by the p-Li reaction at the NIRS cyclotron. Test flight measurements at high altitudes, 6.5 and 8.5 km, were performed above the middle part of Japan (cut-off rigidity, 12 GV).

  3. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, David F; Fick, Brian E

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  4. {Lambda} single particle energies

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, Q.N.; Bodmer, A.R. |

    1999-11-01

    The {Lambda} single-particle energies B{sub {Lambda}} of hypernuclei (HN) are calculated microscopically using the Fermi hypernetted chain method to obtain for our {Lambda}N and {Lambda}NN potentials the {Lambda} binding D({rho}) to nuclear matter, and the effective mass m{sub {Lambda}}{sup {asterisk}}({rho}) at densities {rho}{le}{rho}{sub 0} ({rho}{sub 0} is normal nuclear density), and also the corresponding effective {Lambda}N and {Lambda}NN potentials. The {Lambda} core-nucleus potential U{sub {Lambda}}(r) is obtained by suitably folding these into the core density. The Schr{umlt o}dinger equation for U{sub {Lambda}} and m{sub {Lambda}}{sup {asterisk}} is solved for B{sub {Lambda}}. The fringing field (FF) due to the finite range of the effective potentials is theoretically required. We use a dispersive {Lambda}NN potential but also include a phenomenological {rho} dependence allowing for less repulsion for {rho}{lt}{rho}{sub 0}, i.e., in the surface. The best fits to the data with a FF give a large {rho} dependence, equivalent to an {ital A} dependent strength consistent with variational calculations of {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He, indicating an effective {Lambda}NN dispersive potential increasingly repulsive with {ital A} whose likely interpretation is in terms of dispersive plus two-pion-exchange {Lambda}NN potentials. The well depth is 29{plus_minus}1&hthinsp;MeV. The {Lambda}N space-exchange fraction corresponds to m{sub {Lambda}}{sup {asterisk}}({rho}){approx}0.75{endash}0.80 and a ratio of {ital p}- to {ital s}-state potentials of {approx}0.5{plus_minus}0.1. Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) is significant for heavy HN with a large neutron excess; with a FF the strength agrees with that obtained from the A=4&hthinsp;HN. The fits without FF are excellent but inconsistent with the requirement for a FF, with {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He, and also with the CSB sign for A=4. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Neutron energy determination with a high-purity germanium detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Gene A.

    1992-01-01

    Two areas that are related to planetary gamma-ray spectrometry are investigated. The first task was the investigation of gamma rays produced by high-energy charged particles and their secondaries in planetary surfaces by means of thick target bombardments. The second task was the investigation of the effects of high-energy neutrons on gamma-ray spectral features obtained with high-purity Ge-detectors. For both tasks, as a function of the funding level, the experimental work was predominantly tied to that of other researchers, whenever there was an opportunity to participate in bombardment experiments at large or small accelerators for charged particles.

  6. MCNPX Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport in SiC semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlačková, K.; Zat'ko, B.; Šagátová, A.; Pavlovič, M.; Nečas, V.; Stacho, M.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate particle transport properties of a fast neutron detector based on silicon carbide. MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was used in our study because it allows seamless particle transport, thus not only interacting neutrons can be inspected but also secondary particles can be banked for subsequent transport. Modelling of the fast-neutron response of a SiC detector was carried out for fast neutrons produced by 239Pu-Be source with the mean energy of about 4.3 MeV. Using the MCNPX code, the following quantities have been calculated: secondary particle flux densities, reaction rates of elastic/inelastic scattering and other nuclear reactions, distribution of residual ions, deposited energy and energy distribution of pulses. The values of reaction rates calculated for different types of reactions and resulting energy deposition values showed that the incident neutrons transfer part of the carried energy predominantly via elastic scattering on silicon and carbon atoms. Other fast-neutron induced reactions include inelastic scattering and nuclear reactions followed by production of α-particles and protons. Silicon and carbon recoil atoms, α-particles and protons are charged particles which contribute to the detector response. It was demonstrated that although the bare SiC material can register fast neutrons directly, its detection efficiency can be enlarged if it is covered by an appropriate conversion layer. Comparison of the simulation results with experimental data was successfully accomplished.

  7. Particle-impact noise detector (PIND)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, R. J.; Jackson, D. E.; Leaf, W. D.; Meza, R. G.; Rader, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    Package, in page assembly, is subjected to low-frequency vibration, and noise generated by particle impacts is picked up by transducer. Test procedure calls for three transverse shocks to be applied to page to dislodge any trapped particles.

  8. Thermalization of particle detectors: The Unruh effect and its reverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, Luis J.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; de Ramón, José

    2016-11-01

    We study the anti-Unruh effect in general stationary scenarios. We find that, for accelerated trajectories, a particle detector coupled to a Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) state of a quantum field can cool down (click less often) as the KMS temperature increases. Remarkably, this is so even when the detector is switched on adiabatically for infinitely long times. We also show that the anti-Unruh effect is characteristic of accelerated detectors and cannot appear for inertially moving detectors (e.g., in a thermal bath).

  9. A Satellite Borne Cadmium Sulfide Total Corpuscular Energy Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John W.

    1961-01-01

    The properties of single crystals of cadmium sulfide as radiation detectors are described. It has been found possible to select crystals such that: (a) The ratio of increase of conductivity under irradiation to the rate of absorption of energy in the crystal is substantially independent of particle energy (over the examined ranges of 500 ev to 80 kev for electrons and 5 kev to 180 kev for protons) and of the magnitude of energy flux (over the range from.005 to 10 ergs/cm(sup 2 -sec); and (b) The above ration is substantially the same for protons, electrons, alpha particles, x-rays, and gamma-rays. For a driving voltage of 100 volts, typical crystal yield currents of 10(sup -7) to 10(sup- 6) amperes for each erg/cm(sup 2-sec) of energy absorbed by the crystal. The threshold of such crystal detectors (resulting from dark currents of the order of 10(sup 10 amp) is typically 10(sup -3) ergs/cm(sup 2- sec). For the selected crystals a response-temperature coefficient of -0.25% per degree centigrade is found for the temperature range -50 deg C to + 50 deg C. A description is given of a complete CdS total corpuscular energy detector for the study of geomagnetically trapped radiation by means of a satellite. The detector described has a dynamic range great than 10(sup 4), a solid angle of 10(exp -3) steradian, and a detection threshold of approximately 1 erg/cm(sup 2-sec-sterad). A similar detector employing a small magnet for the selective exclusion of electrons is also described. Noteworthy practical features of these detectors for satellite and space probe experiments are: (a) Use of bare crystals, without covering foils, in order to detect charged particles having energies as low as hundreds of electron volts. (b) Simplicity of electronic auxiliaries. (c) Compactness, lightweight and nechanical ruggedness. (d) Low electrical power requirements; and (e) Conversion of conduction current to the rate of a twostate relaxation oscillator in order to facilitate telemetric

  10. Detector and energy analyzer for energetic-hydrogen in beams and plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bastasz, R.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Wampler, W.R.

    1988-11-01

    A detector for detecting energetic hydrogen ions and atoms ranging in energy from about 1 eV up to 1 keV in an evacuated environment includes a Schottky diode with a palladium or palladium-alloy gate metal applied to a silicon-dioxide layer on an n-silicon substrate. An array of the energetic-hydrogen detectors having a range of energy sensitivities form a plasma energy analyzer having a rapid response time and a sensitivity for measuring fluxes of energetic hydrogen. The detector is sensitive to hydrogen and its isotopes but is insensitive to non-hydrogenic particles. The array of energetic-hydrogen detectors can be formed on a single silicon chip, with thin-film layers of gold metal applied in various thicknesses to successive detectors in the array. The gold layers serve as particle energy-filters so that each detector is sensitive to a different range of hydrogen energies. 4 figs.

  11. Detector and energy analyzer for energetic-hydrogen in beams and plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bastasz, Robert J.; Hughes, Robert C.; Wampler, William R.

    1988-01-01

    A detector for detecting energetic hydrogen ions and atoms ranging in energy from about 1 eV up to 1 keV in an evacuated environment includes a Schottky diode with a palladium or palladium-alloy gate metal applied to a silicondioxide layer on an n-silicon substrate. An array of the energetic-hydrogen detectors having a range of energy sensitivities form a plasma energy analyzer having a rapid response time and a sensitivity for measuring fluxes of energetic hydrogen. The detector is sensitive to hydrogen and its isotopes but is insensitive to non-hydrogenic particles. The array of energetic-hydrogen detectors can be formed on a single silicon chip, with thin-film layers of gold metal applied in various thicknesses to successive detectors in the array. The gold layers serve as particle energy-filters so that each detector is sensitive to a different range of hydrogen energies.

  12. High resolution alpha particle detectors based on 4H-SiC epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zat'ko, B.; Dubecký, F.; Šagátová, A.; Sedlačová, K.; Ryć, L.

    2015-04-01

    We fabricated and characterized 4H-SiC Schottky diodes as a spectrometric detector of alpha particles. A thin blocking contact of Ni/Au (15 nm) was used to minimize the influence on alpha particles energy. Current-voltage characteristics of the detector were measured and a low current density below 0.3 nAcm-2 was observed at room temperature. 239Pu241Am244Cm was used as a source of alpha particles within the energy range between 5.1 MeV and 5.8 MeV for detector testing. The charge collection efficiency close to 100 % at reverse bias exceeding 50 V was determined. The best spectrometric performance shows a pulse height spectrum at a reverse bias of 200 V giving an energy resolution of 0.25 % in the full width and half maximum for 5.486 MeV of 241Am.

  13. Polyvinylidene fluoride dust detector response to particle impacts.

    PubMed

    James, D; Hoxie, V; Horanyi, M

    2010-03-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detectors have flown on many space missions since their first use on the Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft. The fundamental operating principle of these detectors is the production of a charge upon impact by a hypervelocity dust particle. This measured signal, N, depends on the speed, v, and mass, m, of the particle. The relationship between N, v, and m was first empirically derived by Simpson and Tuzzolino. All of the PVDF dust instruments prior to the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission use their formula for the calibration of the detectors. This paper provides additional dust impact calibration data, proposes a modification in the exponents for m and v, and investigates the relationship between detector temperature and detector signal.

  14. The "Puck" Energetic Charged Particle Detector: Design, Heritage, and Advancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of approximately 10 kiloelectronvolts to several megaelectronvolts. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of kiloelectronvolts to about 1 megaelectronvolt. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 kiloelectronvolt per nucleon,with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  15. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  16. The "Puck" Energetic Charged Particle Detector: Design, Heritage, and Advancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of approximately 10 kiloelectronvolts to several megaelectronvolts. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of kiloelectronvolts to about 1 megaelectronvolt. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 kiloelectronvolt per nucleon,with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  17. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements.

    PubMed

    Clark, G; Cohen, I; Westlake, J H; Andrews, G B; Brandt, P; Gold, R E; Gkioulidou, M A; Hacala, R; Haggerty, D; Hill, M E; Ho, G C; Jaskulek, S E; Kollmann, P; Mauk, B H; McNutt, R L; Mitchell, D G; Nelson, K S; Paranicas, C; Paschalidis, N; Schlemm, C E

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  18. Detection of the high energy solar protons by the particle detectors of Aragats Space- Environmental Center at 20 January 2005; Estimation of the significance of the peaks in the time-series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.

    2007-12-01

    On January 20, 2005, 7:02-7:05 UT the Aragats Multidirectional Muon Monitor (AMMM) located at 3200 m a.s.l. registered enhancement of the high energy secondary muon flux (threshold 5 GeV). The enhancement, lasting for three minutes, has statistical significance of ~4σ and is related to the X7.1 flare seen by the GOES, and very fast (2500 km/s) CME seen by SOHO, and the Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) N 69 detected by the world-wide network of neutron monitors and muon detectors. The energetic and temporal characteristics of the muon signal from the AMMM are compared with the characteristics of other monitors located at the Aragats Space-Environmental Center (ASEC) and with other neutron and muon detectors. Since secondary muons with energies above 5 GeV are corresponding to solar proton primaries with energies 20-30 GeV we conclude that in the episode of the particle acceleration at 7:02 - 7:05 UT 20 January 2005 solar protons were accelerated up to energies in excess of 20 GeV. To prove that detected peaks in the time-series are not only background flux (Galactic Cosmic Rays) fluctuations, but signal candidate (Solar Cosmic Rays), we perform additional investigations of the detectors count rates at 20 January. When calculated the chance probability we have to take into account the experimental procedures we use to reveal the signal. We made 3-minute time series from the 1 minute ones. The re-binning of time series is ordinary operation used by the all groups running the particle solar monitors. However, it has to be taken into account in calculating of the chance probability. Different attempts to obtain "best signal" considering different re- binning cannot be treated by standard Gaussian distribution, but can be considered by implementing Chapman statistics. To check this assumption and demonstrate the influence of the re-binning procedure we perform simulations with simple model of time series. Our numerical modeling confirm that when testing different data

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport in semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlačková, Katarína; Zaťko, Bohumír; Šagátová, Andrea; Nečas, Vladimír

    2013-05-01

    Several Monte Carlo all-particle transport codes are under active development around the world. In this paper we focused on the capabilities of the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) to follow the particle transport in semiconductor detector of fast neutrons. Semiconductor detector based on semi-insulating GaAs was the object of our investigation. As converter material capable to produce charged particles from the (n, p) interaction, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was employed. As the source of fast neutrons, the 239Pu-Be neutron source was used in the model. The simulations were performed using the MCNPX code which makes possible to track not only neutrons but also recoiled protons at all interesting energies. Hence, the MCNPX code enables seamless particle transport and no other computer program is needed to process the particle transport. The determination of the optimal thickness of the conversion layer and the minimum thickness of the active region of semiconductor detector as well as the energy spectra simulation were the principal goals of the computer modeling. Theoretical detector responses showed that the best detection efficiency can be achieved for 500 μm thick HDPE converter layer. The minimum detector active region thickness has been estimated to be about 400 μm.

  20. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  1. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    1995-03-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD`s) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD`s, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  2. Spectroscopic performance studies of 4H-SiC detectors for fusion alpha-particle diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, P. Vigneshwara; Akhtar, Jamil; Rao, C. V. S.; Vala, Sudhirsinh; Abhangi, Mitul; Murty, N. V. L. Narasimha

    2017-10-01

    The spectroscopic performances of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) and bulk detectors fabricated on n-type epitaxial 4H-SiC and high-purity semi-insulating (HPSI) 4H-SiC substrates are studied using 241Am alpha-particles. The spectral responses of the SBD detectors reveal a good energy resolution of 55 keV FWHM (∼1%) at -60 V, and ∼90% charge collection efficiency (CCE) at -100 V. The collected signal charge is stable with time in the SBD detectors; hence polarization effects are not noticed, indicating the good crystalline quality of the epitaxial 4H-SiC for detector applications. On the contrary, a poor energy resolution of 675 keV FWHM (12.3%) at -400 V and a maximum CCE of 28% at -500 V are obtained for the bulk detectors. Moreover, the CCE is found to decrease with time after the application of bias voltage implying the polarization phenomenon. Accordingly, the steady-state CCE of the bulk detectors at -500V is decreased to 13% from its initial value. The inferior spectral response of the bulk detectors is possibly due to the charge trapping and polarization effects. Furthermore, the neutron irradiation effects on the α-particle spectral response of the detectors are examined up to a fluence of 1011 n/cm2. To study the reliability of the SBD detectors at higher irradiation levels, the 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation induced changes in the electrical characteristics of the SBD are investigated up to a fluence of 2 × 1015n/cm2 by device simulations and the probable degradation in the detector response is analyzed. Finally, the possibility of employing 4H-SiC detectors for the fusion alpha-particle diagnostics is discussed.

  3. Particle Type Identification with the Kek and IMB3 Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breault, John Louis, IV

    1997-12-01

    One of the outstanding problems in particle physics today is the discrepancy between the predicted and observed ratios of non-showering particles to all particles that are observed in earth-based detectors. These particles are produced by electron and muon neutrino interactions. The IMB3 detector (1) recorded the ratio of non-showering particles to total particles (the 'non-showering fraction') as being 0.36 ± 0.02(stat) ± 0.02(syst) (see Ref. (3)). The IMB group's Monte Carlo simulation gives the expected ratio of 0.51 ± 0.01(stat) ± 0.05(syst). The analysis contained in this dissertation results in a value of 0.281 ± 0.022(stat) ± 0.050(syst).

  4. Neutral particle background in cosmic ray telescopes composed of silicon solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The energy loss-spectrum of secondary charged particles produced by the interaction of gamma-rays and energetic neutrons in silicon solid state detectors has been measured with a satellite-borne cosmic ray telescope. In the satellite measurements presented here two distinct neutral background effects are identified: secondary protons and alpha particles with energies of about 2 to 100 MeV produced by neutron interactions, and secondary electrons with energies of about 0.2 to 10 MeV produced by X-ray interactions. The implications of this neutral background for satellite measurements of low energy cosmic rays are discussed, and suggestions are given for applying these results to other detector systems in order to estimate background contamination and optimize detector system design.

  5. Charged Particle Induced Radiation damage of Germanium Detectors in Space: Two Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruekner, J.; Koenen, M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Bailey, S. H.; Boynton W. V.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MO GRS) was designed to measure gamma-rays emitted by the Martian surface. This gamma-ray emission is induced by energetic cosmic-ray particles penetrating the Martian surface and producing many secondary particles and gamma rays. The MO GRS consisted of an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a passive cooler. Since radiation damage due to permanent bombardment of energetic cosmic ray particles (with energies up to several GeV) was expected for the MO GRS HPGe crystal, studies on radiation damage effects of HPGe crystals were carried on earth. One of the HPGe crystals (paradoxically called FLIGHT) was similar to the MO GRS crystal. Both detectors, MO GRS and FLIGHT, contained closed-end coaxial n-type HPGe crystals and had the same geometrical dimensions (5.6 x 5.6 cm). Many other parameters, such as HV and operation temperature, differed in space and on earth, which made it somewhat difficult to directly compare the performance of both detector systems. But among other detectors, detector FLIGHT provided many useful data to better understand radiation damage effects.

  6. Charged Particle Induced Radiation damage of Germanium Detectors in Space: Two Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruekner, J.; Koenen, M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Bailey, S. H.; Boynton W. V.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MO GRS) was designed to measure gamma-rays emitted by the Martian surface. This gamma-ray emission is induced by energetic cosmic-ray particles penetrating the Martian surface and producing many secondary particles and gamma rays. The MO GRS consisted of an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a passive cooler. Since radiation damage due to permanent bombardment of energetic cosmic ray particles (with energies up to several GeV) was expected for the MO GRS HPGe crystal, studies on radiation damage effects of HPGe crystals were carried on earth. One of the HPGe crystals (paradoxically called FLIGHT) was similar to the MO GRS crystal. Both detectors, MO GRS and FLIGHT, contained closed-end coaxial n-type HPGe crystals and had the same geometrical dimensions (5.6 x 5.6 cm). Many other parameters, such as HV and operation temperature, differed in space and on earth, which made it somewhat difficult to directly compare the performance of both detector systems. But among other detectors, detector FLIGHT provided many useful data to better understand radiation damage effects.

  7. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Mani

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  8. MCNP analysis of a multilayer phoswich detector for β-particle dosimetry and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsoni, A. T.; Hamby, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    To measure and study energy deposition of β-particles at different depths, a triple-layer phoswich detector has been designed. The phoswich detector consists of BC-400/CaF2:Eu/BC-444 with decay time constants of 2.4, 940 and 264 ns, respectively, all with thicknesses corresponding to that necessary to completely stop 0.1 MeV electrons in the first layer, 1.0 MeV electrons in the second layer and 2.5 MeV electrons in the third layer. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) version 4B was used to simulate energy deposition in each layer from monoenergetic β-particles. The simulations and measurements revealed that the traditional rise time measurement technique is not able to provide appropriate and accurate pulse shape discrimination for this type of detector.

  9. A transition radiation detector for RHIC featuring accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H.; Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W.; Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K.

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test ran involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions which momenta greater titan 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most, efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is-better than 5 {times} 10{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230 {mu}m.

  10. JEDI -- The Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector for the Juno mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, D. K.; Mauk, B. H.; Paranicas, C. P.

    2008-12-01

    The Juno mission provides the first opportunity to conduct an in-depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The high-inclination, low-periapsis orbit provides in-situ access to three critical regions: the auroral magnetic field lines, the equatorial magnetosphere, and the polar ionosphere. The Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument (JEDI) is one of several Juno magnetospheric instruments that will work together to resolve critical scientific questions about these novel environments, most importantly how Jupiter's dramatic aurora is generated. JEDI measures the energy, spectra, mass species (H, He, O, S), and angular distributions of the higher energy charged particles that: 1) are accelerated at low altitude by Jovian auroral processes, 2) precipitate into Jupiter's upper atmosphere, 3) heat and ionize the Jovian upper atmosphere, and 4) populate Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. JEDI is a compact, light-weight, time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer that makes 3-parameter TOF and energy ion measurements, 2-parameter TOF-only ion measurements, and single parameter electron measurements in the 10-keV to 10-MeV ion and the 25-keV to 1-MeV electron energy range. The rapid spacecraft motion and slow spacecraft rotation requires that JEDI simultaneously and continuously resolve both magnetic loss cones at every position inside of ~3RJ. To achieve these measurements JEDI uses multiple sensors, each with six angular sectors evenly distributed in a 160° x 12° fan. Through these multiple views JEDI continuously samples within a 360° plane roughly normal to the spacecraft spin axis with full-sky coplanar coverage achieved each spacecraft spin. JEDI with its low resource requirements and rad-hard, high-speed electronics will make the demanding scientific observations required by the Juno mission.

  11. The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, Peter

    2009-05-11

    For the Low Energy Detector of Simbol-X a new type of active pixel sensor based on the integrated amplifier DEPFET has been developed. This concept combines large area, scalable pixel size, low noise, and ultra-fast readout. Flight representative prototypes have been processed with a performance matching the Simbol-X specifications and demonstrating the technology readiness.

  12. The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Peter

    2009-05-01

    For the Low Energy Detector of Simbol-X a new type of active pixel sensor based on the integrated amplifier DEPFET has been developed. This concept combines large area, scalable pixel size, low noise, and ultra-fast readout. Flight representative prototypes have been processed with a performance matching the Simbol-X specifications and demonstrating the technology readiness.

  13. Energy calibration of the fly's eye detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    The methods used to calibrate the Fly's eye detector to evaluate the energy of EAS are discussed. The energy of extensive air showers (EAS) as seen by the Fly's Eye detector are obtained from track length integrals of observed shower development curves. The energy of the parent cosmic ray primary is estimated by applying corrections to account for undetected energy in the muon, neutrino and hadronic channels. Absolute values for E depend upon the measurement of shower sizes N sub e(x). The following items are necessary to convert apparent optical brightness into intrinsical optical brightness: (1) an assessment of those factors responsible for light production by the relativistic electrons in an EAS and the transmission of light thru the atmosphere, (2) calibration of the optical detection system, and (3) a knowledge of the trajectory of the shower.

  14. Low energy neutron physics research with a gamma multiplicity detector

    SciTech Connect

    Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E.; Werner, C.J.; Moretti, B.E.; Burke, J.A.; Drindak, N.J.; Leinweber, G.

    1996-06-01

    A sixteen-segment NaI(Tl) multiplicity gamma ray detector is used at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Gaerttner LINAC Laboratory for neutron cross section measurements. This detector consists of an annulus of NaI(Tl) divided into two sets of 8 pie-shaped segments, each segment optically isolated and viewed by a photomultiplier. The neutron beam passes along the axis of the detector and impinges upon a sample placed in the center. Time-of-flight data are taken as a function of the number of sections which detect a gamma and which is defined as the detected multiplicity. This detector can simultaneously acquire a neutron scattering, capture and fission data by placing suitable limits on the total detected gamma ray energy deposited in the detector. Scattering and capture measurements have been performed on samples of holmium, erbium, and tungsten and experimental results are presented. The experimental multiplicity for capture is analyzed by assuming the single particle model, stochastically calculating the gamma ray cascades from neutron capture, and transporting each gamma ray into the detector using the Monte Carlo method. The detection efficiency for neutron capture is over 90% and is relatively insensitive to different isotopes of the same element or different spins of the compound nuclear resonances. A status report on experimental and analytical activities at the Laboratory is presented.

  15. Particle Identification in the NIMROD-ISiS Detector Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wuenschel, S.; Hagel, K.; May, L. W.; Wada, R.; Yennello, S. J.

    2009-03-10

    Interest in the influence of the neutron-to-proton (N/Z) ratio on multifragmenting nuclei has demanded an improvement in the capabilities of multi-detector arrays as well as the companion analysis methods. The particle identification method used in the NIMROD-ISiS 4{pi} array is described. Performance of the detectors and the analysis method are presented for the reaction of {sup 86}Kr+{sup 64}Ni at 35 MeV/u.

  16. Scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector has been developed using a bundle of square cross-section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified Charge Injection Device (CID) camera. Detector to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei have been exposed and images of their tracks are obtained. This paper presents details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle.

  17. Smoke and particle detector using tritiated semiconductor foil

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Alvarez-Ossa, D.; Kherani, N. P.; Zukotynski, S.; Chen, K. P.

    2008-07-15

    A smoke and particle ionization detector using tritiated amorphous silicon film as the radiation source is demonstrated. The ion chamber design includes both bipolar and unipolar region; the unipolar region is defined as the volume space extending beyond the range of ionizing particles. Attachment of ions to particulate matter in the unipolar region considerably reduces the mobility of the carriers, thus forming a space charge cloud accompanied by a reduction in the electrical field strength, thereby enhancing the particulate detection responsivity. Tritium {beta}s have a maximum range of about 6 mm in air, which makes the detector compact. Owing to the potential of increased specific activity, it results in a gamma-free detector with improved sensitivity. The results show that this gamma-free detector is several-fold to forty-fold more responsive than traditional ionization detectors using Am-241. In addition, this ion chamber can function as a dual detector having both photoelectric and ionization detector responsivities. (authors)

  18. The problem of low energy particle measurements in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The accurate measurement of low energy (less than 100 eV) particle properties in the magnetosphere has been difficult, partly because of the low density of such particles, but more particularly because of spacecraft interference effects. Some early examples of how these phenomena have affected particle measurements on an OGO spacecraft are presented. Data obtained with the UCSD particle detectors on ATS-6 are then presented showing how some of these difficulties have been partially overcome. Future measurements of low energy particles in the magnetosphere can be improved by: (1) improving the low energy resolution of detectors; (2) building electrostatically clean spacecraft; (3) controlling spacecraft potential; and (4) using auxiliary measurements, particularly wave data.

  19. Fast detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Ashraf, O.; Abdalla, A. M.; Eisa, M.; Ashry, A. H.; Tsuruta, T.

    2015-02-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am sources were used for irradiating samples of DAM-ADC SSNTDs with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal temperature and pressure. A series of experimental chemical etching are carried out using new etching solution (8 ml of 10 N NaOH+ 1 ml CH3OH) at 60 °C to detect alpha particle in short time in DAM-ADC detectors. Suitable analyzing software has been used to analyze experimental data. From fission and alpha track diameters, the value of bulk etching rate is equal to 8.52 μm/h. Both of the sensitivity and etching efficiency were found to vary with the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The DAM-ADC detectors represent the best efficiency applicable in detectors in the entire range of alpha energies (from 1 to 5 MeV). The activation energies of this etchant have been calculated; track activation energy, ET, has been found to be lower than the bulk activation energy, EB, for the DAM-ADC nuclear track detectors. These results are in more agreement with the previous work.

  20. Monte Carlo Simulation of Spacecraft Particle Detectors to Assess the True Human Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.

    2002-01-01

    Particle detectors (DOSTEL, CPDS, and TEPC) measure the energy deposition spectrum inside earth orbiting - manned spacecraft (shuttle, space station). These instruments attempt to emulate the deposition of energy in human tissue to evaluate the health risk. However, the measurements are often difficult to relate to tissue equivalent because nuclear fragmentation (internuclear cascade/evaporation), energy-loss straggling, heavy ions, spacecraft shielding and detector geometry/orientation, and coincidence thresholds significantly affect the measured spectrum. 'A le have developed a high fidelity Monte Carlo model addressing each of these effects that significantly improves interpretation of these instruments and the resulting assessment of radiation risk to humans.

  1. Portable cosmic particle detectors for subsurface density mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oláh, László; Gábor Barnaföldi, Gergely; Hamar, Gergö; Surányi, Gergely; Varga, Dezsö

    2016-04-01

    Muography deduces the density length in the interior of the investigated geological object, such as a mountain or volcano by the measurement of the cosmic muon absorption along different paths through the object. If path lengths (average densities) are measured, the average density (path length) can be deduced along the muon paths. A portable, low power consumption cosmic particle tracking detector based on Close Cathode multi-wire proportional chambers [1,2] has been developed for muography based on our earlier developments and experiences at the Wigner RCP of the HAS in Budapest [3,4,5]. The newly developed tracking system consists of six layers with the sensitive area of 0.25 m2 [6]. The spatial resolution of 2 mm provides an angular resolution of 15 mrad. This instrument has been optimized for underground and outdoor measurements: it has a Raspberry pi controlled data acquisition system which includes a custom designed board with a coincidence unit and allows high level remote control, data management and analysis. The individual trigger signals, number of missed triggers, analogue signals from chambers and the temperature are recorded. The duration of data readout (dead time) is 100 microsec. The DAQ software runs on the Raspberry Pi. For standard operation, a graphical user interface has been developed, running on any remote computer with Internet connection (both of wired and wireless) to the Raspberry Pi. A temperature-controlled high-voltage power supply provides a stable and reasonable (> 95 %) tracking performance for the measurements. With total power consumption of 5W, a portable tracking detector can operate for 5 days with a standard 50 Ah battery and with gas (non flammable Ar-CO2 mixture) consumption of 0.5 liter per hour, a 10 l bottle at pressure of 150 bar is enough for four month. The portability (total weight of less than 30 kg) allowed that our tracking detectors have been applied in underground caverns for subsurface density mapping. The

  2. Calibrations for Charged Particle Tracking with the GlueX Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staib, Michael; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Two gas detectors comprise the tracking system for the GlueX experiment, the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) and the Forward Drift Chamber (FDC). The CDC is a cylindrical straw-tube detector covering polar angles between 6° and 168°, delivering spatial resolution of ~150 μm. The FDC is a Cathode Strip Chamber consisting of four packages, each with six alternating layers of anode wires and cathode strips. The FDC is designed to track forward-going charged particles with polar angles between 1° and 20° with a spatial resolution of ~200 μm. Both tracking detectors record timing information and energy loss measurements useful for particle identification. During Fall 2014 and Spring 2015, the first photon beam was delivered on target for commissioning of the GlueX detector in Hall-D at Jefferson Lab. These data are currently being used in a large effort to calibrate the individual detector subsystems to achieve design performance. Methods and results for calibrations of each of the tracking detectors are presented. Techniques for alignment of the tracking system using a combination of cosmic rays and beam data is discussed. Finally, some early results of physics measurements including charged final-state particles are presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  3. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherini, Y.; Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Cozzi, M.; Dekhissi, H.; Derkaoui, J.; Esposito, L. S.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Giglietto, N.; Maaroufi, F.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Manzoor, S.; Moussa, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.

    2005-04-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  4. Particles identification by means of digital pulse shape analysis in silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, J. A.; Martel, I.

    2013-06-01

    Several detector systems being built in Europe such as FAZIA, GASPARD, TRACE and HYDE are exploiting digital pulse shape analysis (DPSA) techniques aiming to achieve an efficient and low cost particle identification system. Recent works stress the importance of an accurate control of the used-detector properties, like the resistivity non-homogeneity and the silicon crystal orientation. The research carried out by these groups are pushing the limits of particle discrimination at both ends of the energy spectra, going from 1 MeV to few GeV.

  5. Microfabricated high-throughput electronic particle detector.

    PubMed

    Wood, D K; Requa, M V; Cleland, A N

    2007-10-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and use of a radio frequency reflectometer integrated with a microfluidic system, applied to the very high-throughput measurement of micron-scale particles, passing in a microfluidic channel through the sensor region. The device operates as a microfabricated Coulter counter [U.S. Patent No. 2656508 (1953)], similar to a design we have described previously, but here with significantly improved electrode geometry as well as including electronic tuning of the reflectometer; the two improvements yielding an improvement by more than a factor of 10 in the signal to noise and in the diametric discrimination of single particles. We demonstrate the high-throughput discrimination of polystyrene beads with diameters in the 4-10 microm range, achieving diametric resolutions comparable to the intrinsic spread of diameters in the bead distribution, at rates in excess of 15 x 10(6) beads/h.

  6. Calibration of the Solar Orbiter Energetic Particle Detector Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Panitzsch, L.; Boettcher, S.; Mason, G. M.; Kohler, J.; Ho, G. C.; Boden, S.; Grunau, J.; Steinhagen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the current status and plans for the calibration of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission. Solar Orbiter is scheduled to launch in January 2017, instrument delivery in January 2015. EPD consists of four sensors: the SupraThermal Electron and Proton (STEP) sensor covers electrons (protons) from 2 (3) keV up to 100 keV, the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) from 20 to 300 (7000) keV, the Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS) determines the ionic composition from ~0.05 to ~10 MeV/nuc (species dependent), and the High Energy Telescope (HET) measures electrons and protons (ions) from 0.3 to 30 and 10 to >100 MeV/nuc (20 - 200 MeV/nuc species dependent). EPT, HET, and SIS have two approximately opposite-facing fields of view, EPT, and HET share a common electronics box, two EPT/HET sensors allow the determination of second-order anisotropies (a total of 4 FoVs). Apart from the use of radioactive sources, STEP will be calibrated at the Kiel calibration facilities, EPT both at Kiel (electrons and low-energy protons) as well as at PTB in Braunschweig. SIS will undergo calibration at the LBL 88' cyclotron, HET at HIMAC in Chiba, Japan. Tests of the electron/protons discrimination of EPT show the expected behavior, HET prototypes have already been calibrated and the results will be shown.

  7. High-energy particles in space - Experimental methods and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Iu. G.

    Topics discussed include the space-time variations of cosmic radiation at the geostationary orbit, the nuclear component of solar cosmic rays, excess radiation at high altitudes above the earth, and electron flux with energies exceeding 150 MeV. Consideration is also given to the scattering of charged particles, a detector for measuring soft background X-rays, and the calculation of a detector's electrostatic field by the separation of variables. Methods are discussed for determining gamma-quantum and cosmic ray electron spectra, and for estimating the upper energy bounds of particles accelerated in the vicinity of a rotating neutron star.

  8. Scintillator-fiber charged particle track-imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    A scintillator-fiber charged-particle track-imaging detector was developed using a bundle of square cross section plastic scintillator fiber optics, proximity focused onto an image intensified charge injection device (CID) camera. The tracks of charged particle penetrating into the scintillator fiber bundle are projected onto the CID camera and the imaging information is read out in video format. The detector was exposed to beams of 15 MeV protons and relativistic Neon, Manganese, and Gold nuclei and images of their tracks were obtained. Details of the detector technique, properties of the tracks obtained, and preliminary range measurements of 15 MeV protons stopping in the fiber bundle are presented.

  9. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bergonzo, P.; Caylar, B.; Forcolin, G.; Haughton, I.; Hits, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Li, L.; Oh, A.; Phan, S.; Pomorski, M.; Smith, D. S.; Tyzhnevyi, V.; Wallny, R.; Whitehead, D.

    2015-06-01

    A novel device using single-crystal chemical vapour deposited diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond detector is presented. The electrodes of the device were fabricated with laser assisted phase change of diamond into a combination of diamond-like carbon, amorphous carbon and graphite. The connections to the electrodes of the device were made using a photo-lithographic process. The electrical and particle detection properties of the device were investigated. A prototype detector system consisting of the 3D device connected to a multi-channel readout was successfully tested with 120 GeV protons proving the feasibility of the 3D diamond detector concept for particle tracking applications for the first time.

