Science.gov

Sample records for energy policies related

  1. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  2. The Federal Energy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1976-01-01

    There is no federal energy policy. There is a fuel use policy of sorts, but that policy is related as much to foreign policy as to domestic needs, with the United States public paying the large bill. Neither presidential candidate has yet offered a plan for a coherent energy policy. (Editor/BT)

  3. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  4. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  5. Energy policy in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, G.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite Taiwan's scarcity of natural energy resources, the energy demand for its high growth economy soared over the past 20 years. For the next two decades, the government's new socioeconomic development policy aims at balancing economic growth, which had been the country's highest priority, against improved social welfare and environmental protection. Energy policy for Taiwan was introduced during the first oil crisis in 1973 to ensure the stability of availability and prices. Between the two oil crises, the supply and demand for world energy changed significantly and the crude oil price rose sharply. The energy policy was therefore revised to intensify energy conservation. World oil prices started to drop in February 1983. In this period, due to great concerns over the domestic energy price rationalization, coal mining safety, energy-related environment pollution, and the movement to improve social welfare and environmental protection for the next two decades, Taiwan's energy policy was again revised. Some results for energy policy implementation and key tasks for energy conservation in Taiwan are described.

  6. External Actors and National Preference Formation: European Energy Security Policy & Relations with Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Renard, Callie

    This dissertation examines how Russia has impacted the development of a common European energy security policy through case studies of six member states which represent a variety of perspectives on integration and relations with Russia. These case studies focus on how national preferences on energy security policy are formed and the role, if any, Russia has played. The cases, which include Germany, Poland, UK, Bulgaria, Lithuania and France, rely on open source data and interviews with member states' Permanent Representations and subject matter experts from a variety of institutions both in Brussels and in the member states. The cases were selected based on factors such as size, wealth, energy dependence, historic relations with Russia, and membership in the former Eastern Bloc.

  7. Energy Policy: DOE’s Policy, Programs and Issues Related to Electricity Conservation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    administration requested a budget for DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of about $1.02 billion, which represents a 27-percent increase...whether DOE’s current energy efficiency and renewable energy programs are the most cost effective means for addressing environmental damages....component of the administration’s overall sustainable energy strategy, DOE integrates electricity efficiency into its energy efficiency and renewable

  8. State Energy Policy Newsletter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page allows users to sign up for a weekly summary of state energy policy news for state agency staff involved in advancing clean energy opportunities and developing climate change mitigation policies and programs.

  9. Future American energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    American energy policy is examined using a format of five primary presentations, each followed by a panel commentary and debate with audience questioning. The five parts are on: challenges (an overview of the global and domestic energy situation, and a discussion of the political process and energy); social implications of energy policies; economic consequences of energy policies; international attitudes toward US oil policies; and social/economic and environmental impacts of alternative energy sources. In the summary, changes in US economy and the impact of the market pricing system are considered.

  10. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    that, in fact, that women are not impacted equally by energy policy preferences as men and that women in developing countries benefit from increased access to modern household energy. Thus, gender-differentiated energy usage illustrates why treating population as a homogenous group fails to capture how energy policy preferences and energy policy performance can affect different subgroups of population in terms of individual choices and how those differences can affect an overall economic growth and development. Fundamental theoretical implications emerge from this dissertation's empirical findings. First, improving gender equality through technological advancements in household electricity facilitates the progress of demographic transition in terms of reducing fertility rates. Time altering effects of increased access and use of household electricity modify intra-household relations by diminishing differing roles between men and women. When women gain greater autonomy facilitated by increasing time via access to modern household electricity for more economically and educationally productive activities, fertility rates and child births tend to decrease by altering choice in family size with increased investments in children. The effect that the reduction in fertility generated by increased gender equality has upon demographic transition is that it alters the change in age structure in a developing country by decreasing youth dependency ratios generating the demographic dividend. Gender equality-generated fertility reductions may also facilitate the return to human capital by lessening the burden of non-SNA work and activities including reducing child care, increasing female labor force participation rates.

  11. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  13. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  14. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  15. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  16. Community Energy Policy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Thomas B.

    The general procedures, techniques for implementing, and results of a citizen-based "grass-roots" program in Ohio for the development and analysis of community energy policies are described. The program emphasizes citizen input and employs the nominal group process to build consensus. Small group discussions are used to generate…

  17. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-27

    Thorium Energy Security Act of 2010. Authorizes regulations and demonstration projects for thorium -fueled reactors . Introduced March 3, 2010...include federal incentives for new commercial reactors , radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety...and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks. Significant incentives for new commercial reactors were

  18. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    PubMed

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  19. Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushe, S.

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED) developed in collaboration by the United States Department of Energy and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. IREEED provides succinct summaries of India's central and state government policies and incentives related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The online, public database was developed under the U.S.- India Energy Dialogue and the Clean Energy Solution Center.

  20. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  1. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  2. Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuclear Industry, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

  3. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, Juliet S.; Bender, Sadie R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  4. National energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The efforts of the U.S. government to cope with the national energy crisis are discussed. The provisions of several legislative actions to implement the actions for energy conservation are examined. Immediate conservation measures and the long range planning for energy resources are reported.

  5. Energy policy in a changing social order

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

  6. Nuclear Energy Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-10

    Commission, Information Digest 2008-2009, NUREG-1350, Vol. 20, August 2008, p. 32, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/ staff /sr1350/v20...Site Planned Application Reactor Type Units Status Alternate Energy Hammett (ID) 2009 Areva EPR 1 AmerenUE Callaway (MO) Submitted 7/24/08 Areva ...EPR 1 Construction plans suspended 4/23/09; NRC license review suspended 6/23/09 Amarillo Power Near Amarillo (TX) 2009 Areva EPR 2 Dominion

  7. Energy policy: an economist's confessions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Schlesinger, former Secretary of Energy, feels that energy policy will determine how the industrial economies perform and whether the western political institutions survive. He says that energy policy does not, however, respond to traditional economic analysis in that there is no economic theory to adequately cover depleting resources. Economists gain strength by approaching energy problems in the context of supply and the price mechanism, with attention to arithmetic rather than emotion. Dr. Schlesinger believes, however, that there are weaknesses in the economists' view in the curative powers granted to the marketplace, which are better at making small adjustments over a long period of time than large adjustments in a short time. He notes that tendency to use inappropriate syllogisms obscures the problem of a rapidly diminishing lead time to solving the energy problem. He observes that total reliance on the marketplace will have to give way to government subsidies to research, develop, and commercialize fuels. (DCK)

  8. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  9. Renewable energy policy: Enumerating costs reduces support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evensen, Darrick

    2017-08-01

    Renewable energy policies enjoy greater support compared to policies focused explicitly on climate change, and thus present a politically plausible path toward carbon emission reduction. However, new research shows that renewable energy policy support declines when people are informed about the policy costs for home energy bills.

  10. IPCC Projections and Energy Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. F.

    2008-05-01

    The United States and other developed nations are embarking on energy policies based on several contested IPCC hypotheses: (1) Climate warming of the last 30 years is anthropogenic, caused by the emission of greenhouse (GH) gases from fossil-fuel burning. (2) Continued use of fossil fuels will double CO2 by 2050 and lead to an unacceptable rise in global temperatures and sea levels. (3) The Kyoto Protocol and unilateral steps to control GH-gas emissions may be ineffective but are essential to inducing the rest of the world (ROW) to follow suit. But if warming is of natural origin rather than anthropogenic, then proposed policy steps will not be able to stop it. Also, sea levels will continue to rise, no matter what may be causing warming. Further, many competent economists believe that a warmer climate will be beneficial, on the whole. The 4th Assessment Report (2007) of the IPCC has been criticized by some as being too conservative in its projections. Others have faulted it for pessimistic projections or for ignoring evidence that contradicts its major conclusions. Most, however, consider the report a good compendium of the current state of climate science. In view of these widely different views by experts, what energy policies make sense? We will discuss (1) control schemes, like Cap & Trade or carbon taxes; (2) alternate fuels (like ethanol, hydrogen, etc); (3) renewable energy sources (hydro, nuclear, wind, solar); (4) carbon sequestration; and (5) energy conservation and efficiency improvements.

  11. Energy and development in Latin America: perspectives for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Choucri, N.

    1982-01-01

    This book, the third in a research program on energy and international development, examines energy profiles and prospects of Latin America, economic problems posed by the oil price increases of 1973, and attendant political dislocations. A particular emphasis is placed on the transportation sector as one of the major claimants on energy use. The individual countries' policy responses to new constraints are outlined both with respect to transport policy and to development policy more broadly defined. Some basic conclusions about energy, economy, and policy in Latin America provide a comprehensive perspective on the region's energy-related predicaments and insights into new policy imperatives. 503 references, 2 figures, 28 tables.

  12. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  13. Summary of the Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides a summary of the Energy Policy Act, which addresses energy production in the United States, energy efficiency; renewable energy; oil and gas; coal; vehicles and motor fuels, and climate change technology.

  14. International industrial sector energy efficiency policies

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Over 40 percent of the energy consumed globally is used in the industrial sector. In China, this sector consumes an even larger proportion, reaching nearly 70 percent in 1997. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been instituted in both industrialized and developing countries in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of the industrial sector. There are very few comprehensive evaluations of these industrial sector energy efficiency policies; however a number of recent workshops and conferences have included a focus on these policies. Three important meetings were the International Energy Agency's Industrial Energy Efficiency: Policies and Programs Conference in 1994, Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure - A Workshop Organized by the International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector in 1998, and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 1999 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Man y articles from these meetings are included as attachments to this memo. This paper provides a brief description of each of seven categories of individual industrial energy efficiency policies and programs, discuss which industrial sectors or types of equipment they apply to, and provide references for articles and reports that discuss each policy or program in more detail. We begin with mandatory-type policies and move to more voluntary-type policies. We then provide a brief description of four integrated industrial energy efficiency policies and provide references for articles and reports that describe these policies in greater detail.

  15. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the effects of

  16. Decentralized energy planning and consensus in energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    1980-05-02

    This paper explores the following three propositions and their relationships: (1) that, in our pluralistic policymaking environment, we cannot solve our nation's energy problems unless we can reach agreement among a diverse group of interested parties about specific actions; (2) that, short of a manifest emergency, such a consensus is difficult to reach unless the scale of the decision-making unit is relatively small; and therefore (3) that one of the keys to an effective energy policy in the United states is to rely heavily on local and regional energy planning and decision-making. First, the paper reviews our problem of irresolution and its roots, and it summaries the policy options for resolving it. Then it explores one of those options, decentralized planning, in a little more detail. Finally, it offers some speculations about the viability of a decentralized approach to energy planninng.

  17. Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

  18. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    PubMed

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  19. Reinventing the energy modelling-policy interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil; Fais, Birgit; Daly, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Energy modelling has a crucial underpinning role for policy making, but the modelling-policy interface faces several limitations. A reinvention of this interface would better provide timely, targeted, tested, transparent and iterated insights from such complex multidisciplinary tools.

  20. Economic assessment of alternative energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Groncki, P J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1980-04-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward the restructuring of the energy system so as to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The first strategy is to initiate no additional programs or policies beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is to direct policy toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third is to promote increased supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The analysis indicates that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, and involves substantial environmental costs and impacts on economic performance. However, these relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation turned out to be less than anticipated; therefore, both conservation and R, D, and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy.

  1. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  2. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed Central

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

  3. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  4. Greater Energy Savings through Building Energy Performance Policy: Four Leading Policy and Program Options

    SciTech Connect

    SEE Action Existing Commercial Buildings Working Group

    2014-05-30

    This paper lays out recommendations for linking existing policies and developing new policies, such that their success is based on the real energy savings achieved in buildings. This approach has the potential to affect the entire building lifecycle.

  5. Energy resources development: Politics and policies

    SciTech Connect

    Ender, R.L.; Kim, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is designed to address the diverse set of energy issues from both policy and political perspectives. The articles raise more questions than they answer, but agree on one point in the energy debate: short-term changes in supply and price are largely irrelevant to long-term issues. The contributions to this book were written after the crisis of the 1970s and before the free fall of prices in the mid-1980s. However, public interest had already waned and energy was no longer a ''national agenda'' issue. While this book would seem to be addressing an issue of less public importance, the authors realize that the cycle of world events will again bring energy forward for greater scrutiny and debate. Although the attention given to energy policy waxes and wanes, the need persists to formulate consistent public approaches and solutions to the problems posed in providing energy to an industrial nation. The wide divergence of energy policy problems under the four administrations demonstrates the lack of consensus on what the real problems are, or what should be done. The articles for this book were selected to address what the current energy issues are, what policy attempts have been made to solve energy problems, and what the policy implications in the future are. Fifteen articles cannot encompass all the aspects of the subject; however, they make significant contributions in analyzing many of its important facts.

  6. Energy and natural resource policies in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaPedraja, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite being richly endowed with mineral, metal, and water resources, Colombia has enjoyed neither economic prosperity nor abundant energy. This book explores the history and development of Colombia's petroleum, natural gas, electric, coal, and atomic energy industries. The author surveys the political and economic factors - both domestic and international - that have shaped the nation's energy and resource policies during the last fifty years. The book revolves around two central issues: Why has the role of the Colombian state in energy matters grown so vastly while private sector involvement has diminished drastically Why has the state consistently followed policies that have hindered rather than helped the development of Colombia's energy resources The author concludes that the defense of class interests in Colombia has been the real motivation behind the nation's energy policies.

  7. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, M.

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  8. Economic Analyses of Three Energy Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accordino, Megan Henderson

    The essays included in this dissertation analyze three policy issues that have been frequently discussed in recent years. Chapter One analyzes the effects and likelihood of a particular type of manipulation with which the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has become increasingly concerned and illustrates a potential screen for such manipulation. Chapter Two analyzes the effect a federal climate policy might have given the many state climate policies that are already in place. Finally, Chapter Three examines whether it is economically justified to encourage investment in energy storage (instead of flexible natural gas generation) to compensate for the increasing variability in wind generation.

  9. Dynamic energy models and carbon mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Luke A.

    In this dissertation I examine a specific class of energy models and their implications for carbon mitigation policies. The class of models includes a production function capable of reproducing the empirically observed phenomenon of short run rigidity of energy use in response to energy price changes and long run exibility of energy use in response to energy price changes. I use a theoretical model, parameterized using empirical data, to simulate economic performance under several tax regimes where taxes are levied on capital income, investment, and energy. I also investigate transitions from one tax regime to another. I find that energy taxes intended to reduce energy use can successfully achieve those goals with minimal or even positive impacts on macroeconomic performance. But the transition paths to new steady states are lengthy, making political commitment to such policies very challenging.

  10. Energy Management Policies in Distributed Residential Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Sisi; Sun, Jingtao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study energy management problems in communities with several neighborhood-level Residential Energy Systems (RESs). We consider control problems from both community level and residential level to handle external changes such as restriction on peak demand and restriction on the total demand from the electricity grid. We propose three policies to handle the problems at community level. Based on the collected data from RESs such as predicted energy load, the community controller analyzes the policies, distribute the results to the RES, and each RES can then control and schedule its own energy load based on different coordination functions. We utilize a framework to integrate both policy analysis and coordination of functions. With the use of our approach, we show that the policies are useful to resolve the challenges of energy management under external changes.

  11. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  12. Britain and Energy Policy: Problems of Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Britain's energy policies and changing energy sources since World War II. North Sea natural gas and oil should prevent shortages in the near future. Planning is complicated by Britain's entry into the European Common Market, questionable progress in nuclear production, and the uncertain availability of Middle Eastern oil. (JR)

  13. Britain and Energy Policy: Problems of Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Britain's energy policies and changing energy sources since World War II. North Sea natural gas and oil should prevent shortages in the near future. Planning is complicated by Britain's entry into the European Common Market, questionable progress in nuclear production, and the uncertain availability of Middle Eastern oil. (JR)

  14. Energy Development, Environmental Protection, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regens, James L.

    1978-01-01

    A major problem in American public policy making is the difficulty of balancing domestic energy resource development with enhancement of environmental quality. Social restraints on energy-environment solutions necessitate the balancing of alternative futures. The interests of government, industry, and the public must all be considered in resolving…

  15. Electrical energy conservation through school board policy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Roseann Keller

    School districts across the nation are being asked by overburdened taxpayers to do more with less. The purpose of the study was to determine what constitutes an effective electrical energy conservation policy in the public school districts in Florida. This study identified the several components that should be included in a school district energy conservation policy. A descriptive case study research process was the primary research method utilized in this study. A survey was sent to the school board chairperson for each school district in the State of Florida (N = 67). There was an 81 percent response rate to a six question survey. The survey solicited responses related to school board electrical energy conservation policy development, modification, review, and publication. The respondents were asked to submit a copy of their district's electrical energy conservation policy. A matrix tabulation was utilized to display the data obtained from the submitted policies and to analyze similarities and differences of the policies in relationship to either a high or low use rate of electricity. The findings indicated that the majority of the school districts in Florida do not have an energy conservation policy and are, therefore, possibly missing opportunities to save money. There were no patterns or trends noted when a comparative analysis was performed on policies from the lowest electrical energy consuming districts and the highest electrical energy consuming districts. Based on the study's findings, the researcher offered specific recommendations for increasing both awareness and action needed to generate electrical energy conservation policy within the State's school districts. Specific suggestions for guiding future research in this area were also shared.

  16. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    related to groundwater contamination, also improved sharply. These results suggest that incomplete internalization of environmental and safety costs due to bankruptcy protection is an important determinant of industry structure and safety effort in hazardous industries, with significant welfare consequences. The second chapter focuses on the importance of a regulator's inability to distinguish between households responding to a subsidy, and households doing what they would also have done in the absence of policy. Economists have long argued that many recipients of energy-efficiency subsidies may be "non-additional,'' getting paid to do what they would have done anyway. Demonstrating this empirically has been difficult, however, because of endogeneity concerns and other challenges. In this paper we use a regression discontinuity analysis to examine participation in a large-scale residential energy-efficiency program. Comparing behavior just on either side of several eligibility thresholds, we find that program participation increases with larger subsidy amounts, but that most households would have participated even with much lower subsidy amounts. The large fraction of inframarginal participants means that the larger subsidy amounts are almost certainly not cost-effective. Moreover, the results imply that about half of all participants would have adopted the energy-efficient technology even with no subsidy whatsoever. Finally, the third chapter addresses consequences of renewable energy subsidies in other markets. Electricity generated from logging residues provides a large and growing share of US renewable electricity generation. Much of the low-value wood used by biomass power plants might otherwise be left in the field. This increased harvest can negatively affect forest health. I investigate the supply of woody biomass fuel in Maine using a 15-year panel of prices and quantities for whole tree wood chips. I find that doubling the price of woody biomass increases

  17. Three essays on energy efficiency policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri, Maryam

    This thesis is comprised of three essays which explore selected aspects of demand side energy efficiency policy of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC). The first essay models the adoption of IECC in the U.S. between 1998 and 2010. An ordered probit model with IECC adoption as the dependent variable is used to test if a set of socio-economics, political, spatial, and environmental factors predict the residential building energy code adoption. The results show that higher energy price, relative political extraction, climate extremes, pollution level, and population growth predict IECC adoption in the sample. The diffusion variable (share of neighbor states with IECC) is shown to have large impacts on the probability of IECC adoption. The next two essays examine the effect of IECC on residential electricity consumption. The second essay investigates the impact of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) on per-capita residential electricity consumption for 44 U.S. states from 1981-2008. Applying the pooled mean group (PMG) model developed by Pesaran et al. (1999), and controlling for energy specific demand factors such as: prices, income, heating degree days, and cooling degree days, I find that there is an overall 2% decrease in new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption in the states which adopted any version of IECC. The new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption has decreased by about 2.5% and 5% in the states with IECC 2000 and IECC 2003 respectively. The third essay examines the impact of building energy code on the household electricity consumption in three states in U.S. To do so; I construct a pseudo panel using household level data from the American Community Survey (ACS) over the period 2005-2010. By constructing pseudo panel, we are able to track cohorts of relatively homogeneous individuals over time, and control for cohort unobserved heterogeneity that may bias the results of cross sectional estimates

  18. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  19. Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I.

    2006-05-15

    A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

  20. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  1. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O'Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  2. Energy economics, demand management, and conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.; Schramm, G.

    1983-01-01

    In the first half of their book, the authors identify the demand factor within the overall view of the energy economy, widen the field of investigation to take in the other major links in the energy chain represented by reserves and production facilities, and analyze demand within the framework of overall energy policy. They stress that pricing policy is the main instrument of demand management, then proceed to explain how long-run marginal cost is the practical pricing basis and how energy-saving measures are the most logical way to check any rise in consumption. They then highlight the close interrelationship between supply and demand. The second part of the book presents case histories on Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bangladesh, the US, Costa Rica, and Brazil. 500 references, 62 figures, 109 tables.

  3. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U

  4. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; de la Rue de Can, Stephane; Zheng, Nina; Williams, Christopher; Amann, Jennifer Thorne; Staniaszek, Dan

    2012-10-26

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO2 emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries.

  5. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  6. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  7. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  8. The energy efficiency initiative: Framework for an effective national energy efficiency policy

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Unander, F.; Lebot, B; Nielsen, L.; Hammar, T.

    1998-07-01

    All countries have a common obligation regarding environmental issues. Mature market economies still have problems with market imperfections and countries with markets in transition have not yet fully developed the institutions to make use of the market mechanisms. Both market function, institutions and policies must develop to achieve market transformation both in a national and an international context. An initiative from several International Institutions has lead to a set of recommendations aimed at designing an effective energy efficiency policy with implications for different kinds of economies and for the trade of goods and services related to energy efficiency. The paper will present the European context in which this 18-month project took place. It explores the most favorable conditions for an energy efficient economy. The paper then highlights what is believed to be the key steps of a successful energy efficiency policy: (1) organize a global open energy market; (2) set the energy price at the right level (avoiding any subsidies on energy cost); (3) develop a qualified expertise on energy efficiency issues; and (4) integrate energy efficiency in sectorial policies (housing, transportation, urban planning....). The product of the Energy Efficiency Initiative is a book designed for policy makers and governments of developing nations. Many developed countries can also benefit from it. The paper concludes with some lessons learned by the experts involved from this intensive effort.

  9. China's Technology Policies Related to Sustainable Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunliang, Fan

    2009-07-01

    Environment development is a big challenge for China. This paper discusses the content and role of technology policies related to sustainable environment and makes some suggestions for their future development.

  10. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  11. Quantitative and theoretical analysis of the joint Department of Energy-National Institute of Standards and Technology Energy-Related Inventions Program from 1975 to 1995: Implications for development of public policy toward innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevenstein, Jack Edward

    This dissertation presents 18 alternative models for computing the social rate of return (SRR) of the joint Department of Energy (DOE)-National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) from 1975 to 1995. The models differ on the on the choice of societal benefit, adjustments made to the benefits, accounting for initial investments in ERIP and annual program appropriations. Alternative quantitative measures of societal benefit include annual gross market sales of successfully commercialized ERIP-supported inventions, annual energy savings resulting from the use of such inventions, pollution-remediation cost reductions due to decreased carbon emissions from greenhouse gases associated with more efficient energy generation. SRR computation employs the net present value (NPV) model with the SRR being the discount rate that reduces the NPV of a stream of societal benefits to zero over a period of n years given an initial investment and annual program appropriations. The SRR is the total rate of return to the nation from public investment in ERIP. The data used for computation were assembled by Dr. Marilyn A. Brown and her staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract to DOE since 1985. Other data on energy use and carbon emission from greenhouse gas production come from official publications of DOE's Energy Information Administration. Mean ERIP SRR = 412.7% with standard deviation = +/-426.5%. The population of the SRR sample is accepted as normally distributed at an alpha = 0.05, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. These SRR's, which appear reasonable in comparison with those computed by Professor Edwin Mansfield, (Wharton School) for inventions and by Dr. Gregory Tassey (NIST Chief Economist) for NIST programs supporting innovations in measurement technology, show a significant underinvestment in public service technology innovation evaluation programs for independent inventors and small technology

  12. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, Alice C.; Homer, Juliet S.; Bender, Sadie R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  13. Energy justice and U.S. energy policy: Case study applications exploring U.S. energy policy through an energy justice framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prehoda, Emily W.