  10. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  11. 3-D Spreadsheet Simulation of a Modern Particle Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    A spreadsheet simulation of a modern particle detector has been developed and can be readily used as an instructional tool in the physics classroom. The spreadsheet creates a three-dimensional model that can be rotated and helical trajectories can be highlighted. An associated student worksheet is also presented.

  12. 3-D Spreadsheet Simulation of a Modern Particle Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    A spreadsheet simulation of a modern particle detector has been developed and can be readily used as an instructional tool in the physics classroom. The spreadsheet creates a three-dimensional model that can be rotated and helical trajectories can be highlighted. An associated student worksheet is also presented.

  13. Particle Detectors Used in Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, with Applications in Geology, Environmental Science and Nuclear Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Schwieters, Johannes; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Parrish, Randall R.

    This chapter introduces the reader to mass spectrometry and the instruments used to determine high-precision isotope ratios. These instruments separate ion beams, of charged atomic particles with kinetic energies of several keV, by mass-to-charge ratio. Quantitative detection of these energetic charged particles is a key technology in mass spectrometry. For isotope ratio determination the main detector types are Faraday cups, the Daly detector, and discrete dynode secondary electron multiplier (SEM) ion counters. For high-precision applications, arrays of these detectors are arranged to collect several ion beams simultaneously. Examples are given for the application of these detectors in geology, environmental sciences, and nuclear safeguards.

  14. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D`Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  15. CsI-Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. A.; Dillmann, I.; Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Gao, B.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, S. A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Maier, L.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Sanjari, M. S.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Weick, H.

    2016-11-01

    A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the ΔE / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for ΔE and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.

  16. A survey of the physical processes which determine the response function of silicon detectors to alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbauer, E.; Bortels, G.; Bauer, P.; Biersack, J. P.; Burger, P.; Ahmad, I.

    1994-01-01

    The spectra of monoenergetic alpha particles exhibit a well known asymmetric shape when measured with silicon detectors. The processes are described which determine the response of silicon detectors to alpha particles, particularly the energy dependence of the line shape. In this work particle implanted and passivated silicon (PIPS) detectors are assumed to have a thin dead layer at the front contact and an infinite sensitive volume. The incoming monoenergetic alpha particles lose energy in the dead layer where they develop a Gaussian energy distribution due to electronic energy-loss straggling. In the sensitive volume the alpha particles transfer most of their energy to electronic excitation and ionization ( Es,e) and the remaining fraction to the production of lattice vibrations and crystal damage. The statistical distribution of Es,e has been calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and shown to be asymmetric. The energy Es,e is subsequently used for the creation of electron-hole pairs, which are measured by an amplifier system with a Gaussian contribution to the energy resolution due to electronic noise. This model permits a quantitative calculation of the detector response function to alpha particles, and the result is in excellent agreement with measured spectra. On the basis of this model the energy dependence of the alpha particle line shape is also discussed.

  17. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Ashraf, O.; Ashry, A. H.

    2016-06-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH3OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  18. Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

    2010-07-15

    This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

  19. Development of decay energy spectroscopy using low temperature detectors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y S; Kim, G B; Kim, K J; Kim, M S; Lee, H J; Lee, J S; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, S J; Ri, H C; Yoon, W S; Yuryev, Y N; Kim, Y H

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a high-resolution detection technique for measuring the energy and activity of alpha decay events using low-temperature detectors. A small amount of source material containing alpha-emitting radionuclides was enclosed in a 4π metal absorber. The energy of the alpha particles as well as that of the recoiled nuclides, low-energy electrons, and low-energy x-rays and γ-rays was converted into thermal energy of the gold absorber. A metallic magnetic calorimeter serving as a fast and sensitive thermometer was thermally attached to the metal absorber. In the present report, experimental demonstrations of Q spectroscopy were made with a new meander-type magnetic calorimeter. The thermal connection between the temperature sensor and the absorber was established with annealed gold wires. Each alpha decay event in the absorber resulted in a temperature increase of the absorber and the temperature sensor. Using the spectrum measured for a drop of (226)Ra solution in a 4π gold absorber, all of the alpha emitters in the sample were identified with a demonstration of good detector linearity. The resolution of the (226)Ra spectrum showed a 3.3 keV FWHM at its Q value together with an expected gamma escape peak at the energy shifted by its γ-ray energy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio (Q/C). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q/C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining sufficient Q/C, collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Charles Y.; Storti, George M.; Walter, Lee; Mathews, Scott

    1990-01-01

    This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks.

  2. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed.

  3. Instrument to measure energy and charge of low energy interplanetary particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tums, E.; Gloeckler, G.; Cain, J.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to measure the charge composition and energy spectra of ultra low energy charged particles in interplanetary space has been developed and launched on the IMP 8 (Explorer 50) satellite on Oct. 26, 1973. The instrument consists of two separate sensors sharing common electronics. One of these sensors uses a thin window gas proportional counter to measure the rate of energy loss and a totally depleted silicon surface barrier detector to measure total energy of incoming particles. The energy range for two dimensional analysis extends from 300 KeV to 2.5 MeV for protons and 60 KeV/nucleon to 25 MeV/nucleon for iron with excellent resolution of individual chemical elements. The other sensor combines electrostatic deflection with total energy measurements in silicon surface barrier detectors to give the ionic charge and kinetic energy of the particle.

  4. Re-evaluation of Galileo Energetic Particle Detector data - a correction model and comparison to semiconductor detector dead-layer sensitivity losses using SRIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Payne, Zoe Hannah

    2016-10-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector launched in 1989 on the Galileo satellite took data on the Jovian Particle environment for 8 years before its demise. Over the course of the mission the detectors in the Composition Measurement System (CMS) have visibly decayed with higher mass particles, specifically oxygen and sulphur, reading far lower energies at later epochs. By considering the non-steady accumulation of damage in the detector, as well as the operation of the priority channel data recording system in place on the EPD, an evolving correction can be made. The recalibration significance can be validated using a model of dead layer build-up in semiconductor detectors, based on SRIM results. The final aim is to assign an estimation dead-layer depth during the mission data recordings.

  5. Applications of gaseous particle detectors in physics and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    1995-08-01

    The multi-wire proportional chamber, introduced in 1967 by Georges Charpak (recipient of the 1992 Nobel prize for physics) allows to achieve high-rate, fully electronics detection and localization of ionizing radiation. The myriad of devices inspired by this initial work generated a revolution in the conception of detectors for elementary particle physics experiments; examples are the time projection chamber, the drift chamber, the micro-strip gas chamber. After a brief introduction on the basic operating principles of the device, I will describe several examples of application of advanced gas detectors in medicine and biology and analyze the operating characteristics that make the new devices attractive when confronted with classic detectors.

  6. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  7. Hot carrier metamaterial detectors and energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krayer, Lisa; Munday, Jeremy N.

    Metamaterials can be used to manipulate the flow of light in ways not typically available with traditional materials. Beyond their optical properties, metamaterials can be used as the basis for optoelectronic devices through the incorporation of a metal-semiconductor interface. The absorbed radiation in the metal can excite surface plasmons, which nonradiatively decay into hot electrons or holes that can be injected into the base semiconductor and contribute to photocurrent generation. In this talk, we will present our latest work on metamaterial photo-detectors and solar energy converters.

  8. Defect-induced performance degradation of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, N.; Johnson, B. C.; Hoshino, N.; Ito, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Kojima, K.; Ohshima, T.

    2013-04-01

    The formation and evolution of defects in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode high-energy particle detectors have been investigated and correlated with the detectors' properties. Low temperature annealing at 300 °C is found to significantly recover the charge collection efficiency as degraded by 1 MeV electron irradiation. At higher temperatures, an anneal-induced degradation in the detector's performance is observed. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are used to ascertain the effect of defects on the detector performance. The latter reveals that the DLTS defect levels, EH1 and EH3, are related to the initial recovery of the charge collection efficiency.

  9. Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy and Energy-Resolving Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Frank; Raab, Walfried

    2015-08-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has seen rapid progress over the past 25 years, leading to breakthroughs in many fields of astronomy that would not have been otherwise possible. This review overviews the visible/infrared imaging spectroscopy techniques as well as energy-resolving detectors. We introduce the working principle of scanning Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers and explain the most common integral field concepts based on mirror slicers, lenslet arrays, and fibers. The main advantage of integral field spectrographs is the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral information. Although Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers can provide a larger field of view, it is ultimately the higher sensitivity of integral field units that make them the technique of choice. This is arguably the case for image slicers, which make the most efficient use of the available detector pixels and have equal or higher transmission than lenslet arrays and fiber integral field units, respectively. We also address the more specific issues of large étendue operation, focal ratio degradation, anamorphic magnification, and diffraction-limited operation. This review also covers the emerging technology of energy-resolving detectors, which promise very simple and efficient instrument designs. These energy-resolving detectors are based on superconducting thin film technology and exploit either the very small superconducting energy to count the number of quasi-particles excited in the absorption of the photon or the extremely steep phase transition between the normal- and superconducting phase to measure a temperature increase. We have put special emphasis on an overview of the underlying physical phenomena as well as on the recent technological progress and astronomical path finder experiments.

  10. A novel technique of particle identification with bolometric detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Brofferio, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Gironi, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.

    2011-06-01

    We report in this paper the proofs that the pulse shape analysis can be used in some bolometers to identify the nature of the interacting particle. Indeed, while detailed analyses of the signal time development in purely thermal detectors have not produced so far interesting results, similar analyses on bolometers built with scintillating crystals seem to show that it is possible to distinguish between an electron or γ-ray and an α particle interaction. This information can be used to eliminate background events from the recorded data in many rare process studies, especially Neutrinoless Double Beta decay search. Results of pulse shape analysis of signals from a number of bolometers with absorbers of different composition (CaMoO 4, ZnMoO 4, MgMoO 4 and ZnSe) are presented and the pulse shape discrimination capability of such detectors is discussed.

  11. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  12. Charged particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Kozyrev, A. A.; Shebalin, V. E.; Ruban, A. A.; Bashtovoy, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a procedure of particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector currently being developed. The procedure uses the boosted decision tree classification method with specific energy losses of charged particles in the liquid Xenon calorimeter as input variables. The efficiency of the procedure is illustrated by an example of the measurement of the cross section of the process e+e‑→K+K‑ in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  13. Hunting for Dark Matter particles with new detectors.

    PubMed

    Angloher, Godehard; Jochum, Josef

    2005-03-01

    Although first hints of the existence of Dark Matter were observed by the Swiss astronomer Zwicky already in the 1930s, only in recent years has it become known that the universe, in fact, is dominated by particles whose nature is almost unknown and which have never been directly observed. Meanwhile, as the existence of these particles is postulated not only by astronomy, but also cosmology and theoretical particle physics, there is significant effort to detect them in a laboratory experiment and determine their physical properties. However, as the interaction rate between Dark Matter particles and ordinary matter is extremely low, detectors have to be extremely sensitive. Low temperature detectors have been available for more than a decade and have now reached the highest sensitivity for direct Dark Matter detection. In this article, we give a short overview of observational results that suggest the existence of Dark Matter particles and what physicists have learned so far about their properties. The main focus is on the experimental challenges and effort for their direct detection.

  14. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Pandit, Deepak; Das, S. K.; Chowdhury, A.; Das, P.; Banerjee, D.; Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The β - γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in 106Rh →106Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in 106Rh →106Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  15. SEVAN CRO Particle Detector for Solar Physics and Space Weather research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roša, D.; Angelov, Ch.; Arakelyan, K.; Arsov, T.; Avakyan, K.; Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Hovhanissyan, A.; Hovhannisyan, T.; Hovsepyan, G.; Sargsyan, D.; Hržina, D.; Kalapov, I.; Karapetyan, T.; Kozliner, L.; Mailyan, B.; Maričić, D.; Nishev, A.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Reymers, A.; Romštajn, I.; Stamenov, J.; Tchorbadjieff, A.; Vanyan, L.

    The installation of the SEVAN CRO particle detector at Zagreb Astronomical Observatory was finished at the end of 2008. The detector is a fully autonomous unit, with the capability to send data via the Internet, and it is a part of the SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network), which includes detectors located at middle to low latitudes. Till to now the SEVAN modules are installed at Aragats Space Environmental Centre in Armenia (3 units), Bulgaria (Moussala) and Croatia (Zagreb). SEVAN detectors are use for simultaneous measurements of flux of most species of secondary cosmic rays born in the atmospheric cascade caused by primary ions and solar neutrons. These devices can be used for exploration of solar modulation effects on galactic cosmic rays. The main scientific aim is to the improve research of solar particle acceleration in the vicinity of the Sun by detecting highest energy solar cosmic rays giving additional secondaries detected by surface particle detectors and to improve researches of the space environment conditions.

  16. Particle size characterization by quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Amandaa K; Striegel, André M

    2009-01-01

    Particle size and shape and their distribution directly influence a variety of end-use material properties related to packing, mixing, and transport of powders, solutions, and suspensions. Many of the techniques currently employed for particle size characterization have found limited applicability for broadly polydisperse and/or nonspherical particles. Here, we introduce a quadruple-detector hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) method utilizing static multiangle light scattering (MALS), quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), differential viscometry (VISC), and differential refractometry (DRI), and apply the technique to characterizing a series of solid and hollow polystyrene latexes with diameters in the approximate range of 40-400 nm. Using HDC/MALS/QELS/VISC/DRI, we were able to determine a multiplicity of size parameters and their polydispersity and to monitor the size of the particles across the elution profile of each sample. Using self-similarity scaling relationships between the molar mass and the various particle radii, we were also able to ascertain the shape of the latexes and the shape constancy as a function of particle size. The particle shape for each latex was confirmed by the dimensionless ratio rho identical with R (G,z )/R (H,z ) which, in addition, provided information on the structure (compactness) of the latexes as a function of particle size. Solid and hollow polystyrene latex samples were also differentiable using these methods. Extension of this method to nonspherical, fractal objects should be possible.

  17. Chronopixels: particle detector R&D for the ATLAS phase 2 upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christian; Baker, Keith; Barker, Thomas; Baltay, Charles; Sinev, Nikolai; Brau, Jim; Strom, David; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The pixel detector comprises the innermost part of the ATLAS detector. Its proximity to the interaction point together with its micrometer resolution allow for impact parameter determination and vertex fitting. This proximity however exposes it also to the highest radiation fluences and particle densities. The latter poses a challenge in inferring particle tracks from hit pixels, while the former leads to progressive radiation damage of the pixel detector itself. These problems will worsen after the LHC's third long shutdown in 2025 when it will operate in high luminosity mode at about five times the current instantaneous luminosity. These conditions will require the pixel detector to be replaced by one staffed with pixel modules capable of enduring the harsher radiation environment, and with finer granularity to cope with the increased pileup. Several efforts in the community are on their way to produce such a pixel module. We are presenting here the current status of our R&D on such a pixel module: The Chronopixel for ATLAS phase 2, a fully monolithic active pixel sensor in CMOS technology. Sensing and readout electronics are included in each pixel here. As such it does not require expensive and labor intensive bump-bonding to a separate readout chip, reducing cost and material in the pixel detector. We gratefully acknowledge support by the Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics.

  18. Mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) semiconductor devices as charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Becchetti, F.D.; Raymond, R.S.; Ristinen, R.A.; Schnepple, W.F.; Ortale, C.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of HgI/sub 2/ semiconductor devices as charged particle detectors have been investigated. Nearly linear energy response with FWHM resolution of 5 to 15% is observed for /sup 1/ /sup 2/H and /sup 3/ /sup 4/He ions, E < 40 MeV. Fast proton damage is observed for > 10/sup 10/ protons/cm/sup 2/. However, based on measurements with two HgI/sub 2/ detectors, little fast neutron damage is apparent at fluences up to 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/. This suggests considerably greater resistance to radiation damage than is observed for Si and other solid state devices.

  19. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at [Formula: see text] measured with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barranco Navarro, L; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, A S; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez, J; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossio Sola, J D; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminal Armadans, R; Camincher, C; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Carbone, R M; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Casper, D W; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavallaro, E; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerda Alberich, L; Cerio, B C; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chan, S K; Chan, Y L; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chatterjee, A; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Che, S; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, H J; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiarelli, G; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chomont, A R; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chudoba, J; Chuinard, A J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Cioara, I A; Ciocio, A; Cirotto, F; Citron, Z H; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, B L; Clark, M R; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Colasurdo, L; Cole, B; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crawley, S J; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cribbs, W A; Crispin Ortuzar, M; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cúth, J; Cuthbert, C; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dandoy, J R; Dang, N P; Daniells, A C; Dann, N S; Danninger, M; Dano Hoffmann, M; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, M; Davison, P; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Benedetti, A; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dedovich, D V; Deigaard, I; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delgove, D; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; DeMarco, D A; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Denysiuk, D; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deterre, C; Dette, K; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Clemente, W K; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Mattia, A; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Di Valentino, D; Diaconu, C; Diamond, M; Dias, F A; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Diglio, S; Dimitrievska, A; Dingfelder, J; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Djuvsland, J I; do Vale, M A B; Dobos, D; Dobre, M; Doglioni, C; Dohmae, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Donadelli, M; Donati, S; Dondero, P; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Doyle, A T; Drechsler, E; Dris, M; Du, Y; Duarte-Campderros, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Ducu, O A; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Duflot, L; Duguid, L; Dührssen, M; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Düren, M; Durglishvili, A; Duschinger, D; Dutta, B; Dyndal, M; Eckardt, C; Ecker, K M; Edgar, R C; Edson, W; Edwards, N C; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellajosyula, V; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Elliot, A A; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Endner, O C; Endo, M; Ennis, J S; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Ernis, G; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Esposito, B; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Ezhilov, A; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Falla, R J; Faltova, J; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farina, C; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Faucci Giannelli, M; Favareto, A; Fawcett, W J; Fayard, L; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Feigl, S; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Feng, H; Fenyuk, A B; Feremenga, L; Fernandez Martinez, P; Fernandez Perez, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira de Lima, D E; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Ferretto Parodi, A; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filipuzzi, M; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Finelli, K D; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, A; Fischer, C; Fischer, J; Fisher, W C; Flaschel, N; Fleck, I; Fleischmann, P; Fletcher, G T; Fletcher, G; Fletcher, R R M; Flick, T; Floderus, A; Flores Castillo, L R; Flowerdew, M J; Forcolin, G T; Formica, A; Forti, A; Foster, A G; Fournier, D; Fox, H; Fracchia, S; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Francis, D; Franconi, L; Franklin, M; Frate, M; Fraternali, M; Freeborn, D; Fressard-Batraneanu, S M; Friedrich, F; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fusayasu, T; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gabrielli, A; Gabrielli, A; Gach, G P; Gadatsch, S; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, L G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Galhardo, B; Gallas, E J; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Galster, G; Gan, K K; Gao, J; Gao, Y; Gao, Y S; Garay Walls, F M; García, C; García Navarro, J E; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garonne, V; Gascon Bravo, A; Gatti, C; Gaudiello, A; Gaudio, G; Gaur, B; Gauthier, L; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gazis, E N; Gecse, Z; Gee, C N P; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Geisler, M P; Gemme, C; Genest, M H; Geng, C; Gentile, S; George, S; Gerbaudo, D; Gershon, A; Ghasemi, S; Ghazlane, H; Ghneimat, M; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibbard, B; Gibson, S M; Gignac, M; Gilchriese, M; Gillam, T P S; Gillberg, D; Gilles, G; Gingrich, D M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M P; Giorgi, F M; Giorgi, F M; Giraud, P F; Giromini, P; Giugni, D; Giuli, F; Giuliani, C; Giulini, M; Gjelsten, B K; Gkaitatzis, S; Gkialas, I; Gkougkousis, E L; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Glatzer, J; Glaysher, P C F; Glazov, A; Goblirsch-Kolb, M; Godlewski, J; Goldfarb, S; Golling, T; Golubkov, D; Gomes, A; Gonçalo, R; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J; Gonella, L; Gongadze, A; González de la Hoz, S; Gonzalez Parra, G; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goossens, L; Gorbounov, P A; Gordon, H A; Gorelov, I; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gorišek, A; Gornicki, E; Goshaw, A T; Gössling, C; Gostkin, M I; Goudet, C R; Goujdami, D; Goussiou, A G; Govender, N; Gozani, E; Graber, L; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gradin, P O J; Grafström, P; Gramling, J; Gramstad, E; Grancagnolo, S; Gratchev, V; Gray, H M; Graziani, E; Greenwood, Z D; Grefe, C; Gregersen, K; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Grevtsov, K; Griffiths, J; Grillo, A A; Grimm, K; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groh, S; Grohs, J P; Gross, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grossi, G C; Grout, Z J; Guan, L; Guan, W; Guenther, J; Guescini, F; Guest, D; Gueta, O; Guido, E; Guillemin, T; Guindon, S; Gul, U; Gumpert, C; Guo, J; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gustavino, G; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez Ortiz, N G; Gutschow, C; Guyot, C; Gwenlan, C; Gwilliam, C B; Haas, A; Haber, C; Hadavand, H K; Haddad, N; Hadef, A; Haefner, P; Hageböck, S; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Haleem, M; Haley, J; Hall, D; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G D; Hamacher, K; Hamal, P; Hamano, K; Hamilton, A; Hamity, G N; Hamnett, P G; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanawa, K; Hance, M; Haney, B; Hanke, P; Hanna, R; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, M C; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Hard, A S; Harenberg, T; Hariri, F; Harkusha, S; Harrington, R D; Harrison, P F; Hartjes, F; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, Y; Hasib, A; Hassani, S; Haug, S; Hauser, R; Hauswald, L; Havranek, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R J; Hawkins, A D; Hayden, D; Hays, C P; Hays, J M; Hayward, H S; Haywood, S J; Head, S J; Heck, T; Hedberg, V; Heelan, L; Heim, S; Heim, T; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J J; Heinrich, L; Heinz, C; Hejbal, J; Helary, L; Hellman, S; Helsens, C; Henderson, J; Henderson, R C W; Heng, Y; Henkelmann, S; Henriques Correia, A M; Henrot-Versille, S; Herbert, G H; Hernández Jiménez, Y; Herten, G; Hertenberger, R; Hervas, L; Hesketh, G G; Hessey, N P; Hetherly, J W; Hickling, R; Higón-Rodriguez, E; Hill, E; Hill, J C; Hiller, K H; Hillier, S J; Hinchliffe, I; Hines, E; Hinman, R R; Hirose, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hobbs, J; Hod, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Hodgson, P; Hoecker, A; Hoeferkamp, M R; Hoenig, F; Hohlfeld, M; Hohn, D; Holmes, T R; Homann, M; Hong, T M; Hooberman, B H; Hopkins, W H; Horii, Y; Horton, A J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S; Hoummada, A; Howard, J; Howarth, J; Hrabovsky, M; Hristova, I; Hrivnac, J; Hryn'ova, T; Hrynevich, A; Hsu, C; Hsu, P J; Hsu, S-C; Hu, D; Hu, Q; Huang, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Huffman, T B; Hughes, E W; Hughes, G; Huhtinen, M; Hülsing, T A; Huseynov, N; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iacobucci, G; Iakovidis, G; Ibragimov, I; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ideal, E; Idrissi, Z; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Iizawa, T; Ikegami, Y; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Iliadis, D; Ilic, N; Ince, T; Introzzi, G; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Iordanidou, K; Ippolito, V; Irles Quiles, A; Isaksson, C; Ishino, M; Ishitsuka, M; Ishmukhametov, R; Issever, C; Istin, S; Ito, F; Iturbe Ponce, J M; Iuppa, R; Ivarsson, J; Iwanski, W; Iwasaki, H; Izen, J M; Izzo, V; Jabbar, S; Jackson, B; Jackson, M; Jackson, P; Jain, V; Jakobi, K B; Jakobs, K; Jakobsen, S; Jakoubek, T; Jamin, D O; Jana, D K; Jansen, E; Jansky, R; Janssen, J; Janus, M; Jarlskog, G; Javadov, N; Javůrek, T; Jeanneau, F; Jeanty, L; Jejelava, J; Jeng, G-Y; Jennens, D; Jenni, P; Jentzsch, J; Jeske, C; Jézéquel, S; Ji, H; Jia, J; Jiang, H; Jiang, Y; Jiggins, S; Jimenez Pena, J; Jin, S; Jinaru, A; Jinnouchi, O; Johansson, P; Johns, K A; Johnson, W J; Jon-And, K; Jones, G; Jones, R W L; Jones, S; Jones, T J; Jongmanns, J; Jorge, P M; Jovicevic, J; Ju, X; Juste Rozas, A; Köhler, M K; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Kagan, H; Kagan, M; Kahn, S J; Kajomovitz, E; Kalderon, C W; Kaluza, A; Kama, S; Kamenshchikov, A; Kanaya, N; Kaneti, S; Kanjir, L; Kantserov, V A; Kanzaki, J; Kaplan, B; Kaplan, L S; Kapliy, A; Kar, D; Karakostas, K; Karamaoun, A; Karastathis, N; Kareem, M J; Karentzos, E; Karnevskiy, M; Karpov, S N; Karpova, Z M; Karthik, K; Kartvelishvili, V; Karyukhin, A N; Kasahara, K; Kashif, L; Kass, R D; Kastanas, A; Kataoka, Y; Kato, C; Katre, A; Katzy, J; Kawade, K; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kawamura, G; Kazama, S; Kazanin, V F; Keeler, R; Kehoe, R; Keller, J S; Kempster, J J; Keoshkerian, H; Kepka, O; Kerševan, B P; Kersten, S; Keyes, R A; Khalil-Zada, F; Khandanyan, H; Khanov, A; Kharlamov, A G; Khoo, T J; Khovanskiy, V; Khramov, E; Khubua, J; Kido, S; Kim, H Y; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kind, O M; King, B T; King, M; King, S B; Kirk, J; Kiryunin, A E; Kishimoto, T; Kisielewska, D; Kiss, F; Kiuchi, K; Kivernyk, O; Kladiva, E; Klein, M H; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kleinknecht, K; Klimek, P; Klimentov, A; Klingenberg, R; Klinger, J A; Klioutchnikova, T; Kluge, E-E; Kluit, P; Kluth, S; Knapik, J; Kneringer, E; Knoops, E B F G; Knue, A; Kobayashi, A; Kobayashi, D; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kocian, M; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Koffeman, E; Kogan, L A; Kohriki, T; Koi, T; Kolanoski, H; Kolb, M; Koletsou, I; Komar, A A; Komori, Y; Kondo, T; Kondrashova, N; Köneke, K; König, A C; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kopeliansky, R; Koperny, S; Köpke, L; Kopp, A K; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korol, A A; Korolkov, I; Korolkova, E V; Kortner, O; Kortner, S; Kosek, T; Kostyukhin, V V; Kotov, V M; Kotwal, A; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouskoura, V; Koutsman, A; Kowalewska, A B; Kowalewski, R; Kowalski, T Z; Kozanecki, W; Kozhin, A S; Kramarenko, V A; Kramberger, G; Krasnopevtsev, D; Krasny, M W; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J K; Kravchenko, A; Kretz, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kreutzfeldt, K; Krieger, P; Krizka, K; Kroeninger, K; Kroha, H; Kroll, J; Kroseberg, J; Krstic, J; Kruchonak, U; Krüger, H; Krumnack, N; Kruse, A; Kruse, M C; Kruskal, M; Kubota, T; Kucuk, H; Kuday, S; Kuechler, J T; Kuehn, S; Kugel, A; Kuger, F; Kuhl, A; Kuhl, T; Kukhtin, V; Kukla, R; Kulchitsky, Y; Kuleshov, S; Kuna, M; Kunigo, T; Kupco, A; Kurashige, H; Kurochkin, Y A; Kus, V; Kuwertz, E S; Kuze, M; Kvita, J; Kwan, T; Kyriazopoulos, D; La Rosa, A; La Rosa Navarro, J L; La Rotonda, L; Lacasta, C; Lacava, F; Lacey, J; Lacker, H; Lacour, D; Lacuesta, V R; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lagouri, T; Lai, S; Lammers, S; Lampl, W; Lançon, E; Landgraf, U; Landon, M P J; Lang, V S; Lange, J C; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Lantzsch, K; Lanza, A; Laplace, S; Lapoire, C; Laporte, J F; Lari, T; Lasagni Manghi, F; Lassnig, M; Laurelli, P; Lavrijsen, W; Law, A T; Laycock, P; Lazovich, T; Lazzaroni, M; Le Dortz, O; Le Guirriec, E; Le Menedeu, E; Le Quilleuc, E P; LeBlanc, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lee, C A; Lee, S C; Lee, L; Lefebvre, G; Lefebvre, M; Legger, F; Leggett, C; Lehan, A; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Leight, W A; Leisos, A; Leister, A G; Leite, M A L; Leitner, R; Lellouch, D; Lemmer, B; Leney, K J C; Lenz, T; Lenzi, B; Leone, R; Leone, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Leontsinis, S; Lerner, G; Leroy, C; Lesage, A A J; Lester, C G; Levchenko, M; Levêque, J; Levin, D; Levinson, L J; Levy, M; Leyko, A M; Leyton, M; Li, B; Li, H; Li, H L; Li, L; Li, L; Li, Q; Li, S; Li, X; Li, Y; Liang, Z; Liao, H; Liberti, B; Liblong, A; Lichard, P; Lie, K; Liebal, J; Liebig, W; Limbach, C; Limosani, A; Lin, S C; Lin, T H; Lindquist, B E; Lipeles, E; Lipniacka, A; Lisovyi, M; Liss, T M; Lissauer, D; Lister, A; Litke, A M; Liu, B; Liu, D; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, K; Liu, L; Liu, M; Liu, M; Liu, Y L; Liu, Y; Livan, M; Lleres, A; Llorente Merino, J; Lloyd, S L; Lo Sterzo, F; Lobodzinska, E; Loch, P; Lockman, W S; Loebinger, F K; Loevschall-Jensen, A E; Loew, K M; Loginov, A; Lohse, T; Lohwasser, K; Lokajicek, M; Long, B A; Long, J D; Long, R E; Longo, L; Looper, K A; Lopes, L; Lopez Mateos, D; Lopez Paredes, B; Lopez Paz, I; Lopez Solis, A; Lorenz, J; Lorenzo Martinez, N; Losada, M; Lösel, P J; Lou, X; Lounis, A; Love, J; Love, P A; Lu, H; Lu, N; Lubatti, H J; Luci, C; Lucotte, A; Luedtke, C; Luehring, F; Lukas, W; Luminari, L; Lundberg, O; Lund-Jensen, B; Lynn, D; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Lyubushkin, V; Ma, H; Ma, L L; Ma, Y; Maccarrone, G; Macchiolo, A; Macdonald, C M; Maček, B; Machado Miguens, J; Madaffari, D; Madar, R; Maddocks, H J; Mader, W F; Madsen, A; Maeda, J; Maeland, S; Maeno, T; Maevskiy, A; Magradze, E; Mahlstedt, J; Maiani, C; Maidantchik, C; Maier, A A; Maier, T; Maio, A; Majewski, S; Makida, Y; Makovec, N; Malaescu, B; Malecki, Pa; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mallik, U; Malon, D; Malone, C; Maltezos, S; Malyshev, V M; Malyukov, S; Mamuzic, J; Mancini, G; Mandelli, B; Mandelli, L; Mandić, I; Maneira, J; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L; Manjarres Ramos, J; Mann, A; Mansoulie, B; Mantifel, R; Mantoani, M; Manzoni, S; Mapelli, L; Marceca, G; March, L; Marchiori, G; Marcisovsky, M; Marjanovic, M; Marley, D E; Marroquim, F; Marsden, S P; Marshall, Z; Marti, L F; Marti-Garcia, S; Martin, B; Martin, T A; Martin, V J; Martin Dit Latour, B; Martinez, M; Martin-Haugh, S; Martoiu, V S; Martyniuk, A C; Marx, M; Marzano, F; Marzin, A; Masetti, L; Mashimo, T; Mashinistov, R; Masik, J; Maslennikov, A L; Massa, I; Massa, L; Mastrandrea, P; Mastroberardino, A; Masubuchi, T; Mättig, P; Mattmann, J; Maurer, J; Maxfield, S J; Maximov, D A; Mazini, R; Mazza, S M; Mc Fadden, N C; Mc Goldrick, G; Mc Kee, S P; McCarn, A; McCarthy, R L; McCarthy, T G; McClymont, L I; McFarlane, K W; Mcfayden, J A; Mchedlidze, G; McMahon, S J; McPherson, R A; Medici, M; Medinnis, M; Meehan, S; Mehlhase, S; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meineck, C; Meirose, B; Mellado Garcia, B R; Meloni, F; Mengarelli, A; Menke, S; Meoni, E; Mercurio, K M; Mergelmeyer, S; Mermod, P; Merola, L; Meroni, C; Merritt, F S; Messina, A; Metcalfe, J; Mete, A S; Meyer, C; Meyer, C; Meyer, J-P; Meyer, J; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, H; Middleton, R P; Miglioranzi, S; Mijović, L; Mikenberg, G; Mikestikova, M; Mikuž, M; Milesi, M; Milic, A; Miller, D W; Mills, C; Milov, A; Milstead, D A; Minaenko, A A; Minami, Y; Minashvili, I A; Mincer, A I; Mindur, B; Mineev, M; Ming, Y; Mir, L M; Mistry, K P; Mitani, T; Mitrevski, J; Mitsou, V A; Miucci, A; Miyagawa, P S; Mjörnmark, J U; Moa, T; Mochizuki, K; Mohapatra, S; Mohr, W; Molander, S; Moles-Valls, R; Monden, R; Mondragon, M C; Mönig, K; Monk, J; Monnier, E; Montalbano, A; Montejo Berlingen, J; Monticelli, F; Monzani, S; Moore, R W; Morange, N; Moreno, D; Moreno Llácer, M; Morettini, P; Mori, D; Mori, T; Morii, M; Morinaga, M; Morisbak, V; Moritz, S; Morley, A K; Mornacchi, G; Morris, J D; Mortensen, S S; Morvaj, L; Mosidze, M; Moss, J; Motohashi, K; Mount, R; Mountricha, E; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E J W; Muanza, S; Mudd, R D; Mueller, F; Mueller, J; Mueller, R S P; Mueller, T; Muenstermann, D; Mullen, P; Mullier, G A; Munoz Sanchez, F J; Murillo Quijada, J A; Murray, W J; Musheghyan, H; Muskinja, M; Myagkov, A G; Myska, M; Nachman, B P; Nackenhorst, O; Nadal, J; Nagai, K; Nagai, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Nagata, K; Nagel, M; Nagy, E; Nairz, A M; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Nakano, I; Namasivayam, H; Naranjo Garcia, R F; Narayan, R; Narrias Villar, D I; Naryshkin, I; Naumann, T; Navarro, G; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Nechaeva, P Yu; Neep, T J; Nef, P D; Negri, A; Negrini, M; Nektarijevic, S; Nellist, C; Nelson, A; Nemecek, S; Nemethy, P; Nepomuceno, A A; Nessi, M; Neubauer, M S; Neumann, M; Neves, R M; Nevski, P; Newman, P R; Nguyen, D H; Nickerson, R B; Nicolaidou, R; Nicquevert, B; Nielsen, J; Nikiforov, A; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nikolopoulos, K; Nilsen, J K; Nilsson, P; Ninomiya, Y; Nisati, A; Nisius, R; Nobe, T; Nodulman, L; Nomachi, M; Nomidis, I; Nooney, T; Norberg, S; Nordberg, M; Norjoharuddeen, N; Novgorodova, O; Nowak, S; Nozaki, M; Nozka, L; Ntekas, K; Nurse, E; Nuti, F; O'grady, F; O'Neil, D C; O'Rourke, A A; O'Shea, V; Oakham, F G; Oberlack, H; Obermann, T; Ocariz, J; Ochi, A; Ochoa, I; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oda, S; Odaka, S; Ogren, H; Oh, A; Oh, S H; Ohm, C C; Ohman, H; Oide, H; Okawa, H; Okumura, Y; Okuyama, T; Olariu, A; Oleiro Seabra, L F; Olivares Pino, S A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Olszewski, A; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Onogi, K; Onyisi, P U E; Oram, C J; Oreglia, M J; Oren, Y; Orestano, D; Orlando, N; Orr, R S; Osculati, B; Ospanov, R; Otero Y Garzon, G; Otono, H; Ouchrif, M; Ould-Saada, F; Ouraou, A; Oussoren, K P; Ouyang, Q; Owen, M; Owen, R E; Ozcan, V E; Ozturk, N; Pachal, K; Pacheco Pages, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Pagáčová, M; Pagan Griso, S; Paige, F; Pais, P; Pajchel, K; Palacino, G; Palestini, S; Palka, M; Pallin, D; Palma, A; Panagiotopoulou, E St; Pandini, C E; Panduro Vazquez, J G; Pani, P; Panitkin, S; Pantea, D; Paolozzi, L; Papadopoulou, Th D; Papageorgiou, K; Paramonov, A; Paredes Hernandez, D; Parker, A J; Parker, M A; Parker, K A; Parodi, F; Parsons, J A; Parzefall, U; Pascuzzi, V R; Pasqualucci, E; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G; Pataraia, S; Patel, N D; Pater, J R; Pauly, T; Pearce, J; Pearson, B; Pedersen, L E; Pedersen, M; Pedraza Lopez, S; Pedro, R; Peleganchuk, S V; Pelikan, D; Penc, O; Peng, C; Peng, H; Penwell, J; Peralva, B S; Perego, M M; Perepelitsa, D V; Perez Codina, E; Perini, L; Pernegger, H; Perrella, S; Peschke, R; Peshekhonov, V D; Peters, K; Peters, R F Y; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petit, E; Petridis, A; Petridou, C; Petroff, P; Petrolo, E; Petrov, M; Petrucci, F; Pettersson, N E; Peyaud, A; Pezoa, R; Phillips, P W; Piacquadio, G; Pianori, E; Picazio, A; Piccaro, E; Piccinini, M; Pickering, M A; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pilkington, A D; Pin, A W J; Pina, J; Pinamonti, M; Pinfold, J L; Pingel, A; Pires, S; Pirumov, H; Pitt, M; Plazak, L; Pleier, M-A; Pleskot, V; Plotnikova, E; Plucinski, P; Pluth, D; Poettgen, R; Poggioli, L; Pohl, D; Polesello, G; Poley, A; Policicchio, A; Polifka, R; Polini, A; Pollard, C S; Polychronakos, V; Pommès, K; Pontecorvo, L; Pope, B G; Popeneciu, G A; Popovic, D S; Poppleton, A; Pospisil, S; Potamianos, K; Potrap, I N; Potter, C J; Potter, C T; Poulard, G; Poveda, J; Pozdnyakov, V; Pozo Astigarraga, M E; Pralavorio, P; Pranko, A; Prell, S; Price, D; Price, L E; Primavera, M; Prince, S; Proissl, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Przybycien, M; Puddu, D; Puldon, D; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Qian, J; Qin, G; Qin, Y; Quadt, A; Quayle, W B; Queitsch-Maitland, M; Quilty, D; Raddum, S; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Rados, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Raine, J A; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rangel-Smith, C; Ratti, M G; Rauscher, F; Rave, S; Ravenscroft, T; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Readioff, N P; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reichert, J; Reisin, H; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rifki, O; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Rizzi, C; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Rodina, Y; Rodriguez Perez, A; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D; Roe, S; Rogan, C S; Røhne, O; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Romano Saez, S M; Romero Adam, E; Rompotis, N; Ronzani, M; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, P; Rosenthal, O; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, J H N; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rubinskiy, I; Rud, V I; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Russell, H L; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryu, S; Ryzhov, A; Saavedra, A F; Sabato, G; Sacerdoti, S; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Safai Tehrani, F; Saha, P; Sahinsoy, M; Saimpert, M; Saito, T; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Salazar Loyola, J E; Salek, D; Sales De Bruin, P H; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sammel, D; Sampsonidis, D; Sanchez, A; Sánchez, J; Sanchez Martinez, V; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sander, H G; Sanders, M P; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sannino, M; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Santoyo Castillo, I; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sato, K; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Savage, G; Savard, P; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Scarfone, V; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaeffer, J; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Schiavi, C; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, S; Schneider, B; Schnellbach, Y J; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schopf, E; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schuh, N; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schwegler, Ph; Schweiger, H; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekhon, K; Sekula, S J; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Sessa, M; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shaikh, N W; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shaw, S M; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shoaleh Saadi, D; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sidebo, P E; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simon, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sioli, M; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Slovak, R; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, M N K; Smith, R W; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Sokhrannyi, G; Solans Sanchez, C A; Solar, M; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramaniam, R; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tannenwald, B B; Tapia Araya, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Temple, D; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Tibbetts, M J; Ticse Torres, R E; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turgeman, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tyndel, M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valdes Santurio, E; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 [Formula: see text] was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. The results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.

  20. Proton Source for Characterizing and Testing Charged Particle Silicon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in experimental design and equipment have increased our capability for future neutron beta decay measurements. The upcoming experiments have the potential to test the Standard Model at the same level as the superallowed nuclear beta decay measurements but without the need for nuclear corrections. Part of the improvement comes from new large-area pixelated silicon detector technology. The precision and accuracy that is demanded by the neutron beta decay experiments require detailed characterization of the detectors. Such characterization can be achieved using a low current, variable energy proton beam. The design and simulation of a proton beam from source through accelerator will be presented. University of Tennessee Physics Summer Fellowship.

  1. Optimization of detector positioning in the radioactive particle tracking technique.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Olivier; Dubé, David; Chaouki, Jamal; Bertrand, François

    2014-07-01

    The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique is a non-intrusive experimental velocimetry and tomography technique extensively applied to the study of hydrodynamics in a great variety of systems. In this technique, arrays of scintillation detector are used to track the motion of a single radioactive tracer particle emitting isotropic γ-rays. This work describes and applies an optimization strategy developed to find an optimal set of positions for the scintillation detectors used in the RPT technique. This strategy employs the overall resolution of the detectors as the objective function and a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) algorithm to solve the optimization problem. More precisely, NOMAD, a C++ implementation of the MADS algorithm is used. First, the optimization strategy is validated using simple cases with known optimal detector configurations. Next, it is applied to a three-dimensional axisymmetric system (i.e. a vertical cylinder, which could represent a fluidized bed, bubble column, riser or else). The results obtained using the optimization strategy are in agreement with what was previously recommended by Roy et al. (2002) for a similar system. Finally, the optimization strategy is used for a system consisting of a partially filled cylindrical tumbler. The application of insights gained by the optimization strategy is shown to lead to a significant reduction in the error made when reconstructing the position of a tracer particle. The results of this work show that the optimization strategy developed is sensitive to both the type of objective function used and the experimental conditions. The limitations and drawbacks of the optimization strategy are also discussed.

  2. Design and characterization of an SRAM-based neutron detector for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S.; Velure, Arild; Larsen, Eivind F.; Stokkevåg, Camilla H.; Röhrich, Dieter; Brekke, Njål; Odland, Odd Harald

    2015-12-01

    A neutron detector based on registration of radiation effects in Static Random Access Memories (SRAMs) has been developed at the University of Bergen for applications in particle therapy. Nine different SRAMs were tested and a 16 Mibit SRAM from Cypress was chosen for the final detector. The SRAMs were irradiated in beam lines at PTB Braunschweig, the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory, The Svedberg Laboratory, The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE, Kjeller) and the CERN-EU high-energy reference field. The results from the measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using the selected SRAMs for neutron detection. The results indicate low or no sensitivity to thermal neutrons while the cross section for fast neutrons increases with neutron energy before reaching a more stable level at energies of several tenths of MeV.

  3. Low Energy Electron Detector for Space Radiation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Wojtek

    Low Energy Electron Detector LEED is a miniature particle monitor for measurements in space. It is based on the MYTHEN Si-microstrip system made at Paul Scherrer Institut PSI for X-ray detection at the Synchrotron Light Source SLS. It was designed in collaboration with the European Space Agency ESA in order to provide a new instrument covering an unexplored energy range of space electrons below few tens of keV. A lack of measurements and realtime data both at low and high energies of particle as well as difficulties in radiation belts modeling are still persisting even after 40 years from their discovery. In particular the low energy electrons, up to few hundred keV are particularly poorly studied. Such electrons can shed a new light on the acceleration and trapping processes and on the dynamics of radiation belts. Measurements of electrons in wide range of energies can provide a link between hot plasma and trapped higher energy particles. The long term observations can probe and verify a coupling between Sun and Earth magnetosphere. On the spacecraft environment side, the electrons with energies of tens of keV can create radiation hazard for on-board instruments, induce spacecraft charging and increase the background in precise X-ray observations. Therefore the requirements put on monitors devoted for above studies are very demanding and often opposing. A special care in construction of LEED - the space version of MYTHEN was optimizing it for very high fluxes and harsh radiation environment. The device aims to monitor Space Weather, map planetary Radiation Belts and study hot plasmas and particle acceleration. It will detect electrons with energies from few up to few hundred keV with energy resolution of several keV. The detector is characterized by ability to deal with very high counting rate of up to 1.4 million counts per second per strip. Its core is a PSI developed radiation hard ASIC read-out chip serving for 128 detection channels. The main design features

  4. Measurements of identified particle spectra in diffractive pp collisions with the STAR detector at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulek, Łukasz

    2017-03-01

    We present the diffractive program with the STAR Roman Pot detectors at RHIC, focusing on the spectra of identified charged particles as pions, kaons and protons and their anti-particle counterparts in Single Diffraction (p + p → p + X) and Central Diffraction (p + p → p + X + p) processes. Moreover, the p ¯/p ratio as a function of rapidity is presented to study the baryon number transfer from forward to midrapidity in Single Diffraction. Similar effect has been studied in proton-proton and proton-photon interactions but it is the first measurement in proton-Pomeron interaction. The forward proton(s) were tagged in the STAR Roman Pot system while the identified charged particle tracks were reconstructed in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight of charged particles were used for particle identification. In addition, the status and future prospects of the diffractive meaurements at RHIC is described.

  5. Observation of high-energy neutrinos with Cerenkov detectors embedded deep in Antarctic ice

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-02

    Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The neutrino's great penetrating power, however, also makes this particle difficult to detect. Underground detectors have observed low-energy neutrinos from the Sun and a nearby supernova, as well as neutrinos generated in the Earth's atmosphere. But the very low fluxes of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources can be observed only by much larger, expandable detectors in, for we report the detection of upwardly propagating atmospheric neutrinos by the ice-based Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA). These results establish a technology with which to build a kilometre-scale neutrino observatory necessary for astrophysical observations.

  6. Observation of high-energy neutrinos with Cerenkov detectors embedded deep in Antarctic ice

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-22

    Neutrinos are elementary particles that carry no electric charge and have little mass. As they interact only weakly with other particles, they can penetrate enormous amounts of matter, and therefore have the potential to directly convey astrophysical information from the edge of the Universe and from deep inside the most cataclysmic high-energy regions. The neutrino's great penetrating power, however, also makes this particle difficult to detect. Underground detectors have observed low-energy neutrinos from the Sun and a nearby supernova, as well as neutrinos generated in the Earth's atmosphere. But the very low fluxes of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources can be observed only by much larger, expandable detectors in, for example, deep water or ice. Here we report the detection of upwardly propagating atmospheric neutrinos by the ice-based Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA). These results establish a technology with which to build a kilometre-scale neutrino observatory necessary for astrophysical observations.

  7. A fast, self-recovering superconducting strip particle detector made with granular tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabutti, A.; Gray, K. E.; Pugh, G. M.; Tiberio, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of detectors to automatically recover (self-recovery) in a short period of time after sensing a particle is a very valuable advantage for their use as microvertex detectors at high energy particle colliders. Using a superconducting strip detector made of granular tungsten, we have observed such behavior with pulse amplitudes of few 100 μV and recovery times fo 10-50 ns. A 1.8 μm wide thin film was used to detect the superconducting-to-normal transitions induced by the absorption of 55Fe, 6 keV X-rays. For high bias currents the detector did not self-recover and a constant efficiency estimated to ˜65% was found, but with good indications that such a rate would persist in the self-recovery mode at lower bias currents. The threshold between self-recovering and propagating hotspots is discussed within the thermal propagation model, developed previously for normal regions which bridge the width of the strip. These results also confirm the potential applications of superconducting strips for high resolution X-rays detectors.

  8. Determination of the radial gradient in the region 0.81-1.0 AU using both high- and low-energy /more than 10-GeV and more than 52-MeV/ detectors for the 1-AU monitor. [solar quiet measurements of alpha particles and protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Bukata, R. P.; Rao, U. R.

    1974-01-01

    A determination of the radial gradient for alpha particles (31-46 MeV/nuc) and protons with energies above 7.5 MeV and 44-77 MeV in the region 1.0-0.81 AU is presented for the solar-quiet year 1966. The determinations are based on data from the Pioneer 6 space probe. Two different detectors are used: the Deep River neutron monitor and measurements of low energy protons made on the IMP-C satellite. The average energy response of the Deep River monitor is 16 GeV, whereas the IMP-C data is for protons with energies above 50 MeV. The resulting radial gradient is found to be nearly zero for the alpha particles and slightly negative for the protons. The same qualitative results were found using the IMP-C data and the Deep River neutron monitor to measure the temporal variation in the cosmic ray intensity. The present analysis indicates that detectors over a wide range of energies are suitable for measuring the radial gradient, providing sufficient statistical precision is obtained to evaluate short-term modulation and the azimuthal separation of the detectors is not great.

  9. 14C autoradiography with an energy-sensitive silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Mettivier, G; Russo, P

    2011-04-07

    The first performance tests are presented of a carbon-14 ((14)C) beta-particle digital autoradiography system with an energy-sensitive hybrid silicon pixel detector based on the Timepix readout circuit. Timepix was developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration and it is similar to the photon-counting Medipix2 circuit, except for an added time-based synchronization logic which allows derivation of energy information from the time-over-threshold signal. This feature permits direct energy measurements in each pixel of the detector array. Timepix is bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon detector with 256 × 256 pixels of 55 µm pitch. Since an energetic beta-particle could release its kinetic energy in more than one detector pixel as it slows down in the semiconductor detector, an off-line image analysis procedure was adopted in which the single-particle cluster of hit pixels is recognized; its total energy is calculated and the position of interaction on the detector surface is attributed to the centre of the charge cluster. Measurements reported are detector sensitivity, (4.11 ± 0.03) × 10(-3) cps mm(-2) kBq(-1) g, background level, (3.59 ± 0.01) × 10(-5) cps mm(-2), and minimum detectable activity, 0.0077 Bq. The spatial resolution is 76.9 µm full-width at half-maximum. These figures are compared with several digital imaging detectors for (14)C beta-particle digital autoradiography.

  10. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Plaud-Ramos, K. O.; Freeman, M. S.; Wei, W.; Guardincerri, E.; Bacon, J. D.; Cowan, J.; Durham, J. M.; Huang, D.; Gao, J.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Poulson, D. C.; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-11-15

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a {sup 90}Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  11. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Wei, Wanchun; Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Cowan, Joseph Sarno; Durham, J. Matthew; Huang, Di; Gao, Jun; Hoffbauer, Mark Arles; Morley, Deborah Jean; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel Cris; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-08-03

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a 90Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Furthermore, noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  12. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Wei, Wanchun; Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Cowan, Joseph Sarno; Durham, J. Matthew; Huang, Di; Gao, Jun; Hoffbauer, Mark Arles; Morley, Deborah Jean; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel Cris; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-08-03

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a 90Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Furthermore, noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  13. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Freeman, Matthew Stouten; Wei, Wanchun; ...

    2016-08-03

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a 90Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Furthermore, noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  14. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors.

    PubMed

    Plaud-Ramos, K O; Freeman, M S; Wei, W; Guardincerri, E; Bacon, J D; Cowan, J; Durham, J M; Huang, D; Gao, J; Hoffbauer, M A; Morley, D J; Morris, C L; Poulson, D C; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-11-01

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a (90)Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  15. Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.

  16. Calibration of the Sweeper Chamber Charged-Particle Detectors for the LISA Commissioning Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, J.; Grovom, A.; Rogers, W.; MoNA Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The new LISA (Large-area multi-Institutional Scintillator Array) neutron detector array, designed to be used in conjunction with MoNA (Modular Neutron Array) was recently commissioned at the NSCL in an experiment designed to investigate excited states of neutron-rich Oxygen isotopes near the neutron drip-line. Charged fragments resulting from the neutron decays were swept out of the beam direction by the Sweeper Magnet after which they passed through a series of charged-particle detectors for fragment trajectory and energy determination. In order to achieve isotope separation and identification at the focal plane, which is then used to reconstruct the invariant mass of the unbound states, precise determinations of the fragment and neutron energies and trajectories are required. To correct for time-drifts in the charge-particle detectors that develop over the entire length of the experiment, Root C++ macros were developed to analyze and precisely correct for these detector drifts to within few tenths of a nanosecond. Root macros were also developed to position calibrate the ion chamber and CRDC's. Results for the LISA commissioning run will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-1101745.

  17. A Detector Radioactive Particles Can't Evade

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    As part of its national security mission, Lawrence Livermore develops technologies to help government agencies prevent terrorists from smuggling nuclear materials into the country. One ongoing effort is to design radiation detectors that can distinguish threat sources from legitimate sources, such as medical isotopes, and naturally occurring radiation. (See S&TR, September 2004, pp. 4-11; May 2006, pp. 4-10.) Detectors intended for use by nonspecialists must be easy to operate and require minimal maintenance. To be most effective, they also must detect both gamma and neutron energies. That may sound like a lot to ask of one instrument, but the Ultrahigh-Resolution Gamma and Neutron Spectrometer (UltraSpec) delivers all of these features. UltraSpec is so sensitive that even the minute thermal energy deposited by a single gamma ray or neutron can be detected with high precision. With this capability, the detector can identify differences in composition that help reveal a material's origin, processing history, and likely intended use. In addition to its application as a counterterrorism technology, UltraSpec can be used to protect nuclear material stored at nuclear power plants, to evaluate weapon stockpiles, and to verify material composition. UltraSpec was developed by a team of scientists and engineers from Livermore's Physics and Advanced Technologies and Engineering directorates working with VeriCold Technologies of Ismaning, Germany. The detector's design builds on a technology base established in three Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects. The UltraSpec team, which is led by Laboratory physicist Stephan Friedrich, received a 2006 R&D 100 Award for the detector's innovative design.

  18. Detectors (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  19. Detectors (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  20. Particle identification with time-of-flight and pulse-shape discrimination in neutron-transmutation-doped silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutterer, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Sillanpää, M.; von Kalben, J.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Schrieder, G.; Tyurin, G. P.

    2009-09-01

    A method for the identification of energetic charged particles has been investigated based on the employment of pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in a silicon detector in addition to conventional time-of-flight (ToF) techniques. The method makes use of the fact that, at fixed energy, the particle's velocity, or ToF, is a measure of the particle's mass A while the time structure of the current pulse in a silicon energy detector, used as the ToF stop, permits identification of nuclear charges Z. In the measurements presented here, ToF and PSD methods were applied simultaneously. We used micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors as fast time pick-offs and surface-barrier (SB) n-type Si detectors made from homogeneously neutron-transmutation-doped (n-TD) silicon. As the particles, products from the reactions of a 400 MeV 20Ne beam impinging on 12C, 27Al and 208Pb targets were employed. With using fast current-sensitive pre-amplifiers for the 250 and 800 μm SB detectors a major progress in particle identification with respect to both, mass A and charge Z was achieved. In addition, using a stack of two closely mounted n-TD SB detectors, a timing measurement between the two detectors permitted to study PSD in the rear detector with the time trigger derived from the foremost one. Finally, the internal PSD method was implemented which determines pulse rise-time in single detectors from analyzing differentiated preamplifier timing signals.

  1. Building a Neutral Particle Detector for the ASPERA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Red, Jogenia; Bell, Maria; Allred, David D.; Lunt, Shannon; Turley, R. Steven; Olson, Spencer E.; Squires, Matthew B.

    2001-11-01

    We fabricated a start surface for a neutral particle detector to be used in the ASPERA mission sponsored by the European Space Agency. The mirror needed be a poor reflector at 1216 Åbut efficiently provide electrons when struck by particles with nearly elastic collisions. Our design consisted of an oxidized Ti substrate covered with approximately 300 Åof Cr, 110 Å of MgF_2, and 8 Å of WO_x. The thicknesses of the MgF2 and WO_x layers were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The surfaces had a reflectance of about 24% at 15^circ incidence from grazing. The reflectance was measured using a hydrogen hollow-cathode source connected to a McPherson Vacuum Monochromator and a computer-controlled reflectometer we designed and built. The strong dependence of the reflectance on incident angle made the angular accuracy and uncertainty especially critical.

  2. A modular solid state detector for measuring high energy heavy ion fragmentation near the beam axis.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, C J; Frankel, K A; Gong, W; Heilbronn, L; Lampo, E J; Leres, R; Miller, J; Schimmerling, W

    1994-01-01

    A multi-element solid state detector has been designed to measure fluences of fragments produced near the beam axis by high energy heavy ion beams in thick targets. The detector is compact and modular, so as to be readily reconfigured according to the range of fragment charges and energies to be measured. Preamplifier gain settings and detector calibrations are adjustable remotely under computer control. We describe the central detector, its associated detectors and electronics, triggering scheme, data acquisition and particle identification techniques, illustrated by data taken with 600 MeV/u 56Fe beams and thick polyethylene targets at the LBL Bevalac. The applications of this work to space radiation protection are discussed.

  3. A modular solid state detector for measuring high energy heavy ion fragmentation near the beam axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Frankel, K. A.; Gong, W.; Heilbronn, L.; Lampo, E. J.; Leres, R.; Miller, J.; Schimmerling, W.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-element solid state detector has been designed to measure fluences of fragments produced near the beam axis by high energy heavy ion beams in thick targets. The detector is compact and modular, so as to be readily reconfigured according to the range of fragment charges and energies to be measured. Preamplifier gain settings and detector calibrations are adjustable remotely under computer control. We describe the central detector, its associated detectors and electronics, triggering scheme, data acquisition and particle identification techniques, illustrated by data taken with 600 MeV/u 56Fe beams and thick polyethylene targets at the LBL Bevalac. The applications of this work to space radiation protection are discussed.

  4. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Hahn, Robert von; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan

    2015-02-15

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK’s Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  5. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments.

    PubMed

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2015-02-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  6. Detector response function of an energy-resolved CdTe single photon counting detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2014-01-01

    While spectral CT using single photon counting detector has shown a number of advantages in diagnostic imaging, knowledge of the detector response function of an energy-resolved detector is needed to correct the signal bias and reconstruct the image more accurately. The objective of this paper is to study the photo counting detector response function using laboratory sources, and investigate the signal bias correction method. Our approach is to model the detector response function over the entire diagnostic energy range (20 keV detector response function at six photon energies. The 12 parameters are obtained by non-linear least-square fitting with the measured detector response functions at the six energies. The correlations of the 12 parameters with energy are also investigated with the measured data. The analytical model generally describes the detector response function and is in good agreement with the measured data. The trend lines of the 12 parameters indicate higher energies tend to cause grater spectrum distortion. The spectrum distortion caused by the detector response function on spectral CT reconstruction is analyzed theoretically, and a solution to correct this spectrum distortion is also proposed. In spectral and fluorescence CT, the spectrum distortion caused by detector response function poses a problem and cannot be ignored in any quantitative analysis. The detector response function of a CdTe detector can be obtained by a semi-analytical method.

  7. Energy Resolution of a Large-Scale Liquid Argon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Kevin; Mishra, Sanjib; LBNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The high granularity and feasibility of large-scale construction makes the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) a suitable technology for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) far detector. Particle identification relies largely on the topology and calorimetric information from the signature left in the detector. The measurements LBNE intends to make depend on accurately distinguishing charged current electron neutrino events from neutral current background events. A neutrino event featuring an electron produced by νe interaction will tag it as signal; although, gammas from π0 decays in neutral current events induce electromagnetic showers that resemble those of an electron. The granularity and high energy resolution of LArTPCs enable dE/dx to be extracted from the beginning of these showers which helps separate gammas from electrons and, ultimately, charged current electron neutrino events from neutral current events. Presented here is an estimation of the technology's energy resolution and a demonstration of its capabilities for separating electrons and gammas using dE/dx. Sanjib works closely with Kevin on the presented material.

  8. Searches for supersymmetric particles in p pbar collisions with the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, W.

    1996-08-01

    We report on searches for supersymmetric particles with the D0 detector at the Fermilab p{ovr p} collider at {radical}s = 1800 GeV. The four searches are: (1) for squarks and gluinos in the jets + missing transverse energy channel, (2) for a light top squark in the jets + missing transverse energy channel, (3) for squarks and gluinos in the dielectron channel, and (4) for charginos and neutralinos in the trilepton channel. The first two searches use data from the 1992- 93 collider run, and the latter two use data from the 1994-95 collider run. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Characterization of GaAs:Cr-based Timepix detector using synchrotron radiation and charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyanskiy, P.; Chelkov, G.; Guskov, A.; Dedovich, D.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonak, U.; Leyva Fabelo, A.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The interest in the use of high resistivity gallium arsenide compensated by chromium (GaAs:Cr) for photon detection has been growing steadily due to its numerous advantages over silicon. At the same time, the prospects of this material as a sensor for pixel detectors in nuclear and high energy physics are much less studied. In this paper we report the results of characterization of the Timepix detectors hybridized with GaAs:Cr sensors of various thickness using synchrotron radiation and various charged particles, including alphas and heavy ions. The energy and spatial resolution have been determined. Interesting features of GaAs:Cr specific to the detector response to an extremely dense energy deposit by heavy ions have been observed for the first time. The long-term stability of the detector has been evaluated based on the measurements performed over one year. Possible limitation of GaAs:Cr as a sensor for high flux X-ray imaging is discussed.

  10. {Lambda} single-particle energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1995-08-01

    We are continuing our work on the {Lambda} hyperon single-particle (s.p.) energies and their interpretation in terms of the basic {Lambda}-nuclear interactions. In particular we are interpreting the results obtained by S.C. Pieper, A. Usmani and Q.N. Usmani. We obtain about 30 MeV for the repulsive contribution of the three-body {Lambda}NN forces in nuclear matter. We are able to exclude purely {open_quotes}dispersive{close_quotes} {Lambda}NN forces. We are investigating the mix of dispersive and two-pion-exchange {Lambda}NN forces which provide a fit to the s.p. data. For interactions, which provide a fit to the s.p. data, the {Lambda} binding energy as a function of the nuclear matter density shows characteristic saturation features with a maximum at a density not very different from that of normal nuclear matter. We obtain a more precise measure of the space-exchange part of the {Lambda}-nuclear force than was previously available, corresponding to an exchange parameter {approx_equal} 0.32. The space-exchange force is rather directly related to the effective mass of a {Lambda} in the nuclear medium and turns out to be about 70% of its free mass. As a result, we also obtain a much better value for the p-state {Lambda}-nucleus potential which is about 40% of the s-state potential. The A binding to nuclear matter is determined to be {approx_equal} 28 MeV.

  11. The development of a high energy cosmic ray detector for Spacelab-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lheureux, J.; Meyer, P.; Mueller, D.; Swordy, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    A large cosmic ray detector aimed at measurements of the energy spectra and of the elemental abundances of cosmic ray nuclei at very high energies, up to several TeV/nucleon was constructed. The instrument is an electronic counter telescope with a geometric factor of 5 sq ster. It accomplishes measurements of the particle energies through the use of gas Cerenkov counters and of transition radiation detectors. The solutions of a number of technological problems that are encountered when developing such instrumentation for Shuttle missions are discussed.

  12. 18F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Marotta, M; Aloj, L; Lastoria, S

    2008-11-07

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with (18)F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm(2) sensitive area, 300 microm thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 microm pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with (18)F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with (18)F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for beta(+) of 0.377 cps Bq(-1), a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm(-2). Real-time (18)F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 microm) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with approximately 100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  13. Application of the S3M and Mcnpx Codes in Particle Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovič, Márius; Sedlačková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Strašík, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Semiconductor detectors can be used to detect neutrons if they are covered by a conversion layer. Some neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen via elastic nuclear scattering in the conversion layer, and protons are produced as recoils. These protons enter the sensitive volume of the detector and are detected. In the process of detector development, Monte Carlo computer codes are necessary to simulate the detection process. This paper presents the main features of the S3M code (SRIM Supporting Software Modules) and shows its application potential. Examples are given for the neutron detectors with a conversion layer and for CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detectors for beam-condition monitors at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Special attention is paid to the S3M statistical modules that can be of interest also for other application areas like beam transport, accelerators, ion therapy, etc. The results are generated by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) simulations used to optimize the thickness of the HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer.

  14. High-energy neutron spectroscopy with thick silicon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinnison, James D.; Maurer, Richard H.; Roth, David R.; Haight, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The high-energy neutron component of the space radiation environment in thick structures such as the International Space Station contributes to the total radiation dose received by an astronaut. Detector design constraints such as size and mass have limited the energy range of neutron spectrum measurements in orbit to about 12 MeV in Space Shuttle studies. We present a new method for high-energy neutron spectroscopy using small silicon detectors that can extend these measurements to more than 500 MeV. The methodology is based on measurement of the detector response function for high-energy neutrons and inversion of this response function with measured deposition data to deduce neutron energy spectra. We also present the results of an initial shielding study performed with the thick silicon detector system for high-energy neutrons incident on polyethylene.

  15. Calibration and Testing of the Energetic Particle Detector for the Electron Losses and Fields Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingley, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Caron, R.; Chung, M.; Runov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Electron Losses and Fields Investigation, (ELFIN), is a 3U+ CubeSat space weather mission in development at UCLA, preparing for a launch into low Earth orbit in late 2017. The goal of the ELFIN mission is to characterize the pitch-angle resolved energy distribution of relativistic particles as they precipitate from the radiation belts into Earth's atmosphere. This is achieved with the use of an Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) designed, developed, and tested by engineers and scientists at UCLA. The detector is equipped with two sensors, one for electrons and one for ions, and is capable of resolving particles with an energy range of 50 keV to >4 MeV (electrons) and 50 keV to >300 keV (ions). The uniqueness of the ELFIN EPD is due to this wide energy range coupled with a narrow field of view (<28°), along with its miniaturization into a 1U CubeSat form factor. With the instrument design complete, calibration and verification of the performance of the instrument is now being conducted using radioactive sources in air and in vacuum. This will prove readiness for a July 2017 ELFIN mission delivery for launch on a Delta II out of VAFB with NASA/IceSatII as its primary.

  16. Lepton identification at particle flow oriented detector for the future e+e- Higgs factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Ruan, Manqi; Boudry, Vincent; Videau, Henri

    2017-09-01

    The lepton identification is essential for the physics programs at high-energy frontier, especially for the precise measurement of the Higgs boson. For this purpose, a toolkit for multivariate data analysis (TMVA) based lepton identification (LICH) has been developed for detectors using high granularity calorimeters. Using the conceptual detector geometry for the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) and single charged particle samples with energy larger than 2 GeV, LICH identifies electrons/muons with efficiencies higher than 99.5% and controls the mis-identification rate of hadron to muons/electrons to better than 1/0.5%. Reducing the calorimeter granularity by 1-2 orders of magnitude, the lepton identification performance is stable for particles with E > 2 GeV. Applied to fully simulated eeH/μ μ H events, the lepton identification performance is consistent with the single particle case: the efficiency of identifying all the high energy leptons in an event, is 95.5-98.5%.

  17. Energy subtraction computed tomography measured by current-mode detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, I.; Imamura, R.; Mikami, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohtaka, M.; Ara, K.; Nomiya, S.; Onabe, H.

    2009-10-01

    For the reduction of exposure dose in contrast media detection with X-ray transmission measurements, the energy measurement of X-rays and the energy subtraction (ES) method have been shown to be effective. To make the ES method applicable, a novel detector for unfolding the X-ray energy distribution was proposed by the authors. As an application of this novel detector, a CT image was reconstructed with ES data and compared with the image reconstructed using electric current data.

  18. Charge collection studies in irradiated HV-CMOS particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Andelković, M.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Cindro, V.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Gorišek, A.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, G.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; McMahon, S.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-04-01

    Charge collection properties of particle detectors made in HV-CMOS technology were investigated before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons. Two different sensor types were designed and processed in 180 and 350 nm technology by AMS. Edge-TCT and charge collection measurements with electrons from 90Sr source were employed. Diffusion of generated carriers from undepleted substrate contributes significantly to the charge collection before irradiation, while after irradiation the drift contribution prevails as shown by charge measurements at different shaping times. The depleted region at a given bias voltage was found to grow with irradiation in the fluence range of interest for strip detectors at the HL-LHC. This leads to large gains in the measured charge with respect to the one before irradiation. The increase of the depleted region was attributed to removal of effective acceptors. The evolution of depleted region with fluence was investigated and modeled. Initial studies show a small effect of short term annealing on charge collection.

  19. Dual concentric crystal low energy photon detector

    DOEpatents

    Guilmette, R.A.

    A photon detector for biological samples includes a block of NaI(T1) having a hole containing a thin walled cylinder of CsI(T1). At least three photo multiplier tubes are evenly spaced around the parameter of the block. Biological samples are placed within the hole, and emissions which are sensed by at least two of the photo multipliers from only the NaI(T1) detector are counted.

  20. A computer controlled television detector for light, X-rays and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalata, K.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile, high resolution, software configurable, two-dimensional intensified vidicon quantum detector system has been developed for multiple research applications. A thin phosphor convertor allows the detection of X-rays below 20 keV and non-relativistic particles in addition to visible light, and a thicker scintillator can be used to detect X-rays up to 100 keV and relativistic particles. Faceplates may be changed to allow any active area from 1 to 40 mm square, and active areas up to 200 mm square are possible. The image is integrated in a digital memory on any software specified array size up to 4000 x 4000. The array size is selected to match the spatial resolution, which ranges from 10 to 100 microns depending on the operating mode, the active area, and the photon or particle energy. All scan and data acquisition parameters are under software control to allow optimal data collection for each application.

  1. High Energy Particles in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2008-05-14

    This lecture covers the derivation of guiding center equations in a tokamak, orbit classification, the effect of magnetic perturbations and ripple, the interaction of particles with magnetohydrodynamic modes, including passing particle resonance, toroidal Alfven mode drive and saturation, the fishbone mode, and sawtooth stabilization.

  2. HEAO-1 analysis of Low Energy Detectors (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The activities at Penn State University are described. During the period Oct. 1990 to Dec. 1991 work on HEAO-1 analysis of the Low Energy Detectors (LED) concentrated on using the improved detector spectral simulation model and fitting diffuse x-ray background spectral data. Spectral fitting results, x-ray point sources, and diffuse x-ray sources are described.

  3. The effects of intense gamma-irradiation on the alpha-particle response of silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Seidel, John G.

    2007-10-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor radiation detectors are being developed for alpha-particle, X-ray and Gamma-ray, and fast-neutron energy spectrometry. SiC detectors have been operated at temperatures up to 306 °C and have also been found to be highly resistant to the radiation effects of fast-neutron and charged-particle bombardments. In the present work, the alpha-particle response of a SiC detector based on a Schottky diode design has been carefully monitored as a function of 137Cs gamma-ray exposure. The changes in response have been found to be negligible for gamma exposures up to and including 5.4 MGy, and irradiations to higher doses are in progress.