    This thesis presents three examples of U.S. energy policy and demonstrates how these policies violate the principles of energy justice. First, requiring only Federal agencies to obtain a percentage of energy production from renewables violates the distributive energy justice principle through a lack of a federal renewable energy policy which distributes the potential for unequal electrical grid failure to populations. Second, U.S. energy policy violates the procedural energy justice principle through inequitable participation and poor knowledge dissemination that, in some cases, contributes to stagnant renewable targets during the decision-making process and inequitable distribution of the benefits associated with renewable energy arguably resulting from differential representation of economic groups in policy decision making. Third, the United States' continued reliance on and subsidization of fossil fuel extraction and use, violates the prohibitive energy justice principle by causing physical harm to humans and the environment. Finally, a lack of federal renewable energy policy hinders comprehensive energy policy including diversifying the U.S. renewable energy portfolios. Considering energy policy through the framework of energy justice offers a means of evaluating existing policy and can improve future energy policy decision-making. Demanding energy justice ensures that all populations have equitable distribution, participation, and access to affordable, efficient, and clean energy technologies that contribute to obtaining basic needs.

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  15. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  18. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  19. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  20. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  1. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  2. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  3. Public support for poverty-related policies.

    PubMed

    Reutter, Linda I; Harrison, Margaret J; Neufeld, Anne

    2002-01-01

    This research examined how public perceptions of the relationship between poverty and health predict support for poverty-related policies. A random sample of 1,203 Albertans were interviewed by telephone to determine their perceptions of the relationship between poverty and health (myth, drift, behavioural, structural), and their support for government spending in six poverty-related policy areas: nutrition programs, housing, child care, increased welfare allowance, wage subsidies, and recreation programs. The greatest support was for child care programs, with the least support for increased welfare allowance. The degree of support for all policies except wage subsidies and recreation programs differed by the explanation chosen of the relationship between poverty and health. Those who chose a structural explanation were more likely to support government spending than those who chose a behavioural explanation. Beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health influence support for policies. Public health professionals have a role in increasing public awareness of the structural factors that influence health.

  4. US energy policies: Will they be responsive to future needs?

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews the history of early US energy policy as a prescription for failure, the evolution of national goals in energy, and the basic principles of energy policy (market based, clean energy alternatives should receive recognition; energy and environment planning coordinated; progress measured and adjustments made; technology transfer encouraged; government assistance should support economic and environmental objectives).

  5. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  6. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  7. Market and policy barriers to deployment of energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    There has recently been resurgent interest in energy storage, due to a number of developments in the electricity industry. Despite this interest, very little storage, beyond some small demonstration projects, has been deployed recently. While technical issues, such as cost, device efficiency, and other technical characteristics are often listed as barriers to storage, there are a number of non-technical and policy-related issues. This paper surveys some of these main barriers and proposes some potential research and policy steps that can help address them. Furthermore, while the discussion is focused on the United States, a number of the findings and observations may be more broadly applicable.

  8. Market and Policy Barriers to Deployment of Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.; Jenkin, T.

    2012-03-01

    There has recently been resurgent interest in energy storage, due to a number of developments in the electricity industry. Despite this interest, very little storage, beyond some small demonstration projects, has been deployed recently. While technical issues, such as cost, device efficiency, and other technical characteristics are often listed as barriers to storage, there are a number of non-technical and policy-related issues. This paper surveys some of these main barriers and proposes some potential research and policy steps that can help address them. While the discussion is focused on the United States, a number of the findings and observations may be more broadly applicable.

  9. Intergenerational justice in energy policy. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, B.

    1981-01-01

    The finite nature of fossil fuels is common to all mineral resources, but fossil fuels are special in that they cannot be recycled. Offsetting resource depletion with improved technology and high capital investment means that future policies must compensate for a corresponding loss in productive potential. Intergenerational justice in energy decisions, however, is no different than for any other context. Using utility as the criterion for compensation for resource depletion is wrong because present generations cannot be held responsible for the satisfaction future generations will derive from their opportunities. Just policies for the present should compensate for reducing the range of opportunities in terms of productive policies. This raises the question of what opportunities future generations should have and how to define an appropriate standard for judging those opportunities. The predictions of what will fairly compensate future generations for a loss of productive capacity should consider the value of capital stock that is passed on. The practical problems associated with intergenerational justice cannot avoid the risk of cultural impoverishment, irreversibility, and disproportion. (DCK)

  10. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Lynn

    2008-09-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  11. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  12. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses) is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  13. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej

    2011-11-01

    Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses) is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  14. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  15. Renewable Energy Policy and Practice in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Chacko; Harries, David

    2007-10-01

    Renewable energy is commonly seen as an essential strategy for sustainability. Many governments, however, have sustainable energy or sustainability strategies that place little emphasis on renewable energy. One reason is that despite acceptance of the concept of sustainable development as a concept, the reality is that economic growth remains the dominant policy objective of most governments and sustainability and sustainable development are such ill-defined concepts that lack of precise definition often confuses the debate. Climate change, however, is one issue for which the meaning over what is sustainable and what is unstainable has become clearer and the need to balance economic growth with reductions in greenhouse gas emissions has become urgent. The question of by when, by what means, by how much and by whom GHG emissions need to be reduced are now the critical questions. The question of the extent to which renewable energy is essential to the goal of reducing emissions therefore has become more pressing. Some governments continue to see renewable energy as an expensive and unnecessary option and that other, lower cost options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector exist. Western Australia makes an interesting case study as the State is experiencing rapid economic growth supported by rapidly increasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to date have focused on the fact that the state relies heavily on natural gas rather than coal and encourages the efficient use of energy. Western Australia's energy situation and greenhouse gas emissions strategies are reviewed in order to assess the extent to which this greenhouse gas reduction policy that has to date placed a relatively low emphasis on renewable energy is likely to be successful.

  16. The influences on Japan's energy policy: A focus on the changing energy-concerns after energy crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru

    The research examines Japan's energy policies since 1945, concentrating on the period between 1981 and 1995. It explains the changes in policy and their causes during the time of large changes in the economic environment. Focused on the period between 1981 and 1995, by counting related articles in databases, this research finds six primary influences on Japan's energy policy during, the three separate periods as follows. (1) The early 1980s to the mid 1980s: Collapse of crude oil prices and appreciation of the Yen; (2) The mid 1980s to the early 1990s: Global Environment and the end of the Cold War; (3) The late 1980s to the mid 1990s: Asia and Deregulation Among the influences, Collapse of crude oil prices, appreciation of Yen, and the end of Cold War were incidents, which were outside the control of Japan. In contrast, Global Environment, Asia, and deregulation were not incidents; rather they were domestic agendas, which could emerge whenever domestic concern arises. To understand the domestic causes of the influences on energy policy, this research claims that domestic causes could be attributed to Japan's policy environment. The focus of the policy environment is on two factors---(1) Japan's economic conditions and (2) MITI's budget maximizing behavior. These two factors became especially influential in the 1980s and the 1990s. The period of the 1980s and the 1990s witnessed fundamental changes in Japan's economic condition from the improved international economic status of Japan in the late 1980s to the subsequent recession of the 1990s. The result is the fundamental change in the energy policy environment. This research analyzes the interaction between the economic factors and the energy related influences. The analysis indicates that energy policies are increasingly integrated into a part of all economic policy measures. Another important part of the research is the analysis of the role of MITI as the leading agency of energy policy. The analysis suggests

  17. Energy consumption due to local travel by urban households under three alternative policies: 1980 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M K

    1981-11-01

    An evaluation was made of total energy consumption, by fuel type, resulting from local travel (by urban households) in 1980, 1990, and 2000, in two scenarios and three alternative policies. Energy consumed in vehicle operation, fuel production, vehicle production, and infrastructure construction was projected; and the relative impact of each policy was also evaluated. The results indicate that the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies in both scenarios save on total energy use and total petroleum use relative to the In-Place Travel Policy in both scenarios. However, the results also indicate that some of the savings achieved in direct energy consumed by vehicle operation under the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies are offset by the increased energy required to manufacture the vehicles and to build the infrastructure associated with these policies.

  18. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  19. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, Eric; Oteri, Frank; Tegen, Suzanne; Doris, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  20. Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  1. ENERGY INVESTMENTS UNDER CLIMATE POLICY: A COMPARISON OF GLOBAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, David; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; Marangoni, Giacomo; Calvin, Katherine V.; Pietzcker, Robert; Van Vliet, Jasper; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2013-11-01

    The levels of investment needed to mobilize an energy system transformation and mitigate climate change are not known with certainty. This paper aims to inform the ongoing dialogue and in so doing to guide public policy and strategic corporate decision making. Within the framework of the LIMITS integrated assessment model comparison exercise, we analyze a multi-IAM ensemble of long-term energy and greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Our study provides insight into several critical but uncertain areas related to the future investment environment, for example in terms of where capital expenditures may need to flow regionally, into which sectors they might be concentrated, and what policies could be helpful in spurring these financial resources. We find that stringent climate policies consistent with a 2°C climate change target would require a considerable upscaling of investments into low-carbon energy and energy efficiency, reaching approximately $45 trillion (range: $30–$75 trillion) cumulative between 2010 and 2050, or about $1.1 trillion annually. This represents an increase of some $30 trillion ($10–$55 trillion), or $0.8 trillion per year, beyond what investments might otherwise be in a reference scenario that assumes the continuation of present and planned emissions-reducing policies throughout the world. In other words, a substantial "clean-energy investment gap" of some $800 billion/yr exists — notably on the same order of magnitude as present-day subsidies for fossil energy and electricity worldwide ($523 billion). Unless the gap is filled rather quickly, the 2°C target could potentially become out of reach.

  2. Alternative Energy Science and Policy: Biofuels as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammous, Saifedean H.

    This dissertation studies the science and policy-making of alternative energy using biofuels as a case study, primarily examining the instruments that can be used to alleviate the impacts of climate change and their relative efficacy. Three case studies of policy-making on biofuels in the European Union, United States of America and Brazil are presented and discussed. It is found that these policies have had large unintended negative consequences and that they relied on Lifecycle Analysis studies that had concluded that increased biofuels production can help meet economic, energy and environmental goals. A close examination of these Lifecycle Analysis studies reveals that their results are not conclusive. Instead of continuing to attempt to find answers from Lifecycle Analyses, this study suggests an alternative approach: formulating policy based on recognition of the ignorance of real fuel costs and pollution. Policies to combat climate change are classified into two distinct approaches: policies that place controls on the fuels responsible for emissions and policies that target the pollutants themselves. A mathematical model is constructed to compare these two approaches and address the central question of this study: In light of an ignorance of the cost and pollution impacts of different fuels, are policies targeting the pollutants themselves preferable to policies targeting the fuels? It is concluded that in situations where the cost and pollution functions of a fuel are unknown, subsidies, mandates and caps on the fuel might result in increased or decreased greenhouse gas emissions; on the other hand, a tax or cap on carbon dioxide results in the largest decrease possible of greenhouse gas emissions. Further, controls on greenhouse gases are shown to provide incentives for the development and advancement of cleaner alternative energy options, whereas controls on the fuels are shown to provide equal incentives to the development of cleaner and dirtier

  3. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.

    2017-09-01

    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  4. General Relativity and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  5. General Relativity and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  6. Consumer behavior and energy policy: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Puiseux, L.; Lapillone, B.; Midden, C.; Monnier, E.; Gaskell, G.; Ester, P.; Joerges, B.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the Second International Conference on Consumer Behavior and Energy Policy, Consumer Behavior and Energy Policy is the first book to present, on a multinational scale, the latest research on the non-technical barriers to energy conservation in the residential sector. The papers, presented by policy-makers, practitioners, and researchers cover a multitude of approaches - economic, political, psychological, and institutional. They examine present conservation programs and explain techniques for better implementation in the future.

  7. Energy-Saving behaviour: Negative spillover to policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimi, Kaitlin T.

    2017-07-01

    Individuals are often asked to reduce their home energy consumption. But new research suggests that reminders of these personal energy savings may undermine public support for national-level policies.

  8. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  9. Three essays on energy efficiency and environmental policies in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamtessa, Samuel Faye

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the “shale gas revolution” on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the “shale gas revolution.” We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  10. Three Essays on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Policies in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamtessa, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the "shale gas revolution" on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the "shale gas revolution." We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  11. Climate change and energy security: an analysis of policy research

    SciTech Connect

    King, Marcus Dubois; Gulledge, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change's impacts on energy security is scattered across disparate fields of research and schools of thought. Much of this literature has been produced outside of the academy by scholars and practitioners working in "think tanks," government agencies, and international/multilateral institutions. Here we reviewed a selected set of 58 articles and reports primarily from such sources and performed textual analysis of the arguments. Our review of this literature identifies three potential mechanisms for linking climate change and energy security: Climate change may 1) create second-order effects that may exacerbate social instability and disrupt energy systems; 2) directly impact energy supply and/or systems or 3) influence energy security through the effects of climate-related policies. We identify emerging risks to energy security driven by climate mitigation tech-nology choices but find less evidence of climate change's direct physical impacts. We used both empirical and qualitative selection factors for choosing the grey literature sample. The sources we selected were published in the last 5 years, available through electronic media and were written in language accessible to general policy or academic readers. The organi-zations that published the literature had performed previous research in the general fields of energy and/or climate change with some analytical content and identified themselves as non-partisan. This literature is particularly valuable to scholars because identifies understudied relationships that can be rigorously assessed through academic tools and methodologies and informs a translational research agenda that will allow scholars to engage with practitioners to address challenges that lie at the nexus of climate change and energy security.

  12. Energy Burden and the Need for Integrated Low-Income Housing and Energy Policy.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Diana; Bird, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Using detailed sociological and public health qualitative interview data, we demonstrate that energy poverty is more pervasive, and results in a greater energy burden for low-income tenants, than many policymakers would assume. This is due in part to a lack of funding, policy non-coordination, and a lack of understanding of the social and economic benefits of energy conservation, energy education, and flexible utility billing policies. Examining LIHEAP, weatherization, utility, and housing assistance policies, we suggest that a coordinated, regional approach to home energy and housing policy that integrates programs in each area will provide a more coherent policy solution.

  13. Energy Burden and the Need for Integrated Low-Income Housing and Energy Policy

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Diana; Bird, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed sociological and public health qualitative interview data, we demonstrate that energy poverty is more pervasive, and results in a greater energy burden for low-income tenants, than many policymakers would assume. This is due in part to a lack of funding, policy non-coordination, and a lack of understanding of the social and economic benefits of energy conservation, energy education, and flexible utility billing policies. Examining LIHEAP, weatherization, utility, and housing assistance policies, we suggest that a coordinated, regional approach to home energy and housing policy that integrates programs in each area will provide a more coherent policy solution. PMID:27053989

  14. Relativity, potential energy, and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2016-11-01

    This paper is an exploration of the concept of energy, illuminated by the transformative insights of the special theory of relativity. Focusing on potential energy (PE), it will be shown that PE as presently defined is in conflict with the tenets of special relativity. Even though PE remains an indispensable theoretical device its actual physicality is questionable. Moreover its ontological status is quite different from that of both kinetic energy and mass, a significant point that is not widely appreciated. We will establish that PE is a theoretical concept as opposed to an empirical one; it is a descriptor of mass-energy without a detectable physical presence of its own. PE is a measure of energy stored, it is not the energy stored.

  15. Market and policy barriers to deployment of energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    There has recently been resurgent interest in energy storage, due to a number of developments in the electricity industry. Despite this interest, very little storage, beyond some small demonstration projects, has been deployed recently. While technical issues, such as cost, device efficiency, and other technical characteristics are often listed as barriers to storage, there are a number of non-technical and policy-related issues. This paper surveys some of these main barriers and proposes some potential research and policy steps that can help address them. Furthermore, while the discussion is focused on the United States, a number of the findings and observationsmore » may be more broadly applicable.« less

  16. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  17. Federal policy and macroengineering for energy. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.E.

    1985-04-01

    Results are presented of a study undertaken to identify the evolution and characteristics of selected energy macroengineering projects in the United States; evaluate the role of Federal policy in selected energy macroengineering projects in the United States; evaluate the role of Federal policy in selected energy macroengineering projects; and establish a framework for the selection of Federal policies that would permit a broad range of future energy options to be considered. The difference between macroengineering projects and programs is discussed, and attention is focused on the probability of successfully completing a macroengineering project.

  18. New Zealand environmental standards and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vant, William N.; McGlinchy, Brian J.

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes the primary energy resources of New Zealand and their relative importance. It describes the principal legislation that provides environmental protection and public participation with which State and private agencies are bound to comply. The paper then discusses air pollution in further detail and cites three examples where there is cause for concern. By international standards, air pollution is not a serious problem in New Zealand and so the economic consequences have received little attention Two simple examples are cited. A map showing the main centers and the location of facilities referred to in the text is included

  19. A bill to amend the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to repeal a section of that Act relating to exportation and importation of natural gas.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2010-03-02

    03/02/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S946) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  1. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  2. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. PMID:24926115

  3. Energy Efficient Execution of POMDP Policies.

    PubMed

    Grześ, Marek; Poupart, Pascal; Yang, Xiao; Hoey, Jesse

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in planning techniques for partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) have focused on online search techniques and offline point-based value iteration. While these techniques allow practitioners to obtain policies for fairly large problems, they assume that a nonnegligible amount of computation can be done between each decision point. In contrast, the recent proliferation of mobile and embedded devices has lead to a surge of applications that could benefit from state-of-the-art planning techniques if they can operate under severe constraints on computational resources. To that effect, we describe two techniques to compile policies into controllers that can be executed by a mere table lookup at each decision point. The first approach compiles policies induced by a set of alpha vectors (such as those obtained by point-based techniques) into approximately equivalent controllers, while the second approach performs a simulation to compile arbitrary policies into approximately equivalent controllers. We also describe an approach to compress controllers by removing redundant and dominated nodes, often yielding smaller and yet better controllers. Further compression and higher value can sometimes be obtained by considering stochastic controllers. The compilation and compression techniques are demonstrated on benchmark problems as well as a mobile application to help persons with Alzheimer's to way-find. The battery consumption of several POMDP policies is compared against finite-state controllers learned using methods introduced in this paper. Experiments performed on the Nexus 4 phone show that finite-state controllers are the least battery consuming POMDP policies.

  4. Report of a Policy Forum: Weather, Climate, and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2002-07-01

    The report of a policy forum on Weather, Climate, and Energy presents findings and recommendations that, if implemented, could position the energy sector, the providers of weather and climate science and services, and energy consumers to mange more cooperatively and effectively the production, distribution, and consumption of electrical power and fossil fuels. Recent U.S. experience with a series of energy shortages encouraged the AMS Atmospheric Policy Program to join with the University of Oklahoma in the development of a forum to address the issues connected with responding to those shortages. Nearly 100 representatives from the public, private, and academic portions of the energy production sector, the meteorological community, political and corporate leaders, weather risk management analysts, and policy makers met on October 16-17, 2001 to discuss these policy issues.

  5. US energy policy in a changing market environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1986-09-01

    The drop in oil prices has brought energy policy issues back into discussion. The diversity of policy proposals suggests that clearly defined objectives are needed to avoid quick-fix solutions. The analysis traces the history of policies affecting the US oil industry, then focuses on recent changes in the policy environment. The author weighs recent proposals against those policy objectives he considers appropriate for the US. The three objectives of national security, efficient extraction of energy resources, and economic stability provide a common frame of reference for this purpose. Policymakers should only intervene in the energy market when they can improve the allocation of resources in accordance with these objectives. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Energy decision making: the interaction of law and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Tomain, J.P.; Hollis, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book studies how the federal government makes decisions that affect the allocation and distribution of energy resources in times of scarcity or plenty. The authors determine that a system and structure by which decisions are made about energy policy, administration, and enforcement of energy-related law is discernible, and proceed to examine that underlying structure. They feel that the basic energy-decision-making apparatus is in place (even if in exile) and will continue to be called on in the future as the matrix in which decisions will be made. Although it is not a perfect decision-making mechanism, it can work - albeit sometimes in spite of the omnipresent political influences on the process. Furthermore, the authors believe that energy issues and the government's response to them are reflective of issues in larger society. They conclude that: (1) even though so-called energy law is a rapidly changing field, the changes take place within a narrow range of options; (2) energy decisions are made by methodologies that are grounded in an economics of scarcity; and (3) because of the existing institutional structure, substantive energy law does not form a consistent whole. Finally, the authors posit that value issues are at the heart of energy decisions and that, too often, the current decision-making apparatus submerges this aspect of these decisions. They argue that decision makers at all levels cannot and should not escape responsibility for stating, as explicitly as possible, what those value choices are. Further, decisions should be made within a framework that allows an airing of those more-subtle value issues.

  7. 77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... International Trade Administration will lead a delegation of U.S. companies to participate in a Renewable Energy... reconstruction following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, and the role of renewable energy in those efforts...

  8. Energy and the Future: Research Priorities and National Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1973-01-01

    Article provides an account of alternatives for solving energy shortage problems in future years. A national policy is needed. More concerted effort should be made to develop technologies for conversion of energy from conventional and non-conventional resources so that energy is cheaper, available for use and without environmental hazards. (PS)

  9. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  10. Modelling the effect of UK energy policy and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ronald Wai Ho

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate various UK energy policy documents and identify how they are implanted to the main energy consuming sectors in order to achieve a reduction of 60 percent of carbon emissions by 2050. This has lead to two key questions: What are the pros and cons of the various UK energy policy documents What are the impacts of currently proposed environmental policies in UK on economic growth in the 21st century To answer these questions, the following four energy policy documents are reviewed. UK Energy White Paper Energy Efficiency Commitment Climate Change Levy and UK Emissions Trading Scheme Renewable Obligations Also, the following macro energy modelling work is also investigated: Markal Model E3ME The UK Energy White Paper has shown the government is being very eager to solve the climate change and its associated problems by reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent by 2050. The four documents have illustrated the UK government main strategies to tackle climate change they are based on developing new technology, improving energy efficiency and to increase the use of renewables considerably. The analysis of these policies and macro-scale model has forecasted that the UK is going to have a slow down economic growth due to the environmental pressure.

  11. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  12. Public Record About Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These grant guidelines implement the public record provision in Section 9002(d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  13. Inspecting Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    these grant guidelines implement the inspection provisions in Sections 9005(c)(1) and 9005(c)(2) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  14. Engaging Stakeholders in Climate and Clean Energy Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discusses the value of state agency collaboration on planning and implementing climate and clean energy policies, as well as approaches for identifying and involving community stakeholders in program implementation.

  15. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  16. Financial Responsibility and Installer Certification - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grant guidelines to implement the financial responsibility and installer certification provision in Section 9003(i) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  17. 75 FR 55710 - Enhancing Policies Relating to Partnerships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 200 RIN 0596-AC89 Enhancing Policies Relating to Partnerships AGENCY: Forest... would enhance policies related to partnerships. We invite public comment on assessing what changes or... institute needed modifications to Agency policy intended to reduce barriers to partnership arrangements. An...

  18. California State Policy on Sustainable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueneich, Dian M.

    2011-11-01

    California has set an ambitious goal of pursuing all cost-effective energy efficiency and increasing the percent of electrical power generated by renewable energy sources to 33% by 2020. Through a large mixture of projects, many overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission, the state is aiming to greatly increase its reliance on sustainable energy.

  19. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  20. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  1. Fusion: A necessary component of US energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    U.S. energy policy must ensure that its security, its economy, or its world leadership in technology development are not compromised by failure to meet the nation's electrical energy needs. Increased concerns over the greenhouse effect from fossil-fuel combustion mean that U.S. energy policy must consider how electrical energy dependence on oil and coal can be lessened by conservation, renewable energy sources, and advanced energy options (nuclear fission, solar energy, and thermonuclear fusion). In determining how U.S. energy policy is to respond to these issues, it will be necessary to consider what role each of the three advanced energy options might play, and to determine how these options can complement one another. This paper reviews and comments on the principal U.S. studies and legislation that have addressed fusion since 1980, and then suggests a research, development, and demonstration program that is consistent with the conclusions of those prior authorities and that will allow us to determine how fusion technology can fit into a U.S. energy policy that takes a balanced, long term view of U.S. needs.