  4. Semiconductor devices as track detectors in high energy colliding beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T

    1980-01-01

    In considering the design of experiments for high energy colliding beam facilities one quickly sees the need for better detectors. The full exploitation of machines like ISABELLE will call for detector capabilities beyond what can be expected from refinements of the conventional approaches to particle detection in high energy physics experiments. Over the past year or so there has been a general realization that semiconductor device technology offers the possibility of position sensing detectors having resolution elements with dimensions of the order of 10 microns or smaller. Such a detector could offer enormous advantages in the design of experiments, and the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the possibilities and some of the problems.

  5. Flexible silicon-based alpha-particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, C. S.; Smith, B. R.; Sanderson, B. J.; Mullins, J. T.; Atkins, J.; Joshi, P.; McNamara, L.; Krauss, T. F.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of alpha particles in the field can be challenging due to their short range in air of often only a few centimeters or less. This short range is a particular issue for measuring radiation inside contaminated pipework in the nuclear industry, for which there is currently no simple method available without cutting the pipes open. Here, we propose an approach for low cost, rapid, and safe identification of internally contaminated pipework based on a flexible 30 × 10 mm2 sheet of 50 μm thin crystalline silicon. Following established fabrication steps of pn-junction diodes, we have constructed a device with a signal-to-noise ratio of >20 in response to 5.5 MeV alpha-particles using a bespoke amplifier circuit. As flexible detectors may readily conform to a curved surface and are able to adapt to the curvature of a given pipeline, our prototype device stands out as a viable solution for nuclear decommissioning and related applications.

  6. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  7. The low energy detector of Simbol-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, P.; Andricek, L.; Briel, U.; Hasinger, G.; Heinzinger, K.; Herrmann, S.; Huber, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Lauf, T.; Lutz, G.; Richter, R.; Santangelo, A.; Schaller, G.; Schnecke, M.; Schopper, F.; Segneri, G.; Strüder, L.; Treis, J.

    2008-07-01

    Simbol-X is a French-Italian-German hard energy X-ray mission with a projected launch in 2014. Being sensitive in the energy range from 500 eV to 80 keV it will cover the sensitivity gap beyond the energy interval of today's telescopes XMM-Newton and Chandra. Simbol-X will use an imaging telescope of nested Wolter-I mirrors. To provide a focal length of 20 m it will be the first mission of two independent mirror and detector spacecrafts in autonomous formation flight. The detector spacecraft's payload is composed of an imaging silicon low energy detector in front of a pixelated cadmium-telluride hard energy detector. Both have a sensitive area of 8 × 8 cm2 to cover a 12 arcmin field of view and a pixel size of 625 × 625 μm2 adapted to the telescope's resolution of 20 arcsec. The additional LED specifications are: high energy resolution, high quantum efficiency, fast readout and optional window mode, monolithic device with 100 % fill factor and suspension mounting, and operation at warm temperature. To match these requirements the low energy detector is composed of 'active macro pixels', combining the large, scalable area of a Silicon Drift Detector and the low-noise, on-demand readout of an integrated DEPFET amplifier. Flight representative prototypes have been processed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory, and the prototype's measured performance demonstrates the technology readiness.

  8. Testing a Prototype for a New Cosmic Ray Particle Detector at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, R.; Rimsa, E.; Tharp, T.; Andeen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic ray research has grown rapidly in the past century, often using vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to analyze the light produced by high-energy particles passing through scintillating material. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are now being recognized as a more efficient alternative to PMTs. Different types of photon events have been characterized using a SensL brand SiPM in combination with a QuarkNet Data Acquisition board. The goal of this study is to test the viability of the SiPM for a new generation surface detector at the South Pole.

  9. The MONDO project: A secondary neutron tracker detector for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, S. M.; Battistoni, G.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.; Marafini, M.

    2017-02-01

    During Particle Therapy treatments the patient irradiation produces, among different types of secondary radiation, an abundant flux of neutrons that can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region. A precise measurement of their flux, energy and angle distributions is eagerly needed in order to improve the Treatment Planning Systems software and to properly take into account the risk of late complications in the whole body. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aiming for high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision will be addressed within the MONDO project, whose main goal is to develop a tracking detector targeting fast and ultra-fast secondary neutrons. The neutron tracking principle is based on the reconstruction of two consequent elastic scattering interactions of a neutron with a target material. Reconstructing the recoiling protons it is hence possible to measure the energy and incoming direction of the neutron. Plastic scintillators will be used as scattering and detection media: the tracker is being developed as a matrix of squared scintillating fibres of 250 μm side. The light produced and collected in fibres will be amplified using a triple GEM-based image intensifier and acquired using CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode arrays. Using therapeutic beams, the principal detector goal will be the measurement of the neutron production yields, as a function of production angle and energy.

  10. Etching characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Ashry, A. H.; Arafa, W.; Abou-leila, M.; Abdalla, A. M.; Tsuruta, T.

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector. Several important parameters that control the track formation such as, the bulk etch rate (VB), track etching rate (VT), dependence of VB and VT on etching concentration and temperature have been extensively studied. The activation energy (Eb) of the bulk etching rate for the DAM-ADC sheets has been calculated, the dependence of etching efficiency and sensitivity upon etchant concentrations and temperature has been investigated, registration efficiency of DAM-ADC detector etched at the optimum etching condition has been examined. The detailed studied results presented in this study provide various useful information about the mechanism of track formation in polymers.

  11. Study of a sealed high gas pressure THGEM detector and response of alpha particle spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Ning; Liu, Qian; Liu, Hong-Bang; Xie, Yi-Gang; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Shi; Huang, Wen-Qian; Hong, Dao-Jin; Zheng, Yang-Heng

    2017-04-01

    A sealed high gas pressure detector working in pure argon is assembled. It consists of a 5 cm × 5 cm PCB THGEM (THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier). The detector structure and experimental setup are described. The performance under high pressure (2 atm) is examined, selecting optimal voltages for the ionization region and induction region. The dependence of the shape of alpha particle spectra measured with relative gas gain on gas pressure (1.3-2.0 atm) has been studied. Eight data sets of relative gas gain versus working voltage of THGEM, expressed by weighting field E/P, are normalized, consistent with theory. The results show that the air tightness of the chamber is good, measured by a sensitive barometer and checked with gas gain. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation of energy deposition without gas gain involved. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575193, 11205240, 11265003, U1431109)

  12. FITPix data preprocessing pipeline for the Timepix single particle pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, V.; Holik, M.; Jakubek, J.; Georgiev, V.

    2012-04-01

    The semiconductor pixel detector Timepix contains an array of 256 × 256 square pixels with a pitch of 55 μm. The single quantum counting detector Timepix can also provide information about the energy or arrival time of a particle from every single pixel. This device is a powerful tool for radiation imaging and ionizing particle tracking. The Timepix device can be read-out via a serial or parallel interface enabling speeds of 100 fps or 3200 fps, respectively. The device can be connected to a PC via the USB 2.0 based interface FITPix, which currently supports the serial output of Timepix reaching a speed of 90 fps. FITPix supports adjustable clock frequency and hardware triggering which is a useful tool for the synchronized operation of multiple devices. The FITPix interface can handle up to 16 detectors in daisy chain. The complete system including the FITPix interface and Timepix detector is controlled from the PC by the Pixelman software package. A pipeline structure is now implemented in the new version of the readout interface of FITPix. This version also supports parallel Timepix readout. The pipeline architecture brings the possibility of data preprocessing directly in the hardware. The first pipeline stage converts the raw Timepix data into the form of a matrix or stream of pixel values. Another stage performs further data processing such as event thresholding and data compression. Complex data processing currently performed by Pixelman in the PC is significantly reduced in this way. The described architecture together with the parallel readout increases data throughput reaching a higher frame-rate and reducing the dead time. Significant data compression is performed directly in the hardware especially for sparse data sets from particle tracking applications. The data frame size is typically compressed by factor of 10-100.

  13. 3D imaging of particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2009-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionizing decay products is known to cause lung cancer in human. In the U.K., it has been suggested that 3 to 5 % of total lung cancer deaths can be linked to elevated radon concentrations in the home and/or workplace. Radon monitoring in buildings is therefore routinely undertaken in areas of known risk. Indeed, some organisations such as the Radon Council in the UK and the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA, advocate a ‘to test is best' policy. Radon gas occurs naturally, emanating from the decay of 238U in rock and soils. Its concentration can be measured using CR?39 plastic detectors which conventionally are assessed by 2D image analysis of the surface; however there can be some variation in outcomes / readings even in closely spaced detectors. A number of radon measurement methods are currently in use (for examples, activated carbon and electrets) but the most widely used are CR?39 solid state nuclear track?etch detectors (SSNTDs). In this technique, heavily ionizing alpha particles leave tracks in the form of radiation damage (via interaction between alpha particles and the atoms making up the CR?39 polymer). 3D imaging of the tracks has the potential to provide information relating to angle and energy of alpha particles but this could be time consuming. Here we describe a new method for rapid high resolution 3D imaging of SSNTDs. A ‘LEXT' OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope was used in confocal mode to successfully obtain 3D image data on four CR?39 plastic detectors. 3D visualisation and image analysis enabled characterisation of track features. This method may provide a means of rapid and detailed 3D analysis of SSNTDs. Keywords: Radon; SSNTDs; confocal laser scanning microscope; 3D imaging; LEXT

  14. A directional low energy gamma-ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G.; Pieper, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    The sensitivity of a directional gamma ray detector, which relies on blocking a source to determine its direction and energy spectrum, is calculated and compared to the more conventional well shaped shielded detectors. It is shown that such an anticollimator detection system provides a basis for measuring the celestial diffuse gamma ray background, gamma ray sources and bursts with good energy, angular, and time resolution, and that additionally the system is 20 to 50 times as sensitive as conventional detectors when compared on a per unit mass basis.

  15. A directional low energy gamma-ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G.; Pieper, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    The sensitivity of a directional gamma ray detector, which relies on blocking a source to determine its direction and energy spectrum, is calculated and compared to the more conventional well-shaped shielded detectors. It is shown that such an anticollimator detection system provides a basis for measuring the celestial diffuse gamma ray background, gamma ray sources and bursts with good energy, angular, and time resolution, and that additionally the system is 20 to 50 times as sensitive as conventional detectors when compared on a per unit mass basis.

  16. SILICON DIODE AS AN ALPHA PARTICLE DETECTOR AND SPECTROMETER FOR DIRECT FIELD MEASUREMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Nilsson, Jonas; Herrnsdorf, Lars; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören

    2016-09-01

    A windowless silicon (Si) diode (4 mm(2)) was evaluated as alpha particle detector and spectrometer for field measurements. It was irradiated with alpha particles from a (241)Am (2.3 kBq) and a (210)Po (9 kBq) source at source-detector distances (SDD) of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.8 cm. The energy resolution in terms of full width at half maximum was 281, 148 and 113 keV for SDD of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.8 cm, respectively. The minimum detectable activity increased from 0.08 to 0.83 Bq when the SDD increased from 0.5 to 1.8 cm. The detector has the potential for several alpha spectrometric applications, such as monitoring for wound, skin and surface contamination at nuclear fuel facilities, nuclear power plants and facilities handling radioactive waste. Other areas are environmental surveys following releases of actinides at accidents in nuclear power plants and in connection with other radiological or nuclear scenarios.

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Particle Astronomy FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ASTRONOMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Rene A.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2009-05-01

    another clue to understanding the nature of high-energy objects both within and outside our galaxy. And yet, along with new understandings, we are also faced with new puzzles. Each of the papers in this focus issue presents the field of high-energy particle astronomy from the perspective of a given instrumental approach, corresponding to the current state-of-the-art for a particular class of messenger particle in a given energy range. For gamma-ray astronomy, we have a excellent report by R Johnson and R Mukherjee on results from space-borne telescopes, first from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and then from the recently commissioned Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The detailed paper by J Hinton describes a wealth of results from several ground-based gamma-ray telescopes using the atmospheric Cherenokov technique. Gamma-ray results and the prospects from air-shower detectors which can provide all-sky monitoring are very well described in a paper by G Sinnis. Larger plans for the future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy are summarized in a paper by F Krennrich (in preparation). We also include two papers for 'non-photon' particle detection, a summary of the exciting new results for cosmic ray physics by P Sommers and S Westerhoff and an article by K Hoffman describing the astrophysics and capabilities of truly remarkable, large-volume neutrino detectors. For both cosmic rays and neutrinos, the fields seem to be on the threshold of doing astronomy—that is, associating specific detected particles with particular astrophysical objects. Together, the fully operational space- and ground-based gamma-ray observatories and the new large-area experiments for cosmic ray and neutrino detection represent a new era in astronomy. We can be confident that the field of high-energy particle astronomy will continue to rapidly develop as more exciting results from these instruments are reported in the future. Focus on High Energy Particle Astronomy Contents Gamma ray astronomy with

  18. The High Energy Detector of Simbol-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Blondel, C.; Le Mer, I.; Pinsard, F.; Cara, C.; Goetschy, A.; Martignac, J.; Tauzin, G.; Hervé, S.; Laurent, P.; Chipaux, R.; Rio, Y.; Fontignie, J.; Horeau, B.; Authier, M.; Ferrando, P.

    2009-05-01

    The High Energy Detector (HED) is one of the three detection units on board the Simbol-X detector spacecraft. It is placed below the Low Energy Detector so as to collect focused photons in the energy range from 8 to 80 keV. It consists of a mosaic of 64 independent cameras, divided in 8 sectors. Each elementary detection unit, called Caliste, is the hybridization of a 256-pixel Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector with full custom front-end electronics into a unique component. The status of the HED design will be reported. The promising results obtained from the first micro-camera prototypes called Caliste 64 and Caliste 256 will be presented to illustrate the expected performance of the instrument.

  19. The High Energy Detector of Simbol-X

    SciTech Connect

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Blondel, C.; Le Mer, I.; Pinsard, F.; Cara, C.; Goetschy, A.; Martignac, J.; Laurent, P.; Chipaux, R.; Rio, Y.; Fontignie, J.; Horeau, B.; Ferrando, P.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Tauzin, G.; Herve, S.; Authier, M.

    2009-05-11

    The High Energy Detector (HED) is one of the three detection units on board the Simbol-X detector spacecraft. It is placed below the Low Energy Detector so as to collect focused photons in the energy range from 8 to 80 keV. It consists of a mosaic of 64 independent cameras, divided in 8 sectors. Each elementary detection unit, called Caliste, is the hybridization of a 256-pixel Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector with full custom front-end electronics into a unique component. The status of the HED design will be reported. The promising results obtained from the first micro-camera prototypes called Caliste 64 and Caliste 256 will be presented to illustrate the expected performance of the instrument.

  20. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-10-01

    If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect). The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process).

  1. Position sensitive and energy dispersive x-ray detector based on silicon strip detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.; Fink, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Krane, H.-G.; Loyer, F.; Schwamberger, A.; Świentek, K.; Venanzi, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new position sensitive detector with a global energy resolution for the entire detector of about 380 eV FWHM for 8.04 keV line at ambient temperature is presented. The measured global energy resolution is defined by the energy spectra summed over all strips of the detector, and thus it includes electronic noise of the front-end electronics, charge sharing effects, matching of parameters across the channels and other system noise sources. The target energy resolution has been achieved by segmentation of the strips to reduce their capacitance and by careful optimization of the front-end electronics. The key design aspects and parameters of the detector are discussed briefly in the paper. Excellent noise and matching performance of the readout ASIC and negligible system noise allow us to operate the detector with a discrimination threshold as low as 1 keV and to measure fluorescence radiation lines of light elements, down to Al Kα of 1.49 keV, simultaneously with measurements of the diffraction patterns. The measurement results that demonstrate the spectrometric and count rate performance of the developed detector are presented and discussed in the paper.

  2. Development of a Focusing DIRC Detector for Particle Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Alan J.

    2014-03-16

    We have constructed a prototype Direct Ring Imaging ` Cerenkov (DIRC) detector in our optics lab to study its performance for identifying pions and kaons. This type of detector will be used for the Belle II experiment now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. To test our prototype, we have constructed a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) that is able to trigger on and reconstruct cosmic ray tracks. We require that the tracks traverse the DIRC detector and study the resulting detector response.

  3. Response of the bubble detector to neutrons of various energies.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Andrews, H R; Ing, H; Koslowsky, M R

    2015-04-01

    A series of Monte-Carlo simulations has been performed in order to investigate the response of the bubble detector to monoenergetic neutrons of various energies. The work was driven by the need to better understand the energy dependence of the detector for applications in space, where the neutron spectrum has a significant component with energy of >20 MeV. The response to neutrons in the range of a few keV to 500 MeV has been calculated, and good agreement between the simulations and experimental data is demonstrated over the entire energy range.

  4. Discrimination of charged particles in a neutral beam line by using a solid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle-detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a chargedparticle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C G; Fiksel, G; Stoeckl, C; Sinenian, N; Canfield, M J; Graeper, G B; Lombardo, A T; Stillman, C R; Padalino, S J; Mileham, C; Sangster, T C; Frenje, J A

    2011-07-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

  6. CDMS Detector Fabrication Improvements and Low Energy Nuclear Recoil Measurements in Germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Jastram, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    As the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) experiment is scaled up to tackle new dark matter parameter spaces (lower masses and cross-sections), detector production efficiency and repeatability becomes ever more important. A dedicated facility has been commissioned for SuperCDMS detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU). The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods, equipment, and tuning of process parameters. This work has demonstrated the capability for production of next generation CDMS SNOLAB detectors. Additionally, as the dark matter parameter space is probed further, careful calibrations of detector response to nuclear recoil interactions must be performed in order to extract useful information (in relation to dark matter particle characterzations) from experimental results. A neutron beam of tunable energy is used in conjunction with a commercial radiation detector to characterize ionization energy losses in germanium during nuclear recoil events. Data indicates agreement with values predicted by the Lindhard equation, providing a best-t k-value of 0.146.

  7. Investigating the response of Micromegas detector to low-energy neutrons using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khezripour, S.; Negarestani, A.; Rezaie, M. R.

    2017-08-01

    Micromegas detector has recently been used for high-energy neutron (HEN) detection, but the aim of this research is to investigate the response of the Micromegas detector to low-energy neutron (LEN). For this purpose, a Micromegas detector (with air, P10, BF3, 3He and Ar/BF3 mixture) was optimized for the detection of 60 keV neutrons using the MCNP (Monte Carlo N Particle) code. The simulation results show that the optimum thickness of the cathode is 1 mm and the optimum of microgrid location is 100 μm above the anode. The output current of this detector for Ar (3%) + BF3 (97%) mixture is greater than the other ones. This mixture is considered as the appropriate gas for the Micromegas neutron detector providing the output current for 60 keV neutrons at the level of 97.8 nA per neutron. Consecuently, this detector can be introduced as LEN detector.

  8. The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and surface array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M. G.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.

  9. Alpha particle response study of polycrstalline diamond radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Amit; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-23

    Chemical vapor deposition has opened the possibility to grow high purity synthetic diamond at relatively low cost. This has opened up uses of diamond based detectors for wide range of applications. These detectors are most suitable for harsh environments where standard semiconductor detectors cannot work. In this paper, we present the fabrication details and performance study of polycrystalline diamond based radiation detector. Effect of different operating parameters such as bias voltage and shaping time for charge collection on the performance of detector has been studied.

  10. MASS SEPARATION OF HIGH ENERGY PARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, L.

    1962-09-25

    An apparatus and method are described for separating charged, high energy particles of equal momentum forming a beam where the particles differ slightly in masses. Magnetic lenses are utilized to focus the beam and maintain that condition while electrostatic fields located between magnetic lenses are utilized to cause transverse separation of the particles into two beams separated by a sufficient amount to permit an aperture to block one beam. (AEC)

  11. Stochastic resonance-enhanced laser-based particle detector.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A; Werner, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Laser-based particle detector whose response was enhanced by modulating the Laser diode with a white-noise generator. A Laser sheet was generated to cast a shadow of the object on a 200 dots per inch, 512 x 1 pixels linear sensor array. The Laser diode was modulated with a white-noise generator to achieve stochastic resonance. The white-noise generator essentially amplified the wide-bandwidth (several hundred MHz) noise produced by a reverse-biased zener diode operating in junction-breakdown mode. The gain in the amplifier in the white-noise generator was set such that the Receiver Operating Characteristics plot provided the best discriminability. A monofiber 40 AWG (approximately 80 microm) wire was detected with approximately 88% True Positive rate and approximately 19% False Positive rate in presence of white-noise modulation and with approximately 71% True Positive rate and approximately 15% False Positive rate in absence of white-noise modulation.

  12. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991]. Progress report, January 1990--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included.

  13. Low-Energy Charged Particle Instrument Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    This image shows the low-energy charged particle instrument before it was installed on one of NASA Voyager spacecraft in 1977. The instrument includes a stepper motor that turns the platform on which the sensors are mounted.

  14. Energy dispersive photon counting detectors for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, William C.; Wessel, Jan C.; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Nygard, Einar; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2013-09-01

    We report on our efforts toward the development of silicon (Si) strip detectors for energy-resolved clinical breast imaging. Typically, x-ray integrating detectors based on scintillating cesium iodide CsI(Tl) or amorphous selenium (a- Se) are used in most commercial systems. Recently, mammography instrumentation has been introduced based on photon counting silicon Si strip detectors. Mammography requires high flux from the x-ray generator, therefore, in order to achieve energy resolved single photon counting, a high output count rate (OCR) for the detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel, provided that the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions. We present our methods and results from the optimization of prototype detectors based on Si strip structures. We describe the detector optimization and the development of ASIC readout electronics that provide the required spatial resolution, low noise, high count rate capabilities and minimal power consumption.

  15. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams

    PubMed Central

    Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University’s Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm – 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H+), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles (4He++). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms. PMID:24058378

  16. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams.

    PubMed

    Grad, Michael; Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J

    2012-12-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm - 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H(+)), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles ((4)He(++)). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms.

  17. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, James R.

    1998-01-01

    On December 3, 1997, a rocket payload (36.152) was launched from Ny Alesund into the dark cusp at 0906:00 U (1206:00 LT) during an interval of southward B(sub Z), and positive B(sub y). Launch occurred during a time interval of northeastward moving auroral forms observed between 0845 and 0945 UT by ground-based meridian scanning photometers. Ground photometric measurements during the flight show that the payload passed over the poleward portion of the most intense 6300 A emissions of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Electrons of energy up to a few hundred eV were detected immediately upon instrument turn-on at an altitude of 205 km and throughout the flight until the payload reached an altitude of approximately 197 km on the downleg. Electron spectra were either quasithermal with peak energies approximately 100 eV or showed evidence of acceleration along the magnetic field line by potentials of 100-200 V. Precipitating ions were observed throughout much of the flight. Their spectra were broadly peaked in energy with the peak energy decreasing from approximately 500 eV to approximately 250 eV as the payload flew approximately westward over the dayside precipitationregion. Structure(spatial or temporal intensity variation) was observed between T + 180 s and T + approximately 400 s. At the rocket altitudes(less than 450km) the ions were observed to be precipitating. During the flight, the DMSPF-13 satellite passed through the all-sky imager field-of-view just poleward of the brightest dayside emissions enabling the identification of plasma sheet and boundary layer regions along the orbit. We thus conclude that particle fluxes detected by the rocket flight were either cusp plasma or boundary layer/mantle plasmajust poleward of the dayside cusp/cleft. Further investigation of the particle characteristics and their relationship to ionospheric convection patterns is continuing.

  18. A Supra-Thermal Energetic Particle detector (STEP) for composition measurements in the range approximately 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectral and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are discussed.

  19. A supra-thermal energetic particle detector /STEP/ for composition measurements in the range of about 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A novel detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectra and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are also discussed.

  20. Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Seiji; Onishi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Shigeyuki; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nogami, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho; Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Grün, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Okada, Nagaya

    2008-04-01

    A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared.

  1. Detectors for energies less than 10 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the energy domain 100 keV to 10 MeV, both crystal scintillations and semiconductors are widely used for gamma ray detectors in spectrometer systems. These detectors' operation depend on the fact that gamma rays lose energy by ionization in these materials and electrons and holes are produced. In the case of semiconductors, these electrons and holes are collected by an electric field, and they provide an electric signal that is a direct measure of the energy lost by the gamma ray in the material. Scintillation detectors depend on a further conversion of the energy lost in electron hole pair production to the production of photons. A photomultiplier tube measures the intensity of the photon flux, and an electrical pulse proportional to the photon intensity is produced at the photomultiplier output.

  2. Photon Detector For Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy With Improved Energy Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.

    2011-07-15

    We present the results from newly designed and fabricated double window photon detector to improve the overall energy resolution for inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). This simple design allows us to introduce an absorption gas (Krypton) to decrease the band-width of the energy selective photon detector and thus improve the resolution. Resonance absorption line of Kr of wavelength of 123.6 nm was used. By fitting the Fermi edge of the IPES spectrum of silver, we find an overall energy resolution improved by 73 meV. The design is modular and ensures ease and safety of handling.

  3. Liquid scintillator composition optimization for use in ultra-high energy cosmic ray detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosko, Dmitriy; Batyrkhanov, Ayan; Iakovlev, Alexander; Yelshibekov, Khalykbek

    2017-06-01

    The Horizon-T (HT) detector system and the currently under R&D HT-KZ detector system are designed for the detection of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with energies above ˜1016 eV (˜1017 eV for HT-KZ). The main challenges in both detector systems are the fast time resolutions needed for studying the temporary structure of EAS, and the extremely wide dynamic range needed to study the spatial distribution of charged particles in EAS disks. In order to detect the low-density of charged particles far from the EAS axis, a large-area detector is needed. Liquid scintillator with low cost would be a possible solution for such a detector, including the recently developed safe and low-cost water-based liquid scintillators. Liquid organic scintillators give a fast and high light yield (LY) for charged particle detection. It is similar to plastic scintillator in properties but is cost effective for large volumes. With liquid scintillator, one can create detection volumes that are symmetric and yet retain high LY detection. Different wavelength shifters affect the scintillation light by changing the output spectrum into the best detection region. Results of the latest studies of the components optimization in the liquid scintillator formulae are presented.

  4. Advanced Silicon Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of silicon detectors for high energy astrophysics missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Background: Motivation for Event-Driven CCD; 2) Report of Grant Activity; 3) Packaged EDCCD; 4) Measured X-ray Energy Resolution of the Gen1 EDCCDs Operated in "Conventional Mode"; and 5) EDCCD Gen 1.5-Lot 1 Planning.

  5. Advanced Silicon Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of silicon detectors for high energy astrophysics missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Background: Motivation for Event-Driven CCD; 2) Report of Grant Activity; 3) Packaged EDCCD; 4) Measured X-ray Energy Resolution of the Gen1 EDCCDs Operated in "Conventional Mode"; and 5) EDCCD Gen 1.5-Lot 1 Planning.

  6. EXTRACTOR FOR HIGH ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1964-04-01

    A particle-extracting apparatus for use with a beam of high-energy charged particles such as travel in an evacuated chamber along a circular equilibrium axis is described. A magnetized target is impacted relatively against the beam whereby the beam particles are deflected from the beam by the magnetic induction in the target. To this end the target may be moved into the beam or the beam may coast into the target and achieve high angular particle deflection and slow extraction. A deflecting septum magnet may additionally be used for deflection at even sharper angles. (AEC)

  7. Energy cross-calibration from the first CREAM flight : transition radiation detector versus calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, P.; Ahn, H.S.; Allison, P.S.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Beatty, J.J.; Bigongiari, G.; Boyle, P.J.; Brandt, T.J.; Childers, J.T.; Conklin, N.B.; Coutu, S.; DuVernois, M.A.; Ganel, O.; Han, J.H.; Hyun, H.J.; Jeon, J.A.; Kim, K.C.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, M.H.; Lutz, L.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Malinine, A.; Minnick, S.; Mognet, S.I.; Nam, S.; Nutter, S.; Park, H.; Park, I.H.; Park, N.H.; Seo, E.S.; Sina, R.; Swordy, S.; Wakely, S.P.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Yoon, Y.S.; Zei, R.; Zinn, S.Y.

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) balloon experiment had two successful flights in 2004/05 and 2005/06. It was designed to perform energy measurements from a few GeV up to 1000 TeV, taking advantage of different detection techniques. The first instrument, CREAM-I, combined a transition radiation detector (equipped with an array of proportional tubes and an acrylic Cherenkov device) with a calorimeter to provide independent energy measurements of cosmic ray nuclei. Each detector was calibrated with particle beams in a limited range of energies. In order to assess the absolute energy scale of the whole instrument and to investigate the systematic effects of each technique, a cross-calibration was performed by comparing the independent energy estimates on selected samples of Oxygen and Carbon nuclei.

  8. Polarized polymer films as electronic pulse detectors of cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of dust particle detector has been developed which consists of a polarized film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) having conducting electrons on its surface and operating with no bias voltage. Here, the response characteristics of PVDF detectors with areas in the range 4-150 sq cm and thickness in the range 2-28 microns to iron particles accelerated to velocities in the range 1-12 km/s are reported. The discussion also covers the mechanism of detection, fast pulse response, noise characteristics, and the dependence of the detector signal amplitude on particle mass and velocity. The detectors exhibit long-term stability and can be operated for extended periods of time over the temperature range -50 to +50 C; their response to dust particle impacts is unaffected by high background fluxes of charged particles.

  9. The TORCH time-of-flight detector for particle identification and photon vertex association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo García, L.; Brook, N.; Cussans, D.; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-02-01

    TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) is a novel time-of-flight detector, designed to provide π /K/p particle identification up to 0~ 1 GeV/c momentum and beyond. To achieve this, a time resolution of ~ 15 ps combining information from 0~ 3 detected photons is required over a 10 m flight path. Large areas can be covered with TORCH, nominally up to 30 m2. One such application is for the LHCb experiment, to complement the particle identification capabilities of its RICH detectors. TORCH has a DIRC-like construction with 10 mm-thick synthetic amorphous fused-silica plates as a radiator. Cherenkov photons propagate by total internal reflection to the plate edges and there are focussed onto an array of position-sensitive photodetectors. Custom-built micro-channel plate photo-multipliers (MCP-PMTs) are being developed in collaboration with industry to provide the lifetime, granularity and time resolution to meet the TORCH specifications. In the present paper, laboratory tests of the MCP-PMTs developed for TORCH and its readout electronics are presented. Test beam measurements of a prototype TORCH detector in a low-momentum mixed beam of pions and protons are highlighted. Time resolutions for individual photons approaching 100 ps is achieved, after correction for dispersion effects in the quartz medium. In addition to the particle identification capabilities, the high-precision timing information that TORCH provides could be used at the high-luminosity LHC to associate high-energy photons with the correct primary interaction vertex amongst the many expected.

  10. Digital micro-mirror device-based detector for particle-sizing instruments via Fraunhofer diffraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiayi; Cao, Zhang; Xie, Heng; Xu, Lijun

    2015-06-20

    In this paper, a digital micro-mirror device (DMD)-based detector is proposed for the detection of light intensity in particle-sizing instruments using Fraunhofer diffraction. The detector consists of only one photodiode, which eliminates the distortions caused by the nonuniformity of the detector arrays used in traditional instruments. The center of the diffraction pattern was accurately located to distribute the optimized arc-shaped mirror arrays for the intensity detection. Both simulated and experimental results showed that the proposed detector was superior to the classical one as it was less sensitive to noise than the detector arrays used in traditional systems.

  11. Ultrahigh-energy particles from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, P. . Astronomy and Astrophysics Center Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1991-02-01

    The idea of production of ultrahigh-energy particles in the present universe due to annihilation or collapse of topological defects is discussed. Topological defects, formed in symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe, can survive till today owing to their topological stability. However, under certain circumstances, topological defects may be physically destroyed. When topological defects are destroyed, the energy contained in the defects can be released in the form of massive gauge- and Higgs bosons of the underlying spontaneously broken gauge theory. Subsequent decay of these massive particles can give rise to energetic particles ranging up to an energy on the order of the mass of the original particles released from the defects. This may give us a natural'' mechanism of production of extremely energetic cosmic ray particles in the universe today, without the need for any acceleration mechanism. To illustrate this idea, I describe in detail the calculation of the expected ultrahigh-energy proton spectrum due to a specific process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a class of closed cosmic string loops formed in a phase transition at a grand unification energy scale. I discuss the possibility that some of the highest-energy cosmic ray particles are of this origin. By comparing with the observational results on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, we derive an upper limit to the average fraction of the total energy in all primary'' cosmic string loops that may be released in the form of particles due to collapse or multiple self-intersections of these loops. No nuclei such as {alpha}'s or Fe's are in the spectrum. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Modeling indirect detectors for performance optimization of a digital mammographic detector for dual energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, N.; Koukou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Sotiropoulou, P.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.; Bakas, A.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.; Fountos, G.

    2015-01-01

    Dual Energy imaging is a promising method for visualizing masses and microcalcifications in digital mammography. The advent of two X-ray energies (low and high) requires a suitable detector. The scope of this work is to determine optimum detector parameters for dual energy applications. The detector was modeled through the linear cascaded (LCS) theory. It was assumed that a phosphor material was coupled to a CMOS photodetector (indirect detection). The pixel size was 22.5 μm. The phosphor thickness was allowed to vary between 20mg/cm2 and 160mg/cm2 The phosphor materials examined where Gd2O2S:Tb and Gd2O2S:Eu. Two Tungsten (W) anode X-ray spectra at 35 kV (filtered with 100 μm Palladium (Pd)) and 70 kV (filtered with 800 pm Ytterbium (Yb)), corresponding to low and high energy respectively, were considered to be incident on the detector. For each combination the contrast- to-noise ratio (CNR) and the detector optical gain (DOG), showing the sensitivity of the detector, were calculated. The 40 mg/cm2 and 70 mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Tb exhibited the higher DOG values for the low and high energy correspondingly. Higher CNR between microcalcification and mammary gland exhibited the 70mg/cm2 and the 100mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Tb for the low and the high energy correspondingly.

  13. The Mini-SPT (Space Particle Telescope) for dual use: Precision flux measurement of low energy proton electron and heavy ion with tracking capability and A compact, low-cost realtime local radiation hazard/alarm detector to be used on board a satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpat, Behcet; Ergin, Tulun; Kalemci, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    The Mini-SPT project is the first, and most important, step towards the ambitious goal of creating a low-cost, compact, radiation hardened and high performance space particle telescope that can be mounted, in the near future, as standard particle detector on any satellite. Mini-SPT will be capable of providing high quality physics data on local space environment. In particular high precision flux measurement and tracking of low energy protons and electrons on different orbits with same instrumentation is of paramount importance for studies as geomagnetically trapped fluxes and space weather dynamics, dark matter search, low energy proton anisotropy and its effects on ICs as well as the solar protons studies. In addition, it will provide real-time "differentiable warnings" about the local space radiation hazard to other electronics systems on board the hosting satellite, including different criticality levels and alarm signals to activate mitigation techniques whenever this is strictly necessary to protect them from temporary/permanent failures. A real-time warning system will help satellite subsystems to save significant amount of power and memory with respect to other conventional techniques where the "mitigation" solutions are required to be active during entire mission life. The Mini-SPT will combine the use of technologies developed in cutting-edge high energy physics experiments (including technology from CMS experiments at CERN) and the development of new charged particle detecting systems for their use for the first time in space. The Mini-SPT essential objective is, by using for the first time in space SIPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers) technology for TOF and energy measurements, the production of high quality data with a good time, position and energy resolutions. The mini-SPT will consists of three main sub-units: a- A tracking and dE/dX measuring sub-detector which will be based on silicon pixel detectors (SPD) coupled to the rad-hard chip ROC-DIG (Read

  14. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  15. Fabrication, characterization and simulation of 4H-SiC Schottky diode alpha particle detectors for pyroprocessing actinide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Timothy Richard

    Pyroprocessing is a method of using high-temperature molten salts and electric fields to separate and collect fuel isotopes of used nuclear fuel. It has been has been tested in the U.S. at Idaho National Laboratory as a key step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One technical problem with the pyroprocessing method is a lack of knowledge regarding the actinide concentrations in the salt bath during operation, since on-line techniques for measuring these concentrations are not presently available. 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors can potentially fulfill this need. Such detectors would operate in contact with the molten salt, and measure concentrations via alpha-particle spectroscopy. This work seeks to fabricate and characterize 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors at high temperature, model the alpha particle spectrum expected in a molten salt, and model the operation of the detectors to confirm the physics of operation is as expected. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors were fabricated at OSU Nanotech West. After fabrication, these detectors were characterized using both I-V curves and Am-241 alpha-particle energy spectra. All measurements were made as a function of temperature, from room temperature up to 500°C. The average energy required to create an electron-hole pair was observed to decrease with an increase of temperature, due to a decrease of both the 4H-SiC bandgap and non-linear energy loss terms. Furthermore, the FWHM of the spectra was observed to be dependent on the leakage current at a certain temperature, and not dependent on the temperature itself. Secondly, the alpha particle energy spectrum in the pyroprocessing environment was modeled using SRIM. The molten salt was modeled in 3 different geometries, with or without a protective cover material on top of the detector. Due to the loss of alpha-particle energy in the molten salt itself, a high-energy alpha emitter may completely cover the spectrum from a lower-energy alpha emitter. Each of the

  16. Per-pixel energy calibration of photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atharifard, A.; Healy, J. L.; Goulter, B. P.; Ramyar, M.; Vanden Broeke, L.; Walsh, M. F.; Onyema, C. C.; Panta, R. K.; Aamir, R.; Smithies, D. J.; Doesburg, R.; Anjomrouz, M.; Shamshad, M.; Bheesette, S.; Rajendran, K.; de Ruiter, N. J. A.; Knight, D.; Chernoglazov, A.; Mandalika, H.; Bell, S. T.; Bateman, C. J.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.

    2017-03-01

    Energy resolving performance of spectral CT systems is influenced by the accuracy of the detector's energy calibration. Global energy calibration maps a given threshold to the average energy response of all pixels of the detector. Variations arising from CMOS manufacturing processes and properties of the sensor cause different pixels to respond differently to photons of the same energy. Threshold dispersion adversely affects spectral imaging by degrading energy resolution, which contributes to blurring of the energy information. In this paper, we present a technique for per-pixel energy calibration of photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) that quantifies the energy response of individual pixels relative to the average response. This technique takes advantage of the measurements made by an equalized chip. It uses a known global energy map to quantify the effect of threshold dispersion on the energy response of the detector pixels across an energy range of interest. The proposed technique was assessed using a MARS scanner with an equalized Medipix3RX chip flip-bonded to 2 mm thick CdTe semiconductor crystal at a pitch of 110 μ m. Measurements were made of characteristic x-rays of a molybdenum foil. Results were compared between the case that the global calibration was used on its own and the case of using it in conjunction with our per-pixel calibration technique. The proposed technique quantified up to 1.87 keV error in energy response of 100 pixels of a selected region of interest (ROI). It made an improvement of 28.3% in average FWHM. The additional information provided by this per-pixel calibration technique can be used to improve spectral reconstruction.

  17. Varying ghost dark energy and particle creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the models of dark energy is the ghost dark energy, which has a geometrical origin. Recently, a certain type of phenomenological modification of ghost dark energy has been suggested which motivated us for this work. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we would like to study the cosmological scenario involving interacting varying ghost dark energy. A cosmographic analysis of a non-interacting model is also performed. Then, we study the particle creation following the straight analogy between quantization in Minkowski background and canonical quantization of a scalar field in curved dynamical backgrounds. Particular attention will be paid to massless-particle production from a radiation-dominated universe (according to our toy model) which evolves to our large-scale universe. Constraints on the parameters of the models obtained during the cosmographic analysis did allow to demonstrate the possibility of a massless-particle creation in a radiation-dominated universe.

  18. Charged particle production in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC with the ALICE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ALICE collaboration measured charged particle production in √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. We report on results on charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum spectra. All the results are presented as a function of the centrality of the collision, estimated with a Glauber Monte Carlo fit to multiplicity distributions reconstructed in various detectors. The applicability of the Glauber model at LHC energies, the precision of the centrality determination and the related systematic uncertainties are discussed in detail. Particles are tracked in the pseudorapidity window | η | ≲ 0.9 with the silicon Inner Tracking System (ITS) and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), over the range 0.15 particle multiplicity is measured in | η | < 0.5 to be dNch /d η = 1601 ± 60 in 5% most central Pb-Pb collisions, indicating an energy density a factor ∼ 3 higher than at RHIC. Its evolution with centrality shows a pattern strikingly similar to the one measured at RHIC. Intermediate (5 ≲pT ≲ 15 GeV / c) transverse momentum particles are found to be most strongly suppressed with respect to pp collisions, consistent with a large energy loss of hardscattered partons in the hot and dense medium. The results are presented in terms of the nuclear modification factor RAA and compared to theoretical expectations.

  19. Calibration of Charged-Particle Detectors for the LISA Commissioning Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, S.; Taylor, N.; Barker, A.; Rogers, W. F.

    2012-10-01

    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and the Large area multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (LISA), housed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, were constructed by students at primarily undergraduate institutions. Each array consists of 144 2-m long scintillator detectors with PMTs attached to each end and are used for the detection of neutrons resulting from the breakup of exotic neutron-unbound nuclear states. The commissioning run for LISA was conducted during summer 2011 (in conjunction with MoNA and the Sweeper Magnet) to investigate unbound excited states of the neutron-rich nucleus 24O that breakup via sequential 2-neutron decay. In order to do this the energies and trajectories of both the charged fragments and neutrons need to be determined precisely, which require careful energy, position, and time calibration of the Sweeper Chamber charged particle detectors. Then careful separation of the individual Oxygen isotopes is necessary so that gates can be produced to be used in the calculation of individual decay energies. Results to be presented.

  20. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  1. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  2. Hexagonal boron nitride thin film thermal neutron detectors with high energy resolution of the reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, T. C.; Majety, S.; Grenadier, S.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2015-05-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is highly promising for solid-state thermal neutron detector applications due to its many outstanding physical properties, especially its very large thermal neutron capture cross-section (~3840 barns for 10B), which is several orders of magnitude larger than those of most other isotopes. The focus of the present work is to carry out studies on h-BN thin film and detector properties to lay the foundation for the development of a direct-conversion solid-state thermal neutron detector with high sensitivity. The measured carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) product of h-BN thin films grown on sapphire substrates is 2.83×10-7 cm2/V for electrons and holes, which is comparable to the value of about 10-7 cm2/V for GaN thin films grown on sapphire. Detectors based on h-BN thin films were fabricated and the nuclear reaction product pulse height spectra were measured. Under a bias of 20 V, very narrow individual peaks corresponding to the reaction product energies of α and Li particles as well as the sum peaks have been clearly resolved in the pulse height spectrum for the first time by a B-based direct-conversion semiconductor neutron detector. Our results indicate that h-BN thin film detectors possess unique advantages including small size, low weight, portability, low voltage operation and high energy resolution of specific reaction products.

  3. Gallium arsenide strip detectors for particle identification by the triple measurement of time of flight, position and specific ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codino, Antonio

    1998-02-01

    A design of a gallium arsenide strip detector performing the triple, simultaneous measurements of position, dE/dx and time of flight is presented (LATIN project). The expected time. energy and position resolutions are given in various experimental conditions. A precursor of this instrument made of silicon strip detectors has been constructed and operated at a temperature of -55° C and tested with a pion beam of 4.0 GeV/c. The measured time resolution is 61±7 ps. Cosmic-ray experiments in space may benefit from this kind of instruments for nuclide and particle identification.

  4. Gallium arsenide strip detectors for particle identification by the triple measurement of time of flight, position and specific ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codino, Antonio

    1997-02-01

    A design of a gallium arsenide strip detector performing the triple, simultaneous measurements of position, dE/dx and time of flight is presented (LATIN project). The expected time, energy and position resolutions are given in various experimental conditions. A precursor of this instrument made of silicon strip detectors has been constructed and operated at a temperature of -55 degC and tested with a pion beam of 4.0GeV/c. The measured time resolution is 61+/-7 ps. Cosmic-ray experiments in space may benefit from this kind of instruments for nuclide and particle identification.

  5. High energy resolution bandpass photon detector for inverse photoemission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maniraj, M; D'Souza, S W; Nayak, J; Rai, Abhishek; Singh, Sanjay; Sekhar, B N Raja; Barman, S R

    2011-09-01

    We report a bandpass ultraviolet photon detector for inverse photoemission spectroscopy with energy resolution of 82 ± 2 meV. The detector (Sr(0.7)Ca(0.3)F(2)/acetone) consists of Sr(0.7)Ca(0.3)F(2) entrance window with energy transmission cutoff of 9.85 eV and acetone as detection gas with 9.7 eV photoionization threshold. The response function of the detector, measured using synchrotron radiation, has a nearly Gaussian shape. The n = 1 image potential state of Cu(100) and the Fermi edge of silver have been measured to demonstrate the improvement in resolution compared to the CaF(2)/acetone detector. To show the advantage of improved resolution of the Sr(0.7)Ca(0.3)F(2)/acetone detector, the metal to semiconductor transition in Sn has been studied. The pseudogap in the semiconducting phase of Sn could be identified, which is not possible with the CaF(2)/acetone detector because of its worse resolution. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at √s=8TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Hadef, A.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J. J.; Heinrich, L.; Heinz, C.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Henkelmann, S.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooberman, B. H.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn’ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S. -C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ito, F.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jain, V.; Jakobi, K. B.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanneau, F.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G. -Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, H.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, S.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Juste Rozas, A.; Köhler, M. K.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kaluza, A.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kanjir, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawade, K.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E. -E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolb, M.; Koletsou, I.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kondrashova, N.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kosek, T.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewska, A. B.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Krizka, K.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kucuk, H.; Kuday, S.; Kuechler, J. T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuger, F.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kukla, R.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunigo, T.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; Kwan, T.; Kyriazopoulos, D.; La Rosa, A.; La Rosa Navarro, J. L.; La Rotonda, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lammers, S.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, J. C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Lasagni Manghi, F.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Law, A. T.; Laycock, P.; Lazovich, T.; Lazzaroni, M.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Menedeu, E.; Le Quilleuc, E. P.; LeBlanc, M.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leight, W. A.; Leisos, A.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leone, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Leontsinis, S.; Lerner, G.; Leroy, C.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Lester, C. G.; Levchenko, M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levy, M.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liao, H.; Liberti, B.; Liblong, A.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limbach, C.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. H.; Lindquist, B. E.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loew, K. M.; Loginov, A.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, B. A.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Longo, L.; Looper, K. A.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Lopez Paredes, B.; Lopez Paz, I.; Lopez Solis, A.; Lorenz, J.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Losada, M.; Lösel, P. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lu, H.; Lu, N.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Luedtke, C.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Lyubushkin, V.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Y.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macdonald, C. M.; Maček, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Madaffari, D.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeda, J.; Maeland, S.; Maeno, T.; Maevskiy, A.; Magradze, E.; Mahlstedt, J.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maier, A. A.; Maier, T.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V. M.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mancini, G.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Maneira, J.; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mann, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mantifel, R.; Mantoani, M.; Manzoni, S.; Mapelli, L.; Marceca, G.; March, L.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marjanovic, M.; Marley, D. E.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti, L. F.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martoiu, V. S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massa, L.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mättig, P.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazza, S. M.; Mc Fadden, N. C.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McClymont, L. I.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Medici, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meloni, F.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mercurio, K. M.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, H.; Middleton, R. P.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Milesi, M.; Milic, A.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minami, Y.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mistry, K. P.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohr, W.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Monden, R.; Mondragon, M. C.; Mönig, K.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montalbano, A.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Mori, D.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Mortensen, S. S.; Morvaj, L.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Muskinja, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Narrias Villar, D. I.; Naryshkin, I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Nef, P. D.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Norjoharuddeen, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O’grady, F.; O’Neil, D. C.; O’Rourke, A. A.; O’Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V. R.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M. -A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-07-15

    This study presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=8TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 μb-1 was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. Finally, the results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.

  7. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at √s=8TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-07-15

    This study presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=8TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 μb-1 was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final statesmore » at high multiplicity. Finally, the results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.« less

  8. Charged-particle distributions in pp interactions at √{s}=8 { TeV} measured with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √{s} = 8 TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 μ b^{-1} was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. The results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.

  9. The high energy cosmic ray detector for Spacelab II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamport, J. E.; Lheureux, J.; Meyer, P.; Muller, D.

    1980-01-01

    A large cosmic ray detector to be flown on Spacelab II is presently under construction at the University of Chicago. The instrument, with a geometric factor of 5 sq m-ster, is designed to measure the elemental composition and the energy spectra of individual cosmic ray nuclei (Li to Fe) from 50 GeV/nucleon to several TeV/nucleon. Plastic scintillators are used for charge determination, and gas Cerenkov and transition radiation detectors for energy measurements. The instrument and its functions are described, and several test results that are important for an optimum design are discussed.

  10. BJT detector with FPGA-based read-out for alpha particle monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyzhnevyi, V.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Rovati, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a new prototype of readout electronics (ALPHADET), which was designed for an α-particle detection system based on a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) detector. The system uses an FPGA, which provides many advantages at the stage of prototyping and testing the detector. The main design and electrical features of the board are discussed in this paper, along with selected results from the characterization of ALPHADET coupled to BJT detectors.

  11. Analysis and Quantification of Coupling Mechanisms of External Signal Perturbations on Silicon Detectors for Particle Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; Iglesias, M.; Echeverria, I.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon detectors have been used in astrophysics satellites and particle detectors for high energy physics (HEP) experiments. For HEP applications, EMC studies have been conducted in silicon detectors to characterize the impact of external noise on the system. They have shown that problems associated with the new generation of silicon detectors are related with interferences generated by the power supplies and auxiliary equipment connected to the device. Characterization of these interferences along with the coupling and their propagation into the susceptible front-end circuits is required for a successful integration of these systems. This paper presents the analysis of the sensitivity curves and coupling mechanisms between the noise and the front-end electronics that have been observed during the characterization of two silicon detector prototypes: the CMS-Silicon tracker detector (CMS-ST) and Silicon Vertex Detector (Belle II-SVD). As a result of these studies, it is possible to identify critical elements in prototypes to take corrective actions in the design and improve the front-end electronics performance.

  12. Particle Detectors and Data Analysis for Cusp Transient Features Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, James R.

    1999-01-01

    On December 3, 1997, a rocket payload (36.152) was launched from N(sub y) Alesund into the dark cusp at 0906:00 U (1206:00 LT) during an interval of southward B(sub z) and positive B(sub y). Launch occurred during a time interval of northeastward moving auroral forms observed between 0845 and 0945 UT by ground-based meridian scanning photometers. Ground photometric measurements during the flight show that the payload passed over the poleward portion of the most intense 6300 A emissions of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Electrons of energy up to a few hundred eV were detected immediately upon instrument turn-on at an altitude of 205 km and throughout the flight until the payload reached an altitude of -197 km on the downleg. Electron spectra were either quasithermal with peak energies -100 eV or showed evidence of acceleration along the magnetic field line by potentials of 100-200 V. Precipitating ions were observed throughout much of the flight. Their spectra were broadly peaked in energy with the peak energy decreasing from -500 eV to -250 eV as the payload flew approximately westward over the dayside precipitation region. Structure (spatial or temporal intensity variation) was observed between T + 180 s and T + -400 s. At the rocket altitudes (<450 km) the ions were observed to be precipitating. During the flight, the DMSP F-13 satellite passed through the all-sky imager field-of-view just poleward of the brightest dayside emissions enabling the identification of plasma sheet and boundary layer regions along the orbit. We thus conclude that particle fluxes detected by the rocket flight were either cusp plasma or boundary layer/mantle plasma just poleward of the dayside cusp/cleft. A paper describing the fields and plasmas observed during the flight is now being prepared for publication.

  13. Search for bosonic superweakly interacting massive dark matter particles with the XMASS-I detector.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Hieda, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Ichimura, K; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2014-09-19

    Bosonic superweakly interacting massive particles (super-WIMPs) are a candidate for warm dark matter. With the absorption of such a boson by a xenon atom, these dark matter candidates would deposit an energy equivalent to their rest mass in the detector. This is the first direct detection experiment exploring the vector super-WIMPs in the mass range between 40 and 120 keV. With the use of 165.9 day of data, no significant excess above background was observed in the fiducial mass of 41 kg. The present limit for the vector super-WIMPs excludes the possibility that such particles constitute all of dark matter. The absence of a signal also provides the most stringent direct constraint on the coupling constant of pseudoscalar super-WIMPs to electrons. The unprecedented sensitivity was achieved exploiting the low background at a level 10(-4)  kg-1 keVee-1 day-1 in the detector.

  14. Development of a Spatially Resolved ^3He Quasi-Particle Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquist, C. S.; Zheng, P.; Jiang, W. G.; Lee, Y.; Yoon, Y. K.; Schumann, T.; Nogan, J.; Lilly, M.

    2016-05-01

    Andreev surface bound sates are known to exist on the boundaries of superfluid ^3He-B. However, the detailed nature of their interaction with bulk quasi-particles is not well known. In a manner similar to angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy, surface states can be probed by measuring the change in momentum of bulk quasi-particles scattered from the surface. In order to make such a measurement, we have designed a spatially resolved quasi-particle detector. The detector consists of an array of micro-machined resonators, which are sensitive to quasi-particle flux. The detector is based on previously developed micro-machined resonators, which have been successfully used to study superfluid ^3He-B and ^4He. Presented here is the design of the detector and the fabrication procedure.

  15. Cosmic dust or other similar outer-space particles location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aver, S.

    1973-01-01

    Cosmic dust may be serious radiation hazard to man and electronic equipment caught in its path. Dust detector uses two operational amplifiers and offers narrower areas for collection of cosmic dust. Detector provides excellent resolution as result of which recording of particle velocities as well as positions of their impact are more accurately determined.

  16. Detection and Real Time Spectroscopy of Charged Particles with the TimePix Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    We tested the position—, spectral— and time—resolution capability of the TimePix semiconductor detector together with the USB readout interface and Pixelman control and DAQ software tool for detection and visualization of particles. Event—by—event spectroscopy can be achieved by real time analysis of the characteristic tracks and specific response of different radiation in the pixel detector.

  17. Energy spectrum measured by the telescope array surface detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dmitri

    2012-05-01

    Two conflicting measurements of the ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been reported by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments. HiRes observes a ˜5sigma suppression at E = 1019.75 eV, which is in agreement with the prediction of Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) theory. AGASA, in contrast, sees the flux extended well beyond E = 1020 eV with no visible break, suggesting that the flux is limited only by the rate at which the sources can produce the UHECR and not by interaction of energetic particles with the cosmic microwave background, thus challenging the relativistic invariance principle. In response to this discrepancy, a new experiment named the Telescope Array (TA) has been deployed, which combines the detection elements used separately by HiRes and AGASA. We describe the TA surface detector (SD) analysis using a technique new to the field, which consists of a detailed Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation of the SD response to the natural cosmic rays, validating the MC by comparing its distributions with the data, and calculation of the SD aperture from the MC. We will also describe our reconstruction procedure, based solely upon the data, and its application to both data and the MC. Finally, we will describe the energy spectrum resulting from this analysis, which is found to be in excellent agreement with the HiRes result, and as such, is the first confirmation of the GZK effect by a ground array of scintillation counters.

  18. Impact of particles on the Planck HFI detectors: Ground-based measurements and physical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A.; Ade, P.; Atik, Y.; Benoit, A.; Bréele, E.; Bock, J. J.; Camus, P.; Chabot, M.; Charra, M.; Crill, B. P.; Coron, N.; Coulais, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Fauvet, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Guillaudin, O.; Holmes, W.; Jones, W. C.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Macías-Pérez, J.; Martinez, M.; Miniussi, A.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pelissier, A.; Piat, M.; Puget, J.-L.; Renault, C.; Rosset, C.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Spencer, L. D.; Sudiwala, R.

    2014-09-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) surveyed the sky continuously from August 2009 to January 2012. Its noise and sensitivity performance were excellent (from 11 to 40 aW Hz-1), but the rate of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detectors was unexpectedly higher than in other instruments. Furthermore, collisions of cosmic rays with the focal plane produced transient signals in the data (glitches) with a wide range of characteristics and a rate of about one glitch per second. A study of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detector modules has been undertaken to categorize and characterize the glitches, to correct the HFI time-ordered data, and understand the residual effects on Planck maps and data products. This paper evaluates the physical origins of glitches observed by the HFI detectors. To better understand the glitches observed by HFI in flight, several ground-based experiments were conducted with flight-spare HFI bolometer modules. The experiments were conducted between 2010 and 2013 with HFI test bolometers in different configurations using varying particles and impact energies. The bolometer modules were exposed to 23 MeV protons from the Orsay IPN Tandem accelerator, and to 241Am and 244Cm α-particle and 55Fe radioactive X-ray sources. The calibration data from the HFI ground-based preflight tests were used to further characterize the glitches and compare glitch rates with statistical expectations under laboratory conditions. Test results provide strong evidence that the dominant family of glitches observed in flight are due to cosmic-ray absorption by the silicon die substrate on which the HFI detectors reside. Glitch energy is propagated to the thermistor by ballistic phonons, while thermal diffusion also contributes. The average ratio between the energy absorbed, per glitch, in the silicon die and thatabsorbed in the bolometer is equal to 650. We discuss the implications of these results for future satellite missions, especially those in the far

  19. Method, apparatus and system for low-energy beta particle detection

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Drigert, Mark W.

    2012-09-25

    An apparatus, method, and system relating to radiation detection of low-energy beta particles are disclosed. An embodiment includes a radiation detector with a first scintillator and a second scintillator operably coupled to each other. The first scintillator and the second scintillator are each structured to generate a light pulse responsive to interaction with beta particles. The first scintillator is structured to experience full energy deposition of low-energy beta particles, and permit a higher-energy beta particle to pass therethrough and interact with the second scintillator. The radiation detector further includes a light-to-electrical converter operably coupled to the second scintillator and configured to convert light pulses generated by the first scintillator and the second scintillator into electrical signals. The first scintillator and the second scintillator have at least one mutually different characteristic to enable an electronic system to determine whether a given light pulse is generated in the first scintillator or the second scintillator.

  20. Particle creation with finite energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian; Renn, Jürgen; Salisbury, Donald

    1983-03-01

    We consider the semiclassical quantization of the Klein—Gordon field on a Robertson—Walker background with a flat-out region. We show that the requirement that the energy density of created particles be finite selects a preferred equivalence class of particle definitions. We present a representative element of the equivalence class so determined. We briefly discuss the generalization to Bianchi I spacetimes, and the case of an external Maxwell field.

  1. High energy electromagnetic particle transportation on the GPU

    SciTech Connect

    Canal, P.; Elvira, D.; Jun, S. Y.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Apostolakis, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present massively parallel high energy electromagnetic particle transportation through a finely segmented detector on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Simulating events of energetic particle decay in a general-purpose high energy physics (HEP) detector requires intensive computing resources, due to the complexity of the geometry as well as physics processes applied to particles copiously produced by primary collisions and secondary interactions. The recent advent of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors provides the variety of concurrent programming models applicable not only for the high performance parallel computing, but also for the conventional computing intensive application such as the HEP detector simulation. The components of our prototype are a transportation process under a non-uniform magnetic field, geometry navigation with a set of solid shapes and materials, electromagnetic physics processes for electrons and photons, and an interface to a framework that dispatches bundles of tracks in a highly vectorized manner optimizing for spatial locality and throughput. Core algorithms and methods are excerpted from the Geant4 toolkit, and are modified and optimized for the GPU application. Program kernels written in C/C++ are designed to be compatible with CUDA and OpenCL and with the aim to be generic enough for easy porting to future programming models and hardware architectures. To improve throughput by overlapping data transfers with kernel execution, multiple CUDA streams are used. Issues with floating point accuracy, random numbers generation, data structure, kernel divergences and register spills are also considered. Performance evaluation for the relative speedup compared to the corresponding sequential execution on CPU is presented as well.

  2. High energy electromagnetic particle transportation on the GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, P.; Elvira, D.; Jun, S. Y.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Apostolakis, J.

    2014-06-01

    We present massively parallel high energy electromagnetic particle transportation through a finely segmented detector on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Simulating events of energetic particle decay in a general-purpose high energy physics (HEP) detector requires intensive computing resources, due to the complexity of the geometry as well as physics processes applied to particles copiously produced by primary collisions and secondary interactions. The recent advent of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors provides the variety of concurrent programming models applicable not only for the high performance parallel computing, but also for the conventional computing intensive application such as the HEP detector simulation. The components of our prototype are a transportation process under a non-uniform magnetic field, geometry navigation with a set of solid shapes and materials, electromagnetic physics processes for electrons and photons, and an interface to a framework that dispatches bundles of tracks in a highly vectorized manner optimizing for spatial locality and throughput. Core algorithms and methods are excerpted from the Geant4 toolkit, and are modified and optimized for the GPU application. Program kernels written in C/C++ are designed to be compatible with CUDA and OpenCL and with the aim to be generic enough for easy porting to future programming models and hardware architectures. To improve throughput by overlapping data transfers with kernel execution, multiple CUDA streams are used. Issues with floating point accuracy, random numbers generation, data structure, kernel divergences and register spills are also considered. Performance evaluation for the relative speedup compared to the corresponding sequential execution on CPU is presented as well.

  3. Particle and Smoke Detection on ISS for Next Generation Smoke Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary; Yuan, Zeng-guang; Sheredy, William; Funk, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Rapid fire detection requires the ability to differentiate fire signatures from background conditions and nuisance sources. Proper design of a fire detector requires detailed knowledge of all of these signal sources so that a discriminating detector can be designed. Owing to the absence of microgravity smoke data, all current spacecraft smoke detectors were designed based upon normal-g conditions. The removal of buoyancy reduces the velocities in the high temperature zones in flames, increasing the residence time of smoke particles and consequently allowing longer growth time for the particles. Recent space shuttle experiments confirmed that, in some cases, increased particles sizes are seen in low-gravity and that the relative performance of the ISS (International Space Station) and space-shuttle smoke-detectors changes in low-gravity; however, sufficient particle size information to design new detectors was not obtained. To address this issue, the SAME (Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment) experiment is manifested to fly on the ISS in 2007. The SAME experiment will make measurements of the particle size distribution of the smoke particulate from several typical spacecraft materials providing quantitative design data for spacecraft smoke detectors. A precursor experiment (DAFT: Dust Aerosol measurement Feasibility Test) flew recently on the ISS and provided the first measurement of the background smoke particulate levels on the ISS. These background levels are critical to the design of future smoke detectors. The ISS cabin was found to be a very clean environment with particulate levels substantially below the space shuttle and typical ground-based environments.

  4. The angle detecting inclined sensor (ADIS) system: Measuring particle angles of incidence without position sensing detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    We report on a novel system, the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS), for determining the angles of incidence of Solar energetic particles, Galactic cosmic rays and anomalous cosmic rays. This system would be especially applicable to compact, high-resolution energetic particle telescopes. The response of a charged particle detector to incident particles varies with particle's pathlength, which depends upon its angle of incidence to the detector. Achieving good elemental and isotopic resolution requires correcting for this effect. ADIS consists of three detectors, two of which are inclined at an angle to the telescope axis, forming the first detectors in a multi-element telescope. By comparing the signals from the ADIS detectors, the angle of incidence may be determined. Thus the ADIS system can replace hodoscopes using conventional position sensing detectors (PSD's). PSD's add significant complexity and require additional electronics, increasing instrument mass, power usage and, in many cases, telemetry requirements. Using our ADIS system, we derive simple equations for the incident particle charge and trajectory. These calculations are well within the capabilities of even the slowest on-board processor. We present Monte-Carlo modeling of such an instrument to demonstrate the system's capabilities.

  5. Spin-off from particle detectors in the field of medicine and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, P.

    2007-10-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 physicists have played a major role in the development of medical imaging instrumentation. More recently, the technological developments in several areas of applied physics, the new generation of particle physics detectors and the development of an information-based society all combine to enhance the performance of presently available imaging devices. This paper describes the critical parameters of modern medical imaging in the context of the spectacular development of in-vivo molecular imaging, which will soon allow to bridge post-genomics research activities with new diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for major diseases. In particular, the molecular profiling of tumors and gene expression open the way to tailored therapies and therapeutic monitoring of major diseases like cancer, degenerative and genetic disorders. Moreover, the repeatability of non-invasive approaches allows an evaluation of drug targeting and pharmacokinetics studies on small animals, as well as a precise screening and treatment follow-up of patients. The technical requirements on imaging devices are very challenging but are rather similar in many respects to the ones of modern particle detectors on high-luminosity accelerators. Examples will be given of active technology transfer areas from high-energy physics detectors, which can significantly improve the performance of future medical imaging devices. Special emphasis will be put on the need for a globalization of technology research and development as modern instrumentation in a vast range of applications has similar requirements and spin-off should be more and more understood as cross-fertilization between different disciplines.

  6. Soft particle production in very high energy hadron interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr; Ridky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray (CR) showers exist over a large span of energies. We focus in particular on the excess of multi-muon bundles observed by the DELPHI detector at LEP and on the excess in the muon number in general reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Even though the primary CR energies relevant for these experiments differ by orders of magnitude, we can find a single mechanism which can simultaneously increase predicted muon counts for both, while not violating constraints from accelerators or from the longitudinal shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. We present a brief motivation and describe a practical implementation of such a model, based on the addition of soft particles to interactions above a chosen energy threshold. Results of an extensive set of simulations show the behavior of this model in various parts of a simplified parameter space.

  7. High energy particles and quanta in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, F. B. (Editor); Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The various subdisciplines of high-energy astrophysics are surveyed in a series of articles which attempt to give an overall view of the subject as a whole by emphasizing the basic physics common to all fields in which high-energy particles and quanta play a role. Successive chapters cover cosmic ray experimental observations, the abundances of nuclei in the cosmic radiation, cosmic electrons, solar modulation, solar particles (observation, relationship to the sun acceleration, interplanetary medium), radio astronomy, galactic X-ray sources, the cosmic X-ray background, and gamma ray astronomy. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  8. Detectors for high energy nuclear collisions: problems, progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Some perspective of the main issues in high energy nuclear collision physics is offered. How to identify and measure a quark-gluon plasma is considered to still be an open question. The types of detector configurations to be used in high-energy nucleus-nucleus experiments are discussed. Particular issues covered are measurements of lepton pair spectra, tracking systems and multitrack resolution, event-rate capabilities, backgrounds and other problems close to the beam, and calorimetry. 2 refs. (LEW)

  9. Low-energy neutron physics research with a gamma multiplicity detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Robert C.; Slovacek, R. E.; Werner, C. J.; Moretti, B. E.; Burke, J. A.; Drindak, N. J.; Leinweber, G.

    1997-02-01

    A sixteen-segment NaI(Tl) multiplicity gamma ray detector is used at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Gaerttner LINAC Laboratory for neutron cross section measurements. This detector consists of an annulus of NaI(Tl) divided into two sets of 8 pie shaped segments, each segment optically isolate and viewed by a photomultiplier. The neutron beam passes along the axis of the detector and impinges upon a sample placed in the center. Time-of-flight data are taken as a function of the number of sections which detect a gamma and which is defined as the detected multiplicity. This detector can simultaneously acquire neutron scattering, capture and fission data by placing suitable limits on the total detected gamma ray energy deposited in the detector. Scattering and capture measurements have been performed on samples of holmium, erbium, and tungsten and experimental results are presented. The experimental multiplicity for capture is analyzed by assuming the single particle model, stochastically calculating the gamma ray cascades from neutron capture, and transporting each gamma ray into the detector using the Monte Carlo method. The detection efficiency for neutron capture is over 90 percent and is relatively insensitive to different isotopes of the same element or different spins of the compound nuclear resonances. A status report on experimental and analytical activities at the Laboratory is presented.

  10. High energy neutrinos from big bang particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinskij, V. S.

    1992-10-01

    The production of high energy neutrinos by big bang particles is reviewed. The big bang particles are divided into two categories: dark matter particles (DMP) and the exotic relics whose mass density can be smaller than the critical one. For the case of DMP the neutralino and the gravitino are considered. High energy neutrinos can be produced due to the capture of the neutralinos in the earth and the sun, with the subsequent annihilation of these particles there. If R-parity is weakly violated, the neutralino decay can be a source of high energy neutrinos. The gravitino as DMP is unobservable directly, unless R-parity is violated and the gravitino decays. For thermal exotic relics a very general conclusion is reached: the detectable neutrino flux can be produced only by long-lived particles with τx > t0, where t0 is the age of the universe. Very large neutrino fluxes can be produced by superheavy metastable relics in the particular cosmological scenario where the violent entropy production occurs.

  11. High energy neutrinos from big bang particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.

    1993-04-01

    The production of high energy neutrinos by big bang particles is reviewed. The big bang particles are divided into two categories: dark matter particles (DMP), i.e. those with the critical mass density (ϱX = ϱc) at present, and the exotic relics whose mass density can be smaller than the critical one. For the case of DMP the neutralino and the gravitino are considered. High energy neutrinos can be produced due to the capture of the neutralinos in the earth and the sun, with the subsequent annihilation of these particles there. If R-parity is weakly violated, the neutralino decay can be a source of high energy neutrinos. The gravitino as DMP is unobservable directly, unless R-parity is violated and the gravitino decays. For thermal exotic relics a very general conclusion is reached: the detectable neutrino flux can be produced only by long-lived particles with τX > to, where to is the age of the Universe (the exceptional case is the decay only to the neutrinos). Very large neutrino fluxes can be produced by superheavy (up to ~ 1018 GeV) metastable relics in the particular cosmological scenario where the violent entropy production occurs.

  12. Thin film cadmium telluride charged particle sensors for large area neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. W.; Smith, L.; Calkins, J.; Mejia, I.; Cantley, K. D.; Chapman, R. A.; Quevedo-Lopez, M.; Gnade, B.; Kunnen, G. R.; Allee, D. R.; Sastré-Hernández, J.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Mendoza-Pérez, R.

    2014-09-15

    Thin film semiconductor neutron detectors are an attractive candidate to replace {sup 3}He neutron detectors, due to the possibility of low cost manufacturing and the potential for large areas. Polycrystalline CdTe is found to be an excellent material for thin film charged particle detectors—an integral component of a thin film neutron detector. The devices presented here are characterized in terms of their response to alpha and gamma radiation. Individual alpha particles are detected with an intrinsic efficiency of >80%, while the devices are largely insensitive to gamma rays, which is desirable so that the detector does not give false positive counts from gamma rays. The capacitance-voltage behavior of the devices is studied and correlated to the response due to alpha radiation. When coupled with a boron-based neutron converting material, the CdTe detectors are capable of detecting thermal neutrons.

  13. Energy scale calibration of KEDR detector tagging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskiy, V. V.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Zhilich, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    The tagging system of the KEDR detector is a symmetrical focusing magnetic spectrometer for electrons and positrons scattered at small angles; it is embedded into the lattice of the VEPP-4M collider and intended for two-photon processes study. It measures scattered electron energy with resolution Δ E/E0=0.03% ... 0.6% (E0 is the beam energy). For precise energy scale calibration two methods are used: tagging of bremsstrahlung electron/positron by the photon energy measured by BGO calorimeter, and direct calibration using Compton backscattering spectrum edge. This report covers design and current status of the calibration system.