  2. Biological Solar Energy Conversion and U.S. Energy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Surveys energy consumption in the United States and explores the possibility of increasing the amount of energy obtained from biomass conversion (biologically produced energy). Economic and environmental concerns of biomass conversion processes are discussed. (CP)

  3. Biological Solar Energy Conversion and U.S. Energy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Surveys energy consumption in the United States and explores the possibility of increasing the amount of energy obtained from biomass conversion (biologically produced energy). Economic and environmental concerns of biomass conversion processes are discussed. (CP)

  4. Air Force Energy Program Policy Memorandum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-16

    Asset Prioritization Methodology ( CAPM ) tool • Manage costs • Fly Efficiently • Develop efficient aircraft technology • Improve jet engine performance...Critical Asset Prioritization Methodology ( CAPM ) tool Manage costs. 3.4.2.5. Metrics Percentage of alternative/renewable fuel used for aviation fuel...of vehicle validation reviews while creating a baseline for each functional community to follow as a model for requirements Air Force Policy

  5. A review of China`s energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Duan, N.; Zhijie, H.

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  6. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    preventing supply disruption, and 4) reducing demand. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Energy Sources, Evaluation Criteria, Electric Vehicles , Supply Disruption...Count: 40 Word Count: 7,541 Key Terms: Energy Sources, Evaluation Criteria, Electric Vehicles , Supply Disruption...toward electric vehicles as the primary means of transportation. This would greatly reduce the amount of oil consumed since the United States uses very

  7. A Course on Energy Technology and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    The emerging energy situation in the United States puts chemical engineering at the forefront of the large research and education effort that will need to be undertaken during the next 20 years. Chemical engineering undergraduates and graduate students will need to be literate on energy alternatives and the interconnection of technology,…

  8. A Course on Energy Technology and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    The emerging energy situation in the United States puts chemical engineering at the forefront of the large research and education effort that will need to be undertaken during the next 20 years. Chemical engineering undergraduates and graduate students will need to be literate on energy alternatives and the interconnection of technology,…

  9. Energy Policy: A Decision-Making Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curow, Fred C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This simulation can be used to help secondary students examine the national and global energy issue. Students role-play various groups, including the Departments of Energy and Transportation, the U.S. Automobile Manufacturer's Association, oil lobby groups, conservation groups, citizen groups, a solar lobbying organization, and a nuclear power…

  10. Energy policy impact: In Indian context

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, O.P.

    1996-12-31

    Energy is crucial to human sustenance and development. India, being no exception to it, has been concerned about its energy requirements and self-sufficiency since independence. However, oil shock periods in 1973 and 1979--80 and more recently Gulf war have led India to formulate a strategy for its growth and development in present as well as future. Since then emphasis has been on (1) increasing indigenous generation (2) energy management (3) development and growth of renewable energy. Financial and technical constraints have been major bottle necks in India`s endeavors to meet all its requirements. This paper is an attempt to focus on India`s present energy scene and future perspectives.

  11. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... prices have increased along with energy demand, incentivizing the development of the country's renewable... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile AGENCY... Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) is organizing a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency...

  12. Renewable Energy Financing: The Role of Policy and Economics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.

    2008-03-27

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have rapidly developed momentum in certain sections of the United States and throughout the world, primarily in response to climate and energy security concerns. This presentation at the RPS Symposium, sponsored by the Electric Utility Consultants Inc., will discuss renewable energy financing and the economics of such policies.

  13. Bush energy policy may fuel Democratic challenger in '92

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1991-03-18

    This article describes President Bush's energy policy and the conflict with the Democrats. The plan calls for more domestic oil production from offshore oil drilling, from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and from new nuclear power plants. Little mention is made of increasing energy conservation. Democrats hope the issue will give them at least some indication of the mood of the electorate.

  14. China rationalizes its renewable energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

    2010-04-15

    China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

  15. Post-Fukushima Energy and Nuclear Policy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Tatsuo

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster should be marked as a point of departure towards energy policy evolution needed in the 21st century. Japan had cast off the skin after the oil shocks of the 1970s, where energy efficiency and saving played a critical role. Japan might have looked very different without these innovative policies. The post-Fukushima Japan faces multiple challenges, each of which constitutes a daunting task for policymakers such as surging LNG import costs and nuclear restarting. However, overcoming these problems one by one is not enough. Intensifying climate impact alerts us to the arrival of a historical inflection point requiring a radical shift in energy model worldwide, where Japan will be best suited to take the lead in view of its energy history and technology. The on-going effort after Fukushima to renew her energy and nuclear policy is suggestive of her potential to develop an innovative energy model by casting off the skin again. Asia will become the "problem centre" of the world if it may fail to address global environmental problems deriving from the heavy use of energy (about 46% of world's energy used by Asia alone in 2035). If successful, on the contrary, Asia will become the "solution centre" benefiting the global community. Asia is too big to fail as the whole world will be badly affected. The new energy model of Japan will serve as "public goods" for Asian countries in developing their new energy model towards sustainable future.

  16. [Feasibility of Developing Post High School Technician Programs for Emerging Energy Sources in Southwestern United States.] Policies and Manpower Needs Related to Emerging Energy Sources in Arizona and New Mexico. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; And Others

    The energy manpower research project was established to review the process used to identify skills needed in emerging energy sources and to discover any new occupations for which additional post-high school, vocational/technical training would be needed. A supplemental part of the project was the development of a solar energy instructional module.…

  17. [Feasibility of Developing Post High School Technician Programs for Emerging Energy Sources in Southwestern United States.] Policies and Manpower Needs Related to Emerging Energy Sources in Arizona and New Mexico. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; And Others

    The energy manpower research project was established to review the process used to identify skills needed in emerging energy sources and to discover any new occupations for which additional post-high school, vocational/technical training would be needed. A supplemental part of the project was the development of a solar energy instructional module.…

  18. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in <0.1 sec. En-ROADS enables users to specify many factors, including R&D-driven cost reductions in fossil fuel-based, renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  19. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  20. Energy Policies for Resilience and National Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    in a big PWR , the mechanical energy of circulating hot water is equivalent to about 0.025 kT, and its thermal energy, to several kT. Much of the...already released 153 Ci of radioiodine (about ten times the Three Mile Island release) in five days (Marter 19631 and 479 kCi of tritium in one day...uninjured emergency crew could pre- vent destruction of the core." The containment shell (for ice-condensing PWRs ) will be "badly damaged" and the

  1. U.S. Policy on Energy Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    taking-flight-oregon ( accessed 21 Feb 2013). 25 42 U.S. Energy Information Administration, “North Dakota State Profile and Energy Estimate...July 2012, http://www.eia.gov/beta/state/?sid=ND#tabs-3 ( accessed 21 Feb 2013). 43 “North Dakota is the Fastest Growing State, Thanks to Oil Boom...December 20, 2012, http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/12/20/16046374-north- dakota -is-fastest-growing-state- thanks-to-oil-boom?lite ( accessed 21 Feb

  2. Impacts of Modeled Recommendations of the National Commission on Energy Policy

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report provides the Energy Information Administration's analysis of those National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP) energy policy recommendations that could be simulated using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).

  3. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  4. A multiple perspective modeling and simulation approach for renewable energy policy evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyamani, Talal M.

    Environmental issues and reliance on fossil fuel sources, including coal, oil, and natural gas, are the two most common energy issues that are currently faced by the United States (U.S.). Incorporation of renewable energy sources, a non-economical option in electricity generation compared to conventional sources that burn fossil fuels, single handedly promises a viable solution for both of these issues. Several energy policies have concordantly been suggested to reduce the financial burden of adopting renewable energy technologies and make such technologies competitive with conventional sources throughout the U.S. This study presents a modeling and analysis approach for comprehensive evaluation of renewable energy policies with respect to their benefits to various related stakeholders--customers, utilities, governmental and environmental agencies--where the debilitating impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of such policies can be assessed and quantified at the state level. In this work, a novel simulation framework is presented to help policymakers promptly assess and evaluate policies from different perspectives of its stakeholders. The proposed framework is composed of four modules: 1) a database that collates the economic, operational, and environmental data; 2) elucidation of policy, which devises the policy for the simulation model; 3) a preliminary analysis, which makes predictions for consumption, supply, and prices; and 4) a simulation model. After the validity of the proposed framework is demonstrated, a series of planned Florida and Texas renewable energy policies are implemented into the presented framework as case studies. Two solar and one energy efficiency programs are selected as part of the Florida case study. A utility rebate and federal tax credit programs are selected as part of the Texas case study. The results obtained from the simulation and conclusions drawn on the assessment of current energy policies are presented with respect to the

  5. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Health Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

  6. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J.; Bashmakov, I. |

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  7. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Engstroem, Rebecka Nilsson, Mans Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-05-15

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  8. Health Policy, Optometric Education and Interprofessional Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Henry B.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of health policy and its influence on patients and providers is explored with an emphasis on an interprofessional consortium, devoted to representing the consumer constituency. Expanded involvement and expenditures by the federal government in the health care field are discussed and the need for regulatory reform is described.…

  9. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  10. Skating on Thin Ice: Evolution of Conservation in Energy Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Jack

    2009-05-01

    Why are we physicists so often drawn into the nexus of energy policy and governance? There are several explanations. First, we are quite accustomed to this phenomenon of ``cause and effect,'' so we instinctively examine those two ends as well as the connections between them (i.e., what happens between a lump of coal and a light bulb). That way of thinking makes energy production and consumption intiminately connected and ``conservation'' naturally becomes a technological strategy rather than an appendage. Strangely, however, ``conservation'' in our society (called ``The Cowboy Economy'' by economist Kenneth Boulding) has been widely interpreted as competitive with supply and ridiculed as only a minor option, entailing denial of an amenity. After nearly a half-century of dialogue, innovation, and frustration, the rationality of what I call the ``physics'' perspective seems to have come of age. The evolution of relevant science and technology and public policy has advanced markedly, reflected and sustained at the national level by a succession of organizations. The Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, the Federal Office of Energy Conservation, the Federal Energy Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Not surprisingly, physicists continue to play key roles in the inculcation of science and analysis into the policy and governance. This requires, as implied by C.P. Snow, a bridging and strengthening of the thin ice between science and society. We still have a long road to travel.

  11. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Farhan H; Pinder, Robert W; Loughlin, Daniel H; Henze, Daven K

    2013-01-01

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of technology and policy decisions on these outcomes. Using GLIMPSE, decision makers can identify alternative techno-policy futures, examining their air quality, health, and short- and long-term climate impacts. Ultimately, GLIMPSE will support the identification of cost-effective strategies for simultaneously achieving performance goals for these metrics. Here, we demonstrate the utility of GLIMPSE by analyzing several future energy scenarios under existing air quality regulations and potential CO2 emission reduction policies. We find opportunities for substantial cobenefits in setting both climate change mitigation and health-benefit based air quality improvement targets. Though current policies which prioritize public health protection increase near-term warming, establishing policies that also reduce greenhouse gas emissions may offset warming in the near-term and lead to significant reductions in long-term warming.

  12. US-Japanese energy relations: cooperation and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, C.K.; Morse, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Highlighting the major problems and challenges that lie ahead in US-Japanese energy relations, this book explores energy cooperation, both through joint projects and bilateral planning, that have become an important barometer of the two countries' diplomatic relationship. The contributors discuss in detail the problems posed by energy security differences and uncertain oil markets; US crude oil exports to Japan, nuclear, coal, and solar cooperation; and the prospects for conflict over investment in Siberia and Asia. A separate abstract was prepared for 12 papers selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  13. Airline policy relating to passengers with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mumford, C J; Warlow, C P

    1995-12-01

    To identify the policy of international airlines for the carriage of passengers with epilepsy. Postal questionnaire asking about policy for epileptic passengers, training of cabin crew, onboard drugs suitable for the treatment of seizures, and details of any problems reported by crews as a result of in-flight passenger seizures. The questionnaire was addressed to the medical advisors of 42 international airlines. Thirty (71%) of 42 airlines responded. Eleven (37%) of the 30 airlines that responded had a stated policy or restriction on the carriage of passengers with epilepsy. Five of these airlines advised increasing the dose of anticonvulsant drugs before travel. One airline insisted that epileptic passengers travel with a companion. Twenty-five (83%) of 30 airlines dealt specifically with epilepsy in the training program of their cabin crews. Seventeen (57%) of 30 airlines carried diazepam onboard, mostly in injectable form. Most airlines reported no, or very few, incidents of in-flight passenger seizures annually. The advice offered to intending epileptic passengers differs greatly between airlines. Some airlines instruct intending passengers to increase their regular medication, probably without justification, since in-flight seizures are very infrequent. Training of cabin crew and the medical equipment carried onboard also vary and in some cases are inadequate.

  14. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  15. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of techn...

  16. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of techn...

  17. 77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy...: Reference: TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy. Background: The following FRA policy applies to... increases in diesel fuel prices. Miscellaneous: A copy of the TR-12 FRA Policy can be accessed via the...

  18. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  19. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  20. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  1. Insatiable demands: Income, energy and environmental policy in Madagascar

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    The island nation of Madagascar is suffering the collision of three distinct trends: economic stagnation, a rapidly expanding population and a severely threatened natural resource base. Demands for growth, new energy reserves and environmental conservation, especially of forest resources, are creating a policy dilemma for both government officials and donors. This study seeks to bring new evidence to bear on this policy dilemma. Primary data on urban household income, family size and consumption of various energy types are used to test two main hypothesis (1) that charcoal, which constitutes the fuel of choice for a vast majority of the sample, is a normal rather than an inferior good, and (2) that demand for wood-fuels constitutes a genuine threat to the viability of the forest resource. The data indicate that income elasticities of demand for charcoal are positive over a broad range of per capita income levels, revealing that charcoal is, indeed a normal good for a large portion of the population represented by the sample. A model of forest degradation is built which establishes a clear link between wood-fuel demand and forest degradation. Together, these findings make clear that under current income patterns, and for the forseeable future, charcoal is a normal good and its consumption by urban residents constitutes a serious threat to the natural forest resource. The study concludes with a policy analysis which identifies existing market failures due to government policies and recommends changes based on tested policy prescriptions in other parts of the developing world.

  2. Electricity diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization: The role of U.S. state energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, Sanya

    In response to mounting concerns about climate change and an over-dependence on fossil fuels, U.S. state governments have assumed leadership roles in energy policy. State leaders across the country have constructed policies that target electricity sector operations, and aim to increase the percentage of renewable electricity generation, increase the use of distributed generation, and decrease carbon footprints. The policy literature, however, lacks compelling empirical evidence that state initiatives toward these ends are effective. This research seeks to contribute empirical insights that can help fill this void in the literature, and advance policy knowledge about the efficacy of these instruments. This three-essay dissertation focuses on the assessment of state energy policy instruments aimed at the diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization of the U.S. electricity sector. The first essay considers the effects of state efforts to diversify electricity portfolios via increases in renewable energy. This essay asks: are state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPS) effective at increasing renewable energy deployment, as well as the share of renewable energy out of the total generation mix? Empirical results demonstrate that RPS policies so far are effectively encouraging total renewable energy deployment, but not the percentage of renewable energy generation. The second essay considers state policy efforts to decentralize the U.S. electricity sector via instruments that remove barriers to distributed generation (DG) deployment. The primary question this essay addresses is whether the removal of legal barriers acts as a primary motivating factor for DG deployment. Empirical results reveal that net metering policies are positively associated with DG deployment; interconnection standards significantly increase the likelihood that end-users will adopt DG capacity; and utility DG adoption is related to standard market forces. The third essay asks: what are

  3. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  4. Interpreting global energy and emission scenarios: Methods for understanding and communicating policy insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Leslie

    Energy scenarios for the 21st century powerfully inform perceptions and expectations in the minds of energy investors, consumers, and policy-makers. Scenarios that stabilize global warming call for large-scale energy technology transitions, fueling debates about the relative roles for a range of technologies including nuclear power, carbon sequestration, biofuels, solar power, and efficient end-use devices. In the last decade, hundreds of scenarios have been published by more than a dozen research teams using different models, baselines and mitigation targets. Despite the efforts to summarize findings in a few major assessments, a gap in understanding remains at a critical science-policy juncture between scenario analysts and the audiences their work is designed to serve. Addressing the issue requires an interdisciplinary approach that incorporates knowledge and methods from the fields of energy engineering, economics, climate science, and policy analysis. This research applies two analytical techniques to investigate the effects of an imposed climate policy on the underlying energy system. The first disentangles the effect of a policy intervention on key demographic and technology drivers of fossil fuel use, and the second decomposes reductions in emissions by specific energy technology types. Because the techniques may be applied to any energy scenario with technology detail, this study demonstrates their application to ten sample stabilization scenarios from three leading models. Revealing the importance of data and assumptions overlooked or not well disclosed in the past, the results highlight an implausibly high pressure on energy supply innovations while the potential for energy efficiency improvements is systematically underestimated. The findings are significant to both scenario analysts and the decision-makers in public policy and private investment who are influenced by their work.

  5. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  6. Policy Decisions and Research in Economics and Industrial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, John T.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…

  7. Climate for Collaboration: Analysis of US and EU Lessons and Opportunities in Energy and Climate Policy

    SciTech Connect

    De Vita, A.; de Connick, H.; McLaren, J.; Cochran, J.

    2009-11-01

    A deepening of cooperation between the United States and the European Union requires mutual trust, and understanding of current policies, challenges and successes. Through providing such understanding among policymakers, industry and other stakeholders in both economies, opportunities for transatlantic cooperation on climate change and energy policy emerge. This paper sets out by discussing the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as related to climate. This context is essential to understanding how cap-and-trade, renewable energy and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US, as described in Chapter 3.1. For each of these policies, a barrier analysis and discussion is provided. Chapter 4 builds off this improved understanding to listobservations and possible lessons learned. The paper concludes with recommendations on topics where EU and US interests align, and where further cooperation could prove beneficial.

  8. NREL's Clean Energy Policy Analyses Project. 2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Racel; Hummon, Marissa; McLaren, Joyce; Doris, Elizabeth

    2009-10-01

    This data book provides a summary of the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (taken together as clean energy) developments and supporting policy implementation. It is intended as a reference book for those interested in the progress of the states and regions toward a clean energy economy. Although some national-scale data are given in the initial section, the data are mostly aggregated by states and region, and no data on federal- or utility-level policies are presented here.

  9. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Energy: Factors Influencing Vocational Education Policy. Information Series No. 220.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Kenneth

    A paper analyzed the opportunities for developing a vocational energy education program under existing legislation, summarized the present status of energy-related vocational education, and addressed major issues that need resolution before energy-related vocational education can be expanded. There is a particular lack of sufficient funding for…

  11. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-12

    countries on USTR’s “Priority Watch List” are Algeria , Argentina, Canada, Chile, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, and Venezuela. 35 United...leader in the production of some green energy technologies, such as photovoltaic solar panels. Experts say, however, that the PRC continues to lag

  12. Three essays on decision-making in energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendling, Zachary Ann

    This dissertation examines three issues surrounding decision-making in energy policy. Over the past decade, technological advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have allowed the economical extraction of natural gas and petroleum from shale basins. Thus far, natural gas has been produced from shale at a commercial scale only in certain American States and Canadian Provinces, though potential shale plays exist elsewhere in North America and the world. Whether, how, and to what extent SGD diffuses to new shale basins and jurisdictions will depend on several questions about energy policy. The first chapter examines the potential for SGD in the European Union. Among EU institutions, the European Parliament has been the strongest proponent for regulation of SGD, preferring a balance between environmental protection and opportunities for economic development, energy security, and climate mitigation. Analysis of roll call voting on SGD in the Seventh European Parliament shows that ideological preferences are the primary explanation of voting behavior, followed by national interests in decarbonization. Prospects for further regulatory action are discussed. ? The second chapter takes a closer look at the potential of shale gas to facilitate decarbonization in the electricity sector. Proponents of SGD have claimed that high carbon fossil fuels can be immediately phased out and replaced in the short term by power plants that burn cheap, abundant natural gas, which emits half the greenhouse gasses over a well-to-wire life cycle. A value of information analysis examines the conditions under which this may be so and quantifies how valuable it would be to have perfect information about uncertain parameters in a cost function characterizing the global electricity sector. The third chapter is describes a new tool of policy analysis, the Indiana Scalable Energy-Economy Model (IN-SEEM). State and local governments have played an increasing role in energy and climate

  13. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  14. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  15. 48 CFR 926.7005 - Preferences under the Energy Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Energy Policy Act. 926.7005 Section 926.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7005 Preferences under the Energy Policy Act. (a) Prime contracts. Solicitations for...

  16. 48 CFR 926.7005 - Preferences under the Energy Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Energy Policy Act. 926.7005 Section 926.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7005 Preferences under the Energy Policy Act. (a) Prime contracts. Solicitations for...

  17. 48 CFR 926.7005 - Preferences under the Energy Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Energy Policy Act. 926.7005 Section 926.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7005 Preferences under the Energy Policy Act. (a) Prime contracts. Solicitations for...

  18. 48 CFR 926.7005 - Preferences under the Energy Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Energy Policy Act. 926.7005 Section 926.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7005 Preferences under the Energy Policy Act. (a) Prime contracts. Solicitations for all...

  19. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-02

    on USTR’s 2012 “Priority Watch List” are Algeria , Argentina, Canada, Chile, India, Indonesia, Israel, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine, and...in the production of some green energy technologies, such as photovoltaic solar panels, although experts say the PRC continues to lag behind the...Department of Commerce International Trade Administration, “Commerce Preliminarily Finds Dumping of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or

  20. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  1. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  2. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  3. Technology-Policy Driven Potential for Energy Decarbonization of the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. H.; Baka, J.; Kammen, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    Mounting evidence for climate change and geopolitical rivalry for oil show that the business-as-usual policies of energy development are unsustainable. The US is today on a path of increased energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions: 1.5% annual growth in energy use with 136 quads consumed in 2025 and 190 quads consumed in 2050 unless efforts are made to reduce demand growth and develop alternative energy. In stark contrast to these trends, the Kyoto protocol calls for 5% emissions cuts from 1990 levels by 2012. Moreover, there is scientific consensus that worldwide emissions reductions of at least 80% are needed by mid-century in order to avoid irreversible climate changes. To fully examine the opportunities for dramatic decarbonization of the energy economy, scenarios based on the learning curves of key energy technologies are needed to compare the relative costs and benefits of different future projections. Despite under-funding, the history of investment in energy innovation demonstrates that enormous gains can be achieved for both energy efficiency and production through research programs that have been linked to implemented policies. With continued and increased interactions between research and policy, we demonstrate dramatic but achievable scenarios for decarbonization in two of the largest sectors of the US economy: electricity generation and the light vehicle transportation. Through incremental development and deployment of innovations in end-use efficiency, renewable energies, nuclear power, vehicle design, bio-fuels, and engine technologies; reductions of more than 80% from today's levels can be achieved by 2050.

  4. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  5. Quantifying State-Policy Incentives for the Renewable Energy Investor

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Olama, Mohammed M.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Malinchik, Sergey; Ives, Barry

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach to quantifying renewable energy policy for a decision maker/investor. The novelty of the idea lies in the construction of a computational model - a rule-based system - to interpret state incentives and mandates and evaluate the influence of state policies on renewable energy investment. Using this analysis tool, we are able to understand the bias of some states towards certain renewable technologies and also identify profitable markets for investment - both long and short-term. We also demonstrate how our ability to estimate the expected return of a proposed project in the form of tax credits and incentives, can be leveraged while planning to invest on large renewable power generation projects.

  6. Energy efficiency in new buildings: Implementing the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Stockmeyer, M.K.

    1994-03-01

    The Building Energy Standards Program (Program) is conducted for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, within the Office of Building Technologies. The Program seeks to facilitate the construction of energy efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound new buildings through the application of energy efficiency codes and standards. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires that the Department of Energy support the voluntary energy standards development process, advocate the use of model energy codes, and provide technical support to states and the federal government in adopting energy efficiency standards for new buildings. In meeting these requirements, Program staff work with a wide variety of stakeholders - particularly designers, builders and code officials - to base codes and standards on the application of sound scientific principles. Further, Program staff work with individuals in the federal government, states, code development organizations, and the buildings community to deploy energy efficient technologies and encourage complementary practices throughout the design and construction processes.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs: Strategic Roadmap 2025

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Strategic Roadmap 2025 outlines strategic target areas and tactical actions to ensure the Office remains aligned with its congressional mandates and DOE goals, and that it can be responsive to changing conditions in Indian Country and the nation.

  8. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  9. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  10. Energy and water sector policy strategies for drought mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelic, Andjelka; Vugrin, Eric D.; Loose, Verne W.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-03-01

    Tensions between the energy and water sectors occur when demand for electric power is high and water supply levels are low. There are several regions of the country, such as the western and southwestern states, where the confluence of energy and water is always strained due to population growth. However, for much of the country, this tension occurs at particular times of year (e.g., summer) or when a region is suffering from drought conditions. This report discusses prior work on the interdependencies between energy and water. It identifies the types of power plants that are most likely to be susceptible to water shortages, the regions of the country where this is most likely to occur, and policy options that can be applied in both the energy and water sectors to address the issue. The policy options are designed to be applied in the near term, applicable to all areas of the country, and to ease the tension between the energy and water sectors by addressing peak power demand or decreased water supply.

  11. The influence and ethics of interest groups on policy incentives for clean energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Mariana C.