  14. Report of the HEPAP Subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  15. Report of the HEPAP subpanel on major detectors in non-accelerator particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The subpanel on Major Detectors in Non-Accelerator Particle Physics was formed in February 1989 as the result of a letter from Robert Hunter, Director, Office of Energy Research, to Francis Low, Chairman of HEPAP. A copy of the letter is included in the Appendix to this report. The letter referred to the previous report of HEPAP Subpanel on High Energy Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy which had found that several groups of scientists were working on promising new ideas and proposals in non-accelerator high energy physics and astrophysics; this report recommended that panel be formed to evaluate large projects in these areas of science when specific proposals were received by the funding agencies. In concurring with the recommendation, the request to establish this new Subpanel included the following specific charge: Within the context of changing world wide high energy physics activities and opportunities, review as necessary and evaluate the following major research proposals which have been submitted to the Department of Energy and/or to the National Science foundation: DUMAND II, GRANDE, and the Fly's Eye Upgrade.

  16. Plasma-Based Detector of Outer-Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Brinza, David E.; Henry, Michael D.; Clay, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    A report presents a concept for an instrument to be flown in outer space, where it would detect dust particles - especially those associated with comets. The instrument would include a flat plate that would intercept the dust particles. The anticipated spacecraft/dust-particle relative speeds are so high that the impingement of a dust particle on the plate would generate a plasma cloud. Simple electric dipole sensors located equidistantly along the circumference of the plate would detect the dust particle indirectly by detecting the plasma cloud. The location of the dust hit could be estimated from the timing of the detection pulses of the different dipoles. The mass and composition of the dust particle could be estimated from the shapes and durations of the pulses from the dipoles. In comparison with other instruments for detecting hypervelocity dust particles, the proposed instrument offers advantages of robustness, large collection area, and simplicity.

  17. The “Puck” energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low‐resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low‐resource but highly capable, mass‐species‐discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the “Puck” EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high‐voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions. PMID:27867799

  18. Testing and assessment of a large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Graaf, E. R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P. P.; Jones, D. G.

    2007-06-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/NGD), and other companies, to test their most sensitive system. This paper presents the results of trials in a specially created test facility at UKAEA Harwell with a large BGO detector. The detector's size and weight mean that it would be suitable for vehicle deployment but would be too large and heavy to carry in areas that could not be accessed by a vehicle. However, it would be possible to use the same methodology that is described here with a smaller detector capable of being carried in a backpack, albeit with reduced sensitivity for particle detection. The approach that we present is also applicable, with modifications, to the detection of offshore particles using a towed seabed detector.

  19. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  20. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) System: Measuring Particle Angles of Incidence without Position Sensing Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.

    2001-08-01

    We report on a novel system, the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS), for determining the angles of incidence of Solar energetic particles, Galactic cosmic rays and anomalous cosmic rays. This system would be especially applicable to compact high resolution energetic particle telescopes. The response of charged particle detectors varies with particle pathlength, which depends on angle of incidence. Achieving good elemental and isotopic resolution requires correcting for this effect. ADIS consists of three detectors, two of which are inclined at an angle to the telescope axis, forming the first detectors in a multi-element telescope. By comparing the signals from the ADIS detectors, and using the computable angle dependent pathlengths through the detectors, the angle of incidence may be determined. The ADIS system thus can replace hodoscopes using conventional position sensing detectors (PSD's). PSD's add significant complexity and require additional electronics, increasing instrument mass, power usage and, in many cases, telemetry requirements. We derive simple equations for the incident particle charge and trajectory. These calculations are well within the capabilities of even the slowest on-board processors. We present Monte-Carlo modeling of such an instrument to demonstrate the system's capabilities.

  1. Charged particle production in p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Evgeny; ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Per-event charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factors are measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in p+Pb interactions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. Results are presented as a function of transverse momentum, rapidity, and in different intervals of collision centrality, which is characterised in p+Pb collisions by the total transverse energy measured over the pseudorapidity interval ‑3.2 < η < ‑4.9 in the direction of the lead beam. Three different calculations of the number of nucleons participating in p+Pb collisions have been performed, assuming the Glauber model and its Glauber-Gribov Colour Fluctuation extensions. The results using different models are compared with each other, as well as with other measurements made under the same conditions and also with centrality definition based on different rapidity intervals.

  2. High-energy proton radiation damage of high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.; Varnell, L. S.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative studies of radiation damage in high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors due to high-energy charged particles have been carried out; two 1.0 cm thick planar detectors were irradiated by 6 GeV/c protons. Under proton bombardment, degradation in the energy resolution was found to begin below 7 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm and increased proportionately in both detectors until the experiment was terminated at a total flux of 5.7 x 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm, equivalent to about a six year exposure to cosmic-ray protons in space. At the end of the irradiation, the FWHM resolution measured at 1332 keV stood at 8.5 and 13.6 keV, with both detectors of only marginal utility as a spectrometer due to the severe tailing caused by charge trapping. Annealing these detectors after proton damage was found to be much easier than after neutron damage.

  3. High-energy proton radiation damage of high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.; Varnell, L. S.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative studies of radiation damage in high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors due to high-energy charged particles have been carried out; two 1.0 cm thick planar detectors were irradiated by 6 GeV/c protons. Under proton bombardment, degradation in the energy resolution was found to begin below 7 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm and increased proportionately in both detectors until the experiment was terminated at a total flux of 5.7 x 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm, equivalent to about a six year exposure to cosmic-ray protons in space. At the end of the irradiation, the FWHM resolution measured at 1332 keV stood at 8.5 and 13.6 keV, with both detectors of only marginal utility as a spectrometer due to the severe tailing caused by charge trapping. Annealing these detectors after proton damage was found to be much easier than after neutron damage.

  4. Reconstructing High Energy Ion Fluxes with the Maven Solar Energetic Particle Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, P.; Lillis, R. J.; Larson, D. E.; Lee, C. O.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bahadori, A.; Kroupa, M.

    2016-12-01

    High energy SEPs (> 5 MeV) are an important, if episodic,source of energy input to the Martian atmosphere, causing ionization and driving chemistry below 100 km altitude. Particles of this energy can cause a radiation hazard for astronauts in Mars orbit, therefore their characterization is important for human exploration of the solar system. Particles with > 13 MeV pass through all three detectors in each telescope in the SEP instrument. For a given incident energy, there is a probability distribution of deposited energies. We will present preliminary results of an inversion technique to reconstruct ion fluxes in Mars orbit up to several tens of MeV.

  5. Development of a Low-cost, FPGA-based, Delay Line Particle Detector for Satellite and Sounding Rocket Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, M.; Kujawski, J. T.; Adrian, M. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Electrons are, by definition, a fundamental, chemical and electromagnetic constituent of any plasma. This is especially true within the partially ionized plasmas of Earth's ionosphere where electrons are a critical component of a vast array of plasma processes. Siena College is working on a novel method of processing information from electron spectrometer anodes using delay line techniques and inexpensive COTS electronics to track the movement of high-energy particles. Electron spectrometers use a variety of techniques to determine where an amplified electron cloud falls onto a collecting surface. One traditional method divides the collecting surface into sectors and uses a single detector for each sector. However, as the angular and spatial resolution increases, so does the number of detectors, increasing power consumption, cost, size, and weight of the system. An alternative approach is to connect each sector with a delay line built within the PCB material which is shielded from cross talk by a flooded ground plane. Only one pair of detectors (e.g., one at each end of the chain) are needed with the delay line technique which is different from traditional delay line detectors which use either Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or very fast clocks. In this paper, we report on the implementation and testing of a delay line detector using a low-cost Xilinx FPGA and a thirty-two sector delay system. This Delay Line Detector has potential satellite and rocket flight applications due to its low cost, small size and power efficiency

  6. Field evaluation of nanofilm detectors for measuring acidic particles in indoor and outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Heikkinen, Maire S A; Hazi, Yair; Gao, Hai; Peters, Paul; Lippmann, Morton

    2004-09-01

    This field evaluation study was conducted to assess new technology designed to measure number concentrations of strongly acidic ultrafine particles. Interest in these particles derives from their potential to cause adverse health effects. Current methods for counting and sizing airborne ultrafine particles cannot isolate those particles that are acidic. We hypothesized that the size-resolved number concentration of such particles to which people are exposed could be measured by newly developed iron nanofilm detectors on which sulfuric acid (H2SO4*) droplets produce distinctive ringed reaction sites visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We carried out field measurements using an array of samplers, with and without the iron nanofilm detectors, that allowed indirect comparison of particle number concentrations and size-resolved measures of acidity. The iron nanofilm detectors are silicon chips (5 mm x 5 mm x 0.6 mm) that are coated with iron by vapor deposition. The iron layer was 21.5 or 26 nm thick for the two batches used in these experiments. After exposure the detector surface was scanned topographically by AFM to view and enumerate the ringed acid reaction sites and deposited nonacidic particles. The number of reaction sites and particles per scan can be counted directly on the image displayed by AFM. Sizes can also be measured, but for this research we did not size particles collected in the field. The integrity of the surface of iron nanofilm detectors was monitored by laboratory analysis and by deploying blank detectors and detectors that had previously been exposed to H2SO4 calibration aerosols. The work established that the detectors could be used with confidence in temperate climates. Under extreme high humidity and high temperature, the surface film was liable to detach from the support, but remaining portions of the film still produced reliable data. Exposure to ambient gases in a filtered air canister during the field tests did not affect the film

  7. The TUS Detector of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays on Board the Lomonosov Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, P. A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Khrenov, B. A.; Garipov, G. K.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Petrov, V. L.; Sharakin, S. A.; Shirokov, A. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Y.; Biktemerova, S. V.; Grinyuk, A. A.; Grebenyuk, V. M.; Lavrova, M. V.; Tkachev, L. G.; Tkachenko, A. V.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Ponce, E.; Saprykin, O. A.; Botvinko, A. A.; Senkovsky, A. N.; Puchkov, A. E.

    2017-08-01

    The origin and nature of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), which have energies above the 5\\cdot10^{19} eV—the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) energy limit, is one of the most interesting and complicated problems in modern cosmic-ray physics. Existing ground-based detectors have helped to obtain remarkable results in studying cosmic rays before and after the GZK limit, but have also produced some contradictions in our understanding of cosmic ray mass composition. Moreover, each of these detectors covers only a part of the celestial sphere, which poses problems for studying the arrival directions of EECRs and identifying their sources. As a new generation of EECR space detectors, TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up), KLYPVE and JEM-EUSO, are intended to study the most energetic cosmic-ray particles, providing larger, uniform exposures of the entire celestial sphere. The TUS detector, launched on board the Lomonosov satellite on April 28, 2016 from Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia, is the first of these. It employs a single-mirror optical system and a photomultiplier tube matrix as a photo-detector and will test the fluorescent method of measuring EECRs from space. Utilizing the Earth's atmosphere as a huge calorimeter, it is expected to detect EECRs with energies above 10^{20} eV. It will also be able to register slower atmospheric transient events: atmospheric fluorescence in electrical discharges of various types including precipitating electrons escaping the magnetosphere and from the radiation of meteors passing through the atmosphere. We describe the design of the TUS detector and present results of different ground-based tests and simulations.

  8. High-energy resolution X-ray, gamma and electron spectroscopy with cryogenic detectors.

    PubMed

    Loidl, M; Leblanc, E; Bouchard, J; Branger, T; Coron, N; Leblanc, J; de Marcillac, P; Rotzinger, H; Daniyarov, T; Linck, M; Fleischmann, A; Enss, C

    2004-01-01

    Cryogenic detectors offer remarkably better energy resolutions than those achievable with conventional semiconductor or scintillation detectors. With the additional asset of a detection efficiency close to unity for low-energy X-ray photons and electrons, these detectors have the potential to perform X-ray, gamma and electron spectroscopy of a hitherto unknown quality, in particular at low energies. Two types of cryogenic detectors are described and the results of prototype detectors are presented.

  9. Spectrum of energy depositions in the Auger Water Cherenkov Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Humberto

    1999-08-01

    The measured spectrum of energy depositions in a Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) prototype for the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. A WCD (area 10 m2 )is located in the Puebla University campus at a depth of 800 g/cm2 (2200 m above sea level). Differential and integral spectra in a wide energy deposition range (0.5 - 150 of vertical equivalent muons) are presented. The problem of the WCD "self calibration" procedure (by rate of the muon events) is discussed. The characteristic change of the slopes of the differential spectrum at the transition from single muon signals to EAS signals is also discussed. The measured energy deposition spectrum at extreme signals is used to estimate the linearity of the response of the WCD PMTs. Key words: Auger array, water Cherenkov detector, extensive air showers

  10. Maximum likelihood positioning and energy correction for scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Christoph W; Salomon, André; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Lodomez, Sarah; Weissler, Björn; Solf, Torsten

    2016-02-21

    An algorithm for determining the crystal pixel and the gamma ray energy with scintillation detectors for PET is presented. The algorithm uses Likelihood Maximisation (ML) and therefore is inherently robust to missing data caused by defect or paralysed photo detector pixels. We tested the algorithm on a highly integrated MRI compatible small animal PET insert. The scintillation detector blocks of the PET gantry were built with the newly developed digital Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) technology from Philips Digital Photon Counting and LYSO pixel arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and length of 12 mm. Light sharing was used to readout the scintillation light from the 30 × 30 scintillator pixel array with an 8 × 8 SiPM array. For the performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm, we measured the scanner's spatial resolution, energy resolution, singles and prompt count rate performance, and image noise. These values were compared to corresponding values obtained with Center of Gravity (CoG) based positioning methods for different scintillation light trigger thresholds and also for different energy windows. While all positioning algorithms showed similar spatial resolution, a clear advantage for the ML method was observed when comparing the PET scanner's overall single and prompt detection efficiency, image noise, and energy resolution to the CoG based methods. Further, ML positioning reduces the dependence of image quality on scanner configuration parameters and was the only method that allowed achieving highest energy resolution, count rate performance and spatial resolution at the same time.

  11. Particle distribution tail and related energy formula

    SciTech Connect

    Combescot, R.; Alzetto, F.; Leyronas, X.

    2009-05-15

    We present a simple derivation of the energy formula found by Tan, relative to the single-channel Hamiltonian relevant for ultracold Fermi gases. This derivation is generalized to particles with different masses, to arbitrary mixtures, and to two-dimensional space. We show how in a field-theoretic approach, the 1/k{sup 4} tail in the momentum distribution and the energy formula arise in a natural way. As a specific example, we consider quantitative calculations of the energy from different formulas within the ladder diagram approximation in the normal state. The comparison of the results provides an indication on the quality of the approximation.

  12. Negative energy particle as an expanding wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culetu, Hristu

    2015-04-01

    The properties of a dynamic wormhole are investigated. Using a particular equation of state for the fluid on the wormhole throat, we reached an equation of motion for the throat (a hyperbola) that leads to a negative surface energy density σ. The throat expands with the same acceleration 2π|σ| as the Ipser-Sikivie domain wall. We found the Lagrangian leading to the above equation of motion of the throat. The associated Hamiltonian corresponds to a relativistic free particle of a time-dependent negative energy -ℏc/R, where R is the throat radius, similar in form with the Casimir energy inside an expanding spherical box.

  13. Measurements of alpha particle energy using nuclear tracks in solids methodology.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, G; Amero, C; Gammage, R B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the measurement of alpha particle energy using polycarbonate materials as nuclear track detectors (NTDs). This method is based on the interaction of the radiation with the solid-state materials, using the relationship between the energy deposited in the material by the ionising particle and the track developed after an established chemical process. The determination of the geometrical parameters of the formed track, such as major axis, minor axis and overall track length, permit determination of the energy of the alpha particle. The track analysis is performed automatically using a digital image system, and the data are processed in a PC with commercial software. In this experiment 148Gd, 238U, 230Th, 239Pu and 244Cm alpha particle emitters were used. The values for alpha particle energy resolution, the linear response to energy, the confidence in the results and the automatisation of the procedure make this method a promising analysis system.

  14. Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-09-01

    During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performances of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.

  15. Investigation of energy weighting using an energy discriminating photon counting detector for breast CT

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Kesava S.; Mahd, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Breast CT is an emerging imaging technique that can portray the breast in 3D and improve visualization of important diagnostic features. Early clinical studies have suggested that breast CT has sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for accurate detection of masses and microcalcifications in the breast, reducing structural overlap that is often a limiting factor in reading mammographic images. For a number of reasons, image quality in breast CT may be improved by use of an energy resolving photon counting detector. In this study, the authors investigate the improvements in image quality obtained when using energy weighting with an energy resolving photon counting detector as compared to that with a conventional energy integrating detector. Methods: Using computer simulation, realistic CT images of multiple breast phantoms were generated. The simulation modeled a prototype breast CT system using an amorphous silicon (a-Si), CsI based energy integrating detector with different x-ray spectra, and a hypothetical, ideal CZT based photon counting detector with capability of energy discrimination. Three biological signals of interest were modeled as spherical lesions and inserted into breast phantoms; hydroxyapatite (HA) to represent microcalcification, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), and iodine enhanced infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IIDC). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of these three lesions was measured from the CT reconstructions. In addition, a psychophysical study was conducted to evaluate observer performance in detecting microcalcifications embedded into a realistic anthropomorphic breast phantom. Results: In the energy range tested, improvements in SNR with a photon counting detector using energy weighting was higher (than the energy integrating detector method) by 30%–63% and 4%–34%, for HA and IDC lesions and 12%–30% (with Al filtration) and 32%–38% (with Ce filtration) for the IIDC lesion, respectively. The average area under the

  16. Investigation of energy weighting using an energy discriminating photon counting detector for breast CT.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Kesava S; Mahd, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J

    2013-08-01

    Breast CT is an emerging imaging technique that can portray the breast in 3D and improve visualization of important diagnostic features. Early clinical studies have suggested that breast CT has sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for accurate detection of masses and microcalcifications in the breast, reducing structural overlap that is often a limiting factor in reading mammographic images. For a number of reasons, image quality in breast CT may be improved by use of an energy resolving photon counting detector. In this study, the authors investigate the improvements in image quality obtained when using energy weighting with an energy resolving photon counting detector as compared to that with a conventional energy integrating detector. Using computer simulation, realistic CT images of multiple breast phantoms were generated. The simulation modeled a prototype breast CT system using an amorphous silicon (a-Si), CsI based energy integrating detector with different x-ray spectra, and a hypothetical, ideal CZT based photon counting detector with capability of energy discrimination. Three biological signals of interest were modeled as spherical lesions and inserted into breast phantoms; hydroxyapatite (HA) to represent microcalcification, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), and iodine enhanced infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IIDC). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of these three lesions was measured from the CT reconstructions. In addition, a psychophysical study was conducted to evaluate observer performance in detecting microcalcifications embedded into a realistic anthropomorphic breast phantom. In the energy range tested, improvements in SNR with a photon counting detector using energy weighting was higher (than the energy integrating detector method) by 30%-63% and 4%-34%, for HA and IDC lesions and 12%-30% (with Al filtration) and 32%-38% (with Ce filtration) for the IIDC lesion, respectively. The average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

  17. Investigation of energy weighting using an energy discriminating photon counting detector for breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Kesava S.; Mahd, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Breast CT is an emerging imaging technique that can portray the breast in 3D and improve visualization of important diagnostic features. Early clinical studies have suggested that breast CT has sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for accurate detection of masses and microcalcifications in the breast, reducing structural overlap that is often a limiting factor in reading mammographic images. For a number of reasons, image quality in breast CT may be improved by use of an energy resolving photon counting detector. In this study, the authors investigate the improvements in image quality obtained when using energy weighting with an energy resolving photon counting detector as compared to that with a conventional energy integrating detector.Methods: Using computer simulation, realistic CT images of multiple breast phantoms were generated. The simulation modeled a prototype breast CT system using an amorphous silicon (a-Si), CsI based energy integrating detector with different x-ray spectra, and a hypothetical, ideal CZT based photon counting detector with capability of energy discrimination. Three biological signals of interest were modeled as spherical lesions and inserted into breast phantoms; hydroxyapatite (HA) to represent microcalcification, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), and iodine enhanced infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IIDC). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of these three lesions was measured from the CT reconstructions. In addition, a psychophysical study was conducted to evaluate observer performance in detecting microcalcifications embedded into a realistic anthropomorphic breast phantom.Results: In the energy range tested, improvements in SNR with a photon counting detector using energy weighting was higher (than the energy integrating detector method) by 30%–63% and 4%–34%, for HA and IDC lesions and 12%–30% (with Al filtration) and 32%–38% (with Ce filtration) for the IIDC lesion, respectively. The average area under the receiver

  18. A large detector for cosmic ray abundance and energy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, C.

    A large aperture, balloon borne cosmic ray detector was designed to measure the energy spectra of individual cosmic ray species with Z greater than 8 in the energy range 0.3GeV/N to 400GeV/N. The energy dependence of the abundance spectrum extending up to such high energies will provide valuable data for determining the nature of the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. The properties of cosmic ray nuclei and the interpretation of the energy dependence of the abundance spectrum are discussed. The design and response of the BUGS IV cosmic ray detector are described. The measurement techniques used are gas scintillation, gas proportional scintillation and Cerenkov radiation from both gases and solids. The light collection properties of the detector and several experimental investigations of the light collection efficiency of the drift chamber region are described. The expected signals from the gas scintillation and gas Cerenkov emissions are predicted and the choice of a suitable scintillating gas mixture for minimizing the uncertainty in the charge and energy measurements is considered. The theoretical aspects of electron drift and diffusion in gases and several experimental investigations on the electron drift in the BUGS IV drift chamber are given. Also some preliminary results from a uniform field drift chamber are included which demonstrate the sensitivity of the electron drift velocity in inert gas mixtures to water vapor contamination. The expected overall performance of BUGS IV and the results of an experimental simulation of the parachute landing of the detector are given.

  19. Study on the performance of electromagnetic particle detectors of LHAASO-KM2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Cao, Zhen; Chang, Jingfan; Feng, Cunfeng; Hanapia, Erlan; Gong, Guanghua; Liu, Jia; Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Shaoru; Zhu, Chengguang

    2017-02-01

    The electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) for one square kilometer detector array (KM2A) of large high altitude air shower observation (LHAASO) are designed to measure the densities and arrival times of secondary particles in extensive air showers (EASs). ED is a type of plastic scintillator detector with an active area of 1 m2. This study investigates the design and performance of prototype ED. Approximately 20 photoelectrons are collected by the 1st dynode of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The prototype ED exhibited good detection efficiency and time resolution. The detection for the wide dynamic particle density varying from 1 to 10 000 particles/m2 is realized with the design of the PMT divider for the readout of both the anode and 6th dynode.

  20. Charged-particle distributions in √{ s} = 13 TeVpp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.

    2016-07-01

    Charged-particle distributions are measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, using a data sample of nearly 9 million events, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 170 μb-1, recorded by the ATLAS detector during a special Large Hadron Collider fill. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on the charged-particle multiplicity are presented. The measurements are performed with charged particles with transverse momentum greater than 500 MeV and absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5, in events with at least one charged particle satisfying these kinematic requirements. Additional measurements in a reduced phase space with absolute pseudorapidity less than 0.8 are also presented, in order to compare with other experiments. The results are corrected for detector effects, presented as particle-level distributions and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators.

  1. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  2. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  3. Characterization of Air Particles Giving False Responses with Biological Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    cbserve the alpha group representing biologicals, natural and man-made foers and hairs, fertilizers and food products gave particles in which 67% showed...epithelial cells + 4- -+ 4- + + flyash + + + + fungus +. + 4 4.- glass particles + 4- + hematite D + + metal, white - ? paint spray or chips 1 . 4- . paper

  4. Apparatuses and methods for detecting, identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei and methods of distinguishing neutron stimulation of a radiation particle detector from gamma-ray stimulation of a detector

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jerald D.; Drigert, Mark W.; Reber, Edward L.; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of detecting radioactive decay, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radioactive material, the radioactive material generating decay particles; b)providing a plurality of detectors proximate the sample, the detectors comprising a first set and a second set, the first set of the detectors comprising liquid state detectors utilizing liquid scintillation material coupled with photo tubes to generate a first electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the liquid scintillation material, the second set of the detectors comprising solid state detectors utilizing a crystalline solid to generate a second electrical signal in response to decay particles stimulating the crystalline solid; c) stimulating at least one of the detectors to generate at least one of the first and second electrical signals, the at least one of the first and second electrical signals being indicative of radioactive decay in the sample. In another aspect, the invention encompasses an apparatus for identifying and quantitating radioactive nuclei of a sample comprising radioactive material that decays to generate neutrons and high-energy .gamma.-rays.

  5. The next generation of photo-detector for particle astrophysics.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R. G.; Byrum, K. L.; Sanchez, M.; Vaniachine, A. V.; Siegmund, O.; Otte, N.A.; Ramberg, E.; Hall, J.; Buckley, J.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of California at Berkeley; FNAL; Washington Univ.

    2009-06-02

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  6. The Next Generation of Photo-Detectors for Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert G.; Byrum, Karen L.; Sanchez, Mayly; Vaniachine, Alexandre V.; Siegmund, Oswald; Otte, Nepomuk A.; Ramberg, Erik; Hall, Jeter; Buckley, James

    2009-04-01

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  7. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated.

  8. Electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, A. M.; Ilyina, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    The electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams emitted from extended large-size objects as well as from remote point sources are proposed. Results of the analytical trajectory solutions in ideal cylindrical field provide focusing characteristics for both configurations. The instruments possess of simple compact design, based on an ideal cylindrical field with entrance window arranged in the end-boundary between electrodes and can be used for measurements in space technologies, plasma and nuclear physics.

  9. A low-energy gamma-ray imaging detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Trombka, J. I.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    We describe a hard-X-ray/soft-gamma-ray imaging detector, incorporating a microchannel-plate (MCP) electron multiplier for possible use in future telescopes. In contrast to previous attempts using MCP's this approach promises to achieve high quantum detection efficiencies in addition to high spatial and temporal resolution. Preliminary results indicate not only the capability of simultaneous imaging and single-photon counting, but also coarse energy resolution.

  10. Simulations of low energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} particle backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    A progress report on simulations of low-energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} backgrounds from the beam-beam interaction at future linear colliders is given. Characteristics of the primary particles and detailed calculations of the backgrounds fron backscattering into the detector volume are presented.

  11. Evidence for the Heavy Baryon Resonance State $\\Lambda_{b}^{\\ast0}$ Observed with the CDF II Detector, and Studies of New Particle Tracking Technologies Using the LANSCE Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Palni, Prabhakar

    2014-05-01

    To discover and probe the properties of new particles, we need to collide highly energetic particles. The Tevatron at Fermilab has collided protons and anti-protons at very high energies. These collisions produce short lived and stable particles, some known and some previously unknown. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions and discover new elementary particles. To study the interaction between high energy charged particles and the detector materials often requires development of new instruments. Thus this dissertation involves a measurement at a contemporary experiment and development of technologies for related future experiments that will build on the contemporary one.

  12. Search for lightly ionizing particles using CDMS-II data and fabrication of CDMS detectors with improved homogeneity in properties

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Kunj Bihari

    2013-12-01

    Fundamental particles are always observed to carry charges which are integral multiples of one-third charge of electron, e/3. While this is a well established experimental fact, the theoretical understanding for the charge quantization phenomenon is lacking. On the other hand, there exist numerous theoretical models that naturally allow for existence of particles with fractional electromagnetic charge. These particles, if existing, hint towards existence of physics beyond the standard model. Multiple high energy, optical, cosmological and astrophysical considerations restrict the allowable mass-charge parameter space for these fractional charges. Still, a huge unexplored region remains. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II), located at Soudan mines in northern Minnesota, employs germanium and silicon crystals to perform direct searches for a leading candidate to dark matter called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Alternately, the low detection threshold allows search for fractional electromagnetic-charged particles, or Lightly Ionizing Particles (LIPs), moving at relativistic speed. Background rejection is obtained by requiring that the magnitude and location of energy deposited in each detector be consistent with corresponding \\signatures" resulting from the passage of a fractionally charged particle. In this dissertation, the CDMS-II data is analyzed to search for LIPs, with an expected background of 0.078 0.078 events. No candidate events are observed, allowing exclusion of new parameter space for charges between e/6 and e/200.

  13. Gallium Arsenide detectors for X-ray and electron (beta particle) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Results characterizing GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes with a 10 μm i layer for their spectral response under illumination of X-rays and beta particles are presented. A total of 22 devices, having diameters of 200 μm and 400 μm, were electrically characterized at room temperature. All devices showed comparable characteristics with a measured leakage current ranging from 4 nA/cm2 to 67 nA/cm2 at an internal electric field of 50 kV/cm. Their unintentionally doped i layers were found to be almost fully depleted at 0 V due to their low doping density. 55Fe X-ray spectra were obtained using one 200 μm diameter device and one 400 μm diameter device. The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) achieved was 625 eV using the 200 μm and 740 eV using the 400 μm diameter device, respectively. Noise analysis showed that the limiting factor for the energy resolution of the system was the dielectric noise; if this noise was eliminated by better design of the front end of the readout electronics, the achievable resolution would be 250 eV. 63Ni beta particle spectra obtained using the 200 μm diameter device showed the potential utility of these detectors for electron and beta particle detection. The development of semiconductor electron spectrometers is important particularly for space plasma physics; such devices may find use in future space missions to study the plasma environment of Jupiter and Europa and the predicted electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes from Europa hypothesized as a result of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations.

  14. The angle detecting inclined sensors (ADIS) systemmeasuring particle angles of incidence without position sensing detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a novel system, the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS), for determining the angle of incidence of energetic charged particles. This system is particularly suited to space-based and balloon-borne instruments to study Solar Energetic Particles, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Anomalous Cosmic Rays. Such instruments are frequently constrained by limited resources in terms of mass, power and telemetry. At the same time, large detector area and acceptance angle, together with good elemental and isotopic resolution, can be critical for the required measurements. High-resolution particle identification requires that the angles of incidence of ion events in an instrument be determined. Conventional Position Sensing Detectors (PSDs) used in hodoscopes add significant complexity and require additional electronics, thus increasing instrument mass and power usage. The ADIS system overcomes many of these problems by using detector geometry in place of PSDs.

  15. A self-powered thin-film radiation detector using intrinsic high-energy current

    SciTech Connect

    Zygmanski, Piotr E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu; Sajo, Erno E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The authors introduce a radiation detection method that relies on high-energy current (HEC) formed by secondary charged particles in the detector material, which induces conduction current in an external readout circuit. Direct energy conversion of the incident radiation powers the signal formation without the need for external bias voltage or amplification. The detector the authors consider is a thin-film multilayer device, composed of alternating disparate electrically conductive and insulating layers. The optimal design of HEC detectors consists of microscopic or nanoscopic structures. Methods: Theoretical and computational developments are presented to illustrate the salient properties of the HEC detector and to demonstrate its feasibility. In this work, the authors examine single-sandwiched and periodic layers of Cu and Al, and Au and Al, ranging in thickness from 100 nm to 300 μm and separated by similarly sized dielectric gaps, exposed to 120 kVp x-ray beam (half-value thickness of 4.1 mm of Al). The energy deposition characteristics and the high-energy current were determined using radiation transport computations. Results: The authors found that in a dual-layer configuration, the signal is in the measurable range. For a defined total detector thickness in a multilayer structure, the signal sharply increases with decreasing thickness of the high-Z conductive layers. This paper focuses on the computational results while a companion paper reports the experimental findings. Conclusions: Significant advantages of the device are that it does not require external power supply and amplification to create a measurable signal; it can be made in any size and geometry, including very thin (sub-millimeter to submicron) flexible curvilinear forms, and it is inexpensive. Potential applications include medical dosimetry (both in vivo and external), radiation protection, and other settings where one or more of the above qualities are desired.

  16. Simulation Study of RICH Detector for Particle Identification in Forward Region at Electron-Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Cheuk-Ping

    2015-04-01

    eRD11 R&D program is focusing on the technology exploration for hadron particle identification in the forward region of Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) for studying quark and gluon distributions inside the nucleon. A modular Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector has been extensively studied in Geant4-based simulation. The detector consists of a block of aerogel, Fresnel lens, four side mirrors and a photosensor plane. The simulated performance of this detector will be presented in this talk. For the eRD11 Collaboration.

  17. Induced radioactivity in and around high-energy particle accelerators.

    PubMed

    Vincke, Helmut; Theis, Chris; Roesler, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Particle accelerators and their surroundings are locations of residual radioactivity production that is induced by the interaction of high-energy particles with matter. This paper gives an overview of the principles of activation caused at proton accelerators, which are the main machines operated at Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire. It describes the parameters defining radio-nuclide production caused by beam losses. The second part of the paper concentrates on the analytic calculation of activation and the Monte Carlo approach as it is implemented in the FLUKA code. Techniques used to obtain, on the one hand, estimates of radioactivity in Becquerel and, on the other hand, residual dose rates caused by the activated material are discussed. The last part of the paper focuses on experiments that allow for benchmarking FLUKA activation calculations and on simulations used to predict activation in and around high-energy proton machines. In that respect, the paper addresses the residual dose rate that will be induced by proton-proton collisions at an energy of two times 7 TeV in and around the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. Besides activation of solid materials, the air activation expected in the CMS cavern caused by this beam operation is also discussed.

  18. ELENA MCP detector: absolute detection efficiency for low-energy neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J. A.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-09-01

    Microchannel Plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission of ESA to Mercury to be launched in 2015. ELENA is a Time of Flight (TOF) sensor, based on a novel concept using an ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section), which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop detector. The scientific objective of ELENA is to detect energetic neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 76° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the plasma environment and the planet’s surface, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles released from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (< 1eV - < 100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (E < 30 eV) is a crucial point for this investigation. At the MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of the University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different types of MCP (with and without coating) have been performed providing the detection efficiencies in the energy range 10eV - 1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are discussed here.

  19. The use of nuclear physics and high energy physics detectors in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina

    2013-06-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late '70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this paper we will try to present how Nuclear Physics/High Energy Physics and Medical Imaging have both benefited by the cross-fertilization of research activities between the two fields and how much they will take advantage in the future.

  20. Improvements to the Leake neutron detector II: Extension to 10 GeV energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, J. W.; Lowe, T.; Mason, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on an improved design of neutron ambient dose equivalent (DE) detector, SNS-LINUS, consisting of a spherical polyethylene detector with internal shields of boron and lead based on the LINUS model thus extending the response to the GeV region. The computed Monte Carlo neutron ambient DE energy response is within a factor ±2.4 from 0.1 keV to 10 GeV with a detector weight of 7.8 kg that is significantly lower than other LINUS designs. The ambient DE response in the 50 keV-10 MeV range is within a factor ±1.36 (i.e. ±30%). The main applications are likely to be around particle accelerators, in aircraft or in spacecraft. The improved response in the 20 MeV energy region should make it attractive for use with fission sources. The computed responses of the SNS NGREM and LINUS detectors to pulsed neutrons and limits for their prudent use in portable monitors in such fields are given. The effect of large gamma bursts on the measurement of pulsed neutrons is discussed with recommendations made to enable operation up to 10 μGy of gamma radiation per burst. We propose a method of extending the dynamic range for pulsed neutron detection in which the neutron decay within the moderator is used to make measurements at a time at which the count rate losses are acceptable.

  1. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Appel, Jan K.; Brinza, David E.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  2. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD).

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Appel, Jan K; Brinza, David E; Rafkin, Scot C R; Böttcher, Stephan I; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  3. Search for fractionally charged particles in the Mont Blanc LSD scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Dadykin, V. L.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Khalchukov, F. F.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortchaguin, P. V.; Kortchaguin, V. B.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Malguin, A. S.; Marchetti, G.; Periale, L.; Ryassny, V. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Yakushev, V. F.; Zatsepin, G. T.