    The clean energy revolution in the United States is not going to happen until diverse stakeholders in the coalition of clean energy proponents strengthen their cohesion and influence—two critical tools for interest group's to be successful in driving the formulation of public policy. Currently, clean energy technology and resource development is supported by a highly diverse coalition of interest groups such as environmental groups, health organizations, industry, and the Defense Department, whose primary goals are often unrelated. Yet their objectives are increasingly well served by pursuing clean energy development by pushing lawmakers for supportive policies. However, characteristics of this ad hoc coalition can hinder its influence and cohesion. Whereas, fossil fuel interests—exemplified by the coalition of oil proponents—are highly cohesive and influential. This thesis will analyze whether there is a correlation between public policies on clean energy, and the strength of interest group influence over those policy decisions. It will begin with an analysis of interest group theories. Next it will analyze the histories of the oil industry as the model opponent of clean energy policies, and the biofuels, wind energy, and solar energy industries as the model proponents of clean energy policies. The composition of the respective coalitions will reveal if they are diverse or similar, with broad or narrow goals, and other important characteristics. Their respective policy positions and messages will show what values are important to them, and the presidential support each coalition has been achieved, or failed to achieve, will provide further insight into their effectiveness. This thesis will then apply interest group theories to the supporter and opponent coalitions. Results obtained indicate that the coalition of oil interests is large, yet very cohesive and influential, while the coalition for clean energy is large, generally diffuse but with some important

  12. Developing an Energy Policy for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Al Bartlett's video "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy" spells out many of the complex issues related to energy use in our society. Bartlett makes the point that basic arithmetic is the fundamental obstacle preventing us from being able to grasp the relationships between energy consumption, population, and lifestyles. In an earlier…

  13. Developing an Energy Policy for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Al Bartlett's video "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy" spells out many of the complex issues related to energy use in our society. Bartlett makes the point that basic arithmetic is the fundamental obstacle preventing us from being able to grasp the relationships between energy consumption, population, and lifestyles. In an earlier…

  14. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The renewable energy penetration model

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the regional or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decisions; and the Regional Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM) which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. In 1993, the OUT supported the Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE) to form an expert panel to provide an independent review of the REP model and TFRM. This report contains the panel`s evaluation of the REP model; the TFRM is evaluated in a companion report. The panel did not review the REPAM. The panel met for a second time in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this second meeting. The remainder of this chapter provides a description of the REP model and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, transmission, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  15. State and Local Clean Energy Policy Primer: Getting from Here to Clean Electricity with Policy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    This fact sheet proposes a framework for how states and localities can build policy portfolios by first setting the stage for clean energy in the market with low cost policies, and then growing the market with successive policies until the need for financial incentives can be reduced and eventually eliminated.

  16. State of the States 2010. The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Gelman, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  17. State of the States 2010: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Gelman, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  18. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    Two Chinese-born Americans, Xue Feng , a geologist, and Hu Zhicheng, an automotive engineer, remain under detention in China while facing criminal...raised the issue of Xue Feng to China’s leaders.15 U.S.-PRC Dialogues The Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) On April 1, 2009, on the sidelines of...former President Chen Shui -bian’s eight-year record of governance. President Ma moved quickly to implement improvements in cross-strait relations

  19. Energy and economic policy in postwar Japan, 1945-1960

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This history of the three main Japanese energy industries - coal, electric power, and petroleum - explores the dynamics of economic development and policy in postwar Japan. The immediate postwar policy debate over economic reconstruction involved the coal and electric power industry unions as well as organized business and government bureaucrats. Although union plans, which featured state control of industry and labor participation in management, were not adopted, they did raise broad questions of social justice. Union strength meant that Japan had to find a high-wage economic strategy. This labor goal was reflected in the three most important economic plans of the period: the Priority Production Policy of late 1946, the Industrial Rationalization Plan of 1949, and the 1960 Income Doubling Plan. All three plans incorporated both management and labor ideas (and bureaucratic ones). They protected managerial control of firms, but also institutionalized planning and a large role for the state. They offered a rising standard of living to workers and improvement of status through technology. Luck and international developments outside of Japanese control also were crucial to Japan's economic performance. Domestically, some of the most beneficial results of rationalization policy were unanticipated, as in the electric power and oil refining industries.

  20. Control policies for wind-energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehring, I. K.; Freris, L. L.

    1981-09-01

    Wind energy is usually converted into electrical energy through a wind rotor driving a generator. It is well known that maximum conversion efficiency occurs when the wind rotor is loaded in such a way that its rotational speed is allowed to fluctuate in sympathy with wind-speed variations. In the paper, the wind-rotor/generator dynamics are investigated for a number of control policies, and it is shown that the system response is a function of wind speed. Owing to this relationship, control strategies based on static optimum matching premises are unlikely to be optimal under continuously changing conditions. To prove this hypothesis, the aerogenerator dynamics were simulated on an analogue computer, and, for a given recorded windspeed sample, the energy delivered was measured for a number of control strategies. The results indicate that, for the wind sample used and aerogenerator simulated, sophisticated control policies do not necessarily result in maximum energy yield. An attempt is made to interpret this paradox in terms of the system dynamics.

  1. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  2. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Results Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one’s political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives. PMID:26808427

  3. Creating a national citizen engagement process for energy policy

    PubMed Central

    Pidgeon, Nick; Demski, Christina; Butler, Catherine; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines some of the science communication challenges involved when designing and conducting public deliberation processes on issues of national importance. We take as our illustrative case study a recent research project investigating public values and attitudes toward future energy system change for the United Kingdom. National-level issues such as this are often particularly difficult to engage the public with because of their inherent complexity, derived from multiple interconnected elements and policy frames, extended scales of analysis, and different manifestations of uncertainty. With reference to the energy system project, we discuss ways of meeting a series of science communication challenges arising when engaging the public with national topics, including the need to articulate systems thinking and problem scale, to provide balanced information and policy framings in ways that open up spaces for reflection and deliberation, and the need for varied methods of facilitation and data synthesis that permit access to participants’ broader values. Although resource intensive, national-level deliberation is possible and can produce useful insights both for participants and for science policy. PMID:25225393

  4. Creating a national citizen engagement process for energy policy.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Demski, Christina; Butler, Catherine; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa

    2014-09-16

    This paper examines some of the science communication challenges involved when designing and conducting public deliberation processes on issues of national importance. We take as our illustrative case study a recent research project investigating public values and attitudes toward future energy system change for the United Kingdom. National-level issues such as this are often particularly difficult to engage the public with because of their inherent complexity, derived from multiple interconnected elements and policy frames, extended scales of analysis, and different manifestations of uncertainty. With reference to the energy system project, we discuss ways of meeting a series of science communication challenges arising when engaging the public with national topics, including the need to articulate systems thinking and problem scale, to provide balanced information and policy framings in ways that open up spaces for reflection and deliberation, and the need for varied methods of facilitation and data synthesis that permit access to participants' broader values. Although resource intensive, national-level deliberation is possible and can produce useful insights both for participants and for science policy.

  5. Hot Brakes and Energy-Related Concepts: Is Energy Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, V.; Pinto, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a secondary school experience which is intended to help students to think profoundly about some energy-related concepts. It is quite different to other experiences of mechanics because the focus is not on the quantitative calculation of energy conservation but on the qualitative understanding of energy degradation. We first…

  6. Hot Brakes and Energy-Related Concepts: Is Energy Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, V.; Pinto, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a secondary school experience which is intended to help students to think profoundly about some energy-related concepts. It is quite different to other experiences of mechanics because the focus is not on the quantitative calculation of energy conservation but on the qualitative understanding of energy degradation. We first…

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Evolutions: A Binary Comparative Analysis of German and U.S. Renewable Energy Deployment and Policy through Interest Group Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodeiro, Simon

    Germany and the United States, although similar in their industrialization and political structures, reveal marked differences in their national energy policies. Variability in energy policies and the resulting renewable energy deployment in each country have been attributed to political decision-making, international energy regimes and legislative frameworks, in addition to economic mechanisms. This research comes to the conclusion that although a variety of factors lead to coherent renewable energy policy at the federal level, the lobbying efforts of fossil fuel industries serve to depress the ability, in the United States, for sustainable and renewable energy movements to gain headway. As this research shows, the strength of a lobby group or associations can influence policy measures by framing the political landscape, influencing the content of legislation, and achieving political alignment to prime a state for renewable energy policy or not depending on what interests are represented.

  8. Energy Technology Allocation for Distributed Energy Resources: A Technology-Policy Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are emerging rapidly. New engineering technologies, materials, and designs improve the performance and extend the range of locations for DER. In contrast, constructing new or modernizing existing high voltage transmission lines for centralized generation are expensive and challenging. In addition, customer demand for reliability has increased and concerns about climate change have created a pull for swift renewable energy penetration. In this context, DER policy makers, developers, and users are interested in determining which energy technologies to use to accommodate different end-use energy demands. We present a two-stage multi-objective strategic technology-policy framework for determining the optimal energy technology allocation for DER. The framework simultaneously considers economic, technical, and environmental objectives. The first stage utilizes a Data Envelopment Analysis model for each end-use to evaluate the performance of each energy technology based on the three objectives. The second stage incorporates factor efficiencies determined in the first stage, capacity limitations, dispatchability, and renewable penetration for each technology, and demand for each end-use into a bottleneck multi-criteria decision model which provides the Pareto-optimal energy resource allocation. We conduct several case studies to understand the roles of various distributed energy technologies in different scenarios. We construct some policy implications based on the model results of set of case studies.

  9. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  10. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  11. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Boyd, Erin

    2015-08-28

    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  12. Impact of future energy policy on water resources in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivotti, Pedro; Karatayev, Marat; Sobral Mourão, Zenaida; Shah, Nilay; Clarke, Michèle; Konadu, D. Dennis

    2017-04-01

    As part of its commitment to become one of the top-30 developed countries in the world, Kazakhstan set out an ambitious target of increasing the share of renewables and alternative sources of energy in its power generation mix to 50% by 2050. This vision greatly contrasts with the current situation, with coal and natural gas power plants producing around 90% of total electricity in 2016. While this transition provides a unique opportunity to improve the sustainability of the national energy system, major natural resources challenges currently faced in the country should be taken into account. Particularly in the case of water resources management, the current system is characterised by significant losses, heavy reliance on irrigation for the agricultural sector, unevenly distributed surface water, vulnerability to climate change and variations in transboundary inflows, amongst other issues. In this context, this study aims to investigate the future availability of water resources to support food production and the transition to a new energy system. Given the challenges mentioned above, tackling this question requires an integrated analysis of the water-energy-food systems in Kazakhstan. This is done in three stages: (1) characterising the water supply and demand in the country; (2) establishing the linkages between water resources and activities in the power production and agricultural sectors; and (3) identifying potential conflicts at the nexus between water, energy and food, taking into account future energy policy scenarios, trends for food production and water resource use.

  13. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  14. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  15. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q.

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  16. Developing an Energy Policy for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Pat

    2014-12-01

    Al Bartlett's video "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy"1 spells out many of the complex issues related to energy use in our society. Bartlett makes the point that basic arithmetic is the fundamental obstacle preventing us from being able to grasp the relationships between energy consumption, population, and lifestyles. In an earlier version of Bartlett's video, he refers to a "Hagar the Horrible" comic strip in which Hagar asks the critical question, "Good…Now can anybody here count?"

  17. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global construction

  18. Intervention in Countries with Unsustainable Energy Policies: Is it Ever Justifiable?

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores whether it is ever justifiable for the international community to forcibly intervene in countries that have unsustainable energy policies. The literature on obligations to future generations suggests, philosophically, that intervention might be justified under certain circumstances. Additionally, the world community has intervened in the affairs of other countries for humanitarian reasons, such as in Kosovo, Somalia, and Haiti. However, intervention to deal with serious energy problems is a qualitatively different and more difficult problem. A simple risk analysis framework is used to organize the discussion about possible conditions for justifiable intervention. If the probability of deaths resulting from unsustainable energy policies is very large, if the energy problem can be attributed to a relatively small number of countries, and if the risk of intervention is acceptable (i.e., the number of deaths due to intervention is relatively small), then intervention may be justifiable. Without further analysis and successful solution of several vexing theoretical questions, it cannot be stated whether unsustainable energy policies being pursued by countries at the beginning of the 21st century meet the criteria for forcible intervention by the international community.

  19. Policy approaches to renewable energy investment in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, A.; Komendantova, N.; Battaglini, A.; Lilliestam, J.; Williges, K.

    2009-04-01

    Europe's climate policy objective of 20% renewable energy by 2020, and the call by the IPCC to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, pose major challenges for the European Union. Several policy options are available to move towards these objectives. In this paper, we will address the most critical policy and governance issues associated with one particular approach to scaling up renewable energy resources: reliance on large-scale energy generation facilities outside the European continent, such as onshore and offshore wind farms and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the Mediterranean region. Several feasibility studies completed over the past three years (German Aerospace Center 2006; German Aerospace Center 2005; Czisch, Elektrotechnik 2005, p. 488; Lorenz, Pinner, Seitz, McKinsey Quarterly 2008, p.10; German Aerospace Center 2005; Knies 2008, The Club of Rome; Khosla, Breaking the Climate Deadlock Briefing Papers, 2008, p.19) have convincingly demonstrated that large-scale wind and CSP projects ought to be very attractive for a number of reasons, including cost, reliability of power supply, and technological maturity. According to these studies it would be technically possible for Europe to rely on large-scale wind and CSP for the majority of its power needs by 2050—indeed enough to completely replace its reliance on fossil fuels for power generation—at competitive cost over its current, carbon intensive system. While it has been shown to be technically feasible to develop renewable resources in North Africa to account for a large share of Europe's energy needs, doing so would require sustained double digit rates of growth in generating and long-distance transmission capacity, and would potentially require a very different high voltage grid architecture within Europe. Doing so at a large scale could require enormous up-front investments in technical capacity, financial instruments and human resources. What are the policy instruments best

  20. Opioid-related Policies in New England Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Scott G; Raja, Ali S; Bittner, Jane C; Curtis, Kevin M; Weimersheimer, Peter; Hasegawa, Kohei; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    The opioid abuse and overdose epidemic in the United States has led to the need for new practice policies to guide clinicians. We describe implementation of opioid-related policies in emergency departments (EDs) in New England to gauge progress and determine where further work is needed. This study analyzed data from the 2015 National Emergency Department Inventory-New England survey. The survey queried directors of every ED (n = 195) in the six New England states to determine the implementation of five specific policies related to opioid management. ED characteristics (e.g., annual visits, location, and admission rates) were also obtained and a multivariable analysis was conducted to identify ED characteristics independently associated with the number of opioid-related policies implemented. Overall, 169 EDs (87%) responded, with a >80% response rate in each state. Implementation of opioid-related policies varied as follows: 1) use of a screening tool for patients with suspected prescription opioid abuse potential (n = 30, 18%), 2) access state prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) before prescribing opioids (n = 132, 78%), 3) notify the primary opioid prescriber when prescribing opioids for ED patients with chronic pain (n = 69, 41%), 4) refer patients with opioid abuse to recovery resources (n = 117, 70%), and 5) prescribe naloxone to patients at risk of opioid overdose after ED discharge (n = 19, 12%). EDs located in metropolitan areas and with at least one attending physician on duty 24/7 were less likely to implement opioid policies (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-0.89; and IRR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.6-1.0, respectively) while EDs with ≥15% hospitalization rate that used electronic computerized medication ordering and those in Rhode Island were more likely to implement opioid policies (IRR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.48; IRR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.19-3.22; and IRR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.56, respectively). The implementation

  1. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  2. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. ); Barron, W.F. ); Kamel, A.M. ); Santiago, H.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an intermediate evaluation'' of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  3. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B.; Barron, W.F.; Kamel, A.M.; Santiago, H.T.

    1992-09-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an ``intermediate evaluation`` of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  4. Universal binding energy relations in metallic adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Scaling relations which map metallic adhesive binding energy onto a single universal binding energy curve are discussed in relation to adhesion, friction, and wear in metals. The scaling involved normalizing the energy to the maximum binding energy and normalizing distances by a suitable combination of Thomas-Fermi screening lengths. The universal curve was found to be accurately represented by E*(A*)= -(1+beta A) exp (-Beta A*) where E* is the normalized binding energy, A* is the normalized separation, and beta is the normalized decay constant. The calculated cohesive energies of potassium, barium, copper, molybdenum, and samarium were also found to scale by similar relations, suggesting that the universal relation may be more general than for the simple free electron metals.

  5. Words vs. deeds: Americans' energy concerns and implementation of green energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinker, Garrett C.

    As the effects of climate change become increasingly clear, nations, international organizations, and corporations are working together to help mitigate these negative effects before they become irreversible. The United States, as the world's largest emitter per capita, has a responsibility to take quick and decisive action to decrease carbon emissions. And while an overwhelming majority of Americans believe that green energy policies are the right step forward, few have taken meaningful steps to actually implement these policies. Green and energy efficient technologies such as hybrid and electric cars, smart meters, and solar panels---technologies that would reduce our carbon footprint---are currently purchased or used by very few households. There is a clear gap between our words and deeds. Using the University of Texas at Austin Energy Poll dataset, this paper examines this gap and analyzes how income may influence what people say, versus how they act, seeking to better understand how income influences peoples' energy behaviors. Previous literature suggests that income has proven to be an inconsistent measure of concern for energy use. Through two OLS models, this paper finds that income is negatively correlated with Americans' concern for energy usage, while finding that there is a positive correlation between income and Americans' implementation of energy efficient technologies. Further, there is a nonlinear relationship between income groups and how Americans both think about their energy usage and actually implement more energy efficient measures.

  6. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  7. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  8. Domestic energy pricing policies in developing countries: Why are economic prescriptions shelved?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1996-12-01

    Despite an abundance of literature on energy pricing, it appears that studies have hitherto been obsessed with economic efficiency in the neoclassical sense, even though policy makers are typically confronted with a wide range of issues related to energy pricing, some of which are even contradictory. Complexities increase when socioeconomic and external costs of energy use are considered, and often no clear solution becomes apparent. As a consequence, domestic energy prices remain highly distorted in the industrialized as well as in the developing world. The case of developing countries is further complicated by the existence of the informal sector and the traditional energies. This paper analyses comprehensively all factors affecting energy pricing and argues for more operational methods.

  9. Photonic crystal: energy-related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhuo; Park, Joong-Mok; Constant, Kristen; Kim, Tae-Geun; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-06-08

    We review recent work on photonic-crystal fabrication using soft-lithography techniques. We consider applications of the resulting structures in energy-related areas such as lighting and solar-energy harvesting. In general, our aim is to introduce the reader to the concepts of photonic crystals, describe their history, development, and fabrication techniques and discuss a selection of energy-related applications.

  10. Sensible energy policy does not include a variable import fee

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, L.B. )

    1988-01-01

    Energy analysis has become unfashionable. The millions of dollars and professional hours devoted to fashioning solutions to the US energy problems in the late 1970s have disappeared with little trce. With world oil selling below $20 per barrel, there is little or no interest in alternatives to petroleum, or even in R and D on alternatives. Current apathy suggests that the USA is capable of only two modes of operation: Throw money at perceived crises, knowing it is being spent foolishly, or ignore any problem that ceases to be a perceived crises. Energy policy seems to be thought of these days as bailing out the oil billionaires and the Texas banks and savings and loan situations. When mature, consenting adults spend years trying to bring something about, one should allow them to enjoy the fruits of their labor - as long as it is within the law. Thus, the author assumes that Singer's proposal is not to be justified on the grounds of pulling these chestnuts out of the fire. Rather, Singer puts it forth on the grounds that it will contribute to sensible energy policy. Unfortunately, the variable import fee (VIF) is seriously flawed and the supporting arguments are contradictory or unsupported. In order to evaluate a proposal such as Singer's VIF, one has to be clear on the objectives and time frame. Others and the author agree that at any date, there is a supply curve for domestic petroleum that rises with price. There are stripping well secondary and tertiary recovery all waiting, and drillers willing to bring in new wells; the higher the price, the more oil will flow from these sources.

  11. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R. ); Bohi, D.R. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. 48 CFR 926.7004 - Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Size standard for Energy... ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7004 Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements. The size standard...

  13. 48 CFR 926.7004 - Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Size standard for Energy... ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7004 Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements. The size standard...

  14. 48 CFR 926.7004 - Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Size standard for Energy... ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7004 Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements. The size standard...

  15. 48 CFR 926.7004 - Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Size standard for Energy... ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 926.7004 Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements. The size standard for...

  16. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  17. 32 CFR 552.34 - Policies relative to new acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policies relative to new acquisition. 552.34 Section 552.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Acquisition of Real Estate...

  18. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  19. SURVEY OF PERSONNEL POLICIES IN RELATION TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WELLEMEYER, JOHN F.

    THE PRINCIPLE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AGENCIES THAT OPERATE IN FIELDS REQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES, THE U.S. MILITARY SERVICES AND SOME PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THEIR OPERATING POLICIES THAT RELATE TO PERSONNEL WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS. THE AGENCIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS…

  20. Introduction of Energy and Climate Mitigation Policy Issues in Energy - Environment Model of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavs, G.; Rekis, J.

    2016-12-01

    The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).

  1. International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christopher; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Wu, Grace

    2012-09-30

    Improving the efficiency of energy production and consumption and switching to lower carbon energy sources can significantly decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reduce climate change impacts. A growing body of research has found that these measures can also directly mitigate many non-climate change related human health hazards and environmental damage. Positive impacts of policies and programs that occur in addition to the intended primary policy goal are called co-benefits. Policy analysis relies on forecasting and comparing the costs of policy and program implementation and the benefits that accrue to society from implementation. GHG reduction and energy efficiency policies and programs face political resistance in part because of the difficulty of quantifying their benefits. On the one hand, climate change mitigation policy benefits are often global, long-term, and subject to large uncertainties, and subsidized energy pricing can reduce the direct monetary benefits of energy efficiency policies to below their cost. On the other hand, the co-benefits that accrue from these efforts’ resultant reductions in conventional air pollution (such as improved health, agricultural productivity, reduced damage to infrastructure, and local ecosystem improvements) are generally near term, local, and more certain than climate change mitigation benefits and larger than the monetary value of energy savings. The incorporation of co-benefits into energy efficiency and climate mitigation policy and program analysis therefore might significantly increase the uptake of these policies. Faster policy uptake is especially important in developing countries because ongoing development efforts that do not consider co-benefits may lock in suboptimal technologies and infrastructure and result in high costs in future years. Over the past two decades, studies have repeatedly documented that non-climate change related benefits of energy efficiency and fuel conversion efforts, as a part

  2. Enduse Global Emissions Mitigation Scenarios (EGEMS): A New Generation of Energy Efficiency Policy Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McMahon, James E.

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents efforts to date and prospective goals towards development of a modelling and analysis framework which is comprehensive enough to address the global climate crisis, and detailed enough to provide policymakers with concrete targets and achievable outcomes. In terms of energy efficiency policy, this requires coverage of the entire world, with emphasis on countries and regions with large and/or rapidly growing energy-related emissions, and analysis at the 'technology' level-building end use, transport mode or industrial process. These elements have not been fully addressed by existing modelling efforts, which usually take either a top-down approach, or concentrate on a few fully industrialized countries where energy demand is well-understood. Inclusion of details such as appliance ownership rates, use patterns and efficiency levels throughout the world allows for a deeper understanding of the demand for energy today and, more importantly, over the coming decades. This is a necessary next step for energy analysts and policy makers in assessment of mitigation potentials. The modelling system developed at LBNL over the past 3 years takes advantage of experience in end use demand and in forecasting markets for energy-consuming equipment, in combination with known technology-based efficiency opportunities and policy types. A particular emphasis has been placed on modelling energy growth in developing countries. Experiences to date include analyses covering individual countries (China and India), end uses (refrigerators and air conditioners) and policy types (standards and labelling). Each of these studies required a particular effort in data collection and model refinement--they share, however, a consistent approach and framework which allows comparison, and forms the foundation of a comprehensive analysis system leading to a roadmap to address the greenhouse gas mitigation targetslikely to be set in the coming years.