    1994-02-01

    An analysis of the events recorded by the Mont Blanc Neutrino Scintillation Detector was performed in order to search for fractionally charged particles with |Q| = 1/3and |Q| = 2/3. In a live time of 2378 days, the obtained 90% C. L. upper limits on the fluxes of fractionally charged particles in the core of our detector are Φ(|Q| = 1/3) < 2. 3 10 -13cm-2s-1sr-1and Φ(|Q| = 2/3) < 2. 7 10 -13cm-2s-1sr-1, the best available limits obtained by scintillation counters technique.

  4. Radiation Hard Plastic Scintillators for a New Generation of Particle Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmann, M.; Herrig, V.; Maldonis, J.; Neuhaus, J.; Shrestha, D.; Rajbhandari, P.; Thune, Z.; Been, M.; Martinez-Szewczyk, M.; Khristenko, V.; Onel, Y.; Akgun, U.

    2017-03-01

    The radiation hardness of specific scintillating materials used in particle physics experiments is one of the main focuses of research in detector development. This report summarizes the preparation methods, light yield characterization and radiation damage tests of a plastic scintillator with a polysiloxane base and pTP and bis-MSB dopants. The scintillator is shown to be a promising candidate for particle detectors with its intense light output around 400 nm and very little scintillation or transmission loss after proton irradiation of 4 × 105 Gy.

  5. Maximum likelihood positioning and energy correction for scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, Christoph W.; Salomon, André; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Lodomez, Sarah; Weissler, Björn; Solf, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    An algorithm for determining the crystal pixel and the gamma ray energy with scintillation detectors for PET is presented. The algorithm uses Likelihood Maximisation (ML) and therefore is inherently robust to missing data caused by defect or paralysed photo detector pixels. We tested the algorithm on a highly integrated MRI compatible small animal PET insert. The scintillation detector blocks of the PET gantry were built with the newly developed digital Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) technology from Philips Digital Photon Counting and LYSO pixel arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and length of 12 mm. Light sharing was used to readout the scintillation light from the 30× 30 scintillator pixel array with an 8× 8 SiPM array. For the performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm, we measured the scanner’s spatial resolution, energy resolution, singles and prompt count rate performance, and image noise. These values were compared to corresponding values obtained with Center of Gravity (CoG) based positioning methods for different scintillation light trigger thresholds and also for different energy windows. While all positioning algorithms showed similar spatial resolution, a clear advantage for the ML method was observed when comparing the PET scanner’s overall single and prompt detection efficiency, image noise, and energy resolution to the CoG based methods. Further, ML positioning reduces the dependence of image quality on scanner configuration parameters and was the only method that allowed achieving highest energy resolution, count rate performance and spatial resolution at the same time.

  6. Data report of hypervelocity micro-particle impact light flash data and MOS impact detector output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Patrick J.

    1995-06-01

    A series of hypervelocity impact tests were conducted at the Max-Plank Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany using the Institut's 2 MV Van De Graaff micro-particle accelerator. The purpose of this experimental effort was to collect impact flash data resulting from hypervelocity impact events. The results of these test experiments are to be correlated with actual waveforms obtained from on-orbit systems. Furthermore, these experimental results will supplement ongoing theoretical predictions being conducted within the Phillips Laboratory by the Space Kinetic Impact/Debris Branch (pLJWSCD). This report only describes the instrumentation configuration and presents data collected from light flash measurements and a MOS micro-particle impact detector. An analysis of the acquired light flash data is contained in a separate report authored by Allahdadi, Medina, Serna, and Long. Iron particles in the mass range of 1 x 10(exp -15) to 8 x 10(exp -18) kg were accelerated to velocities between 7 and 38 km/sec. Three targets were used for these impact test: spacecraft optical lens, spacecraft optical sunshade, and MOS spacecraft micro-particle impact detector. The hypervelocity particle impacted the lens and micro-particle impact detector targets normal to the target surface. The sunshade was impacted at a 25 degree angle measured from the particle direction of flight.

  7. A heuristic approach to the quantum measurement problem: How to distinguish particle detectors from ordinary objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, R.

    2015-08-01

    Elementary particle detectors fall broadly into only two classes: phase-transformation devices, such as the bubble chamber, and charge-transfer devices like the Geiger-Müller tube. Quantum measurements are seen to involve transitions from a long-lived metastable state (e.g., superheated liquid or a gas of atoms between charged capacitor plates) to a thermodynamically stable condition. A detector is then a specially prepared object undergoing a metastable-to-stable transformation that is significantly enhanced by the presence of the measured particle, which behaves, in some sense, as the seed of a process of heterogeneous nucleation. Based on this understanding of the operation of a conventional detector, and using results of orthogonality-catastrophe theory, we argue that, in the thermodynamic limit, the pre-measurement Hamiltonian is not the same as that describing the detector during or after the interaction with a particle and, thus, that superpositions of pointer states (Schrödinger’s cats) are unphysical because their time evolution is ill defined. Examples of particle-induced changes in the Hamiltonian are also given for ordinary systems whose macroscopic parameters are susceptible to radiation damage, but are not modified by the interaction with a single particle.

  8. Characterization and modeling of relative luminescence efficiency of optically stimulated luminescence detectors exposed to heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel Oliveira

    Scope and method of study. This work investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of carbon-doped aluminum oxide Al2O3:C detectors exposed to heavy charged particles (HCPs) with energies relevant to radiation protection in space, and cancer therapy. This investigation includes ground-based experiments in accelerators and theoretical studies of the detector's response. These theoretical studies are based on the track structure model (TSM) and require information of the spatial pattern of energy deposition around the HCP path---the radial dose distribution (RDD). Thus, RDDs were obtained using six analytical models, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the code GEANT4. In addition, we propose a modified analytical model to improve the agreement between calculated and experimental efficiency values. Findings and conclusions. Dose response experiments showed that beta rays and H 1000 MeV radiations produced similar responses in the detectors and we concluded that the H 1000 MeV and beta radiations deposit energy similarly. We observed a common trend of decreasing the relative luminescence efficiency (etaHCP,gamma ) as increasing the unrestricted linear energy transfer in water ( LH2Oinfinity ) for all the detectors. For Luxel(TM) detectors the eta HCP,gamma was close to unit for particles with LH2Oinfinity lower than 3 keV/mum. TSM using the RDD from Chatterjee and Schaefer, Butts and Katz, Waligorski et al., Fageeha et al., Kiefer and Straaten, and Geibeta et al. models failed to predict the etaHCP,gamma values. We proposed a modified version of the RDD from Butts and Katz model, which agreed within 20% with relative luminescence efficiency experimental data. This was the first time that such agreement was achieved for a wide range of HCPs of different energies. MC simulations with GEANT4 agreed within 35% with etaHCP,gamma experimental data. Finally, we suggested a correction method, based on the calculation of etaHCP,gamma using the TSM

  9. Lunar radio detection of ultra-high-energy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and their expected counterpart neutrinos, are the most energetic particles in nature, and their origin remains unknown. The detection of these particles is key to identifying their origin, but is complicated by their low flux, which necessitates the use of extremely large detectors. The largest potential aperture for detecting the most energetic of these particles is offered by the lunar radio technique, which makes use of the Moon as a detector, using ground-based radio telescopes to search for nanosecond-scale radio pulses from particles interacting in the lunar regolith, and it is this technique that is the subject of this thesis. In this thesis I present a description of the most sensitive lunar radio experiment to date, conducted in 2010 with the Parkes radio telescope as part of the LUNASKA project, including a comprehensive test of the purpose-built Bedlam backend used in this experiment. The signal-processing strategy is explored in great detail, with an extensive discussion of the statistics of stochastic signals, and an optimal strategy is described which compensates both for known effects such as ionospheric dispersion and for previously-unidentified effects such as phase ambiguity from frequency downconversion. A series of cuts is outlined which successfully removes all anthropogenic radio interference, the first time this has been accomplished for a lunar radio experiment without the benefit of a coincidence filter operating between multiple channels. After these cuts, no radio pulses are observed; this null detection allows limits to be placed on the fluxes of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. To place this experiment in context, I perform a review of the null detections published for previous lunar radio experiments, including detailed analyses of their experimental techniques, based on the rigorous treatment applied in the above work. In several cases, I find previously-unidentified problems which

  10. Improvement in the energy resolving capabilities of photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D.; Lim, K. T.; Park, K.; Cho, G.

    2016-12-01

    Patterned pixel array was proposed to increase the number of energy bins in a single pixel of photon counting detectors without adding more comparators and counters. The pixels were grouped into four different types and each pixel has a common threshold and a specific threshold assigned to each pixel type. The common threshold in every pixel records the total number of incident photons regardless of its pixel type and the specific thresholds classify incident photon energies. The patterned pixel array was evaluated with the pinhole gamma camera system based on the XRI-UNO detector flip-chip bonded with a 1mm thick CdTe sensor. The experimental data was acquired with time-over-threshold mode to avoid the charge sharing problem. The shared total charges created by one photon can be found by summing all pixels within the cluster. To correct the different response to the same energy of photon, the energy calibration of the time-over-threshold value was perfomed independently depending on the cluster size. The time-over-threshold values were separated into two energy bins since we assumed that each pixel has two thresholds. Although each pixel has only two thresholds, five images from different energy windows were obtained by sharing the spectal information from four adjacent pixels. Thus, degradation of the spatial resolution in the image occured in each energy window. The image of the entire energy, however, was not degraded since all four different types of pixels have a common threshold just above the noise level. In addition, the number of steps for the threshold scan method can be drastically reduced with the increased number of effective thresholds in a single pixel.

  11. High resolution, low energy avalanche photodiode X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Vanderpuye, K.; Entine, G.; Squillante, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes have been fabricated, and their performance as X-ray detectors has been measured. Photon sensitivity and energy resolution were measured as a function of size and operating parameters. Noise thresholds as low as 212 eV were obtained at room temperature, and backscatter X-ray fluorescence data were obtained for aluminum and other light elements. It is concluded that the results with the X-ray detector are extremely encouraging, and the performance is challenging the best available proportional counters. While not at the performance level of either cryogenic silicon or HgI2, these device operate at room temperature and can be reproduced in large numbers and with much larger areas than typically achieved with HgI2. In addition, they are rugged and appear to be indefinitely stable.

  12. High resolution, low energy avalanche photodiode X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Vanderpuye, K.; Entine, G.; Squillante, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes have been fabricated, and their performance as X-ray detectors has been measured. Photon sensitivity and energy resolution were measured as a function of size and operating parameters. Noise thresholds as low as 212 eV were obtained at room temperature, and backscatter X-ray fluorescence data were obtained for aluminum and other light elements. It is concluded that the results with the X-ray detector are extremely encouraging, and the performance is challenging the best available proportional counters. While not at the performance level of either cryogenic silicon or HgI2, these device operate at room temperature and can be reproduced in large numbers and with much larger areas than typically achieved with HgI2. In addition, they are rugged and appear to be indefinitely stable.

  13. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P. K.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P K; Scullion, C; Ahmed, H; Kakolee, K F; Hadjisolomou, P; Alejo, A; Kar, S; Borghesi, M; Ter-Avetisyan, S

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  15. Charge exchange neutral particle measurements with natural diamond detector under the deuterium-deuterium neutron field on JT-60U tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, M.; Kusama, Y.; Takechi, M.; Nishitani, T.; Morioka, A.; Sasao, M.; Isobe, M.; Krasilnikov, A.; Kaschuck, Yu. A.

    2004-10-01

    A natural diamond detector (NDD) has been installed on the JT-60U tokamak to measure the flux and the energy distribution of charge exchange (CX) fast neutral particles. A NDD has many important advantages to be used as a CX neutral particle analyzer, for example very compact size, high energy resolution, and high radiation hardness etc., while the neutrons and {gamma} rays are a large noise source in the deuterium plasma. The shield was set up around the NDD to reduce those noises. Time-resolved energy distribution of CX neutral particles corresponding to injected beam energy have been successfully obtained under high intensity neutron yield Y{sub n}>10{sup 15} n/s. Further enhanced neutral particle fluxes during sawtooth oscillation and Alfven eigenmodes were observed with the NDD. The performance of the NDD as CX neutral particle spectrometer under high intensity neutron yield was demonstrated for the first time on JT-60U in this work.

  16. The high-energy heavy-particle fluences in the orbits of manned space stations.

    PubMed

    Baranov, D G; Dergachev, V A; Gagarin, Yu F; Lyagushin, V I; Nymmik, R A; Panasyuk, M I; Solov'ev, A V; Yakubovskii, E A

    2002-10-01

    The results are presented of measurements high-energy particles in a customary manned space station orbit (a 350-450-km altitude, a 51.6 degrees inclination; Salyut-6 and 7, MIR). The particles were recorded by the chambers composed of the Lavsan (polyethyleneterephtalate) solid-state nuclear track detector layers mounted outside a spacecraft for 1-3 years. A high resolution has been attained in the charge and energy spectra of 30-200 MeV/n Fe group particles. The results of measuring the particle fluxes in the space station orbits are used to restore the initial particle energy spectra in terms of the models that describe the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their penetration to the Earth's magnetosphere. The analysis demonstrates a high effectiveness of the described methods when applied to quite a number of space physics problems.

  17. Location of Low-Energy Charged Particle Instrument

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    This graphic shows the NASA Voyager 1 spacecraft and the location of its low-energy charged particle instrument. A labeled close-up of the low-energy charged particle instrument appears as the inset image.

  18. A two-dimensional position sensitive charged-particle detector for the magnetic spectrograph ``Big Karl'' of the Jülich Cyclotron ``Jülich''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Müller, K. D.; Stoff, H.; Teske, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Hardt, A.; Martin, S.; Mayer-Böricke, C.; Meißburger, J.

    1980-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive detector with an area of 300 mm × 40 mm and a charged-particle spatial resolution of ΔX = ΔY ⩽ 0.5 mm is described. Some test results point out the detector properties. Results of the experiments 102Ru(d,p) 103Ru and 208Pb(p,p') 208Pb done at 45 MeV incident particle energy using the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL are shown with sections of the proton spectra.

  19. Application of Natural Diamond Detector to Energetic Neutral Particle Measurements on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Alekseyev; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore; V.N. Amosov; A.V. Krasilnikov; D.V. Prosvirin; A.Yu. Tsutskikh

    2003-03-01

    Two natural diamond detectors have been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to look at escaping neutrals at or near the neutral-beam-injection energy. Time-resolved measurements have been obtained from these detectors at various tangency radii. The close proximity of the detector to the vessel required the development of a very fast low-noise preamplifier, which has been shown to be superior to similar commercial units. With this amplifier arrangement, electromagnetic pick-up noise was reduced to acceptable levels. However, radiation shielding was required to reduce the background levels from neutron-induced pulses in the detector. Calibration data along with the measured energy resolution is presented in the useful energy range of NSTX. Example data from plasma discharges will also be presented.

  20. A first look at Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies using the PHOBOS detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B. B.; George, N.; Wousmaa, A. H.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Physics

    2003-05-01

    The PHOBOS detector has been used to study Au + Au collisions at {radical}sNN = 56,130, and 200 GeV Several global observables have been measured and the results are compared with theoretical models. These observables include the charged-particle multiplicity measured as a function of beam energy, pseudo-rapidity, and centrality of the collision. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its almost complete angular coverage such that these quantities can be studied over a pseudo-rapidity interval of |{eta}|{<=}5.4. This allows for an almost complete integration of the total charged particle yield, which is found to be about N{sub ch}{sup tot} = 4200 {+-}470 at {radical}sNN = 130 GeV and N{sub ch}{sup tot} = 5300 {+-}530 at {radical}sNN = 200 GeV. The ratio of anti-particles to particles emitted in the mid-rapidity region has also been measured using the PHOBOS magnetic spectrometer. Of particular interest is the ratio of anti-protons to protons in the mid-rapidity region, which was found to be (i.e.921-1) at {radical}sNN = 130 GeV. This high value suggests that an almost baryon-free region has been produced in the collisions.

  1. Theoretical consideration of the energy resolution in planar HPGe detectors for low energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, theoretical consideration of the processes in planar High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors for low energy X-rays using the random stochastic processes formalism was carried out. Using the random stochastic processes formalism, the generating function of the processes of X-rays registration in a planar HPGe detector was derived. The power serial expansions of the detector amplitude and the variance in terms of the inverse bias voltage were derived. The coefficients of these expansions allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, nonuniformity of the trap density, and other characteristics of the semiconductor material. (authors)

  2. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991]. [Dept. of Physics, Purdue Univ. , West Lafayette, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included.

  3. Use of incomplete energy recovery for the energy compression of large energy spread charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen V.

    2007-01-23

    A method of energy recovery for RF-base linear charged particle accelerators that allows energy recovery without large relative momentum spread of the particle beam involving first accelerating a waveform particle beam having a crest and a centroid with an injection energy E.sub.o with the centroid of the particle beam at a phase offset f.sub.o from the crest of the accelerating waveform to an energy E.sub.full and then recovering the beam energy centroid a phase f.sub.o+Df relative to the crest of the waveform particle beam such that (E.sub.full-E.sub.o)(1+cos(f.sub.o+Df))>dE/2 wherein dE=the full energy spread, dE/2=the full energy half spread and Df=the wave form phase distance.

  4. RADIATION HARDNESS / TOLERANCE OF SI SENSORS / DETECTORS FOR NUCLEAR AND HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    LI,Z.

    2002-09-09

    Silicon sensors, widely used in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, suffer severe radiation damage that leads to degradations in sensor performance. These degradations include significant increases in leakage current, bulk resistivity, and space charge concentration. The increase in space charge concentration is particularly damaging since it can significantly increase the sensor full depletion voltage, causing either breakdown if operated at high biases or charge collection loss if operated at lower biases than full depletion. Several strategies can be used to make Si detectors more radiation had tolerant to particle radiations. In this paper, the main radiation induced degradations in Si detectors will be reviewed. The details and specifics of the new engineering strategies: material/impurity/defect engineering (MIDE); device structure engineering (DSE); and device operational mode engineering (DOME) will be given.

  5. Operant responding following exposure to HZE particles and its relationship to particle energy and LET

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to range of heavy particles which differ in terms of particle energy and particle linear energy transfer. The present experiments were designed to evaluate how these physical characteristics of different particles affect cognitive performance...

  6. The high energy multicharged particle exposure of the microbial ecology evaluation device on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The high energy multicharged cosmic-ray-particle exposure of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device package on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft was monitored using cellulose nitrate, Lexan polycarbonate, nuclear emulsion, and silver chloride crystal nuclear-track detectors. The results of the analysis of these detectors include the measured particle fluences, the linear energy transfer spectra, and the integral atomic number spectrum of stopping particle density. The linear energy transfer spectrum is used to compute the fractional cell loss in human kidney (T1) cells caused by heavy particles. Because the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device was better shielded, the high-energy multicharged particle exposure was less than that measured on the crew passive dosimeters.

  7. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, M. F.; Abdel-Naby, A.; Morsy, A. Ahmed

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as ^{93}Nb, ^{86}Kr and ^{4}He in CR-39 and ^{4}He and ^{132}Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke-Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  8. Causality issues of particle detector models in QFT and quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the constraints that causality imposes on some of the particle detector models employed in quantum field theory in general and, in particular, on those used in quantum optics (or superconducting circuits) to model atoms interacting with light. Namely, we show that disallowing faster-than-light communication can impose severe constraints on the applicability of particle detector models in three different common scenarios: (1) when the detectors are spatially smeared, (2) when a UV cutoff is introduced in the theory and (3) under one of the most typical approximations made in quantum optics: the rotating-wave approximation. We identify the scenarios in which the models' causal behavior can and cannot be cured.

  9. Evolution of Some Particle Detectors Based On the Discharge in Gases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Charpak, G.

    1969-11-19

    Summary of the properties of some of the detectors that are commonly used in counter experiments to localize charged particles, and which are based on discharge in gases under the influence of electric fields and some basic facts of gaseous amplification in homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields.

  10. Radiation Hard Silicon Particle Detectors for Phase-II LHC Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A.

    2017-02-01

    The major LHC upgrade is planned after ten years of accelerator operation. It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the current machine up to 1035 cm-2s-1 and operate as the upcoming High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) . The major detectors upgrade, called the Phase-II Upgrade, is also planned, a main reason being the aging processes caused by severe particle radiation. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a large Research and Development program has been underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance for HL-LHC trackers. In this summary, several results obtained during the testing of the devices after irradiation to HL-LHC levels are presented. Among the studied structures, one can find advanced sensors types like 3D silicon detectors, High-Voltage CMOS technologies, or sensors with intrinsic gain (LGAD). Based on these results, the RD50 Collaboration gives recommendation for the silicon detectors to be used in the detector upgrade.

  11. Pulse shape discrimination at low energies with a double sided, small-pitch strip silicon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolini, B.; Le Crom, B.; Assié, M.; Dueñas, J. A.; Mengoni, D.; Ancelin, S.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Chabot, M.; de Séréville, N.; Faul, T.; Guillot, J.; Hammache, F.; Jallat, A.; Le Ven, V.; Martel, I.; Rauly, E.; Suzuki, D.

    2013-12-01

    We achieved particle separation of proton, deuteron and triton at energies ranging between 2 and 10 MeV by the processing of digitized signals obtained with a double-sided, 485-μm pitch strip, 500-μm thick neutron transmutation doped (nTD) silicon detector. We produced the light charged particles in a nuclear reaction induced by a 34-MeV beam of 7Li impinging on a 12C target. We analyzed offline the signals with the goal of a simplified, possibly analog, front-end electronics in mind for the processing of the 15,000 channels of the new state-of-the-art detectors for low energy nuclear physics like GASPARD, HYDE and TRACE which should make use of such methods. At the optimum bias, using the current amplitude versus charge correlation, we obtain a separation of 3 FWHM between protons and deuteron, and 2 FWHM between deuteron and triton at energies as low as 2 MeV; with a square bipolar filter, suited for simple implementation, we separate them by 4.3 and 2.7 FWHM respectively at 5 MeV.

  12. High Tc SQUID Detector for Magnetic Metallic Particles in Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Akai, Tomonori; Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Shuichi

    High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor. After the discovery of the high-Tc superconducting materials, the performance of the high-Tc SQUID has been improved and stabilized. One strong candidate for application is a detection system of magnetic foreign matters in industrial products. There is a possibility that ultra-small metallic foreign matter has been accidentally mixed with industrial products such as lithium ion batteries. If this happens, the manufacturer of the product suffers a great loss recalling products. The outer dimension of metallic particles less than 100 micron cannot be detected using X-ray imaging, which is commonly used for the inspection. Therefore a highly sensitive system for small foreign matters is required. We developed detection systems based on high-Tc SQUID for industrial products. We could successfully detect small iron particles of less than 50 micron on a belt conveyer. These detection levels were hard to be achieved using conventional X-ray detection or other methods.

  13. Method and apparatus for generating low energy nuclear particles

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1999-02-09

    A particle accelerator generates an input particle beam having an initial energy level above a threshold for generating secondary nuclear particles. A thin target is rotated in the path of the input beam for undergoing nuclear reactions to generate the secondary particles and correspondingly decrease energy of the input beam to about the threshold. The target produces low energy secondary particles and is effectively cooled by radiation and conduction. A neutron scatterer and a neutron filter are also used for preferentially degrading the secondary particles into a lower energy range if desired. 18 figs.

  14. Method and apparatus for generating low energy nuclear particles

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris; Ludewig, Hans; Todosow, Michael

    1999-02-09

    A particle accelerator (12) generates an input particle beam having an initial energy level above a threshold for generating secondary nuclear particles. A thin target (14) is rotated in the path of the input beam for undergoing nuclear reactions to generate the secondary particles and correspondingly decrease energy of the input beam to about the threshold. The target (14) produces low energy secondary particles and is effectively cooled by radiation and conduction. A neutron scatterer (44) and a neutron filter (42) are also used for preferentially degrading the secondary particles into a lower energy range if desired.

  15. Handling missing data for the identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector: A comparison between different imputation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Riggi, D.; Riggi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector by the energy loss technique may also be achieved by the use of a neural network. The performance of the network becomes worse when a large fraction of information is missing, for instance due to detector inefficiencies. Algorithms which provide a way to impute missing information have been developed over the past years. Among the various approaches, we focused on normal mixtures' models in comparison with standard mean imputation and multiple imputation methods. Further, to account for the intrinsic asymmetry of the energy loss data, we considered skew-normal mixture models and provided a closed form implementation in the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm framework to handle missing patterns. The method has been applied to a test case where the energy losses of pions, kaons and protons in a six-layers' Silicon detector are considered as input neurons to a neural network. Results are given in terms of reconstruction efficiency and purity of the various species in different momentum bins.

  16. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Jason, Andrew J.; Blind, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  17. Radio telescopes as the detectors of super-high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagkesamansky, R. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    The registration of super high energy neutrinos is a very difficult and also very important problem that requires construction of detectors with large effective target masses. Askaryan pointed out the possibility of registering cascades in dense media by the Cherenkov radio emission of an excess of negative charges in the cascades which arose in interaction between high energy particles and the atoms of medium. The telescopes for cosmic high energy neutrino detection by radioemission of cascades induced underground, but whose development continues in the atmosphere were proposed by others. The effective target masses of such detectors could be approx. 10(exp 9) tons and more. The properties of Cherenkov radio emission of cascades and the properties of ice in the Antarctic Region make it possible to propose Radio Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detection (RAMAND): antennas should be placed on the ice surface of approx. 10 sq km to search for radio signals for neutrino (muon) cascades of energy. It is evident from data given that the largest radio telescopes gives the opportunity for registration of the cascades induced by neutrinos with the energies E is greater than or = 10(exp 20) eV.

  18. Radio telescopes as the detectors of super-high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagkesamansky, R. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    The registration of super high energy neutrinos is a very difficult and also very important problem that requires construction of detectors with large effective target masses. Askaryan pointed out the possibility of registering cascades in dense media by the Cherenkov radio emission of an excess of negative charges in the cascades which arose in interaction between high energy particles and the atoms of medium. The telescopes for cosmic high energy neutrino detection by radioemission of cascades induced underground, but whose development continues in the atmosphere were proposed by others. The effective target masses of such detectors could be approx. 10(exp 9) tons and more. The properties of Cherenkov radio emission of cascades and the properties of ice in the Antarctic Region make it possible to propose Radio Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detection (RAMAND): antennas should be placed on the ice surface of approx. 10 sq km to search for radio signals for neutrino (muon) cascades of energy. It is evident from data given that the largest radio telescopes gives the opportunity for registration of the cascades induced by neutrinos with the energies E is greater than or = 10(exp 20) eV.

  19. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Tae Won; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Singh, P. K.; Kakolee, K. F.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-08-15

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles’ impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5–58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2–17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  20. PARROT A fiber optic link for particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Maurizio; Trasatti, Luciano; Stefani, Giovanni; Avaldi, Lorenzo

    1993-09-01

    The fiber optic technology has been used to build a transmitter-receiver system capable of delivering channeltron or PM tube signals through a few hundred meter span. The intrinsic immunity of optical fibers to e.m. noise has been used to reduce noise problems in an experimental apparatus equipped with two electrostatic analyzers for coincidence (e, 2e) spectroscopy. A coincidence energy separation spectrum of He, used for calibration of the apparatus energy scale, has been measured using fiber optic links instead of coaxial cables. The system was completely built using cheap and easily available commercial components. The results show that fiber optic links could become a viable technique for noise reduction, high voltage decoupling and low temperature calorimeters signal transfer.

  1. Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

    2002-02-01

    The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

  2. The deadtime correction for ion-trap particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J.

    2005-10-01

    When ion traps are used to store low-energy recoil protons in precision studies of neutron β-decay, decay events are lost when several protons are stored during a single trapping cycle and their detection is registered as a single event during the release phase. The correction for this deadtime effect, which is proportional to the trapping time, is analysed as a problem in Baysian statistics.

  3. Epitaxial silicon detectors for particle tracking—Radiation tolerance at extreme hadron fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, Gunnar; Dolenc, Irena; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Hönniger, Frank; Kramberger, Gregor; Moll, Michael; Nossarzewska, Elsbieta; Pintilie, Ioana; Röder, Ralf

    2006-11-01

    Diodes processed on n-type epitaxial silicon with a thickness of 25, 50 and 75 μm had been irradiated with reactor neutrons and high-energy protons (24 GeV/ c) up to integrated fluences of Φeq=10 16 cm -2. Systematic experiments on radiation-induced damage effects revealed the following results: in contrast to standard and oxygen-enriched float zone (FZ) silicon devices no space charge sign inversion was observed after irradiation. It is shown that the radiation-generated concentration of deep acceptors, dominating the behavior of n-type FZ diodes, is compensated by creation of shallow donors. Thus a positive space charge is maintained throughout the irradiation up to the highest fluence and even during prolonged elevated-temperature annealing cycles. Defect analysis studies using thermally stimulated current measurements attribute the effect to a damage-induced shallow donor at EC-0.23 eV. It is argued that, as in the case of thermal donors, oxygen dimers, out diffusing from the Cz substrate during the diode processing, are responsible precursers. Results from extensive annealing experiments at elevated temperatures are verified by comparison with prolonged room-temperature annealing. These results showed that in contrast to FZ detectors, which always have to be cooled, room-temperature storage during beam off periods of future elementary particle physics experiments would even be beneficial for n-type epi-silicon detectors. A dedicated experiment at CERN-PS had successfully proven this expectation. It was verified, that in such a scenario the depletion voltage for the epi-detector could always be kept at a moderate level throughout the full S-LHC operation (foreseen upgrade of the large hadron collider). Practically no difference with respect to FZ-silicon devices was found in the damage-induced bulk generation current. The charge trapping measured with 90Sr electrons (mip's) is also almost identical to what was expected. A charge collection efficiency of 60

  4. Operant responding following exposure to HZE particles and its relationship to particle energy and linear energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2011-07-01

    On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to a variety of heavy particles (HZE particles) which differ in terms of particle energy and particle linear energy transfer. The present experiments were designed to evaluate how these physical characteristics of different particles affect cognitive performance, specifically operant responding. Following exposure to 28Si, 48Ti, 12C and 16O particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory rats were tested for their ability to respond appropriately to changes in reinforcement schedules using an operant task. The results showed that the effectiveness of different particles in disrupting cognitive performance, defined as the lowest dose that produced a performance decrement, varied as a function of the energy of the specific particle: for comparisons between different energies of the same particle ( e.g., 56Fe) the effectiveness of the particle was directly proportional to particle linear energy transfer, whereas for comparisons between different particles ( e.g., 56Fe and 16O) effectiveness was inversely proportional to particle linear energy transfer. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms that influence the effectiveness of different particles and energies and in terms of their implications for analyzing the possible risks to astronauts of decrements in cognitive performance following exposure to HZE particles on long-duration exploratory class missions.

  5. Charged-particle distributions at low transverse momentum in $$\\sqrt{s} = 13$$ TeV pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2016-09-15

    Here, measurements of distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 151 μb–1. The particles are required to have a transverse momentum greater than 100 MeV and an absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on multiplicity are measured in events containing at least two charged particles satisfying the above kinematic criteria. The results are corrected formore » detector effects and compared to the predictions from several Monte Carlo event generators.« less

  6. Charged-particle distributions at low transverse momentum in $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Dos Santos, S. P. Amor; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Navarro, L. Barranco; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bylund, O. Bessidskaia; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Sola, J. D. Bossio; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Madden, W. D. Breaden; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; de Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Urbán, S. Cabrera; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Lopez, S. Calvente; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Toro, R. Camacho; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Armadans, R. Caminal; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Bret, M. Cano; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Garrido, M. D. M. Capeans; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Gimenez, V. Castillo; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Alberich, L. Cerda; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Barajas, C. A. Chavez; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; El Moursli, R. Cherkaoui; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Muiño, P. Conde; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Ortuzar, M. Crispin; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Donszelmann, T. Cuhadar; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’amen, G.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; De Sousa, M. J. Da Cunha Sargedas; Via, C. Da; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Hoffmann, M. Dano; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Regie, J. B. De Vivie; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Devesa, M. R.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Yildiz, H. Duran; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Giannelli, M. Faucci; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Martinez, P. Fernandez; Perez, S. Fernandez; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; de Lima, D. E. Ferreira; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Parodi, A. Ferretto; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Castillo, L. R. Flores; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Torregrosa, E. Fullana; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Walls, F. M. Garay; García, C.; Navarro, J. E. García; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Bravo, A. Gascon; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Da Costa, J. Goncalves Pinto Firmino; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; de la Hoz, S. González; Parra, G. Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gravila, P. M.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Ortiz, N. G. Gutierrez; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Hadef, A.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanisch, S.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hartmann, N. M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J. J.; Heinrich, L.; Heinz, C.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Henkelmann, S.; Correia, A. M. Henriques; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Jiménez, Y. Hernández; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooberman, B. H.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn’ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S. -C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Huo, P.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Ishijima, N.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ito, F.; Ponce, J. M. Iturbe; Iuppa, R.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jain, V.; Jakobi, K. B.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanneau, F.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G. -Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, H.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Pena, J. Jimenez; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, S.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Rozas, A. Juste; Köhler, M. K.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kaluza, A.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kanjir, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Kentaro, K.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khader, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E. -E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolb, M.; Koletsou, I.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kondrashova, N.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kosek, T.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Kowalewska, A. B.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozakai, C.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Krizka, K.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kucuk, H.; Kuday, S.; Kuechler, J. T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuger, F.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kukla, R.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunigo, T.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; Kwan, T.; Kyriazopoulos, D.; La Rosa, A.; La Rosa Navarro, J. L.; La Rotonda, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lammers, S.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lanfermann, M. C.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, J. C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Manghi, F. Lasagni; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Law, A. T.; Laycock, P.; Lazovich, T.; Lazzaroni, M.; Le, B.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Quilleuc, E. P.; LeBlanc, M.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Miotto, G. Lehmann; Lei, X.; Leight, W. A.; Leisos, A.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leone, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Leontsinis, S.; Lerner, G.; Leroy, C.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Lester, C. G.; Levchenko, M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levy, M.; Lewis, D.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Liblong, A.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. H.; Lindquist, B. E.; Lionti, A. E.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Merino, J. Llorente; Lloyd, S. L.; Sterzo, F. Lo; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loew, K. M.; Loginov, A.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, B. A.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Longo, L.; Looper, K. A.; Lopes, L.; Mateos, D. Lopez; Paredes, B. Lopez; Paz, I. Lopez; Solis, A. Lopez; Lorenz, J.; Martinez, N. Lorenzo; Losada, M.; Lösel, P. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lu, H.; Lu, N.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Luedtke, C.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Luzi, P. M.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Lyubushkin, V.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Y.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macdonald, C. M.; Maček, B.; Miguens, J. Machado; Madaffari, D.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeda, J.; Maeland, S.; Maeno, T.; Maevskiy, A.; Magradze, E.; Mahlstedt, J.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maier, A. A.; Maier, T.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mancini, G.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Maneira, J.; de Andrade Filho, L. Manhaes; Ramos, J. Manjarres; Mann, A.; Manousos, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mansour, J. D.; Mantifel, R.; Mantoani, M.; Manzoni, S.; Mapelli, L.; Marceca, G.; March, L.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marjanovic, M.; Marley, D. E.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; dit Latour, B. Martin; Martinez, M.; Outschoorn, V. I. Martinez; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martoiu, V. S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massa, L.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mättig, P.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazza, S. M.; Mc Fadden, N. C.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McClymont, L. I.; McDonald, E. F.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Melini, D.; Garcia, B. R. Mellado; Melo, M.; Meloni, F.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J-P.; Meyer, J.; Zu Theenhausen, H. Meyer; Miano, F.; Middleton, R. P.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Milesi, M.; Milic, A.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minami, Y.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mistry, K. P.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Monden, R.; Mondragon, M. C.; Mönig, K.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montalbano, A.; Berlingen, J. Montejo; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Llácer, M. Moreno; Morettini, P.; Mori, D.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Mortensen, S. S.; Morvaj, L.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Sanchez, F. J. Munoz; Quijada, J. A. Murillo; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Muškinja, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Garcia, R. F. Naranjo; Narayan, R.; Villar, D. I. Narrias; Naryshkin, I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Nef, P. D.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Manh, T. Nguyen; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Norjoharuddeen, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O’grady, F.; O’Neil, D. C.; O’Rourke, A. A.; O’Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Seabra, L. F. Oleiro; Pino, S. A. Olivares; Damazio, D. Oliveira; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; y Garzon, G. Otero; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pages, A. Pacheco; Rodriguez, L. Pacheco; Aranda, C. Padilla; Pagáčová, M.; Griso, S. Pagan; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Pandini, C. E.; Vazquez, J. G. Panduro; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Hernandez, D. Paredes; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V. R.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Lopez, S. Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Codina, E. Perez; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M. -A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Astigarraga, M. E. Pozo; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Perez, A. Rodriguez; Rodriguez, D. Rodriguez; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Saez, S. M. Romano; Adam, E. Romero; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rosien, N. -A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Loyola, J. E. Salazar; Salek, D.; De Bruin, P. H. Sales; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Martinez, V. Sanchez; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Castillo, I. Santoyo; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Saadi, D. Shoaleh; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Sanchez, C. A. Solans; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Araya, S. Tapia; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Delgado, A. Tavares; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Kate, H. Ten; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Torres, R. E. Ticse; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Pastor, E. Torró; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Santurio, E. Valdes; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Ferrer, J. A. Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Schroeder, T. Vazquez; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Boeriu, O. E. Vickey; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Perez, M. Villaplana; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Wong, K. H. Yau; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Nedden, M. zur; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-09-15

    Here, measurements of distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 151 μb–1. The particles are required to have a transverse momentum greater than 100 MeV and an absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on multiplicity are measured in events containing at least two charged particles satisfying the above kinematic criteria. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared to the predictions from several Monte Carlo event generators.