  3. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  4. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  5. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  6. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  7. Essays in Energy Policy: The Interplay Between Risks and Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan-Perret, Rebecca Jane Bishop

    My dissertation considers examples of how social, economic, and political incentives associated with energy production, distribution, and consumption increase the risk of harm to society and the environment. In the first essay, "Why America should move toward dry cask consolidated interim storage of used nuclear fuel," my co-authors and I discuss how the confluence of the U.S. Government and electricity utilities' political and economic incentives created a gridlock preventing a long-term nuclear waste disposal solution. We find that our current policies undermine the safety and security of the nuclear waste, and so, suggest a temporary, consolidated storage solution. In the second essay, "Import-Adjusted Fatality Rates for Individual OECD Countries Caused by Accidents in the Oil Energy Chain," my co-authors and I adopt a technique from the greenhouse gas accounting literature and assign CO2 emissions to the final consumer (rather than the producer) by allocating the risk - measured in fatalities - associated with oil production to the final consumer. The new assignments show that normal methods of tracking oil production impacts only capture part of the actual costs. In the third essay, "Insurgent Attacks on Energy Infrastructure and Electoral Institutions in Colombia," my co-authors and I consider the economic and political incentives that an energy resource create in a conflict environment. Our research shows that insurgents in Colombia, Las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) and Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN), strategically time attacks on critical energy infrastructure during elections. These results are the first to quantify insurgent tactics to target critical energy infrastructure, which potentially undermine state capacity and democratic processes.

  8. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  9. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  10. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    technologies instead of a similar-sized conventional gasoline-powered vehicle (CV). The electric vehicle technologies considered are gasoline-powered hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. It is found that the private benefits are positive, but smaller than the expected short-term cost premiums on these technologies, which suggest the need for government support if a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles is desired. Also, it is found that the net present values of the societal benefits that are not internalized by the vehicle purchaser are not likely to exceed $1,700. This estimate accounts for changes in GHG emissions, criteria air pollutants, gasoline consumption and the driver's contribution to congestion. The third essay explores the implications of a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles on transportation finance. While fuel efficiency improvements are desirable with respect to goals for achieving energy security and environmental improvement, it has adverse implications for the current system of transportation finance. Reductions in gasoline consumption relative to the amount of driving that takes place would result in a decline in fuel tax revenues that are needed to fund planning, construction, maintenance, and operation of highways and public transit systems. In this paper the forgone fuel tax revenue that results when an electric vehicle replaces a similar-sized CV is estimated. It is found that under several vehicle electrification scenarios, the combined federal and state trust funds could decline by as much as 5 percent by 2020 and as much as 12.5 percent by 2030. Alternative fee systems that tie more directly to transportation system use rather then to fuel consumption could reconcile energy security, environmental, and transportation finance goals.

  11. Effects of China's Energy Policy on Future Air Quality in China and the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Li, C. T.; Zhang, D.; Luo, X.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the effects of recently announced energy policies in mainland China on air quality in both China and the U.S. in 2030. China is the largest contributor to global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants, especially the precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Efforts to limit coal use in China under the country's National Air Pollution Action Plan will reduce these air pollutants. Control efforts are expected to not only decrease the concentration of ozone and PM2.5 locally in China, but also reduce the trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants to the U.S. We couple an energy-economic model with sub-national detail for China (the China Regional Energy Model, or C-REM) to a global atmospheric chemistry model (GEOS-Chem) to assess air pollution reductions under an energy policy scenario relative to a no policy baseline scenario. Future Chinese anthropogenic emissions are predicted by C-REM under a national energy policy scenario which achieves a 20% reduction in energy intensity from 2012 to 2017 by targeting fossil fuel use nationwide as specified in the National Air Pollution Action Plan and also meets the Plan's sub-national constraint that coal use must not increase above present levels in three largest urban regions (the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta) through 2030. Using GEOS-Chem, we project changes in the surface concentration of ozone and PM2.5 over China and the U.S. in 2030. We find that air pollutants decrease substantially over both China and the U.S. under the national targets set by the Air Pollution Action Plan.

  12. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  13. Investigation of Sustainable Energy Policy: Nairobi Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengyuan, Y.; Habiyaremye, J. F. L.; Yingying, W.

    2017-07-01

    A plan for actively achieving green energy obligation is a strategic tool for policies that point forward the diminution of the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) in conformity with the Paris environment-friendly accords (COP21) and updates of other ecosystem agreements. To achieve the concrete implementation of the sustainable energy strategy (SES) and to accomplish its objectives, an investigation is a critical factor. SES investigation has to consider both the advancement of each particular action and its wide-ranging green effect, which necessitates multiple levels of improvement. In this study, a consolidated eco strategy for evaluating, monitoring and handling the SES via investigation and execution process is established. The city of Nairobi was used as one of the geographical positions to test the effectiveness of this approach and to investigate its robust and weak points. Specifically, benefit-cost analysis, reliability, peer review and general level of participation were renowned as vital tools for attaining a functional SES investigation and for then drafting successful energy guidelines. Some suggestions were put forward to highlight the research and execution methods and to draw a road map of how SES can be strategically placed into practice.

  14. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  15. Analysis of the energy related climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Iotova, A.

    1997-12-31

    The key role of energy sector in the economy and its importance for a sustainable development in the future define the considerable research efforts devoted to the question of energy related climate change. It is of special interest to analyse climate change problem. The results such as analysis are presented in the paper.

  16. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  17. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  18. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  19. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  20. 10 CFR 706.10 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 706.10 Section 706.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.10 Policy. It is policy of DOE that NLRB cases...

  1. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Cochran, Jaquelin; Vorum, Martin

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  2. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  3. Exploring Policy Implications of Global Energy Scenarios That Stabilize Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, H. L.

    2006-12-01

    Scenario analysis is an appropriate analytic technique for treating problems characterized by deep uncertainty, a condition in which both the values of variables and the relationships between them are uncertain. More than 700 hypothetical scenarios for energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the 21st century have been produced to explore a range of possible future conditions and the effects of specific policy interventions that could stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Though emission scenarios are widely cited in climate science studies and policy analysis, a gap in communication and understanding persists between scenario analysts whose models generate the emission paths and the scientists and policy analysts who use them. To more clearly identify the sources of emission reductions in stabilization scenarios, this paper proposes a method for a detailed decomposition that quantifies the following categories: demand reduction (including structural transformation in the economy, end-use energy efficiency, and improvements to energy supply efficiency), switching from fossil fuels to specific zero carbon energy sources, carbon sequestration, and land use change. The study applies such a mitigation decomposition technique to a set of sample scenarios generated by multiple models using a variety of reference cases constrained to relatively low stabilization targets. The range of results reflects uncertainty both about the initial assumptions for the reference scenarios and the numerous technology transition paths that could possibly achieve the stabilization targets. One policy-relevant finding is that a primary energy accounting convention called the direct equivalent method can create the appearance of mitigation through a reduction in energy use that is actually the result of fuel switching to non-combustion energy sources in the electric power sector (e.g. nuclear power, hydropower, and solar power). The IPCC Special Report on Emission

  4. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    PubMed

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 48 CFR 952.226-72 - Energy Policy Act subcontracting goals and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-72 Energy Policy Act subcontracting goals and reporting requirements. As... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy Policy...

  6. 48 CFR 952.226-72 - Energy Policy Act subcontracting goals and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-72 Energy Policy Act subcontracting goals and reporting requirements. As... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy Policy...

  7. 48 CFR 952.226-73 - Energy Policy Act target group certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy Policy Act target... ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-73 Energy Policy Act target group certification. As prescribed in 926.7007(d), insert...

  8. 48 CFR 952.226-73 - Energy Policy Act target group certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy Policy Act target... ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-73 Energy Policy Act target group certification. As prescribed in 926.7007(d), insert...

  9. 48 CFR 952.226-73 - Energy Policy Act target group certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Policy Act target... ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-73 Energy Policy Act target group certification. As prescribed in 926.7007(d), insert...

  10. 48 CFR 952.226-73 - Energy Policy Act target group certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy Policy Act target... ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-73 Energy Policy Act target group certification. As prescribed in 926.7007(d), insert the...

  11. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  12. Energy density, energy costs and income - how are they related?

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma E; de Haas, Wendy E; van Amstel, Inge; Schuit, Albertine J; Twisk, Jos W R; Visser, Marjolein; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2010-10-01

    To examine the association between energy density and energy costs in single food items and composed diets, and to explore differences in energy density and energy cost between income levels. A cross-sectional study using data from two Dutch cohort studies and recent national food prices. Food prices were retrieved from two market leader supermarkets. Data on dietary intake were measured using a computerized face-to-face interview (cohort 1) and 24 h recalls (cohort 2). The Netherlands. A sample of 373 young adults from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGHLS, measured in 2000) and a sample of 200 community-dwelling elderly from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (LASA, measured in 2007). We found significant inverse associations between energy density and energy costs in single food items (r = -0.436, P < 0.01) and composed diets (AGHLS men r = -0.505, women r = -0.413, P < 0.001; LASA men r = -0.559, women r = -0.562, P < 0.001). Furthermore, we found that people stratified into higher energy density quartiles consumed significantly more energy per day, less fruits and vegetables, and had significantly lower diet costs. Explorative analyses on income did not reveal significant differences regarding energy density, costs, or fruit and vegetable intake. In the Netherlands also, energy density was inversely related with energy costs, implying that healthier diets cost more. However, we could not find differences in energy density or costs between income levels. Future research, using precise food expenditures, is of main importance in studying the economics of obesity and in the aim of making the healthier choice easier.

  13. Using a Policy Classification Model to Analyze Major Changes Regarding Control and Administration of Policies Relative to Professional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Ernest J.; Walker, John H.

    There has been a diversity of activity to change policies relating to the recruitment, admission, and preparation of new educational professionals in college and university settings. These policies, coupled with state mandated polices to upgrade the competence of current teachers and administrators, has resulted in a great amount of policy to…

  14. Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    introduced a modified version of S. 1645 for himself and Senator Kennedy . The revised bill, S. 2823, was very similar to S. 1645, but there were...by Senator Kennedy for himself and Senators Feingold and Clinton and by Representative Gutierrez for himself and a group of cosponsors. Known as the...Deferred . Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs Congressional Research Service 35 Mandatory Departure ( DMD ) status

  15. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... to air quality-related health effects, as do emissions from all combustion processes, and are causing... impacts to levels that protect public health and welfare and (2) to ensure energy availability and... protect public health and welfare while allowing sustained air transportation growth. They are high...

  16. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Michael

    Over the past forty years federal efforts at renewable energy policy in the United States have been fragmented and are largely stalled. This is much different from U.S. states, which enact a diverse array of renewable energy policies. What factors explain this subnational variation? Addressing this question requires moving past the standard model of binary policy adoption that dominates studies of renewable energy policy. In its place I provide analyses of multifaceted policy outcomes, and also include predictors from a more inclusive view of politics than the standard economic and political interest factors. These additions to the standard energy policy model shed light not just on when states take policy action, but also on the content of the policies states ultimately adopt. In this dissertation I argue that different combinations of state-level political and economic characteristics influence policy adoption and policy content, a fact that is obscured by analysis of only binary policy action. I demonstrate this through three empirical projects that utilize an original longitudinal dataset and a variety of quantitative methods. The first project examines the diffusion of two varieties of a single regulatory policy instrument within a political context. I demonstrate that, contrary to most diffusion studies, policy adoption should be thought of as a multifaceted process, with separate factors determining the impetus for action and others shaping the content of the policy. My second project examines the role of economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors on a state's portfolio of policies. This work extends findings from prior literature on tax policies and incorporates institutional and cultural accounts of policy adoption into the study of renewable energy policy. I show that state economic and political factors, the predictors in traditional energy policy models, predict policy action but not policy content. Instead it is a state's cultural context

  17. The politics of electric utility regulation: Explaining energy efficiency policy in the states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, John Arthur

    Even with broad societal pressures to alter the regulatory environment in the states with regard to the efficient use of electricity, many states have not made what some conservation advocates believe are adequate reforms for increasing levels of energy efficiency. While some states have comprehensive policies that require electric utilities to engage in integrated resource planning and demand-side management (DSM), along with providing utilities with a regulatory framework that allows for the recovery of energy efficiency program costs and lost revenues, other states have no such policies. The main purpose of this inquiry is twofold: first, it discusses some of the current regulatory issues being explored at the state level in an attempt to determine how states vary in their development and application of energy efficiency regulations; and second, it attempts to explain why the states differ in their development of energy efficiency regulations. The application of the analytical framework developed in this study proves useful for assessing the various elements that affect state regulatory policy development. Organized interests, state political culture, and various state economic variables tend to exert considerable influence over regulatory policy choice. However, other factors such as government institutions, including state legislatures and regulatory agencies, were not without effect. Though the directions of some of the relationships were unexpected, various logistic regression models show that each of the approaches to the study of regulation is useful in explaining the process of developing and adopting innovative energy efficiency policies. In the area of electric utility regulation, and more specifically energy efficiency regulation, this analysis finds that, in general, the likelihood of a state adopting DSM-related lost revenue recovery and/or sharehoider incentives on DSM programs, as well as stringent cost-effectiveness tests, is greater for states

  18. Energy security: a continuing debate. [Interview of three policy analysts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Responding to questions from the editor, Georgetown University professor Charles K. Ebinger sees political destabilization, especially in the Middle East, as the major threat to US energy security. He also sees a danger in the world excess in refining capacity and the increasing shift to refining operations by the OPEC nations. He supports a strong industrial reserve as well as completion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in recognition that the energy markets have never been free. Professor David A. Deese notes that the recession, fuel substitution, and the drawdown of existing stocks are as important factors in the current oil glut as the effects of conservation. Political disagreement over the proper federal role in contingency planning is preventing public policies that will define supply and demand crises. Professor William Hogan foresees a tightening in world oil markets and the need to take the opportunity to fill the SPR while the glut continues while discouraging other oil uses through an import tariff. The use of market forces to allocate oil, Hogan feels, allows the federal government to impose windfall taxes, but creates economic problems for the poor and supply problems for some regions. Some of the revenues can be recycled with tax credits or by increasing Social Security or block grant payments. A futures market for the SPR is one approach that merits consideration. (DCK)

  19. The gates open wide. [The Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    For independent electric producers, the new energy law opens wide the gate to the future. It does not give an entitlement or a subsidy; merely the freedom to expand - along with utilities - electricity's share of the next century's energy market. If anything, the new law, by removing investment barriers and creating the right to transmission access, affirms the potential of electrical generation and urges us all to get on with the job. It underscores the most powerful forces for future growth: the increasing demand for more electric power, greater production at less cost, and lessening demand on the environment's resources. With half-century-old barriers to broader production finally down, the real action now belongs to the regulators. It's one thing to pass a bill. It's quite another to make it work. The reform bill does not deregulate, but essentially defines public policy objectives (competitive markets), creates a framework to develop them, and vest responsibility for the regulation of the generation and sale of power where it belongs: with state public utility commissions and the FERC. It is going to be up to them to set the limits of the market, and to set the pace of expansion; in other words, to rearrange the play to achieve the bill's objective.

  20. Can we Plan. The political economy of commercial nuclear energy policy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The dissertation is an analysis of the commercial nuclear energy sector's decline in the United States. The research attempts to reconcile the debate between Weberian-institutional and Marxist political theory about the state's inability to successfully plan industrial development in advanced capitalist countries. Synthesizing these views, the central hypothesis guiding the research is that the greater the state's relative autonomy from political and economic constraints in an institutional sense, i.e., the greater its insulation from the contradictions of capitalism and democracy, the greater its planning capacity and the more successful it will be in directing industrial performance. The research examines one industrial sector, commercial nuclear energy, and draws two major comparison. First, the French and US nuclear industries are compared, since the state's relative autonomy is much greater in the former than in the latter. This comparison is developed to identify policy areas where nuclear planning has succeeded in France but failed in America. Four areas are identified: reactor standardization, waste management, reactor safety, and financing. Second, looking particularly at the US, the policy areas are compared to analyze the development of policy and its effects on the sector's performance and to determine the degree to which planning was undermined by the structural constraints characteristic of a state with low relative autonomy.

  1. Universal binding energy relations in metallic adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Rose, Smith, and Ferrante have discovered scaling relations which map the adhesive binding energy calculated by Ferrante and Smith onto a single universal binding energy curve. These binding energies are calculated for all combinations of Al(111), Zn(0001), Mg(0001), and Na(110) in contact. The scaling involves normalizing the energy by the maximum binding energy and normalizing distances by a suitable combination of Thomas-Fermi screening lengths. Rose et al. have also found that the calculated cohesive energies of K, Ba, Cu, Mo, and Sm scale by similar simple relations, suggesting the universal relation may be more general than for the simple free electron metals for which it was derived. In addition, the scaling length was defined more generally in order to relate it to measurable physical properties. Further this universality can be extended to chemisorption. A simple and yet quite accurate prediction of a zero temperature equation of state (volume as a function of pressure for metals and alloys) is presented. Thermal expansion coefficients and melting temperatures are predicted by simple, analytic expressions, and results compare favorably with experiment for a broad range of metals.

  2. How to Address Citizens' Practices and Policies on Sustainability? A Consultative Tool for Brokering Policy-Related Knowledge between the Worlds of Policymaking and Everyday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espluga, Josep; Konrad, Wilfried; Mays, Claire; Oltra, Christian; Poumadére, Marc; Prades, Ana

    2016-01-01

    An innovative investigative approach (STAVE), combining elements of research, engagement and brokerage, was used to uncover policy assumptions and daily experiences related to energy use practices. Exploratory work within three policymaker institutions and eight reconvened focus groups were carried out in three different European countries…

  3. How to Address Citizens' Practices and Policies on Sustainability? A Consultative Tool for Brokering Policy-Related Knowledge between the Worlds of Policymaking and Everyday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espluga, Josep; Konrad, Wilfried; Mays, Claire; Oltra, Christian; Poumadére, Marc; Prades, Ana

    2016-01-01

    An innovative investigative approach (STAVE), combining elements of research, engagement and brokerage, was used to uncover policy assumptions and daily experiences related to energy use practices. Exploratory work within three policymaker institutions and eight reconvened focus groups were carried out in three different European countries…

  4. Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

  5. 48 CFR 926.7005 - Preferences under the Energy Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Policy Act target groups. The evaluation criteria shall provide that in instances in which two or more... Policy Act target group that offeror will be selected for award. (b) Subcontracts. (1) The contracting... offerors have provided for subcontracting opportunities to entities from among the Energy Policy Act target...

  6. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    PubMed

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  7. Particle distribution tail and related energy formula

    SciTech Connect

    Combescot, R.; Alzetto, F.; Leyronas, X.

    2009-05-15

    We present a simple derivation of the energy formula found by Tan, relative to the single-channel Hamiltonian relevant for ultracold Fermi gases. This derivation is generalized to particles with different masses, to arbitrary mixtures, and to two-dimensional space. We show how in a field-theoretic approach, the 1/k{sup 4} tail in the momentum distribution and the energy formula arise in a natural way. As a specific example, we consider quantitative calculations of the energy from different formulas within the ladder diagram approximation in the normal state. The comparison of the results provides an indication on the quality of the approximation.

  8. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  9. Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

  10. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  11. Insights and Opportunities: Technologies, Policies, and Markets for Clean Energy Solutions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    2009-11-01

    A presentation highlighting how strategic energy analysis can affect technologies, policies, and markets for clean energy solutions. This includes an overview of some of NREL's models and tools as well as results from laboratory analysis.

  12. Policies and Programs to Integrate High Penetrations of Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this project are to highlight the diverse approaches for enabling high renewable energy penetration; synthesize lessons on effective policies and programs and present avenues for action to energy ministers and other stakeholders.

  13. Energy and environmental policy in a period of transition

    SciTech Connect

    Stalon, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses governance aspects of electric industry restructuring. The creation and preservation of a governance system to ensure reliable and efficient trades within interconnected and independent trading areas is the main topic. The closely related issue of defining and imposing responsibilities on non-utility generators is also discussed in detail. It is recommended that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission promote private governance of interconnections. 1 tab.

  14. Three essays of economics and policy on renewable energy and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuxi

    In face of the crisis in energy security, environmental contamination, and climate change, energy saving and carbon emission reduction have become the top concerns of the whole human world. To address those concerns, renewable energy and energy efficiency are the two fields that many countries are paying attention to, which are also my research focus. The dissertation consists of three papers, including the innovation behavior of renewable energy producers, the impact of renewable energy policy on renewable innovation, and the market feedback to energy efficient building benchmarking ordinance. Here are the main conclusions I have reached in this dissertation. First, through the study on foreign patenting intention with the case study of Chinese solar PV industry, I looked at the patenting behaviors of 15 non-Chinese solar PV producers in solar PV technologies in China, and pointed out that foreign firms may file patents in the home country or production base of their competitors in order to earn the competitive edge in the global market. The second study is about the "Innovation by Generating" process. I specifically focused on Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in the United States and the innovation performance within each state, and found out that wind power generation in RPS states has developed rapidly after the adoption of RPS, while the "Innovating by Generating" effect is more significant in solar PV technologies. In general, the innovations of the two technology groups are not prominently encouraged by RPS. My last study is about the benchmarking law and market response in the scenario of Philadelphia Benchmarking Law. By comparing the rental rate of LEED/EnergyStar buildings and ordinary buildings in the city of Philadelphia before and after the adoption of the building energy efficiency benchmarking law, I believe that the passage of Philadelphia Benchmarking Law may be helpful in improving the public awareness and understanding of energy efficiency

  15. Case Study Analysis of U.S. Policy Solutions to Enable China New Energy Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.; Tian, T.; Liu, C.; Miller, M.

    2015-05-28

    This report summarizes various policies for encouraging investment and installation of renewable energy across the country. In particular, we attempt to explain the benefits of, and considerations behind, each policy type and provide examples of implementation across the United States While recognized as important, this report does not address policies or examples of successful energy efficiency or alternative-fuel vehicle strategies. In addition, we summarize the renewable energy policy strategies undertaken by three areas of the United States: New Jersey, Hawaii, and San Francisco.

  16. Essays on equity-efficiency trade offs in energy and climate policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesmero, Juan P.

    Economic efficiency and societal equity are two important goals of public policy. Energy and climate policies have the potential to affect both. Efficiency is increased by substituting low-carbon energy for fossil energy (mitigating an externality) while equity is served if such substitution enhances consumption opportunities of unfavored groups (low income households or future generations). However policies that are effective in reducing pollution may not be so effective in redistributing consumption and vice-versa. This dissertation explores potential trade-offs between equity and efficiency arising in energy and climate policies. Chapter 1 yields two important results. First, while effective in reducing pollution, energy efficiency policies may fall short in protecting future generations from resource depletion. Second, deployment of technologies that increase the ease with which capital can substitute for energy may enhance the ability of societies to sustain consumption and achieve intertemporal equity. Results in Chapter 1 imply that technologies more intensive in capital and materials and less intensive in carbon such as corn ethanol may be effective in enhancing intertemporal equity. However the effectiveness of corn ethanol (relative to other technologies) in reducing emissions will depend upon the environmental performance of the industry. Chapter 2 measures environmental efficiency of ethanol plants, identifies ways to enhance performance, and calculates the cost of such improvements based on a survey of ethanol plants in the US. Results show that plants may be able to increase profits and reduce emissions simultaneously rendering the ethanol industry more effective in tackling efficiency. Finally while cap and trade proposals are designed to correcting a market failure by reducing pollution, allocation of emission allowances may affect income distribution and, hence, intra-temporal equity. Chapter 3 proves that under plausible conditions on preferences

  17. Public attitudes toward risk tradeoffs in energy policy choices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis that will be placed on each of a number of energy policy alternatives will be determined by the tradeoffs among many factors. Important among these factors are public preferences for different levels of power availability and risk to health and safety. Also important in determining support for energy alternatives is public perception of the consequences of those policies. To assess public perception and evaluation of these factors, a number of respondents were selected to answer questions about these issues. Respondents' judgements of the acceptability of thirty-six hypothetical energy policies were analyzed using two complementary methods, discriminant analysis and judgement analysis. The first method is a statistical procedure that examines how well task variables discriminate among groups of respondents. The second method is a procedure which is used to construct models that describe the judgement processes used by respondents. Results of the discriminant analysis showed that differences among respondents' judgements were strongly related to the TECH dimension but only weakly affected by RISK and PA. On the TECH dimension, antinuclear respondents indicated relative acceptance of conservation and solar and relative rejection of nuclear and coal. Although pronuclear respondents showed slightly greater support of nuclear and coal than conservation and solar. The six clusters differed most strongly on nuclear, followed by conservation and solar, then coal. The PA dimension had more effect on the judgements of pronuclear respondents than on the judgements of antinuclear respondents. The analysis of the data indicated that the judgements of pro- and antinuclear respondents were better fit by separate models. The antinuclear respondents placed a slightly greater weight on the more RISK part of the RISK dimension relative to the PA dimension.

  18. State of the States 2009. Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; McLaren, Joyce; Healey, Victoria; Hockett, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    This report tracks the progress of U.S. renewable energy development at the state level, with metrics on development status and reviews of relevant policies. The analysis offers state-by-state policy suggestions and develops performance-based evaluation metrics to accelerate and improve renewable energy development.

  19. Renewable energy in California: Changing policies, politics and values, 1975--2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Benjamin S.

    Since at least the 1970s, the environmental, economic, and national security benefits of renewable energy have been well known, but overall public policy has insufficiently supported the growth of renewable energy production. Unlike the federal and other state governments, California, during the 1970s and 1980s, made a commitment to a renewable energy future. Had this commitment persisted, California might have taken a remarkably different trajectory from the rest of the country. Instead, renewable energy production actually declined after the early 1990s. Recently, California has initiated new policies that promise once again to make California a world leader in renewable energy policy. This project helps to explain the mixed results of California's earlier ambitious renewable energy programs and assess prospects for current efforts. Using historical and statistical approaches, this dissertation focuses on three technology groups: wind power, solar thermal, and the life-style technologies, bicycles and passive solar neighborhoods. Cases of particular policies affecting each of these technology groups are examined at various levels of governance from the federal and state levels down to the informal neighborhood committee. Politics, institutions, and ideas about energy and markets restricted the policy process over the past three decades, often resulting in suboptimal policy design and execution. Those policies that depended least on legislation and most on strong regulatory agencies succeed most in terms of impact and longevity. The most important impediments to and opportunities for multiplying, expanding, and reviving renewable energy policies are ideological in nature.

  20. 7 CFR 2.73 - Director, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... proposed energy policies and strategies, including those regarding the allocation of scarce resources; (ii) Developing energy policies and strategies, including those regarding the allocation of scarce resources; (iii... technology programs for rural communities and agricultural producers. (10) Conduct a study on biofuels...

  1. 7 CFR 2.73 - Director, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... proposed energy policies and strategies, including those regarding the allocation of scarce resources; (ii) Developing energy policies and strategies, including those regarding the allocation of scarce resources; (iii... technology programs for rural communities and agricultural producers. (10) Conduct a study on biofuels...

  2. 7 CFR 2.73 - Director, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed energy policies and strategies, including those regarding the allocation of scarce resources; (ii) Developing energy policies and strategies, including those regarding the allocation of scarce resources; (iii... technology programs for rural communities and agricultural producers. (10) Conduct a study on biofuels...

  3. 30 CFR 843.25 - Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs. 843.25 Section 843.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT § 843.25 Energy Policy...

  4. 30 CFR 843.25 - Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs. 843.25 Section 843.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT § 843.25 Energy Policy...

  5. Joint Use Policies: Are they related to adolescent behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Objective Joint use policies (JUP) encourage shared facility use, usually between schools and a city or private organization, for both physical activity-related and non-physical activity-related programs. Little is known about JUP’s impact on physical activity (PA). This study examined whether more specific JUPs were associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior (SB) in adolescents. Methods Data on PA, sports participation, and SB were taken from annual cross-sectional nationally representative samples of 51,269 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students nested in 461 school districts in the US from 2009–2011. JUP measures were constructed using information obtained from corresponding school district JU policies. Multivariable analyses were conducted, controlling for individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and clustering at the district level. Results Results showed small associations between more specific JUPs and increased PA (IRR 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.02). Closer examination of specific JUP provisions indicates that specifying what times facilities are available for use was associated with vigorous exercise and prioritizing school or affiliated organizations’ use and which spaces were available for use were associated with vigorous exercise and more frequent PA participation, which includes participation in sports or athletics. No associations were found between more specific JUPs and SB. Conclusions JUPS may have small influences on adolescent physical activity behavior. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to examine the impact of JUPs in conjunction with other physical activity-related policies and environmental changes to determine what impact they have on overall adolescent physical activity and sedentary behavior. PMID:25199731

  6. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts

  7. Health-related effects of welfare-to-work policies.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Luis; Rodríguez, Magdalena

    2013-09-01

    Non-health related policies may have consequences for health that are more important than the outcomes they were originally designed to produce. In this paper we evaluate the effects of welfare-to-work programs (WTW) on physical and mental health status and a variety of health behaviors. The paper is based on data from the minimum income program of Madrid's Government (IMI). We match the program's administrative records (39,200 households)--covering the whole history of the program from the second half of 1990 to 2001--with a specific survey of former recipients who took part in different work-related activities conducted in 2001 (2300 households). We perform propensity score matching to find that both health status--including physical and mental health problems--and behaviors outcomes were modestly better for those individuals who had taken part in work-related activities. These results offer support for the contention that welfare-to-work policies may have positive unintended health effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Financing investments in renewable energy: The role of policy design and restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-03-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilizing renewable energy technologies are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on project financing. This report describes the power plant financing process and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and finance. A cash-flow model is used to estimate the impact of various financing variables on renewable energy costs. Past and current renewable energy policies are then evaluated to demonstrate the influence of policy design on the financing process and on financing costs. The possible impacts of electricity restructuring on power plant financing are discussed and key design issues are identified for three specific renewable energy programs being considered in the restructuring process: (1) surcharge-funded policies; (2) renewables portfolio standards; and (3) green marketing programs. Finally, several policies that are intended to directly reduce financing costs and barriers are analyzed. The authors find that one of the key reasons that renewables policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy incentives. A policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums.

  9. Energy-related laboratory equipment (ERLE) guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Used Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment grants, and eligibility and procedures for participation. The document contains tables identifying typical equipment that may be requested, where to review ERLE equipment lists, and where to mail applications, a description of the eligible equipment grants access data system, and a copy of the ERLE grant application and instructions for its completion and submission.

  10. Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators are presented. The first describes a regenerative scheme using an induction generator as a variable load for prime movers under test is described. A method for reducing losses in induction machines used specifically as wind driven generators is also described.

  11. Some basic research problems related to energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The prediction and evaluation of thermophysical data of fluids and fluid mixtures are discussed. Models which calculate the transport properties of fluid mixtures according to their dependence on size and mass of the constituent particles are discussed. The application of nonlinear evolution equations to energy related processes is discussed. It is expected that the remarkable progress in this field will have significant practical uses.

  12. Energy Use and Related Risk Management Problems in CEE Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-03-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the "Old Europe". The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels - normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use.

  13. 77 FR 74512 - Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on the Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... leases, easements and rights-of-way on the OCS for alternative energy activities. The Secretary delegated... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on the Outer Continental Shelf off the Coast of Georgia AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM...

  14. Energy, Society, and Education, with Emphasis on Educational Technology Policy for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chedid, Loutfallah Georges

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins by examining the profound impact of energy usage on our lives, and on every major sector of the economy. Then, the anticipated US energy needs by the year 2025 are presented based on the Department of Energy's projections. The paper considers the much-touted National Energy Policy Report, and identifies a major flaw where the…

  15. Energy conservation: Policies, programs, and general studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    National policies, programs, and general studies or ways to conserve energy are presented. Topic areas cover such subjects as electric load management, effects of price and taxation on energy conservation, public attitudes and behavior toward energy saving, energy savings through reduction in hot water consumption, and telecommunications substitutability for travel.

  16. Energy conservation: Policies, programs, and general studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    National policies, programs, and general studies of ways to conserve energy are presented. Topic areas cover such subjects as electric load management, effects of price and taxation on energy conservation, public attitudes and behavior toward energy saving, energy savings through reduction in hot water consumption, and telecommunications substitutability for travel.

  17. 48 CFR 926.7004 - Size standard for Energy Policy Act procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Energy Policy Act engineering services procurements (SIC 8711) shall be the size standard specified for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Size standard for Energy... ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy...

  18. Energy, Society, and Education, with Emphasis on Educational Technology Policy for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chedid, Loutfallah Georges

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins by examining the profound impact of energy usage on our lives, and on every major sector of the economy. Then, the anticipated US energy needs by the year 2025 are presented based on the Department of Energy's projections. The paper considers the much-touted National Energy Policy Report, and identifies a major flaw where the…

  19. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  20. Energy and environmental policy in a period of transition. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Twenty-Third Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled, ``Energy and Environmental Policy in a Period of Transition`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on November 20--21, 1995. The conference program explored how federal policy in energy and environment is changing and how these shifts will impact the economy of the Midwest. The conference was divided in four plenary sessions. Session 1 focused on the national policy scene where speakers discussed proposed legislation to change federal energy and environmental policy. Session 2 looked at the future structure of the energy industry, projecting the roles of natural gas, the electric utility industry, and independent power producers in the overall energy system of the 21st century. Session 3 examined current federal policy in research and development as a baseline for discussing the future role of government and industry in supporting research and development. In particular, it looked at the relationship between energy research and development and global competitiveness. Finally, Session 4 attempted to tie these issues together and consider the impact of national policy change on Illinois and the Midwest.

  1. An analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard policy formulation and its influence on state level energy prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollester, Peter Colin

    understand the relationship between RPS and energy markets. This study utilizes state level panel data from 2000 to 2011 to examine this relationship. The model controls for several factors including the existence of state level RPS, the amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, fuel price mix, and other macroeconomic and demographic indicators. The study compares and contrasts several regressions to illuminate important relationships between RPS design and residential energy prices. The findings of this study have the potential to have far reaching implications for the future of RPS design, and RPS policy. This paper finds that RPS and more specifically the way a RPS is formulated is related to increased energy prices. Retail energy prices are particularly strongly related to variables having to do with compliance with a specific RPS, while Industrial energy prices are more strongly related to the magnitude of RPS goals. Both of these findings are important and they accentuate the fact that different energy markets are influenced by different drivers.

  2. Selected Sources of Energy-Related Material for School Children and Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Paula, Comp.

    This document is the result of a study to determine the general availability of free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for primary and secondary school students and educators. Some of the organizations represented in this list take policy positions on energy issues and express them in the school level materials. Contained in this…

  3. State of the States 2008: Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.; Busche, S.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides insights into the status of renewable energy development at the state level. Renewable resources are increasing in development overall, but state development varies by resource and rates of change. The factors contributing to renewable energy development at the state level are identified and discussed, including the challenges of understanding the role of different factors in development. The report also compiles and evaluates the status of 'best practice' state policy design and connects the existence of some policies with increased renewable energy development through correlation analysis. The report also proposes a strategy for better understanding the role of policy in renewable energy development, based on market-transformation principles. Correlation analysis illustrates the potential for further application of these principles to renewable energy. The final section provides resources for state policy makers for better understanding and developing renewable energy resources.

  4. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Anchorage, Alaska, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-14

    The Anchorage, Alaska Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 10:00 a.m., Thursday April 15th, at the downtown Anchorage Hilton. The meeting was held by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (Office of Indian Energy). Tracey LeBeau, Director of the Office of Indian Energy, and Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the Office of Indian Energy, represented DOE. Approximately twenty-seven people attended the meeting, including representatives of three native Alaskan villages, four Alaskan tribal corporations representing more than 40 tribal governments, as well as representatives from tribal associations and conferences. Interested state, federal, and non-profit representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. The meeting was facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute).  

  5. Analysis on the Impact of Tax Policy over China's New Energy Industry Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bin; Li, Yang

    Energy is a kind of resource which can be used directly or offer people what they need by some conversions, the development of energy is the headspring of economic growth With the development of our national economy, new energy industry has become China's current vigorously the mainstream of development The analysis on influence of tax policy on the development of national new energy industry is mainly discussed, as well as the alternative analysis on the production output and sales tax aspects in the areas of new energy, and based on this, some tax policy suggestions on how to promote the development of national new energy industry are given finally.

  6. Financial Incentives to Enable Clean Energy Deployment: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-02-24

    Financial incentives have been widely implemented by governments around the world to support scaled up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices. As of 2015, at least 48 countries have adopted financial incentives to support renewable energy and energy efficiency deployment. Broader clean energy strategies and plans provide a crucial foundation for financial incentives that often complement regulatory policies such as renewable energy targets, standards, and other mandates. This policy brief provides a primer on key financial incentive design elements, lessons from different country experiences, and curated support resources for more detailed and country-specific financial incentive design information.

  7. 34 CFR 303.520 - Policies related to payment for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Administration Policies and Procedures Related to Financial Matters § 303.520 Policies related to payment for services. (a) General. Each lead agency is responsible for establishing State policies related to how services to children eligible under this part and...

  8. 34 CFR 303.520 - Policies related to payment for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Administration Policies and Procedures Related to Financial Matters § 303.520 Policies related to payment for services. (a) General. Each lead agency is responsible for establishing State policies related to how services to children eligible under this part and their...

  9. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2010-03-01

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy and environmental policy in a competitive marketplace: The role of the national labs

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. The recent history of energy and environmental markets is briefly summarized, and factors affecting future policy are discussed. The emphasis of the address is on issues influencing or influenced by the US DOE. Some of the major items addressed are the need for a national energy policy; flexibility and multiple capabilities in energy supply, distribution, and use; and effective research and development. Trends in research and development funding are also discussed.

  11. NREL's Clean Energy Policy Analyses Project: 2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book, October 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.; Hummon, M.; McLaren, J.; Doris, E.

    2010-10-01

    This data book provides a summary of the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (taken together as clean energy) developments and supporting policy implementation. It is intended as a reference book for those interested in the progress of the states and regions toward a clean energy economy. Although some national-scale data are given in the initial section, the data are mostly aggregated by states and region, and no data on federal- or utility-level policies are presented here.

  12. Inviting Policy Development: From Public Relations to Public Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Sheila J.; Novak, John M.

    Inviting policy development is an attempt to cordially summon those who are involved and affected by rules, codes, and procedures to understand and participate in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies. This paper first presents criteria for an invitational framework for policy development and then goes on to discuss the…

  13. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  14. US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Final] report, June 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-16

    The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

  15. Effective Policies in the Provision of Related Services. A Report of the Handicapped Public Policy Analysis Project. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Frank; Rogers, Cheryl

    The study documents effective state and local policies in providing related services to handicapped children as required by PL 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The areas reviewed include those state policies which clarify education agencies' responsibilities, and those which increase the resources available for related…

  16. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  17. The Humanities and the Art of Public Discussion, Volume 3. Essays and Commentaries on Freedom of Expression, America's Role in the World, and U.S. Energy Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie Pickering; And Others

    The three essays in this collection (the third in a series) explore the implications of free speech, the roots of American foreign policy, and the relation between U.S. political tradition and the formulation of policies on energy. Each essay is accompanied by a commentary. The essays, their authors, and the commentaries are: "The Pig in the…

  18. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  19. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-05

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by

  20. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and... proposes these reforms to the guidance for Federal policies relating to grants in order to ensure that... of this proposal and a crosswalk of policy changes from the existing guidance are available on...

  1. Relative free energies of Si surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D.M. )

    1993-03-08

    Cavities are formed by ion implanting (001) Si with He and annealing at 800 [degree]C to enlarge and to remove the He. Subsequent annealing at 600 [degree]C results in cavities with well-defined facets as seen in [110] cross section with transmission electron microscopy. The most frequently observed facets are [l brace]111[r brace] planes. A rounded surface is seen about the [001] direction of all cavities, and (1[bar 1]0) facets are seen less frequently. The cavities allow the equilibrium crystal shape of Si to be examined and the relative free energies of the observed planes to be measured. The surface free energies of [l brace]001[r brace] and [l brace]110[r brace] planes are found to be 1.09[plus minus]0.07 and 1.07[plus minus]0.03 times that of [l brace]111[r brace] planes, respectively.

  2. 18 CFR 375.315 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation. 375.315 Section 375.315 Conservation of Power and... COMMISSION Delegations § 375.315 Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation... by the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; and (2) Applications for extensions of time to file...

  3. 18 CFR 375.315 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation. 375.315 Section 375.315 Conservation of Power and... COMMISSION Delegations § 375.315 Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation... by the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; and (2) Applications for extensions of time to file...

  4. 18 CFR 375.315 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation. 375.315 Section 375.315 Conservation of Power and... COMMISSION Delegations § 375.315 Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation... by the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; and (2) Applications for extensions of time to file...

  5. 18 CFR 375.315 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation. 375.315 Section 375.315 Conservation of Power and... COMMISSION Delegations § 375.315 Delegations to the Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation... by the Office of Energy Policy and Innovation; and (2) Applications for extensions of time to file...

  6. 48 CFR 952.226-71 - Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utilization of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-71 Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities. As prescribed in 926.7007(b),...

  7. 48 CFR 952.226-71 - Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Utilization of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-71 Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities. As prescribed in 926.7007(b),...

  8. 48 CFR 952.226-71 - Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Utilization of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-71 Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities. As prescribed in 926.7007(b),...

  9. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  10. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally... federally obligated airports to construct solar energy systems on airport property. FAA is adopting an... for measuring ocular impact of proposed solar energy systems which are effective upon publication....

  11. 48 CFR 952.226-71 - Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the following clause: Utilization of Energy Policy Act Target Entities (JUN 1996) (a) Definition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Utilization of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and...

  12. 48 CFR 952.226-71 - Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Utilization of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-71 Utilization of Energy Policy Act target entities. As prescribed in 926.7007(b), insert...

  13. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  14. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  15. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  16. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. F Appendix F to Part 50—Policy... qualifications as required by § 50.33(f), shall include information enabling the Commission to determine...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. F Appendix F to Part 50—Policy... qualifications as required by § 50.33(f), shall include information enabling the Commission to determine...

  18. Venezuelan, Mexican, and Brazilian energy policies in the 1980s: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    DeLugo, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    The energy industries of Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil have been analyzed in single case study form or in comparative fashion. However, authors have not used a combined comparative interdependence perspective in their analyses. Using a combined comparative and interdependence perspective, this thesis examines separately - in case study form - the energy policies of Venezuela, Mexico, and Brazil during the 1980s. In each case study, the focus is on energy policy-making actors, policy debates, changes to policies, and organizational aspects of the energy industries of these countries. Each case study (except for Venezuela, which is first) ends with a comparative concluding section. The final chapter of the dissertation summarizes all previous partial conclusions drawn on the countries.

  19. Secondary Containment for Underground Storage Tank Systems - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These grant guidelines implement the secondary containment provision in Section 9003(i)(1) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  20. Energy policy and economic development in the Philippines, 1973-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bensel, T.G.; Harriss, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews energy policy and energy-economy interactions in the Philippines since 1973 and presents projections of energy development and use to the year 2000. Dependent on imported oil for over 90 percent of its commercial energy requirements in 1973, the Philippines initiated one of the most aggressive energy development and conservation programs in the developing world. Energy and oil intensities of the economy were reduced, and domestic coal, hydroelectric, geothermal and biomass resources were developed to meet nearly half of commercial energy requirements by 1985. Low world oil prices and domestic political developments combined to reverse trends in the energy sector after 1985. Imported oil dependence grew again to 70 percent by 1992, and an electric power crisis became the focus of government energy policy. An innovative private power development program has helped reduce power shortages and is expected to account for the bulk of needed capacity expansion into the next century.

  1. P.L. 102-486, "Energy Policy Act" (1992)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    Amends the Energy Conservation and Production Act to set a deadline by which each State must certify to the Secretary of Energy whether its energy efficiency standards with respect to residential and commercial building codes meet or exceed those of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) Model Energy Code, 1992, and of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, respectively.

  2. Measuring the effects of excluded variables in the LLNL energy-policy model: report on a model integration

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.; Rambo, J.; Wood, D.O.

    1981-10-01

    The LLNL Energy Policy Model (EPM) is a large network model (80,000 nodes) of the US energy system. The model accounts for the production, transport, conversion, and distribution of primary energy for end-use applications. Given end-use demands and associated model data, a model solution consists of the equilibrium prices and quantities of primary, intermediate, and final energy forms, as well as investment requirements and characteristics of production, conversion, and end-use technologies. A characteristic of the EPM (as well as similar energy system process models) is that not all goods and services used in production and consumed by households are considered. The assmption is made that energy forms and energy-related capital are separable from other goods and services, and that the substitution possibilities between these two sets of variables is zero. Results are presented of an effort to integrate the EPM with a simple aggregate model of US manufacturing input factor demands, including capital and energy, which relaxes the zero-elasticity assumption. After describing the approach to integration, simulation results that demonstrate the effects on EPM results of considering the originally excluded inputs are presented. The energy costs and consumption implications of several national energy policy scenarios are also analyzed.

  3. Omitted Costs, Inflated Benefits: Renewable Energy Policy in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Parker; Fox, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The government of Ontario has adopted wind energy development as an alternative energy source. It enacted the Green Energy and Economy Act, May 2009, with the intention to fast track the approval process regarding industrial wind turbines. The Act legislated a centralized decision making process while removing local jurisdictional authority.…

  4. Hydrogen Highways: Lessons on the Energy Technology-Policy Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waegel, Alex; Byrne, John; Tobin, Daniel; Haney, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently. Common reasons cited for investigating hydrogen energy options are improved energy security, reduced environmental impacts, and its contribution to a transition to sustainable energy sources. In anticipation of these benefits, national and local initiatives have been launched in the…

  5. Omitted Costs, Inflated Benefits: Renewable Energy Policy in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Parker; Fox, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The government of Ontario has adopted wind energy development as an alternative energy source. It enacted the Green Energy and Economy Act, May 2009, with the intention to fast track the approval process regarding industrial wind turbines. The Act legislated a centralized decision making process while removing local jurisdictional authority.…

  6. Hydrogen Highways: Lessons on the Energy Technology-Policy Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waegel, Alex; Byrne, John; Tobin, Daniel; Haney, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy has received increasing attention recently. Common reasons cited for investigating hydrogen energy options are improved energy security, reduced environmental impacts, and its contribution to a transition to sustainable energy sources. In anticipation of these benefits, national and local initiatives have been launched in the…

  7. Energy and Obesity--The 2008 Keystone Youth Policy Summits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NCSSSMST Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keystone Science School and Keystone Center for Science and Public Policy programs blend learning in the natural world with developing mediation and conflict resolution skills. Since 2004, these two divisions of The Keystone Center in Colorado have partnered with the National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and…

  8. The econometric submodels of the Energy Policy Socioeconomic Impact Model (EPSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.G.; Poyer, D.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Socioeconomic Impact Model (EPSIM) is an econometric simulation model that runs on IBM-compatible personal computers. It can be used to assess the economic impact of energy policies and programs, such as utility rate designs and demand-side management programs, on various population groups, such as minority and low-income households. The econometric submodels that constitute the internal structure of EPSIM are described in detail.

  9. Politics and energy policy in post-Mao-China

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tai Hwan.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation examines one aspect of the tension between democratic decision-making and the expansion of the modern administrative state-namely, the resources and strategies available to modern states to pursue policy objectives, even in the face of substantial public opposition. The author explores these issues through a case study of Minnesota's hazardous waste policy, using both interview material from discussions with state officials and citizens and data from a public opinion survey that was conducted. The author focus, in particular, on the state's attempt to gain consent for a hazardous waste stabilization and containment facility from the residents of two rural Minnesota counties. The author uses this case study to develop two arguments regarding the relationship between democratic decision-making and the administrative state. First, the role of citizens in the democratic control of the bureaucracy has largely been neglected in existing analyses of state decision-making. Second, the author contends that citizens can at times create a role for themselves in policy-making through direct mobilization and pressure on their elected representatives. Second, the author's case shows that such participation is essential to rational and democratic decision-making (countering claims that citizens are too emotional and uninformed to contribute to policy-making). Citizens raise and help resolve normative issues that are embedded in all policies (but particularly in locational decisions) and expose miscalculations and questionable claims made be expert decision-makers. This dissertation concludes by discussing what such findings suggest for the re-structuring of state decision-making.

  10. Evaluation of Energy Policy Instruments for the Adoption of Renewable Energy: Case of Wind Energy in the Pacific Northwest U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abotah, Remal

    The wide use of renewable energy technologies for generating electricity can be seen as one way of meeting environmental and climate change challenges along with a progression to a low-carbon economy. A large number of policy instruments have been formed and employed to support the adoption of renewable energy technologies in the power generation sector. However, the success of these policies in achieving their goals relies on how effective they are in satisfying their targets and thus increasing renewable energy adoption. One measurement for effectiveness of policy instruments can be their contribution to the input of the process of renewable energy adoption and their effect on satisfying regional goal. The objective of this research is evaluate the effectiveness of energy policy instruments on increasing the adoption of renewable energy by developing a comprehensive evaluation model. Criteria used in this assessment depend on five perspectives that are perceived by decision makers as important for adoption process. The decision model linked the perspectives to policy targets and various energy policy instruments. These perspectives are: economic, social, political, environmental and technical. The research implemented the hierarchical decision model (HDM) to construct a generalized policy assessment framework. Data for wind energy adoption in the Pacific Northwest region were collected as a case study and application for the model. Experts' qualitative judgments were collected and quantified using the pair-wise comparison method and the final rankings and effectiveness of policy alternatives with respect to the mission were identified. Results of this research identified economic feasibility improvement of renewable energy projects as the most influential perspective and that renewable portfolio standards and tax credits are the two most effective criteria to accomplish that. The research also applied sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis to identify the

  11. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  12. Impact of energy pricing and discount-rate policies on energy conservation in federal buidings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, S.K.; Ruegg, R.T.

    1985-11-01

    The study investigates how energy-conservation projects for federal buildings would be affected by a change in energy pricing and discount-rate policies. It focuses on the choice between marginal-cost prices versus average market prices and a 10% discount rate versus a 7% discount rate. Graphical and numerical comparisons of hypothetical cases in selected geographical areas illustrate the expected impact on selection, design and sizing, and priority of energy-saving projects.

  13. Missing Links: The Relation of Research to Policy for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanton, Eleanor

    A sketch of some of the major advances in the field of infant development precedes a discussion which points out five policy implications of the research findings and explores the paradox that public policy lags far behind the current improved state of knowledge. Reasons for societal lack of attention to the needs of infants and for the worsening…

  14. Teacher Absenteeism and Related Policies for Supplemental Remuneration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Penn School Study Council.

    This study examines three areas of concern to school districts: a) the policies of supplemental remuneration for teachers currently maintained by the school districts, b) the extent of teacher absenteeism in the districts, and c) the possibility of relationships between policies for supplemental remuneration and teacher absenteeism. Five study…

  15. School-Home Connections: Political Relations in Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Stephen; Eltis, Ken

    This paper examines whether teachers and parents feel they influence school leaders' work in the policy field of community participation in government schools within the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. It reports on the implementation of recent policy initiatives designed to create school/family partnerships. In New South Wales, a move…

  16. Understanding modern energy policy: An evaluation of RPS mandates and behavioral nudges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannan, Deborah Lynn Baker

    Climate change has emerged as one of the leading policy issues of the early 21st century. In response, a variety of policies and programs have been adopted encouraging renewable energy, energy efficiency and energy conservation. My dissertation consists of three research papers which evaluate two classes of modern energy policy in the United States: renewable energy mandates and behavioral nudges. The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) is the most prominent state-level renewable energy policy in the United States and has been debated several times at the federal level. Using a fixed-effects panel data model I study the existing experience of the RPS to help inform the policy debate. In contrast with the previous literature that has predominantly studied the average effect of the RPS on renewable capacity investments I explore factors resulting in the heterogeneous effect of the RPS policy. Relying on a basic understanding the electric utility industry and the electricity dispatch process I provide insight into existing experience with the RPS. Spurred by political and economic barriers to adopting renewable energy policy, interest has increased in using motivational techniques informed by behavioral science to encourage reductions in energy consumption. Existing research has predominantly addressed residential energy consumption. The remainder of my dissertation applies well-established motivational techniques to the transportation sector. Using an experimental design, I test whether real-time feedback and social norms can encourage fuel efficient driving behavior. I find that real-time feedback has a large impact on fuel economy, particularly when aggregated across the entire vehicle fleet. I also find some evidence suggesting that social norms can encourage eco-driving, but perhaps more importantly, identify key challenges associated with using social norms in a transportation setting.

  17. State of the States 2009: Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; McLaren, J.; Healey, V.; Hockett, S.

    2009-10-01

    As U.S. states increasingly focus on developing renewable energy resources, there is a need to track the progress of development, as well as the policies and support mechanisms being implemented to encourage this development. Beyond tracking, the evaluation of policy measures is necessary to determine their effectiveness, guide future efforts, and efficiently allocate resources. This report addresses each of these needs. It provides a detailed picture of the status of renewable energy development in each of the U.S. states using a variety of metrics and discusses the policies being used to encourage this development. The report then explores the context in which renewable energy development occurs by discussing the factors that can affect the uptake of power generation technologies. The analysis offers suggestions on how policies can be used to address these variables, which leads to tailored policy support that considers the specific circumstances within each state. The analysis presents results of several quantitative evaluation methods that have been designed to explore the link between policy implementation and actual development. Finally, the report discusses contextual factors, aside from policy, that affect renewable energy development. The report concludes with a summary of the main points from each chapter, discussion of next steps, and a list of resources.

  18. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  19. Sociopolitical effects of energy use and policy. Supporting paper 5

    SciTech Connect

    Unseld, C.T.; Morrison, D.E.; Sills, D.L.; Wolf, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    The report brings together, in one piece, the best available information on the social implications of a broad range of energy alternatives. Throughout more than 500 pages of text, contributed and commissioned papers explore the social and political themes of the national energy debate. It is the latest in a series of reports on the nation's prospective energy economy in the period 1985-2010.

  20. Representations of energy policy and technology in British and Finnish newspaper media: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Teräväinen, Tuula

    2014-04-01

    This article analyses media representations of the strengthening technological energy policy orientation in the UK and Finland. Drawing from over 1200 newspaper articles from 1991 to 2006, it scrutinises how energy policy in general and energy technologies in particular have been discussed by the media in these two countries, and how the media representations have changed over time. The results point to the importance of national political, economic and cultural features in shaping media discussions. At the same time, international political events and ideas of technology-driven economic growth have transformed media perceptions of energy technologies. While the British media have been rather critical towards national policies throughout the period of analysis, the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat has supported successive national governments. In both countries, energy technologies have increasingly become linked to global societal and political questions.

  1. Health, climate change and energy vulnerability: a retrospective assessment of strategic health authority policy and practice in England.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Kagawa, F; Nichols, A

    2008-11-17

    A number of policy documents suggest that health services should be taking climate change and sustainability seriously and recommendations have been made to mitigate and adapt to the challenges health care providers will face. Actions include, for example, moving towards locally sourced food supplies, reducing waste, energy consumption and travel, and including sustainability in policies and strategies. A Strategic Health Authority (SHA) is part of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. They are responsible for developing strategies for the local health services and ensuring high-quality performance. They manage the NHS locally and are a key link between the U.K. Department of Health and the NHS. They also ensure that national priorities are integrated into local plans. Thus they are in a key position to influence policies and practices to mitigate and adapt to the impact of climate change and promote sustainability. The aim of this study was to review publicly available documents produced by Strategic Health Authorities (SHA) to assess the extent to which current activity and planning locally takes into consideration climate change and energy vulnerability. A retrospective thematic content analysis of publicly available materials was undertaken by two researchers over a six month period in 2008. These materials were obtained from the websites of the 10 SHAs in England. Materials included annual reports, plans, policies and strategy documents. Of the 10 SHAs searched, 4 were found to have an absence of content related to climate change and sustainability. Of the remaining 6 SHAs that did include content related to climate change and energy vulnerability on their websites consistent themes were seen to emerge. These included commitment to a regional sustainability framework in collaboration with other agencies in the pursuit and promotion of sustainable development. Results indicate that many SHAs in England have yet to embrace sustainability, or to integrate

  2. Health, Climate Change and Energy Vulnerability: A Retrospective Assessment of Strategic Health Authority Policy and Practice in England

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J.; Kagawa, F.; Nichols, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A number of policy documents suggest that health services should be taking climate change and sustainability seriously and recommendations have been made to mitigate and adapt to the challenges health care providers will face. Actions include, for example, moving towards locally sourced food supplies, reducing waste, energy consumption and travel, and including sustainability in policies and strategies. A Strategic Health Authority (SHA) is part of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. They are responsible for developing strategies for the local health services and ensuring high-quality performance. They manage the NHS locally and are a key link between the U.K. Department of Health and the NHS. They also ensure that national priorities are integrated into local plans. Thus they are in a key position to influence policies and practices to mitigate and adapt to the impact of climate change and promote sustainability. Aim: The aim of this study was to review publicly available documents produced by Strategic Health Authorities (SHA) to assess the extent to which current activity and planning locally takes into consideration climate change and energy vulnerability. Methods: A retrospective thematic content analysis of publicly available materials was undertaken by two researchers over a six month period in 2008. These materials were obtained from the websites of the 10 SHAs in England. Materials included annual reports, plans, policies and strategy documents. Results: Of the 10 SHAs searched, 4 were found to have an absence of content related to climate change and sustainability. Of the remaining 6 SHAs that did include content related to climate change and energy vulnerability on their websites consistent themes were seen to emerge. These included commitment to a regional sustainability framework in collaboration with other agencies in the pursuit and promotion of sustainable development. Results indicate that many SHAs in England have yet to

  3. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  4. State Law and Policy Related to Twice-Exceptional Learners: Implications for Practitioners and Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link; Pereira, Nielsen; Knotts, J. Dusteen

    2015-01-01

    Legislation and policy lead to action. In the absence of law or policy, situations are addressed on a case-by-case basis or they are sometimes ignored. Legislation and policy become extremely important when they relate to groups that have traditionally been marginalized, such as students with disabilities or students with gifts and talents, and…

  5. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  6. Energy, the Environment, and Public Policy: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R.; Edwards, Amy N.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a videotape of the same name. Experts from the fields of energy and the environment, along with an official from the U.S. Department of Energy, discuss these concerns. The video is a condensation of five programs produced by Close Up Television and Video as part of a national institute for high school social…

  7. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-31

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,The Library of Congress,101 Independence... 7 Defense Energy Consumption and Spending...6. DOD Energy Conservation Investment Program ............................................................ 12 Table 7 . DOD ESPCs

  8. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Pala, California, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-03-23

    The Pala, California, DOE Tribal Roundtable convened at 5:30 p.m., Wednesday, March 23, at the Pala Resort. The meeting was hosted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE Office of Indian Energy). Tracey LeBeau, Director of the DOE Office of Indian Energy and Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, attended. Tribal leaders and representatives from five tribal communities also attended. There were thirteen participants. The meeting was facilitated by Debra Drecksel, Senior Program Manager, Senior Facilitator, Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute). She was assisted by Lindsey Sexton, Program Associate, U.S. Institute.   

  9. Evaluation of tools for renewable energy policy analysis: The ten federal region model

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 establishes a program to support development of renewable energy technologies including a production incentive to public power utilities. Because there is a wide range of possible policy actions that could be taken to increase electric market share for renewables, modeling tools are needed to help make informed decisions regarding future policy. Previous energy modeling tools did not contain the region or infrastructure focus necessary to examine renewable technologies. As a result, the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) supported the development of tools for renewable energy policy analysis. Three models were developed: The Renewable Energy Penetration (REP) model, which is a spreadsheet model for determining first-order estimates of policy effects for each of the ten federal regions; the Ten Federal Region Model (TFRM), which employs utility capacity expansion and dispatching decision; and the Region Electric Policy Analysis Model (REPAM), which was constructed to allow detailed insight into interactions between policy and technology within an individual region. These Models were developed to provide a suite of fast, personal-computer based policy analysis tools; as one moves from the REP model to the TFRM to the REPAM the level of detail (and complexity) increases. In 1993 a panel was formed to identify model strengths, weaknesses (including any potential biases) and to suggest potential improvements. The panel met in January 1994 to discuss model simulations and to deliberate regarding evaluation outcomes. This report is largely a result of this meeting. This report is organized as follows. It provides a description of the TFRM and summarizes the panel`s findings. Individual chapters examine various aspects of the model: demand and load, capacity expansion, dispatching and production costing, reliability, renewables, storage, financial and regulatory concerns, and environmental effects.

  10. Energy-related needs perceptions of the New York State elderly. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The findings and recommendations of the report are intended to be used as a framework by New York State, Federal and utility policy makers and program administrators serving the aging. An information resource for developing policies, services and programs that affect the elderly, the report adds to the data available for planning purposes. It can be used to illustrate and increase awareness of the energy-related issues that affect the State's elderly population of the 1990's. The objectives of the research were fourfold: to identify the elderly population's perceptions of energy-related needs, including income, housing, health and other types of needs; to explore older New Yorkers' attitudes and behavior regarding energy conservation; to determine the levels of awareness and utilization of existing energy-related programs and services among the eligible and near-eligible elderly population, and the effectiveness of such programs in meeting energy-related needs; and to provide State, Federal and utility company policy and decision makers with empirical data on the energy-related needs of the elderly.

  11. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  12. Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joe; Miller, William M.; Powell, Jimmie

    2009-01-01

    Concern over climate change has led the U.S. to consider a cap-and-trade system to regulate emissions. Here we illustrate the land-use impact to U.S. habitat types of new energy development resulting from different U.S. energy policies. We estimated the total new land area needed by 2030 to produce energy, under current law and under various cap-and-trade policies, and then partitioned the area impacted among habitat types with geospatial data on the feasibility of production. The land-use intensity of different energy production techniques varies over three orders of magnitude, from 1.9–2.8 km2/TW hr/yr for nuclear power to 788–1000 km2/TW hr/yr for biodiesel from soy. In all scenarios, temperate deciduous forests and temperate grasslands will be most impacted by future energy development, although the magnitude of impact by wind, biomass, and coal to different habitat types is policy-specific. Regardless of the existence or structure of a cap-and-trade bill, at least 206,000 km2 will be impacted without substantial increases in energy efficiency, which saves at least 7.6 km2 per TW hr of electricity conserved annually and 27.5 km2 per TW hr of liquid fuels conserved annually. Climate policy that reduces carbon dioxide emissions may increase the areal impact of energy, although the magnitude of this potential side effect may be substantially mitigated by increases in energy efficiency. The possibility of widespread energy sprawl increases the need for energy conservation, appropriate siting, sustainable production practices, and compensatory mitigation offsets. PMID:19707570

  13. Energy sprawl or energy efficiency: climate policy impacts on natural habitat for the United States of America.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joe; Miller, William M; Powell, Jimmie

    2009-08-26

    Concern over climate change has led the U.S. to consider a cap-and-trade system to regulate emissions. Here we illustrate the land-use impact to U.S. habitat types of new energy development resulting from different U.S. energy policies. We estimated the total new land area needed by 2030 to produce energy, under current law and under various cap-and-trade policies, and then partitioned the area impacted among habitat types with geospatial data on the feasibility of production. The land-use intensity of different energy production techniques varies over three orders of magnitude, from 1.9-2.8 km(2)/TW hr/yr for nuclear power to 788-1000 km(2)/TW hr/yr for biodiesel from soy. In all scenarios, temperate deciduous forests and temperate grasslands will be most impacted by future energy development, although the magnitude of impact by wind, biomass, and coal to different habitat types is policy-specific. Regardless of the existence or structure of a cap-and-trade bill, at least 206,000 km(2) will be impacted without substantial increases in energy efficiency, which saves at least 7.6 km(2) per TW hr of electricity conserved annually and 27.5 km(2) per TW hr of liquid fuels conserved annually. Climate policy that reduces carbon dioxide emissions may increase the areal impact of energy, although the magnitude of this potential side effect may be substantially mitigated by increases in energy efficiency. The possibility of widespread energy sprawl increases the need for energy conservation, appropriate siting, sustainable production practices, and compensatory mitigation offsets.

  14. United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT United States – Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework For Re-emergent Relations by Allen J. Jamerson United States Air...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations ... UNITED STATES – CUBA POLICY: STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR RE-EMERGENT RELATIONS .....1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  15. U.S. Renewable Energy Policy and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ella

    2015-10-01

    From 2005 to 2014, wind and solar power generation has seen an almost tenfold increase in the United States. Such rapid development is the result of a variety of federal and state, top-down and bottom-up drivers, as well as the macro-environment of cost-reduction globally and early adoption in Europe. This presentation, prepared for a meeting with China National Renewable Energy Center and National Energy Administration (of China), is a summary of some of the key drivers for renewable energy deployment in the United States.

  16. Regional allocation of biomass to U.S. energy demands under a portfolio of policy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Venkatesh, Aranya; Nagengast, Amy L; Kocoloski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The potential for widespread use of domestically available energy resources, in conjunction with climate change concerns, suggest that biomass may be an essential component of U.S. energy systems in the near future. Cellulosic biomass in particular is anticipated to be used in increasing quantities because of policy efforts, such as federal renewable fuel standards and state renewable portfolio standards. Unfortunately, these independently designed biomass policies do not account for the fact that cellulosic biomass can equally be used for different, competing energy demands. An integrated assessment of multiple feedstocks, energy demands, and system costs is critical for making optimal decisions about a unified biomass energy strategy. This study develops a spatially explicit, best-use framework to optimally allocate cellulosic biomass feedstocks to energy demands in transportation, electricity, and residential heating sectors, while minimizing total system costs and tracking greenhouse gas emissions. Comparing biomass usage across three climate policy scenarios suggests that biomass used for space heating is a low cost emissions reduction option, while biomass for liquid fuel or for electricity becomes attractive only as emissions reduction targets or carbon prices increase. Regardless of the policy approach, study results make a strong case for national and regional coordination in policy design and compliance pathways.

  17. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  18. Learning Relational Policies from Electronic Health Record Access Logs

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Bradley; Nyemba, Steve; Paulett, John

    2011-01-01

    Modern healthcare organizations (HCOs) are composed of complex dynamic teams to ensure clinical operations are executed in a quick and competent manner. At the same time, the fluid nature of such environments hinders administrators' efforts to define access control policies that appropriately balance patient privacy and healthcare functions. Manual efforts to define these policies are labor-intensive and error-prone, often resulting in systems that endow certain care providers with overly broad access to patients' medical records while restricting other providers from legitimate and timely use. In this work, we propose an alternative method to generate these policies by automatically mining usage patterns from electronic health record (EHR) systems. EHR systems are increasingly being integrated into clinical environments and our approach is designed to be generalizable across HCOs, thus assisting in the design and evaluation of local access control policies. Our technique, which is grounded in data mining and social network analysis theory, extracts a statistical model of the organization from the access logs of its EHRs. In doing so, our approach enables the review of predefined policies, as well as the discovery of unknown behaviors. We evaluate our approach with five months of access logs from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center and confirm the existence of stable social structures and intuitive business operations. Additionally, we demonstrate that there is significant turnover in the interactions between users in the HCO and that policies learned at the department level afford greater stability over time. PMID:21277996

  19. Energy Policy Decision-Making: The Need for Balanced Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVolpi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Indicates that the credibility of environmentalists and nuclear advocates has been damaged by misinformed alarmist positions. Advocates the public's right of equal standing on advisory councils in the areas of energy development, environmental protection, and public safety. (GS)

  20. Comparison and interactions between the long-term pursuit of energy independence and climate policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, Jessica; Vinichenko, Vadim; McCollum, David; Bauer, Nico; Riahi, Keywan; Aboumahboub, Tino; Fricko, Oliver; Harmsen, Mathijs; Kober, Tom; Krey, Volker; Marangoni, Giacomo; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; van der Zwaan, Bob; Cherp, Aleh

    2016-06-01

    Ensuring energy security and mitigating climate change are key energy policy priorities. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group III report emphasized that climate policies can deliver energy security as a co-benefit, in large part through reducing energy imports. Using five state-of-the-art global energy-economy models and eight long-term scenarios, we show that although deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions would reduce energy imports, the reverse is not true: ambitious policies constraining energy imports would have an insignificant impact on climate change. Restricting imports of all fuels would lower twenty-first-century emissions by only 2-15% against the Baseline scenario as compared with a 70% reduction in a 450 stabilization scenario. Restricting only oil imports would have virtually no impact on emissions. The modelled energy independence targets could be achieved at policy costs comparable to those of existing climate pledges but a fraction of the cost of limiting global warming to 2 ∘C.

  1. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  2. State of the States 2008. Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Elizabeth; Busche, Sarah

    2008-10-01

    This report details the status of renewable energy development at the state level. Renewable resources are increasing in development overall, but state development varies by resource and rates of change. The report provides insights on the role of policy and other factors contributing to renewable energy development.

  3. Energy, Society, and Education, with Emphasis on Educational Technology Policy for K-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chedid, Loutfallah Georges

    2005-03-01

    This paper begins by examining the profound impact of energy usage on our lives, and on every major sector of the economy. Then, the anticipated US energy needs by the year 2025 are presented based on the Department of Energy's projections. The paper considers the much-touted National Energy Policy Report, and identifies a major flaw where the policy report neglects education as a contributor to solving future energy problems. The inextricable interaction between energy solutions and education is described, with emphasis on education policy as a potential vehicle for developing economically and commercially sustainable energy systems that have a minimal impact on the environment. With that said, an earnest argument is made as to the need to educate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) proficient individuals for the energy technology development workforce, starting with the K-12 level. A framework for the aforementioned STEM education policies is presented that includes a sustained national awareness campaign, address the teacher's salary issues, and addresses teacher quality issues. Moreover, the framework suggests a John Dewey-style "learning-by-doing" shift in pedagogy. Finally, the framework presents specific changes to the current national standards that would be valuable to the 21st century student.

  4. Energy Policy Act Transportation Rate Study: Final Report on Coal Transportation

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This is the final in a series of reports prepared for the U.S. Congress by the Secretary of Energy on coal distribution and transportation rates as mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates, of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486).

  5. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Sperling

    2016-07-12

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  6. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  7. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Sperling

    2009-04-15

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  8. 48 CFR 970.2670 - Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implementation of Section 3021 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. 970.2670 Section 970.2670 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Other Socioeconomic Programs 970.2670...

  9. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  10. Regulatory Policy and Markets for Energy Storage in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-05-14

    The last 5 years have been one of the most exciting times for the energy storage industry. We have seen significant advancements in the regulatory process to make accommodations for valuing and monetizing energy storage for what it provides to the grid. The most impactful regulatory decision for the energy storage industry has come from California, where the California Public Utilities Commission issued a decision that mandates procurement requirements of 1.325 GW for energy storage to 3 investor-own utilities in 4 stages: in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Furthermore, at the Federal level, FERC’s Order 755, requires the transmission operators to develop pay for performance tariffs for ancillary services. This has had direct impact on the market design of US competitive wholesale markets and the monetization of fast responding grid assets. While this order is technology neutral, it clearly plays into the fast-responding capability of energy storage technologies. Today PJM, CAISO, MISO, NYISO, and NE-ISO have implemented Order 755 and offer new tariff for regulation services based on pay-for-performance principles. Furthermore, FERC Order 784, issued in July 2013 requires transmission providers to consider speed and accuracy in determining the requirements for ancillary services. In November 2013, FERC issued Order 972, which revises the small generator interconnection agreement which declares energy storage as a power source. This order puts energy storage on par with existing generators. This paper will discuss the implementation of FERC’s Pay for Performance Regulation order at all ISOs in the U.S. under FERC regulatory authority (this excludes ERCOT). Also discussed will be the market impacts and overall impacts on the NERC regulation performance indexes. The paper will end with a discussion on the California and Ontario, Canada procurement mandates and the opportunity that it may present to the energy storage industry.

  11. Public Policy, Technology Adoption, and Aggregate Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, W.; Kopp, R.J.; Morgenstern, R.D.; Pizer, W.A.; Shih, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This research examines the factors that influence the adoption of new energy-saving technologies among U.S. manufacturing plants and explores their potential impact on aggregate energy efficiency. We conduct this analysis using two models: a conventional diffusion model and a stand-alone model of new technology adoption we develop in this paper. The latter model allows us to compute effects on aggregate efficiency based solely on adoption data.

  12. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  13. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    reforms, first of all, humans need a new energy paradigm to replace the hitherto dominant commodification paradigm. On an international level, creation of an international renewable energy agency and creation of renewable funds will spur on energy subsidy reforms of all nations, especially developing countries. On a national level, government's role should change from growth-oriented economic policy to sustainable development that includes environmentally friendly energy systems. In terms of social welfare, energy subsidies should be transformed to direct income policy, which is more effective for the welfare of the poor. The South Korean government should exchange its current supply-oriented fishery policy, which relies heavily on energy subsidies, to a Marine Reserves policy and direct income policy. For successful energy subsidy reforms, the government, NGOs, and private market should cooperate. Specifically, NGOs' role in monitoring and pushing government's energy subsidy reform is invaluable, considering the limits of modern bureaucracy and the profit-oriented market character. Most environmental problems, including global warming, have a close relation with fossil fuel and nuclear energy use. Historically, these energy systems have become entrenched deeply in society through energy subsidy policy. Energy subsidy reforms are a key to the environmental problem and accelerated transition to renewable energy.

  14. (Energy related studies utilizing microline thermochronology)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In our first year of the current funding cycle, we have investigated three interrelated aspects of K-feldspar thermochronology; (1) the Ar diffusion properties and microstructures of K-feldspars, (2) the thermal evolution of the Valles Caldera and (3) the continued development of microanalysis. Results of TEM and light microscopy on heated and unheated samples of MH-10 K-feldspar reveal three classes of substructure are present: (1) cross hatched extinction is common and there is almost no albite/pericline twinning, only tweed microstructure; (2) 5--10 vol. % of this K-feldspar are turbid zones with complex twin and tweed structures at the sub-micron scale and numerous dislocation and strain features; (3) about 20% of the K-feldspar is comprised of 0.01 {times} 0.2-1{mu}m albite exsolution lamellae. The network of fractured/turbid zones divides the sample into blocks of approximately 50 {mu}m and the separation between albite exsolution lamellae produce K-feldspar domains of the order 0.1 {mu}m. Independent crushing and diffusion experiments suggest the scale of the largest domain is order ten's of micron whereas the smallest domain size is inferred to be {approximately}0.1 {mu}m. Many, and perhaps most, alkali feldspars contain diffusion domains with activation energies that may vary by as much as 8 kcal/mol. An extraordinary consequence of even relatively small variations in activation energy between domains is that the shape of an age spectrum can change dramatically by varying the laboratory heating schedule. We have performed {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age spectrum experiments on K-feldspar separated from Proterozoic quartz monzonite taken from a depth of 1.76 km down the VC-2B drill hole, Valles Caldera, north-central New Mexcio.

  15. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    PubMed

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans.

  16. Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew; Jones, Charles

    2009-02-18

    The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.

  17. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  18. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Ellen

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  19. Nursing Practices and Policies Related to Family Presence During Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Kelly A; Candela, Lori

    Despite its shown benefits, family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) is a controversial topic among critical care nurses and is not routinely implemented. The objective of this study was to describe FPDR practices among critical care nurses, as well as the prevalence of FPDR policies and education. The study used a descriptive survey design. Data were collected from a convenience sample of critical care nurses obtained at a national level. A 25-item demographic and professional attribute survey was administered to all participants. There were 124 critical care nurses who participated. Results indicated critical care nurses have vast resuscitative care experience; however, FPDR is not a routine component. In the past year, 23% (n = 29) had never experienced FPDR, and only 17% (n = 21) had experienced it more than 5 times. Furthermore, 48% (n = 59) had never invited FPDR, and 45% (n = 56) had invited it only 1 to 5 times. A lack of FPDR policy was noted, with 73% (n = 91) indicating their facility or unit did not have a policy or they were unsure if one existed. Only 38% (n = 47) had ever received education on FPDR. Despite the shown benefits of FPDR, it is not a routine component of resuscitation in critical care settings. Nurse managers and educators should focus on policy creation and education to help guide nurses at the bedside. The impact of policy and education on critical care nurses' support for and implementation of FPDR requires further study.

  20. Renewable energy from gasification of manure: an innovative technology in search of fertile policy.

    PubMed

    Buckley, John C; Schwarz, Peter M

    2003-05-01

    After describing an innovative technology, the close-coupled gasification and cyclonic combustor, this article explores the policy issues that inhibit a superior sustainable solution from flourishing. Discussion of technology includes defining biomass, explaining what biomass to energy means, what the advantages of biomass to energy are, and why gasification is a superior biomass to energy technology. Specifically the environmental benefits of alternatives to landspreading of traditional manure management are discussed, as well as the advantages of gasification versus traditional combustion techniques for high nitrogen fuels. The policy environment is explored, particularly regarding sustainability, manure management, and renewable energy. Artificial, non-sustainable barriers to renewable energy, and the impact of wide jurisdictional variability are discussed. North Carolina is identified as a unique jurisdiction to monitor because of its high volume of livestock manure, and laggard position in renewable energy advocacy. The authors contend that these two positions are unsustainable, and that pressures can be expected to force the state to modify its renewable energy policies or risk losing market share in livestock production to more pro-sustainable policy oriented states.

  1. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  2. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  3. Australian television news coverage of alcohol, health and related policies, 2005 to 2010: implications for alcohol policy advocates.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-12-01

    To describe television news coverage between 2005 and 2010 of alcohol, health and relevant alcohol-control policies, with a view to informing policy advocacy. A content analysis of all alcohol stories archived by the Australian Health News Research Collaboration. We recorded what triggered a news item, the main topics covered, whether risks to health were communicated, whether alcohol-control policies were featured and which news-actors appeared. We identified 612 stories, where 69.2% were triggered by a particular newsworthy incident or the release of new findings. The most frequently reported alcohol stories were focused on associated harms (30.2%) and 'binge drinking' (19.0%). A majority (75.3%) reported a variety of positive and negative health effects, yet mainly focused on short-term consequences. Combined, 63% mentioned an alcohol-control policy, yet no one particular policy was featured in more than 10% of all stories. The most commonly featured news-actors included public-health professionals (50.0%), members of affected communities (28.4%) and government representatives (24.3%) Problems related to alcohol were well-established foci of news attention and reportage and covered a broad spectrum of issues related to public health goals, yet less coverage centred on long-term health consequences or effective policy solutions. Future policy advocacy could focus on moving the debate away from simple problem definition to better communication of long-term health risks, existing policies, and evidence of their effectiveness and arguments for their adoption. Future research might consider audience understanding of the information. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Reconstructing the public in old and new governance: a Korean case of nuclear energy policy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyomin

    2014-04-01

    Korean nuclear energy regulatory policies started to change from earlier exclusively technocratic policies into open dialogues after several anti-nuclear protests in the 1990s. However, technocratic policies still coexist with the new regulatory orientation towards openness, participation and institutional accountability. This paper analyzes Korean nuclear regulatory policies since approximately 2005 as a blend of old and new governance. The aim of the paper is not to decide whether new nuclear governance is deliberative or not by completely reviewing Korean nuclear policies after the 2000s. Instead, it provides an empirical account of how seemingly more participatory processes in decision-making entail new problems while they work with and reproduce social assumptions of different groups of the public.

  5. Impacts of Modeled Provisions of H.R. 6 EH: The Energy Policy Act of 2005

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a May 2, 2005, request by Chairman Pete Domenici and Ranking Member Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for an assessment of the energy supply, consumption, import, price, and macroeconomic impacts of H.R. 6 EH, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, as passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on April 21, 2005.

  6. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  7. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-05

    The Phoenix, Arizona, Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, April 5th, at the downtown Phoenix Hyatt. The meeting was hosted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE Office of Indian Energy) and facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute). Approximately thirty-eight people attended the meeting, including representatives of ten different tribes, as well as representatives of the Colorado Indian Tribes, the All Indian Pueblo Council and the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Interested state, federal, university, NGO and industry representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. DOE representatives were Tracey LeBeau, Directory of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the DOE Office of Indian Energy, and David Conrad, Director of Tribal and Intergovernmental Affairs, DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs.

  8. 78 FR 26394 - Renewable Energy and Related Services: Recent Developments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Renewable Energy and Related Services: Recent Developments AGENCY: United States International..., Renewable Energy and Related Services: Recent Developments. DATES: April 15, 2013: Receipt of the letter...

  9. Speakers Discuss Science Policy Challenges in the Water-Energy Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Water and energy are linked in the ever-increasing demand for these resources in the United States. Most energy production requires an abundant, reliable, and predictable source of water, a resource that is, unfortunately, already in short supply throughout large portions of the United States. In addition, developing water supplies can require large amounts of energy for their extraction, transportation, treatment, and distribution. As such, the ­water-­energy nexus presents a significant challenge for America's water resource and energy developers and distributers as well as for policy makers.

  10. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  11. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

  12. Energy-related applications of helium: a revision of the ERDA-13 data base

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, E.F.; Krupka, M.C.

    1980-08-01

    A re-examination, revision, and re-evaluation of the data base contained within the 1975 document, ERDA-13, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, were completed and results are presented in this report. New technical and resource data, current legislative proposals, updated supply-and-demand relationships, latest legal developments, programmatic changes affectng the future demand for helium, socio-economic aspects, and the effects of the latest energy-consumption projections were considered and are discussed. In contrast to ERDA-13, however, explicit recommendations with respect to the formulation of Federal helium policy, as it pertains to the energy-related applications of helium, are not given.

  13. An evaluation of pending energy and environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, T.

    1995-12-31

    A very brief summary of the restructuring of the Amoco Corporation is provided. Also included in the paper are a number of graphs depicting historical data on energy supply and demand. The Amoco restructuring included elimination of middle management and staff to improve profitability, cost leadership, long-term growth, and customer focus. Data provided concern U.S. oil and natural gas consumption, gas prices, and emissions. 15 refs.

  14. America’s Energy Security Policy: Goals for 2025

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Sand grains are surrounded by bitumen , a form of crude oil, which must be strip-mined, then heated to extract the crude oil. In October 2006, Royal...was only 56 percent of what it was in 1970.18 Efficiency improvements in manufacturing and new oil recovery technologies have reduced the energy...definition is Canada’s oil sands that are second in size only to Saudi Arabia’s reserves. However, extracting the oil is expensive and messy.30

  15. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    Rates 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 C en ts / kW h Commerical DOD average Industrial Source: U.S DOE...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave... 7 Defense Energy Consumption and Spending .................................................................................. 8

  16. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  17. Laboring to Relate: Neoliberalism, Embodied Policy, and Network Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds on previous research (Ball, 2012, Ball & Junemann, 2012) to explore some aspects of the embodiment of policy. The author draws on Larner and Laurie's (2010) work on technocratic expertise and how, as she puts it, "privatisation ideas and practices are transferred in embodied forms," and in particular her argument…

  18. POLICY STATEMENT RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    PURPOSES, DEFINITIONS, OBLIGATIONS, AND PRACTICES IN THE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRATORY CHILDREN ARE CLARIFIED IN A POLICY STATEMENT. COLORADO LAW PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN TO DEVELOP THEIR POTENTIALITIES AND CAPACITIES. A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED BY THE MIGRANT CHILDREN EDUCATIONAL ACT. COMMON USAGE AND…

  19. US health policy related to hookah tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H; Fine, Michael J; Donohue, Julie M

    2012-09-01

    Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS.

  20. US Health Policy Related to Hookah Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V.; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Donohue, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. Methods. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Results. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Conclusions. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS. PMID:22827447

  1. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  2. Laboring to Relate: Neoliberalism, Embodied Policy, and Network Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds on previous research (Ball, 2012, Ball & Junemann, 2012) to explore some aspects of the embodiment of policy. The author draws on Larner and Laurie's (2010) work on technocratic expertise and how, as she puts it, "privatisation ideas and practices are transferred in embodied forms," and in particular her argument…

  3. European perspective of ecosystem services and related policies.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Martha Bonnet; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we focus on the importance of terrestrial ecosystems and the services they provide. European Union policies, contributing to the conservation and maintenance of ecosystem services in Europe are discussed and their current impacts briefly reviewed in the light of the main challenges that European ecosystems might face in the near future.

  4. Nurses' perceptions of the challenges related to the Omanization policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, M; Fischer, I; Lopez, V

    2015-12-01

    Human resource development has become a major concern in Oman since the inception of the 'Omanization' policy in 1988. The main goal of this policy was to replace the expatriate nursing workforce with similarly qualified local nurses to develop a sustainable workforce and achieve self-reliance. The aim of this study is to explore the nurses' perceptions of Omanization policy. A qualitative research design was used and 16 Omani registered nurses and 26 student nurses were interviewed in depth. Transcribed data were analysed using content analysis. Two main themes emerged from the data: 'Challenges of sustaining the local nursing workforce' and 'Challenges of educational preparation for local nurses'. The participants agreed that Omanization benefited national development, social stability and ensuring local workforce. The challenges faced were cultural and work life balance, preparation of nurses and pace of replacement. The participants were concerned that the pace of replacement could leave behind a marked experience gap. A slow-phased approach to Omanization of the nursing workforce was recommended by the participants. Results obtained from this study reflect the perceptions and voices of student nurses and registered nurses only from the Institute of Nursing and Oman Ministry of Health. A policy of this magnitude requires gradual establishment. The upgrading of the nursing education to degree level, continuous professional development, mentoring and role modeling of expert nurses should be established to prepare local nurses for the localization of the nursing workforce. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  5. The Relative Influence of Research on Class-Size Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Social science research suggests that reducing class size has its largest effects on the achievement of minority and inner-city children during the first year of formal schooling. Despite scholarly disagreements about the implications of specific studies on class size, economists generally agree that targeted class-size policies rest on stronger…

  6. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  7. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  8. Renewable energy policy design and framing influence public support in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Warshaw, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The United States has often led the world in supporting renewable energy technologies at both the state and federal level. However, since 2011 several states have weakened their renewable energy policies. Public opinion will probably be crucial for determining whether states expand or contract their renewable energy policies in the future. Here we show that a majority of the public in most states supports renewable portfolio standards, which require a portion of the electricity mix to come from renewables. However, policy design and framing can strongly influence public support. Using a survey experiment, we show that effects of renewable portfolio standards bills on residential electricity costs, jobs and pollution, as well as bipartisan elite support, are all important drivers of public support. In many states, these bills' design and framing can push public opinion above or below majority support.

  9. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-09-15

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  10. Relations between Policy for Medical Teaching and Basic Need Satisfaction in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R. M. G.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M. J.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for…

  11. 34 CFR 303.173 - Policies and procedures related to financial matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policies and procedures related to financial matters...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... System-Application Requirements § 303.173 Policies and procedures related to financial matters. Each...

  12. Croatian Teacher Competencies Related to the Creation and Implementation of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Vesna; Rafajac, Branko; Buchberger, Iva

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to gain a preliminary insight into the general orientation and range of opinions of 396 primary and secondary school teachers in Croatia toward the a) importance of their competencies related to the education policies; b) cognition and mastering of the competencies related to the education policies; c) the…

  13. Relations between Policy for Medical Teaching and Basic Need Satisfaction in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R. M. G.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M. J.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for…

  14. 77 FR 53233 - Renewable Energy and Related Services: Recent Developments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Renewable Energy and Related Services: Recent Developments AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-534, Renewable Energy and Related Services: Recent Developments... services, and a second on renewable energy and related services, and deliver the reports in 8 and 11 months...

  15. When Policy Instruments Combine to Promote Coherence: An Analysis of Connecticut's Policies Related to Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Bell, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the elements of several policy instruments used in Connecticut, the political conditions under which they were chosen, and their intended targets and expected effects on teacher quality and student learning. The purpose of the paper is to explain how the Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) and the Connecticut State Department…

  16. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  17. Low-income Renewable Energy Programs: Case Studies of State Policy in California and Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Kaitlin

    Energy policies aimed at reducing the burden of monthly utility costs on low-income families have been established since the 1970s. Energy use impacts low-income families and organizations through housing specific costs, health and wellness, and opportunity costs. States have begun to run renewable energy installation programs aimed at reducing costs for low-income communities. This thesis examines two of these programs, the solar photovoltaic policies in California as part of the Single Family Affordable Solar Housing and Multi-family Affordable Solar Housing programs, and the Low-income Solar Housing program in Massachusetts. Lessons learned from reviewing these programs are that renewable energy programs are an effective strategy for reducing utility costs for low-income communities, but that the total effectiveness of the program is dependent on removing cost barriers, implementing energy efficiency improvements, and increasing consumer education through established community networks and relationships.

  18. 48 CFR 952.226-70 - Subcontracting goals under section 3021(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section 3021(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. 952.226-70 Section 952.226-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-70 Subcontracting goals under section 3021(a) of the Energy Policy Act of...

  19. 48 CFR 952.226-70 - Subcontracting goals under section 3021(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section 3021(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. 952.226-70 Section 952.226-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.226-70 Subcontracting goals under section 3021(a) of the Energy Policy Act of...

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.170 - May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? 102-74.170 Section 102-74.170 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.170 May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? Yes, the Federal agency...

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.170 - May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? 102-74.170 Section 102-74.170 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.170 May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? Yes, the Federal agency...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.170 - May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? 102-74.170 Section 102-74.170 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.170 May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? Yes, the Federal agency...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.170 - May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? 102-74.170 Section 102-74.170 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.170 May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted? Yes, the Federal agency...

  4. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    PubMed

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % (n = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  5. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from participation.

  6. Research-Related Injury Compensation Policies of U.S. Research Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Parasidis, Efthimios; Carroll, Kelly; Evans, Jennifer M.; Pike, Elizabeth R.; Kissling, Grace E.

    2014-01-01

    Federal research regulations require participants to be informed about whether medical care or compensation for injury is available in more than minimal risk studies and prohibit language in informed consent documents that waives, or appears to waive, legal rights. The objectives of this study were to compare data collected in 2000 and 2012 to identify significant changes in types of institutional compensation policies at U.S. research institutions, and assess the relationship between institutional characteristics and different types of policies. We found that research-related injury compensation policies did not change substantially during the time period. A significant percentage of policies contain language that can be reasonably interpreted as waiving, or appearing to waive, legal rights. Level of funding, public vs. private status, and institutional involvement in clinical research were associated with different types of policies. The lack of substantial change in compensation policies supports arguments for a national policy. PMID:24649739

  7. Lack of an energy policy remains a major barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports that the war with Iraq provided a new dimension to the ongoing oil industry struggle to cope with oppressive government action and regulation. Coming as it did just before the administration was to announce guidelines for a long-awaited National Energy Strategy (NES), the war created a renewed and dramatic focus on the national energy security question. Now, numerous congressmen, senators and administration leaders are taking a fresh look at how the U.S. can extricate itself from excessive dependence on Middle East oil imports. For example, the planned free-trade agreement with Mexico could figure prominently in an alliance that would bring much more Mexican oil to the U.S. Meanwhile, the wild card is proposals to open up U.S. drilling offshore and in the Arctic National Wildlife Region (ANWR). Prior to hostilities, Middle East tensions brought on significant increases in the price of oil, and with it a large gain in oil company profits for fourth-quarter 1990. Result: talk in Congress of a new windfall profits tax.

  8. Conflicting energy and environmental policies: The portsmouth oil refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yearn Hong

    1984-03-01

    This case study presents the series of decision-making processes surrounding a current environmental issue—the Portsmouth oil refinery in Virginia. Crude oil must be refined before it can be used as fuel. Additionally, some oil must be desulfurized for use other than as gasoline. In 1977, the nation imported about one million barrels of oil a day. Although the US Department of Energy has emphasized the critical need for greater east coast refinery capability, the east coast is to supply only 25% of its refined oil needs. In the same year, the east coast met its demands for petroleum products from three sources: (a) refinery production, 22.7%, (b) product imports, 28.0%, and (c) products from the Gulf Coast, 49.3%.1 The energy program after the Arab oil embargo has an objective of encouraging the construction of oil refineries and petrochemical plants in the United States rather than abroad. The tariff is higher on imports of refined oil products than of crude oil, and new refineries are allowed to import a large proportion of their requirements tarifffree. The US federal government does not directly regulate the locations for oil refineries or methods of desulfurization. The oil import program, however, does influence decisions concerning location of desulfurization facilities and refineries, and air and water pollution standards affect methods of refining, besides making desulfurization necessary.

  9. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  10. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  11. The Policy Trade-off Between Energy Security and Climate Change in the GCC States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbek, Shaikha Ali

    Developing policies for energy security and climate change simultaneously can be very challenging as there is a trade-off. This research project strives to analyze the policies regarding the same that should be developed in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) States which are; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Oman. Energy security is important in these countries because it is the prominent sector of their economies. Yet, the environment is being negatively impacted because of the energy production. There has been lot of international pressure on the GCC to divert its production and move towards clean energy production. It needs more research and development, as well as better economic diversification to maintain and improve the economic growth. Along with the literature review that has been used to study the cases and impacts of the GCC states, six in-depth interviews were conducted with professors, scholars and specialists in the environment and natural science fields to discuss about the GCC's situation. It has been alluded that the GCC states cannot be held solely responsible about the climate change because they are not the only energy producing nations in the world. Based on OPEC, there are 14 countries including the United States and China that also have prominent energy sectors. They should also be held accountable for the causes of environmental and climate change. This research provides recommendations for the GCC states to follow and apply in order to move forward with clean energy production, economic diversification and develop better policies.

  12. Three essays on the links between agriculture and energy policies in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whistance, Jarrett

    The first essay develops and applies a structural, partial equilibrium model of United States biomass supply and demand. The aim is to examine the biomass price and expenditure effects of domestic biofuel policies. The results indicate that the cellulosic biofuel sub-mandate alone could increase biomass prices by an average of 50% to 100% over the baseline values. Biomass expenditures by sectors competing with biofuel producers increase by an average of 26% relative to the baseline suggesting those sectors cannot fully shift away from biomass energy sources. A sensitivity analysis focusing on supply response indicates that the results are not very sensitive to the supply elasticity. This study contributes to the literature by providing policymakers and other energy policy stakeholders with a forward looking analysis of potential policy effects on the U.S. biomass market. The second essay develops a similar type of model applied toward the domestic and international petroleum and petroleum products markets as well as the domestic biofuel market and the domestic light-duty vehicle sector. The goal is to investigate the impact of CAFE standards and alternative-fuel vehicle production incentives on the biofuel market and RFS compliance, in particular. The results suggest that holding CAFE standards at the 2010 level could significantly reduce the blendwall problem in the U.S. ethanol market. Furthermore, the alternative fuel production incentives appear to have only minimal effects. However, there is much uncertainty surrounding the appropriate level of automaker response to those incentives, and a sensitivity analysis indicates the model is fairly sensitive to the assumed level of response. The third essay highlights a few of the theories put forth regarding the expected price behavior of Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs). The theories are tested both observationally and empirically with a dataset containing daily RIN price observations going back to January

  13. The Health Impacts of Energy Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Total Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, L. A.; Damdinsuren, Y.; Olkhanud, P. B.; Smith, K. R.; Turner, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Odsuren, M.; Ochir, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar is home to nearly half of Mongolia's 2.8 million residents. The city's rapid growth, frigid winters, valley topography, and reliance on coal-fired stoves have led to some of the worst winter pollution levels in the world. To better understand this issue, we modeled integrated PM2.5exposures and related health impacts for various city-wide heating policies through 2024. This assessment is one of the first to employ a total exposure approach and results of the 2014 Comparative Risk Assessments of the Global Burden of Disease Project (CRA/GBD) in a policy-relevant energy study. Emissions related to heating, traffic, and power generation were considered under Business as Usual, Moderate Improvement, and Max Improvement scenarios. Calibrated outdoor models were combined with indoor models, local infiltration and time activity estimates, and demographic projections to estimate PM2.5exposures in 2014 and 2024. Indoor exposures were assigned by heating type, home type, and smoking status; outdoor exposures were assigned through geocoding. Population average annual exposures were calculated and applied to local disease rates and integrated exposure-response curves (2014 CRA/GBD) to arrive at annual projections of premature deaths and DALYs. We estimate 2014 annual average exposures at 68 μg/m3, dictated almost exclusively by indoor winter exposures. Under current trends, annual exposures increase 10% to 75 μg/m3 in 2024. This is in stark contrast to the moderate and max improvement scenarios, which lead to 2024 annual exposures that are 31%, and 68% lower, respectively. Under the Moderate scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 26% and 22%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Under the Max scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 71% and 66%, respectively, from 2014. SHS becomes a major contributor as emissions from other sectors decrease. Reductions are dominated by cardiovascular and lower respiratory diseases in children.

  14. Evaluating the efficiency of nuclear energy policies: an empirical examination for 26 countries.

    PubMed

    Gozgor, Giray; Demir, Ender

    2017-06-24

    The decarbonization of the global economy is an urgent concern. As a potential solution, it can be important to understand the efficiency of nuclear energy policies. For this purpose, the paper analyzes whether there is a unit root in nuclear energy consumption in 26 countries and it uses the unit root tests with two endogenous (unknown) structural breaks. The paper finds that nuclear energy consumption is stationary around a level and the time trend in 25 of 26 countries and nuclear energy consumption contains a unit root only in France. The paper also discusses the potential implications of the findings.

  15. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  16. Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond.

    PubMed

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  17. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  18. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.

  19. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  20. Protection policy for Hawaii's native wildlife during geothermal energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Lee

    1986-09-01

    Hawaii possesses abundant geothermal resources and rare native wildlife. Geothermal energy development has not posed a threat to native wildlife in the past, but development potential has recently reached a level at which concern for native wildlife is warranted. Potential geothermal resource areas in Hawaii intersect important native forest and endangered species habitat. The ability of existing laws to constrain development in these areas is in question. State and federal endangered species and environmental reporting laws have little ability to constrain geothermal development on private land. Hawaii's Land Use Law had been viewed by conservationists as protecting natural areas important to native wildlife, but recent decisions of the state Land Board sharply challenge this view. While this dispute was being resolved in the courts, the state legislature passed the Geothermal Subzone Act of 1983. Wildlife value was assessed in the geothermal subzone designation process mandated by this act, but the subzones designated primarily reflected inappropriate developer influence. All areas in which there was developer interest received subzone designation, and no area in which there was no developer interest was subzoned. This overriding emphasis on developer interest violated the intent of the sub-zone act, and trivialized the importance of other assessment criteria, among them native wildlife values.