  7. Charged-particle distributions at low transverse momentum in √{s} = 13 TeV pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Dos Santos, S. P. Amor; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Navarro, L. Barranco; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bylund, O. Bessidskaia; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Sola, J. D. Bossio; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Madden, W. D. Breaden; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; de Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 151 μ{b}^{-1}. The particles are required to have a transverse momentum greater than 100 MeV and an absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on multiplicity are measured in events containing at least two charged particles satisfying the above kinematic criteria. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared to the predictions from several Monte Carlo event generators.

  8. Charged-particle distributions at low transverse momentum in [Formula: see text] TeV pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Verzini, M J Alconada; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alstaty, M; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Coutinho, Y Amaral; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Dos Santos, S P Amor; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Bella, L Aperio; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Navarro, L Barranco; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Noccioli, E Benhar; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bylund, O Bessidskaia; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; De Mendizabal, J Bilbao; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Sola, J D Bossio; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Madden, W D Breaden; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Callea, G; Caloba, L P; Lopez, S Calvente; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Toro, R Camacho; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Armadans, R Caminal; Camincher, C; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Camplani, A; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Bret, M Cano; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Garrido, M D M Capeans; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Carbone, R M; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, I; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Casper, D W; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelijn, R; Castelli, A; Gimenez, V Castillo; Castro, N F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavallaro, E; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Alberich, L Cerda; Cerio, B C; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, S K; Chan, Y L; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chatterjee, A; Chau, C C; Barajas, C A Chavez; Che, S; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, H J; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; El Moursli, R Cherkaoui; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiarelli, G; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chomont, A R; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chudoba, J; Chuinard, A J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Cioara, I A; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirotto, F; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, B L; Clark, M R; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Colasurdo, L; Cole, B; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Compostella, G; Muiño, P Conde; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cormier, K J R; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crawley, S J; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cribbs, W A; Ortuzar, M Crispin; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Donszelmann, T Cuhadar; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cúth, J; Cuthbert, C; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; D'amen, G; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; De Sousa, M J Da Cunha Sargedas; Via, C Da; Dabrowski, W; Dado, T; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dandoy, J R; Dang, N P; Daniells, A C; Dann, N S; Danninger, M; Hoffmann, M Dano; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, M; Davison, P; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Benedetti, A; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Maria, A; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Regie, J B De Vivie; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dedovich, D V; Dehghanian, N; Deigaard, I; Del Gaudio, M; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delgove, D; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; DeMarco, D A; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Denysiuk, D; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deterre, C; Dette, K; Devesa, M R; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Clemente, W K; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Di Valentino, D; Diaconu, C; Diamond, M; Dias, F A; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Diglio, S; Dimitrievska, A; Dingfelder, J; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Djuvsland, J I; do Vale, M A B; Dobos, D; Dobre, M; Doglioni, C; Dohmae, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Donadelli, M; Donati, S; Dondero, P; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Doyle, A T; Drechsler, E; Dris, M; Du, Y; Duarte-Campderros, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Ducu, O A; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Duffield, E M; Duflot, L; Duguid, L; Dührssen, M; Dumancic, M; Dunford, M; Yildiz, H Duran; Düren, M; Durglishvili, A; Duschinger, D; Dutta, B; Dyndal, M; Eckardt, C; Ecker, K M; Edgar, R C; Edwards, N C; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellajosyula, V; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Elliot, A A; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Endner, O C; Endo, M; Ennis, J S; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Ernis, G; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Esposito, B; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Ezhilov, A; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Falla, R J; Faltova, J; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farina, C; Farina, E M; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Giannelli, M Faucci; Favareto, A; Fawcett, W J; Fayard, L; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Feigl, S; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Feng, H; Fenyuk, A B; Feremenga, L; Martinez, P Fernandez; Perez, S Fernandez; Ferrando, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; de Lima, D E Ferreira; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Parodi, A Ferretto; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filipuzzi, M; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Finelli, K D; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, A; Fischer, C; Fischer, J; Fisher, W C; Flaschel, N; Fleck, I; Fleischmann, P; Fletcher, G T; Fletcher, R R M; Flick, T; Floderus, A; Castillo, L R Flores; Flowerdew, M J; Forcolin, G T; Formica, A; Forti, A; Foster, A G; Fournier, D; Fox, H; Fracchia, S; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Francis, D; Franconi, L; Franklin, M; Frate, M; Fraternali, M; Freeborn, D; Fressard-Batraneanu, S M; Friedrich, F; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Torregrosa, E Fullana; Fusayasu, T; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gabrielli, A; Gabrielli, A; Gach, G P; Gadatsch, S; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, L G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Galhardo, B; Gallas, E J; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Galster, G; Gan, K K; Gao, J; Gao, Y; Gao, Y S; Walls, F M Garay; García, C; Navarro, J E García; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garonne, V; Bravo, A Gascon; Gatti, C; Gaudiello, A; Gaudio, G; Gaur, B; Gauthier, L; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gazis, E N; Gecse, Z; Gee, C N P; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Geisen, M; Geisler, M P; Gemme, C; Genest, M H; Geng, C; Gentile, S; Gentsos, C; George, S; Gerbaudo, D; Gershon, A; Ghasemi, S; Ghazlane, H; Ghneimat, M; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibbard, B; Gibson, S M; Gignac, M; Gilchriese, M; Gillam, T P S; Gillberg, D; Gilles, G; Gingrich, D M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M P; Giorgi, F M; Giorgi, F M; Giraud, P F; Giromini, P; Giugni, D; Giuli, F; Giuliani, C; Giulini, M; Gjelsten, B K; Gkaitatzis, S; Gkialas, I; Gkougkousis, E L; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Glatzer, J; Glaysher, P C F; Glazov, A; Goblirsch-Kolb, M; Godlewski, J; Goldfarb, S; Golling, T; Golubkov, D; Gomes, A; Gonçalo, R; Da Costa, J Goncalves Pinto Firmino; Gonella, G; Gonella, L; Gongadze, A; de la Hoz, S González; Parra, G Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goossens, L; Gorbounov, P A; Gordon, H A; Gorelov, I; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gorišek, A; Gornicki, E; Goshaw, A T; Gössling, C; Gostkin, M I; Goudet, C R; Goujdami, D; Goussiou, A G; Govender, N; Gozani, E; Graber, L; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gradin, P O J; Grafström, P; Gramling, J; Gramstad, E; Grancagnolo, S; Gratchev, V; Gravila, P M; Gray, H M; Graziani, E; Greenwood, Z D; Grefe, C; Gregersen, K; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Grevtsov, K; Griffiths, J; Grillo, A A; Grimm, K; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groh, S; Grohs, J P; Gross, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grossi, G C; Grout, Z J; Guan, L; Guan, W; Guenther, J; Guescini, F; Guest, D; Gueta, O; Guido, E; Guillemin, T; Guindon, S; Gul, U; Gumpert, C; Guo, J; Guo, Y; Gupta, R; Gupta, S; Gustavino, G; Gutierrez, P; Ortiz, N G Gutierrez; Gutschow, C; Guyot, C; Gwenlan, C; Gwilliam, C B; Haas, A; Haber, C; Hadavand, H K; Haddad, N; Hadef, A; Haefner, P; Hageböck, S; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Haleem, M; Haley, J; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G D; Hamacher, K; Hamal, P; Hamano, K; Hamilton, A; Hamity, G N; Hamnett, P G; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanawa, K; Hance, M; Haney, B; Hanisch, S; Hanke, P; Hanna, R; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, M C; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Hard, A S; Harenberg, T; Hariri, F; Harkusha, S; Harrington, R D; Harrison, P F; Hartjes, F; Hartmann, N M; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, Y; Hasib, A; Hassani, S; Haug, S; Hauser, R; Hauswald, L; Havranek, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R J; Hayden, D; Hays, C P; Hays, J M; Hayward, H S; Haywood, S J; Head, S J; Heck, T; Hedberg, V; Heelan, L; Heim, S; Heim, T; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J J; Heinrich, L; Heinz, C; Hejbal, J; Helary, L; Hellman, S; Helsens, C; Henderson, J; Henderson, R C W; Heng, Y; Henkelmann, S; Correia, A M Henriques; Henrot-Versille, S; Herbert, G H; Jiménez, Y Hernández; Herten, G; Hertenberger, R; Hervas, L; Hesketh, G G; Hessey, N P; Hetherly, J W; Hickling, R; Higón-Rodriguez, E; Hill, E; Hill, J C; Hiller, K H; Hillier, S J; Hinchliffe, I; Hines, E; Hinman, R R; Hirose, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hobbs, J; Hod, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Hodgson, P; Hoecker, A; Hoeferkamp, M R; Hoenig, F; Hohn, D; Holmes, T R; Homann, M; Hong, T M; Hooberman, B H; Hopkins, W H; Horii, Y; Horton, A J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S; Hoummada, A; Howarth, J; Hrabovsky, M; Hristova, I; Hrivnac, J; Hryn'ova, T; Hrynevich, A; Hsu, C; Hsu, P J; Hsu, S-C; Hu, D; Hu, Q; Huang, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Huffman, T B; Hughes, E W; Hughes, G; Huhtinen, M; Huo, P; Huseynov, N; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iacobucci, G; Iakovidis, G; Ibragimov, I; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ideal, E; Idrissi, Z; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Iizawa, T; Ikegami, Y; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Iliadis, D; Ilic, N; Ince, T; Introzzi, G; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Iordanidou, K; Ippolito, V; Ishijima, N; Ishino, M; Ishitsuka, M; Ishmukhametov, R; Issever, C; Istin, S; Ito, F; Ponce, J M Iturbe; Iuppa, R; Iwanski, W; Iwasaki, H; Izen, J M; Izzo, V; Jabbar, S; Jackson, B; Jackson, M; Jackson, P; Jain, V; Jakobi, K B; Jakobs, K; Jakobsen, S; Jakoubek, T; Jamin, D O; Jana, D K; Jansen, E; Jansky, R; Janssen, J; Janus, M; Jarlskog, G; Javadov, N; Javůrek, T; Jeanneau, F; Jeanty, L; Jejelava, J; Jeng, G-Y; Jennens, D; Jenni, P; Jentzsch, J; Jeske, C; Jézéquel, S; Ji, H; Jia, J; Jiang, H; Jiang, Y; Jiggins, S; Pena, J Jimenez; Jin, S; Jinaru, A; Jinnouchi, O; Johansson, P; Johns, K A; Johnson, W J; Jon-And, K; Jones, G; Jones, R W L; Jones, S; Jones, T J; Jongmanns, J; Jorge, P M; Jovicevic, J; Ju, X; Rozas, A Juste; Köhler, M K; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Kagan, H; Kagan, M; Kahn, S J; Kajomovitz, E; Kalderon, C W; Kaluza, A; Kama, S; Kamenshchikov, A; Kanaya, N; Kaneti, S; Kanjir, L; Kantserov, V A; Kanzaki, J; Kaplan, B; Kaplan, L S; Kapliy, A; Kar, D; Karakostas, K; Karamaoun, A; Karastathis, N; Kareem, M J; Karentzos, E; Karnevskiy, M; Karpov, S N; Karpova, Z M; Karthik, K; Kartvelishvili, V; Karyukhin, A N; Kasahara, K; Kashif, L; Kass, R D; Kastanas, A; Kataoka, Y; Kato, C; Katre, A; Katzy, J; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kawamura, G; Kazama, S; Kazanin, V F; Keeler, R; Kehoe, R; Keller, J S; Kempster, J J; Kentaro, K; Keoshkerian, H; Kepka, O; Kerševan, B P; Kersten, S; Keyes, R A; Khader, M; Khalil-Zada, F; Khanov, A; Kharlamov, A G; Khoo, T J; Khovanskiy, V; Khramov, E; Khubua, J; Kido, S; Kim, H Y; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kind, O M; King, B T; King, M; King, S B; Kirk, J; Kiryunin, A E; Kishimoto, T; Kisielewska, D; Kiss, F; Kiuchi, K; Kivernyk, O; Kladiva, E; Klein, M H; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kleinknecht, K; Klimek, P; Klimentov, A; Klingenberg, R; Klinger, J A; Klioutchnikova, T; Kluge, E-E; Kluit, P; Kluth, S; Knapik, J; Kneringer, E; Knoops, E B F G; Knue, A; Kobayashi, A; Kobayashi, D; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kocian, M; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Koffeman, E; Koi, T; Kolanoski, H; Kolb, M; Koletsou, I; Komar, A A; Komori, Y; Kondo, T; Kondrashova, N; Köneke, K; König, A C; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kopeliansky, R; Koperny, S; Köpke, L; Kopp, A K; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korol, A A; Korolkov, I; Korolkova, E V; Kortner, O; Kortner, S; Kosek, T; Kostyukhin, V V; Kotwal, A; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouskoura, V; Kowalewska, A B; Kowalewski, R; Kowalski, T Z; Kozakai, C; Kozanecki, W; Kozhin, A S; Kramarenko, V A; Kramberger, G; Krasnopevtsev, D; Krasny, M W; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J K; Kravchenko, A; Kretz, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kreutzfeldt, K; Krieger, P; Krizka, K; Kroeninger, K; Kroha, H; Kroll, J; Kroseberg, J; Krstic, J; Kruchonak, U; Krüger, H; Krumnack, N; Kruse, A; Kruse, M C; Kruskal, M; Kubota, T; Kucuk, H; Kuday, S; Kuechler, J T; Kuehn, S; Kugel, A; Kuger, F; Kuhl, A; Kuhl, T; Kukhtin, V; Kukla, R; Kulchitsky, Y; Kuleshov, S; Kuna, M; Kunigo, T; Kupco, A; Kurashige, H; Kurochkin, Y A; Kus, V; Kuwertz, E S; Kuze, M; Kvita, J; Kwan, T; Kyriazopoulos, D; La Rosa, A; La Rosa Navarro, J L; La Rotonda, L; Lacasta, C; Lacava, F; Lacey, J; Lacker, H; Lacour, D; Lacuesta, V R; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lagouri, T; Lai, S; Lammers, S; Lampl, W; Lançon, E; Landgraf, U; Landon, M P J; Lanfermann, M C; Lang, V S; Lange, J C; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Lantzsch, K; Lanza, A; Laplace, S; Lapoire, C; Laporte, J F; Lari, T; Manghi, F Lasagni; Lassnig, M; Laurelli, P; Lavrijsen, W; Law, A T; Laycock, P; Lazovich, T; Lazzaroni, M; Le, B; Le Dortz, O; Le Guirriec, E; Le Quilleuc, E P; LeBlanc, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lee, C A; Lee, S C; Lee, L; Lefebvre, G; Lefebvre, M; Legger, F; Leggett, C; Lehan, A; Miotto, G Lehmann; Lei, X; Leight, W A; Leisos, A; Leister, A G; Leite, M A L; Leitner, R; Lellouch, D; Lemmer, B; Leney, K J C; Lenz, T; Lenzi, B; Leone, R; Leone, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Leontsinis, S; Lerner, G; Leroy, C; Lesage, A A J; Lester, C G; Levchenko, M; Levêque, J; Levin, D; Levinson, L J; Levy, M; Lewis, D; Leyko, A M; Leyton, M; Li, B; Li, H; Li, H L; Li, L; Li, L; Li, Q; Li, S; Li, X; Li, Y; Liang, Z; Liberti, B; Liblong, A; Lichard, P; Lie, K; Liebal, J; Liebig, W; Limosani, A; Lin, S C; Lin, T H; Lindquist, B E; Lionti, A E; Lipeles, E; Lipniacka, A; Lisovyi, M; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litke, A M; Liu, B; Liu, D; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, K; Liu, L; Liu, M; Liu, M; Liu, Y L; Liu, Y; Livan, M; Lleres, A; Merino, J Llorente; Lloyd, S L; Sterzo, F Lo; Lobodzinska, E; Loch, P; Lockman, W S; Loebinger, F K; Loevschall-Jensen, A E; Loew, K M; Loginov, A; Lohse, T; Lohwasser, K; Lokajicek, M; Long, B A; Long, J D; Long, R E; Longo, L; Looper, K A; Lopes, L; Mateos, D Lopez; Paredes, B Lopez; Paz, I Lopez; Solis, A Lopez; Lorenz, J; Martinez, N Lorenzo; Losada, M; Lösel, P J; Lou, X; Lounis, A; Love, J; Love, P A; Lu, H; Lu, N; Lubatti, H J; Luci, C; Lucotte, A; Luedtke, C; Luehring, F; Lukas, W; Luminari, L; Lundberg, O; Lund-Jensen, B; Luzi, P M; Lynn, D; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Lyubushkin, V; Ma, H; Ma, L L; Ma, Y; Maccarrone, G; Macchiolo, A; Macdonald, C M; Maček, B; Miguens, J Machado; Madaffari, D; Madar, R; Maddocks, H J; Mader, W F; Madsen, A; Maeda, J; Maeland, S; Maeno, T; Maevskiy, A; Magradze, E; Mahlstedt, J; Maiani, C; Maidantchik, C; Maier, A A; Maier, T; Maio, A; Majewski, S; Makida, Y; Makovec, N; Malaescu, B; Malecki, Pa; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mallik, U; Malon, D; Malone, C; Maltezos, S; Malyukov, S; Mamuzic, J; Mancini, G; Mandelli, B; Mandelli, L; Mandić, I; Maneira, J; de Andrade Filho, L Manhaes; Ramos, J Manjarres; Mann, A; Manousos, A; Mansoulie, B; Mansour, J D; Mantifel, R; Mantoani, M; Manzoni, S; Mapelli, L; Marceca, G; March, L; Marchiori, G; Marcisovsky, M; Marjanovic, M; Marley, D E; Marroquim, F; Marsden, S P; Marshall, Z; Marti-Garcia, S; Martin, B; Martin, T A; Martin, V J; Dit Latour, B Martin; Martinez, M; Outschoorn, V I Martinez; Martin-Haugh, S; Martoiu, V S; Martyniuk, A C; Marx, M; Marzin, A; Masetti, L; Mashimo, T; Mashinistov, R; Masik, J; Maslennikov, A L; Massa, I; Massa, L; Mastrandrea, P; Mastroberardino, A; Masubuchi, T; Mättig, P; Mattmann, J; Maurer, J; Maxfield, S J; Maximov, D A; Mazini, R; Mazza, S M; Mc Fadden, N C; Mc Goldrick, G; Mc Kee, S P; McCarn, A; McCarthy, R L; McCarthy, T G; McClymont, L I; McDonald, E F; Mcfayden, J A; Mchedlidze, G; McMahon, S J; McPherson, R A; Medinnis, M; Meehan, S; Mehlhase, S; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meineck, C; Meirose, B; Melini, D; Garcia, B R Mellado; Melo, M; Meloni, F; Mengarelli, A; Menke, S; Meoni, E; Mergelmeyer, S; Mermod, P; Merola, L; Meroni, C; Merritt, F S; Messina, A; Metcalfe, J; Mete, A S; Meyer, C; Meyer, C; Meyer, J-P; Meyer, J; Zu Theenhausen, H Meyer; Miano, F; Middleton, R P; Miglioranzi, S; Mijović, L; Mikenberg, G; Mikestikova, M; Mikuž, M; Milesi, M; Milic, A; Miller, D W; Mills, C; Milov, A; Milstead, D A; Minaenko, A A; Minami, Y; Minashvili, I A; Mincer, A I; Mindur, B; Mineev, M; Ming, Y; Mir, L M; Mistry, K P; Mitani, T; Mitrevski, J; Mitsou, V A; Miucci, A; Miyagawa, P S; Mjörnmark, J U; Moa, T; Mochizuki, K; Mohapatra, S; Molander, S; Moles-Valls, R; Monden, R; Mondragon, M C; Mönig, K; Monk, J; Monnier, E; Montalbano, A; Berlingen, J Montejo; Monticelli, F; Monzani, S; Moore, R W; Morange, N; Moreno, D; Llácer, M Moreno; Morettini, P; Mori, D; Mori, T; Morii, M; Morinaga, M; Morisbak, V; Moritz, S; Morley, A K; Mornacchi, G; Morris, J D; Mortensen, S S; Morvaj, L; Mosidze, M; Moss, J; Motohashi, K; Mount, R; Mountricha, E; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E J W; Muanza, S; Mudd, R D; Mueller, F; Mueller, J; Mueller, R S P; Mueller, T; Muenstermann, D; Mullen, P; Mullier, G A; Sanchez, F J Munoz; Quijada, J A Murillo; Murray, W J; Musheghyan, H; Muškinja, M; Myagkov, A G; Myska, M; Nachman, B P; Nackenhorst, O; Nagai, K; Nagai, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Nagata, K; Nagel, M; Nagy, E; Nairz, A M; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Nakano, I; Namasivayam, H; Garcia, R F Naranjo; Narayan, R; Villar, D I Narrias; Naryshkin, I; Naumann, T; Navarro, G; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Nechaeva, P Yu; Neep, T J; Nef, P D; Negri, A; Negrini, M; Nektarijevic, S; Nellist, C; Nelson, A; Nemecek, S; Nemethy, P; Nepomuceno, A A; Nessi, M; Neubauer, M S; Neumann, M; Neves, R M; Nevski, P; Newman, P R; Nguyen, D H; Manh, T Nguyen; Nickerson, R B; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, J; Nikiforov, A; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nikolopoulos, K; Nilsen, J K; Nilsson, P; Ninomiya, Y; Nisati, A; Nisius, R; Nobe, T; Nomachi, M; Nomidis, I; Nooney, T; Norberg, S; Nordberg, M; Norjoharuddeen, N; Novgorodova, O; Nowak, S; Nozaki, M; Nozka, L; Ntekas, K; Nurse, E; Nuti, F; O'grady, F; O'Neil, D C; O'Rourke, A A; O'Shea, V; Oakham, F G; Oberlack, H; Obermann, T; Ocariz, J; Ochi, A; Ochoa, I; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oda, S; Odaka, S; Ogren, H; Oh, A; Oh, S H; Ohm, C C; Ohman, H; Oide, H; Okawa, H; Okumura, Y; Okuyama, T; Olariu, A; Seabra, L F Oleiro; Pino, S A Olivares; Damazio, D Oliveira; Olszewski, A; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Onogi, K; Onyisi, P U E; Oreglia, M J; Oren, Y; Orestano, D; Orlando, N; Orr, R S; Osculati, B; Ospanov, R; Y Garzon, G Otero; Otono, H; Ouchrif, M; Ould-Saada, F; Ouraou, A; Oussoren, K P; Ouyang, Q; Owen, M; Owen, R E; Ozcan, V E; Ozturk, N; Pachal, K; Pages, A Pacheco; Rodriguez, L Pacheco; Aranda, C Padilla; Pagáčová, M; Griso, S Pagan; Paige, F; Pais, P; Pajchel, K; Palacino, G; Palestini, S; Palka, M; Pallin, D; Palma, A; Panagiotopoulou, E St; Pandini, C E; Vazquez, J G Panduro; Pani, P; Panitkin, S; Pantea, D; Paolozzi, L; Papadopoulou, Th D; Papageorgiou, K; Paramonov, A; Hernandez, D Paredes; Parker, A J; Parker, M A; Parker, K A; Parodi, F; Parsons, J A; Parzefall, U; Pascuzzi, V R; Pasqualucci, E; Passaggio, S; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G; Pataraia, S; Pater, J R; Pauly, T; Pearce, J; Pearson, B; Pedersen, L E; Pedersen, M; Lopez, S Pedraza; Pedro, R; Peleganchuk, S V; Pelikan, D; Penc, O; Peng, C; Peng, H; Penwell, J; Peralva, B S; Perego, M M; Perepelitsa, D V; Codina, E Perez; Perini, L; Pernegger, H; Perrella, S; Peschke, R; Peshekhonov, V D; Peters, K; Peters, R F Y; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petit, E; Petridis, A; Petridou, C; Petroff, P; Petrolo, E; Petrov, M; Petrucci, F; Pettersson, N E; Peyaud, A; Pezoa, R; Phillips, P W; Piacquadio, G; Pianori, E; Picazio, A; Piccaro, E; Piccinini, M; Pickering, M A; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pilkington, A D; Pin, A W J; Pinamonti, M; Pinfold, J L; Pingel, A; Pires, S; Pirumov, H; Pitt, M; Plazak, L; Pleier, M-A; Pleskot, V; Plotnikova, E; Plucinski, P; Pluth, D; Poettgen, R; Poggioli, L; Pohl, D; Polesello, G; Poley, A; Policicchio, A; Polifka, R; Polini, A; Pollard, C S; Polychronakos, V; Pommès, K; Pontecorvo, L; Pope, B G; Popeneciu, G A; Popovic, D S; Poppleton, A; Pospisil, S; Potamianos, K; Potrap, I N; Potter, C J; Potter, C T; Poulard, G; Poveda, J; Pozdnyakov, V; Astigarraga, M E Pozo; Pralavorio, P; Pranko, A; Prell, S; Price, D; Price, L E; Primavera, M; Prince, S; Proissl, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Przybycien, M; Puddu, D; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Qian, J; Qin, G; Qin, Y; Quadt, A; Quayle, W B; Queitsch-Maitland, M; Quilty, D; Raddum, S; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Rados, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Raine, J A; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rangel-Smith, C; Ratti, M G; Rauscher, F; Rave, S; Ravenscroft, T; Ravinovich, I; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Readioff, N P; Reale, M; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reichert, J; Reisin, H; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rifki, O; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rimoldi, M; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Rizzi, C; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Rodina, Y; Perez, A Rodriguez; Rodriguez, D Rodriguez; Roe, S; Rogan, C S; Røhne, O; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Saez, S M Romano; Adam, E Romero; Rompotis, N; Ronzani, M; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, P; Rosenthal, O; Rosien, N-A; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, J H N; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Russell, H L; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryu, S; Ryzhov, A; Rzehorz, G F; Saavedra, A F; Sabato, G; Sacerdoti, S; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Tehrani, F Safai; Saha, P; Sahinsoy, M; Saimpert, M; Saito, T; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Loyola, J E Salazar; Salek, D; De Bruin, P H Sales; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sammel, D; Sampsonidis, D; Sanchez, A; Sánchez, J; Martinez, V Sanchez; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sander, H G; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sannino, M; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Castillo, I Santoyo; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sato, K; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Savage, G; Savard, P; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Scarfone, V; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schachtner, B M; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaeffer, J; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Schiavi, C; Schier, S; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K R; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, S; Schneider, B; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schopf, E; Schott, M; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schuh, N; Schulte, A; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schwegler, Ph; Schweiger, H; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekhon, K; Sekula, S J; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Sessa, M; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shaikh, N W; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shaw, S M; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Saadi, D Shoaleh; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sickles, A M; Sidebo, P E; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simon, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sioli, M; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Slovak, R; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smiesko, J; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, M N K; Smith, R W; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Sokhrannyi, G; Sanchez, C A Solans; Solar, M; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Stärz, S; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tannenwald, B B; Araya, S Tapia; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Delgado, A Tavares; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Temple, D; Kate, H Ten; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Tibbetts, M J; Torres, R E Ticse; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Pastor, E Torró; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turgeman, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tyndel, M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Santurio, E Valdes; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Perez, M Villaplana; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Milosavljevic, M Vranjes; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, M D; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Worm, S D; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Wong, K H Yau; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 151 [Formula: see text]. The particles are required to have a transverse momentum greater than 100 MeV and an absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on multiplicity are measured in events containing at least two charged particles satisfying the above kinematic criteria. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared to the predictions from several Monte Carlo event generators.

  9. The effect of induced charges on low-energy particle trajectories near conducting and semiconducting plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Moore, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the induced charge was found on particles less than 1 eV as they passed through simulated parallel, grounded channels that are comparable in dimension to those that are presently in space plasma instruments which measure the flux of low-energy ions. Applications were made to both conducting and semiconducting channels that ranged in length from 0.1 to 50 mm and in aspect ratio from 1 to 100. The effect of the induced charge on particle trajectories from simple straight lines. Several configurations of channel aspect ratio and detector locations are considered. The effect is important only at very low energies with small dimensions.

  10. An all-particle primary energy spectrum in the 3 200 PeV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garyaka, A. P.; Martirosov, R. M.; Ter-Antonyan, S. V.; Erlykin, A. D.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Jones, L. W.; Procureur, J.

    2008-11-01

    We present an all-particle primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum in the 3 × 106-2 × 108 GeV energy range obtained by a multi-parametric event-by-event evaluation of the primary energy. The results are obtained on the basis of an expanded EAS data set detected at mountain level (700 g cm-2) by the GAMMA experiment. The energy evaluation method has been developed using the EAS simulation with the SIBYLL interaction model taking into account the response of GAMMA detectors and reconstruction uncertainties of EAS parameters. Nearly unbiased (<5%) energy estimations regardless of a primary nuclear mass with an accuracy of about 15-10% in the 3 × 106-2 × 108 GeV energy range respectively are attained. An irregularity ('bump') in the spectrum is observed at primary energies of ~7.4 × 107 GeV. This bump exceeds a smooth power-law fit to the data by about 4 standard deviations. By not rejecting the stochastic nature of the bump completely, we examined the systematic uncertainties of our methods and conclude that they cannot be responsible for the observed feature.

  11. Particle identification with the TOP and ARICH detectors at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torassa, E.

    2016-07-01

    The SuperKEKB e+e- collider will provide 40 times higher instantaneous luminosity than the KEKB collider. The Belle II detector, located at the collision point, is the upgrade of the Belle detector. The particle identification will be improved by replacing the aerogel threshold counter with two new high performance Cherenkov detectors: the time-of-propagation (TOP) in the barrel region and the focusing aerogel (ARICH) in the forward region. The time-of-propagation sub-detector consists of quartz radiator bars and micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes. The Cherenkov photons are produced and propagated through the quartz radiator, and after multiple internal reflections they are detected by the photomultiplier tubes. Photons with different Cherenkov angles reach different photomultiplier channels and arrive at different times. The time and the position convolution is used for the reconstruction of the Cherenkov angle. The focusing aerogel consists of a double layer aerogel radiator, an expansion volume and a photon detector. The aerogel thickness and the refractive indices of the two layers are optimized to focus the two light cones at the detection surface. The key features of these two detectors, the performance studies, and the construction progress are presented.

  12. The energy spectra of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, R. E.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of recent results on the shapes and relative slopes of the spectra of various solar energetic particle populations is presented, with emphasis on the more extensive results currently available for protons, alphas and electrons. From previous work, it is found that proton spectra 0.8 to more than 400 MeV and alpha spectra 1.4 to 80 MeV/nucleon are best characterized, on average, by a functional form involving a Bessel function in momentum/nucleon. However, proton and alpha spectral slopes using this form are not equal, and there is significant variation from event to event. From other studies, electrons 0.02 to 20 MeV are also found to have curved spectra, but seem to be better fit with a double power law in energy. The spectral properties in both cases correlate with other measures of solar particle acceleration; e.g. gamma-ray line production, hard X-ray burst spectra and microwave fluxes.

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Gammel, George M.; Kugel, Henry W.

    1992-10-06

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  14. Energy flow and charged particle spectra in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Aid, S.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Chyla, J.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; de Roeck, A.; di Nezza, P.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kazarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; van Esch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Vick, R.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wacker, K.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Wegener, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wolff, Th.; Womersley, L. A.; Wright, A. E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.

    1994-09-01

    Global properties of the hadronic final state in deep inelastic scattering events at HERA are investigated. The data are corrected for detector effects and are compared directly with QCD phenomenology. Energy flows in both the laboratory frame and the hadronic centre of mass system and energy-energy correlations in the laboratory frame are presented. Comparing various QCD models, the colour dipole model provides the only satisfactory description of the data. In the hadronic centre of mass system the momentum components of charged particles longitudinal and transverse to the virtual boson direction are measured and compared with lower energy lepton-nucleon scattering data as well as with e + e - dat from LEP.

  15. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector.

    PubMed

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Mairani, Andrea; Seidel, Philipp; Krunic, Damir; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Greilich, Steffen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for the assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Toward further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD) was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the fluorescent nuclear track detector as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated with radiation-induced foci as surrogates for DNA double-strand breaks, the hallmark of radiation-induced cell lethality. Long-term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD.

  16. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    PubMed Central

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Mairani, Andrea; Seidel, Philipp; Krunic, Damir; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Greilich, Steffen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for the assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Toward further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD) was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the fluorescent nuclear track detector as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated with radiation-induced foci as surrogates for DNA double-strand breaks, the hallmark of radiation-induced cell lethality. Long-term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD. PMID:26697410

  17. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  18. Dosimetric effects of energy spectrum uncertainties in radiation therapy with laser-driven particle beams.

    PubMed

    Schell, S; Wilkens, J J

    2012-03-07

    Laser-driven particle acceleration is a potentially cost-efficient and compact new technology that might replace synchrotrons or cyclotrons for future proton or heavy-ion radiation therapy. Since the energy spectrum of laser-accelerated particles is rather wide, compared to the monoenergetic beams of conventional machines, studies have proposed the usage of broader spectra for the treatment of at least certain parts of the target volume to make the process more efficient. The thereby introduced additional uncertainty in the applied energy spectrum is analysed in this note. It is shown that the uncertainty can be categorized into a change of the total number of particles, and a change in the energy distribution of the particles. The former one can be monitored by a simple fluence detector and cancels for a high number of statistically fluctuating shots. The latter one, the redistribution of a fixed number of particles to different energy bins in the window of transmitted energies of the energy selection system, only introduces smaller changes to the resulting depth dose curve. Therefore, it might not be necessary to monitor this uncertainty for all applied shots. These findings might enable an easier uncertainty management for particle therapy with broad energy spectra.

  19. Measurement of inclusive two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC