Science.gov

Sample records for energy range wide

  1. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  2. Time-Resolved Energy-Dispersive XAFS Station for Wide-Energy Range at SPring-8

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, K.; Uruga, T.; Tanida, H.; Yokota, S.; Imai, Y.; Irie, T.

    2007-01-19

    A time-resolved energy-dispersive XAFS (DXAFS) station has been constructed at the bending magnet beamline BL28B2 at SPring-8 to study the local structural changes of materials during chemical reactions and functional processes. The bending magnet source at SPring-8 has a high photon flux above 50 keV. The purpose of this station is to measure DXAFS spectra in a wide energy range from 7 to 50 keV covering K-edges of lanthanides. Its main components are a polychromator with a bent silicon crystal, a mirror to reject higher harmonics, and a position-sensitive detector (PSD). To correspond to a wide energy range, polychromators for Bragg and Laue geometry were developed for the energy range below and above 12 keV, respectively. The PSD used is CCD coupled with a fluorescent screen and lens system. The fluorescent materials and their thickness were optimized for measurement in the x-ray range. Good quality spectra of Ce K-edge (40.5 keV) were obtained with exposures of 360 ms for the standard samples. The present status of the system and some experimental examples are presented in this report.

  3. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide temperature range (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high temperature stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating temperature electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high temperature extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.

  4. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide temperature range (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high temperature stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating temperature electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high temperature extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.

  5. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  6. Harvesting Ambient Vibration Energy over a Wide Frequency Range for Self-Powered Electronics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Yi, Fang; Yin, Yajiang; Hao, Chenglong; Dai, Keren; Zhang, Yue; You, Zheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-02-28

    Vibration is one of the most common energy sources in ambient environment. Harvesting vibration energy is a promising route to sustainably drive small electronics. This work introduces an approach to scavenge vibrational energy over a wide frequency range as an exclusive power source for continuous operation of electronics. An elastic multiunit triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is rationally designed to efficiently harvest low-frequency vibration energy, which can provide a maximum instantaneous output power density of 102 W·m(-3) at as low as 7 Hz and maintain its stable current outputs from 5 to 25 Hz. A self-charging power unit (SCPU) combining the TENG and a 10 mF supercapacitor gives a continuous direct current (DC) power delivery of 1.14 mW at a power management efficiency of 45.6% at 20 Hz. The performance of the SCPU can be further enhanced by a specially designed power management circuit, with a continuous DC power of 2 mW and power management efficiency of 60% at 7 Hz. Electronics such as a thermometer, hygrometer, and speedometer can be sustainably powered solely by the harvested vibration energy from a machine or riding bicycle. This approach has potential applications in self-powered systems for environment monitoring, machine safety, and transportation.

  7. Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xinguo; Chen, Zhiqiang; Duffy, Thomas S

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise and fast absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using an iterative x-ray diffraction based method. Although accurate x-ray energy calibration is indispensable for x-ray energy-sensitive scattering and diffraction experiments, there is still a lack of effective methods to precisely calibrate energy over a wide range, especially when normal transmission monitoring is not an option and complicated micro-focusing optics are fixed in place. It is found that by using an iterative algorithm the x-ray energy is only tied to the relative offset of sample-to-detector distance, which can be readily varied with high precision of the order of 10(-5) -10(-6) spatial resolution using gauge blocks. Even starting with arbitrary initial values of 0.1 Å, 0.3 Å, and 0.4 Å, the iteration process converges to a value within 3.5 eV for 31.122 keV x-rays after three iterations. Different common diffraction standards CeO(2), Au, and Si show an energy deviation of 14 eV. As an application, the proposed method has been applied to determine the energy-sensitive first sharp diffraction peak of network forming GeO(2) glass at high pressure, exhibiting a distinct behavior in the pressure range of 2-4 GPa. Another application presented is pair distribution function measurement using calibrated high-energy x-rays at 82.273 keV. Unlike the traditional x-ray absorption-based calibration method, the proposed approach does not rely on any edges of specific elements, and is applicable to the hard x-ray region where no appropriate absorption edge is available.

  8. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  9. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  10. A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshor, C. B.; Oakes, T. M.; Myers, E. R.; Rogers, B. J.; Currie, J. E.; Young, S. M.; Crow, J. A.; Scott, P. R.; Miller, W. H.; Bellinger, S. L.; Sobering, T. J.; Fronk, R. G.; Shultis, J. K.; McGregor, D. S.; Caruso, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Hand-held instruments that can be used to passively detect and identify sources of neutron radiation-either bare or obscured by neutron moderating and/or absorbing material(s)-in real time are of interest in a variety of nuclear non-proliferation and health physics applications. Such an instrument must provide a means to high intrinsic detection efficiency and energy-sensitive measurements of free neutron fields, for neutrons ranging from thermal energies to the top end of the evaporation spectrum. To address and overcome the challenges inherent to the aforementioned applications, four solid-state moderating-type neutron spectrometers of varying cost, weight, and complexity have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The motivation of this work is to introduce these novel human-portable instruments by discussing the fundamental theory of their operation, investigating and analyzing the principal considerations for optimal instrument design, and evaluating the capability of each of the four fabricated spectrometers to meet the application needs.

  11. Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for High Voltage and High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Hwang, C.; Krause, F. C.; Soler, J.; West, W. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Amine, K.

    2012-01-01

    A number of electrolyte formulations that have been designed to operate over a wide temperature range have been investigated in conjunction with layered-layered metal oxide cathode materials developed at Argonne. In this study, we have evaluated a number of electrolytes in Li-ion cells consisting of Conoco Phillips A12 graphite anodes and Toda HE5050 Li(1.2)Ni(0.15)Co(0.10)Mn(0.55)O2 cathodes. The electrolytes studied consisted of LiPF6 in carbonate-based electrolytes that contain ester co-solvents with various solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) promoting additives, many of which have been demonstrated to perform well in 4V systems. More specifically, we have investigated the performance of a number of methyl butyrate (MB) containing electrolytes (i.e., LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + MB (20:20:60 v/v %) that contain various additives, including vinylene carbonate, lithium oxalate, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB). When these systems were evaluated at various rates at low temperatures, the methyl butyrate-based electrolytes resulted in improved rate capability compared to cells with all carbonate-based formulations. It was also ascertained that the slow cathode kinetics govern the generally poor rate capability at low temperature in contrast to traditionally used LiNi(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2-based systems, rather than being influenced strongly by the electrolyte type.

  12. Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for High Voltage and High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Hwang, C.; Krause, F. C.; Soler, J.; West, W. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Amine, K.

    2012-01-01

    A number of electrolyte formulations that have been designed to operate over a wide temperature range have been investigated in conjunction with layered-layered metal oxide cathode materials developed at Argonne. In this study, we have evaluated a number of electrolytes in Li-ion cells consisting of Conoco Phillips A12 graphite anodes and Toda HE5050 Li(1.2)Ni(0.15)Co(0.10)Mn(0.55)O2 cathodes. The electrolytes studied consisted of LiPF6 in carbonate-based electrolytes that contain ester co-solvents with various solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) promoting additives, many of which have been demonstrated to perform well in 4V systems. More specifically, we have investigated the performance of a number of methyl butyrate (MB) containing electrolytes (i.e., LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + MB (20:20:60 v/v %) that contain various additives, including vinylene carbonate, lithium oxalate, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB). When these systems were evaluated at various rates at low temperatures, the methyl butyrate-based electrolytes resulted in improved rate capability compared to cells with all carbonate-based formulations. It was also ascertained that the slow cathode kinetics govern the generally poor rate capability at low temperature in contrast to traditionally used LiNi(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2-based systems, rather than being influenced strongly by the electrolyte type.

  13. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  14. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  15. Equation of state for tungsten over a wide range of densities and internal energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    A caloric model, which describes the pressure-density-internal-energy relationship in a broad region of condensed-phase states, is applied for tungsten. As distinct from previously known caloric equations of state for this material, a new form of the cold-compression curve at T = 0 K is used. Thermodynamic characteristics along the cold curve and shock Hugoniots are calculated for the metal and compared with some theoretical results and experimental data available at high energy densities.

  16. Energies of Maxima and Oscillator Strengths of CaO Elementary Transition Bands Over a Wide Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Merzlyakov, D. A.; Sobolev, V. Val.

    2016-09-01

    Integral spectra of the imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity ɛ2(E) and characteristic volume (-Im ɛ-1) and surface [-Im (1 + ɛ)-1] energy losses of calcium oxide were deconvoluted into elementary components in the range 6-40 eV. The main component parameters including the energies of maxima and oscillator strengths were determined using an improved non-parametric method of united Argand diagrams and the method of the effective number of valence electrons participating in the transitions. A total of 41 components with oscillator strengths in the range 0.001-0.22 were identified instead of the 14 maxima and shoulders of the integral spectra. They were caused by transverse and longitudinal exciton and interband transitions.

  17. An improved energy efficient SRAM cell for access over a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Debasish; Acharya, Debiprasad Priyabrata; Mahapatra, Kamalakanta

    2016-12-01

    Leakage current contribution to the power consumption cannot be ignored in the sub-100 nm technology. Drastic reduction of channel length of the modern highly scaled device enhances the leakage current significantly. Two novel 8T-SRAM cells low-leakage-current SRAM cell (LLC-SRAM cell) and low-leakage-current high-threshold-voltage SRAM cell (LLC-HVT SRAM cell) are proposed to offer high energy efficiency. The cell performances are compared with 8T NC-SRAM cell and 6T-SRAM cell. The proposed cells significantly reduce the overall power consumption. The cell array simulations are performed in spectre with a general purpose 45 nm technology library. The short-circuit current reduction during state transition helps to decrease the dynamic power consumption. In standby mode the cell operates at a voltage lower than the supply which brings down the leakage current and hence leakage power. Besides the energy prospective the stability, speed and writ-ability analysis are also performed in this work.

  18. A Constant Energy-Per-Cycle Ring Oscillator Over a Wide Frequency Range for Wireless Sensor Nodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inhee; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient oscillator for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). It avoids short-circuit current by minimizing the time spent in the input voltage range from Vthn to [Vdd - |Vthp|]. A current-feeding scheme with gate voltage control enables the oscillator to operate over a wide frequency range. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that the proposed oscillator achieves a constant energy-per-cycle (EpC) of 0.8 pJ/cycle over the 21-60 MHz frequency range and is more efficient than a conventional current-starved ring oscillator (CSRO) below 300 kHz at 1.8 V supply voltage. As an application example, the proposed oscillator is implemented in a switched-capacitor DC-DC converter. The converter is 11%-56% more efficient for load power values ranging from 583 pW to 2.9 nW than a converter using a conventional CSRO.

  19. A Constant Energy-Per-Cycle Ring Oscillator Over a Wide Frequency Range for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhee; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient oscillator for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). It avoids short-circuit current by minimizing the time spent in the input voltage range from Vthn to [Vdd − |Vthp|]. A current-feeding scheme with gate voltage control enables the oscillator to operate over a wide frequency range. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that the proposed oscillator achieves a constant energy-per-cycle (EpC) of 0.8 pJ/cycle over the 21–60 MHz frequency range and is more efficient than a conventional current-starved ring oscillator (CSRO) below 300 kHz at 1.8 V supply voltage. As an application example, the proposed oscillator is implemented in a switched-capacitor DC–DC converter. The converter is 11%–56% more efficient for load power values ranging from 583 pW to 2.9 nW than a converter using a conventional CSRO. PMID:27546899

  20. How Wide Does the Wide Range Achievement Test Really Range?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeath, Marcia; Marken, Dan

    Local norms for the three scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)--reading, spelling, and arithmetic--were developed on the basis of 1,021 children in the age range of 5 through 7 and 83 more children aged 8 through 11 from a suburban school district near Seattle, Washington. In general, the local group was found to be superior to the…

  1. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  2. Upgrades of DARWIN, a dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to various types of radiation over wide energy ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Fusao; Sakurai, Hiroki; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-05-01

    A dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to neutrons, photons and muons over wide ranges of energy, designated as DARWIN, has been developed for radiological protection in high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN consists of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, a data-acquisition (DAQ) module for digital waveform analysis, and a personal computer equipped with a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program for controlling the system. The system was recently upgraded by introducing an original DAQ module based on a field programmable gate array, FPGA, and also by adding a function for estimating neutron and photon spectra based on an unfolding technique without requiring any specific scientific background of the user. The performance of the upgraded DARWIN was examined in various radiation fields, including an operational field in J-PARC. The experiments revealed that the dose rates and spectra measured by the upgraded DARWIN are quite reasonable, even in radiation fields with peak structures in terms of both spectrum and time variation. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DARWIN for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  3. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  4. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  5. Wide speed range turboshaft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, Martin

    1995-01-01

    NASA-Lewis and NASA-Ames have sponsored a series of studies over the last few years to identify key high speed rotorcraft propulsion and airframe technologies. NASA concluded from these studies that for near term aircraft with cruise speeds up to 450 kt, tilting rotor rotorcraft concepts are the most economical and technologically viable. The propulsion issues critical to tilting rotor rotorcraft are: (1) high speed cruise propulsion system efficiency and (2) adequate power to hover safely with one engine inoperative. High speed cruise propeller efficiency can be dramatically improved by reducing rotor speed, yet high rotor speed is critical for good hover performance. With a conventional turboshaft, this wide range of power turbine operating speeds would result in poor engine performance at one or more of these critical operating conditions. This study identifies several wide speed range turboshaft concepts, and analyzes their potential to improve performance at the diverse cruise and hover operating conditions. Many unique concepts were examined, and the selected concepts are simple, low cost, relatively low risk, and entirely contained within the power turbine. These power turbine concepts contain unique, incidence tolerant airfoil designs that allow the engine to cruise efficiently at 51 percent of the hover rotor speed. Overall propulsion system efficiency in cruise is improved as much as 14 percent, with similar improvements in engine weight and cost. The study is composed of a propulsion requirement survey, a concept screening study, a preliminary definition and evaluation of selected concepts, and identification of key technologies and development needs. In addition, a civil transport tilting rotor rotorcraft mission analysis was performed to show the benefit of these concepts versus a conventional turboshaft. Other potential applications for this technology are discussed.

  6. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  7. A low-noise wide-dynamic-range event-driven detector using SOI pixel technology for high-energy particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sumeet; Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a low-noise wide-dynamic-range pixel design for a high-energy particle detector in astronomical applications. A silicon on insulator (SOI) based detector is used for the detection of wide energy range of high energy particles (mainly for X-ray). The sensor has a thin layer of SOI CMOS readout circuitry and a thick layer of high-resistivity detector vertically stacked in a single chip. Pixel circuits are divided into two parts; signal sensing circuit and event detection circuit. The event detection circuit consisting of a comparator and logic circuits which detect the incidence of high energy particle categorizes the incident photon it into two energy groups using an appropriate energy threshold and generate a two-bit code for an event and energy level. The code for energy level is then used for selection of the gain of the in-pixel amplifier for the detected signal, providing a function of high-dynamic-range signal measurement. The two-bit code for the event and energy level is scanned in the event scanning block and the signals from the hit pixels only are read out. The variable-gain in-pixel amplifier uses a continuous integrator and integration-time control for the variable gain. The proposed design allows the small signal detection and wide dynamic range due to the adaptive gain technique and capability of correlated double sampling (CDS) technique of kTC noise canceling of the charge detector.

  8. Quenching of neutron spectroscopic factors of radioactive carbon isotopes with knockout reactions within a wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chao; Xu, Yi-Ping; Pang, Dan-Yang; Ye, Yan-Lin

    2017-05-01

    The quenching factors of one-neutron spectroscopic factors, which are ratios of theoretical to experimental one-neutron removal cross sections, are studied for the carbon isotopes 15-19C, with 12C and 9Be targets within incident energies from around 50 to 900 MeV/nucleon. The resulting values of quenching factors do not show strong energy dependence within such an energy range. The average values of the these quenching factors agree well with the systematics in [J.A. Tostevin and A. Gade, Phys. Rev. C, 90 057602 (2014)], which was established for a large set of radioactive nuclei with different masses below 305 MeV/nucleon. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (1275018, U1432247) and National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFA0400502)

  9. Transonic Wind Tunnel Modernization for Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Stall in a Wide Range of Mach Numbers by Plasma Actuators with Combined Energy/Momentum Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-02

    Stall in a Wide Range of Mach Numbers by Plasma Actuators with Combined Energy/ Momentum Action The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...Plasma Actuators with Combined Energy/ Momentum Action Report Title This equipment grant supported the design and construction of a subsonic variable speed...Actuators with Combined Energy/ Momentum Action FINAL REPORT ARO DURIP Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0328 Start Date: 09/01/2013 PRINCIPAL

  10. HESS J1427-608: An Unusual Hard, Unbroken Gamma-Ray Spectrum in a Very Wide Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Xin, Yu-Liang; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; Gao, Wei-Hong; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of a GeV γ-ray source that spatially overlaps and is thus very likely associated with the unidentified very high energy (VHE) γ-ray source HESS J1427‑608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power law with an index of 1.85 ± 0.17 in the energy range of 3–500 GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427‑608 at a few hundred gigaelectronvolts. This source shows no significant extension and time variation. The broadband GeV to TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427‑608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss the possible nature of HESS J1427‑608 according to the multiwavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multiwavelength data from radio to VHE γ-rays. The inferred magnetic field strength is a few micro-Gauss, which is smaller than the typical values of supernova remnants (SNRs) and is consistent with some pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). On the other hand, the flat γ-ray spectrum is slightly different from typical PWNe but is similar to that of some known SNRs.

  11. The `PAMIR XXI' Project of a Complex Setup for the PCR Study in a Wide Energy Range 1014 - 1018 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexander; Muminov, Khikmat; Galkin, Vladimir; Puchkov, Vitaly

    2013-06-01

    A new comprehensive EAS experiment for multi-component study of the energy spectrum behavior and composition of the PCR in a wide energy range 1014 - 1018 eV is launched at the Pamirs this year. The experimental setup of ~ 1 km2 in area combines conventional EAS array technique with those of X-Ray emulsion chamber, Cherenkov detector array and Cherenkov atmospheric imaging telescopes (IACT). The goals of the experiment and the experimental techniques are discussed.

  12. Comparisons of calculated and measured effective attenuation lengths for silicon dioxide over a wide electron energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. J.; Jablonski, A.

    2001-08-01

    We report calculations of effective attenuation lengths (EALs) for Si 2p photoelectrons in silicon dioxide at photoelectron energies between 82 and 1385 eV. These EALs are compared with measured values reported recently by Shimada et al. (Surf. Interf. Anal. 29 (2000) 336) at photoelectron emission angles of 0° and 55° for photoelectron energies between 140 and 1000 eV. Close agreement is found between the calculated and measured energy dependencies of the EALs for photoelectron energies between 400 and 1000 eV. Agreement is also found in the absolute values if the SiO 2 film thicknesses in the experiments were increased by 29% or if the inelastic mean free paths used in our calculations were decreased by the same percentage. Deviations between measured and calculated EALs for energies between 140 and 400 eV are attributed to the effects of surface-plasmon excitation. Calculated EALs for a photoelectron emission angle of 55° were larger than those found for normal photoelectron emission, particularly for low photoelectron energies, as was found in the Shimada et al. experiments.

  13. Energy dependence and dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film over a wide range of photon, electron, and proton beam energies

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Prado, Karl; Vicic, Milos

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Since the Gafchromic film EBT has been recently replaced by the newer model EBT2, its characterization, especially energy dependence, has become critically important. The energy dependence of the dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film is evaluated for a broad range of energies from different radiation sources used in radiation therapy. Methods: The beams used for this study comprised of kilovoltage x rays (75, 125, and 250 kVp), {sup 137}Cs gamma (662 KeV), {sup 60}Co gamma (1.17-1.33 MeV), megavoltage x rays (6 and 18 MV), electron beams (6 and 20 MeV), and proton beams (100 and 250 MeV). The film's response to each of the above energies was measured over the dose range of 0.4-10 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.74 for the film reader used. Results: The energy dependence of EBT2 was found to be relatively small within measurement uncertainties (1{sigma}={+-}4.5%) for all energies and modalities. Conclusion: For relative and absolute dosimetry of radiation therapy beams, the weak energy dependence of the EBT2 makes it most suitable for clinical use compared to other films.

  14. An improved long counter for neutron fluence measurement with a flat response over a wide energy range from 1 keV to 15 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. Y.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, D.; Guo, H. S.; Yang, G. Z.; Li, B. J.; Ye, F.; Si, F. N.; Liu, J.; Fu, Y. C.; Ning, J. M.; Yang, J.; Yang, H. H.; Wang, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    A new long counter has been developed with a flat energy response over a wide range from 1 keV to 15 MeV. It consists of five 3He proportional counter tubes and a number of carefully designed polyethylene moderators. The structure of this detector was determined by careful Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated results show that the efficiency of this counter is uniform from 1 keV neutron energy to 15 MeV. Calibration was performed on an Am-Be source and the accelerator-produced monoenergetic D-D and D-T neutron sources. Fluctuation of the response curve is less than 10% over this energy range.

  15. The calculation of mass attenuation coefficients of well-known thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds at wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermis, Elif Ebru

    2017-02-01

    The photon mass attenuation coefficients of LiF, BaSO4, CaCO3 and CaSO4 thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds at 100; 300; 500; 600; 800; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 3,000 and 5,000 keV gamma-ray energies were calculated. For this purpose, FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) program which is one of the well-known MC codes was used in this study. Furthermore, obtained results were analyzed by means of ROOT program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values were also used to compare the obtained theoretical values because the mass attenuation values of the used compounds could not found in the literature. Calculated mass attenuation coefficients were highly in accordance with the NIST values. As a consequence, FLUKA was successful in calculating the mass attenuation coefficients of the most used thermoluminescent compound.

  16. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamlinefor photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger R.; Hulbert L.; Johnson P.D.; Sadowski, J.T.; Starr, D.E.; Chubar, O.; Valla, T.; Vescovo, E.

    2012-02-13

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({micro}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {micro}m for ARPES and 0.5 {micro}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  17. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamline for photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, R.; Hulbert, S. L.; Chubar, O.; Vescovo, E.; Johnson, P. D.; Valla, T.; Sadowski, J. T.; Starr, D. E.

    2012-02-15

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({mu}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {mu}m for ARPES and 0.5 {mu}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  18. Advanced 360o FOV, wide energy range, non-HV, gated time of flight mass spectrometers for Small Satellites and Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.; Nanan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The time of flight technique is widely used for composition analysis of space plasma instruments. The foil - MCP/CEM combination is commonly used for E x TOF mass analysis at the cost of energy threshold, scattering, and direct particle interaction which ultimately affect performance. An alternative method especially effective at low energies is gated time of flight where the start foil is replaced with electric gating. There are several advantages of electric gating, including elimination of heavy HVPS required for pre-reacceleration to overcome foil thresholds, non- destructive interaction with atomic and molecular ions before analysis, and electronic controllability including geometric factor adjustment for flux dynamic range, FOV optimization, electronic filtering of most abundant elements in favor of minor species, and other properties affecting directly the scientific and engineering performance of the instruments. In addition special secondary emission surfaces can be used for triple coincidence when needed. The combination of electric gating and special surfaces works in an extensive energy range from 0 to tens of KeV without the need of start foil/HVPS making thus the use attractive to small satellites and cubesats. Those characteristics will be elaborated in the context of a gated time of flight wide field of view and energy range ion spectrometer combined with a neutral mass spectrometer (WINMS) developed at GSFC. The instrument prototypes have mass resolution adequate to separate N, O, OH, OH2; also static from ram moving H allowing thus separation of outgassing from ambient gases. A first implementation INMS with a mass <600 grams and size <1.5U is the main payload of the EXOCUBE Cubesat mission launched in January 2015 and already produced flight data; a second upgraded implementation is on onboard the GSFC Dellingr 6U CubeSat scheduled for launch in late 2015; and ongoing developments are baselined for other satellite missions.

  19. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, Herbert; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Nutt, William E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof.

  20. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, H.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Nutt, W.E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof. 6 figures.

  1. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; van Dyck, O.B.; Bilskie, J.R.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.

    1985-10-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  2. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.; Bilskie, J.R.; van Dyck, O.B.V.

    1985-01-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  3. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Pollution Emission Factors AP-42 and Maricopa and Pima counties air documentation applicable to Arizona (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1985...from northern Yuma County in 1983 , YPG became centered in both counties . The City of Yuma is the largest urban center in the region. More than 99...Number of Pages 190 FINAL RANGE WIDE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Yuma and La Paz Counties , Arizona Prepared for U.S

  4. Evaluation of the detachment energy of hydrated phosphate anion over a wide range of cluster size and revisiting solvent-berg model: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-12-01

    An explicit analytical expression has been obtained for vertical detachment energy (VDE) that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range (both stable and unstable regions) of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters (n = 16-23). The calculated VDE for the bulk is found to be very good in agreement (within 1%) with the available experimental result and the domain of instability lies between n = 0 and n = 15 for the hydrated clusters, PO3 -4 . nH2O. The minimum number (n0) of water molecules needed to stabilise the phosphate anion is 16. We are able to explain the origin of solvent-berg model and anomalous conductivity from the knowledge of first stable cluster. We have also provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent-berg for phosphate anion. The calculated conductivity using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent-berg is found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  5. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  6. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  7. Wide power range microwave feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, L. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A substantially constant power level is derived over a predetermined frequency band, in each of a plurality of relatively widely spaced power ranges, from a microwave load having a predetermined amplitude versus frequency response, such as an antenna. A microwave source of substantially constant amplitude drives a forward path connected between the source and the load. A feedback path responsive to the microwave power level in the forward path derives a control voltage for the PIN attenuator. The equalizer attenuator drives a linear, crystal amplitude detector. Attenuating means included in the forward and feedback paths are selectively connected in circuit to maintain the power level of the microwave input to the amplitude detector substantially constant, even though different power ranges are supplied to the load by the forward path.

  8. Wide-Band KB Optics for Spectro-Microscopy Imaging Applications in the 6-13 keV X-ray Energy Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, E.; De Panfilis, S.; Peverini, L.; Vaerenbergh, P. van; Rocca, F.

    2007-01-19

    We present a Kirkpatrick-Baez optics (KB) system specially optimized to operate in the 6-13 keV X-ray range, where valuable characteristic lines are present. The mirrors are coated with aperiodic laterally graded (Ru/B4C)35 multilayers to define a 15% energy bandpass and to gain flux as compared to total reflection mirrors. For any X-ray energy selected the shape of each mirror can be optimized with a dynamical bending system so as to concentrate the X-ray beam into a micrometer-size spot. Once the KB mirrors are aligned at the X-ray energy corresponding to the barycenter of the XAS spectrum to be performed they remain in a steady state during the micro-XAS scans to minimize beam displacements. Results regarding the performance of the wideband KB optics and of the spectro-microscopy setup are presented, including beam stability issues.

  9. Conductance measurement circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Von Esch, Myron (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A conductance measurement circuit to measure conductance of a solution under test with an output voltage proportional to conductance over a 5-decade range, i.e., 0.01 uS to 1000 uS or from 0.1 uS to 10,000 uS. An increase in conductance indicates growth, or multiplication, of the bacteria in the test solution. Two circuits are used each for an alternate half-cycle time periods of an alternate squarewave in order to cause alternate and opposite currents to be applied to the test solution. The output of one of the two circuits may be scaled for a different range optimum switching frequency dependent upon the solution conductance and to enable uninterrupted measurement over the complete 5-decade range. This circuitry provides two overlapping ranges of conductance which can be read simultaneously without discontinuity thereby eliminating range switching within the basic circuitry. A VCO is used to automatically change the operating frequency according to the particular value of the conductance being measured, and comparators indicate which range is valid and also facilitate computer-controlled data acquisition. A multiplexer may be used to monitor any number of solutions under test continuously.

  10. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  11. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  12. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  13. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Miyano, Kenjiro; Ketterson, John B.

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  14. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  15. EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

  16. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  17. Calculated absorbed-dose ratios, TG51/TG21, for most widely used cylindrical and parallel-plate ion chambers over a range of photon and electron energies.

    PubMed

    Tailor, R C; Hanson, W F

    2002-07-01

    Task Group 51 (TG51), of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), has developed a calibration protocol for high-energy photon and electron therapy beams based on absorbed dose standards. This protocol is intended to replace the air-kerma based protocol developed by an earlier AAPM task group (TG21). Conversion to the newer protocol introduces a change in the determined absorbed dose. In this work, the change in dose is expressed as the ratio of the doses (TG51/TG21) based on the two protocols. Dose is compared at the TG-51 reference depths of 10 cm for photons and d(ref) for electrons. Dose ratios are presented for a variety of ion chambers over a range of photon and electron energies. The TG51/TG21 dose ratios presented here are based on the dosimetry factors provided by the two protocols and the chamber-specific absorbed dose and exposure calibration factors (N60Co(D,w) and Nx) provided by the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (ADCL) at The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). As such, the values presented here represent the expected discrepancies between the two protocols due only to changes in the dosimetry parameters and the differences in chamber-specific dose and air-kerma standards. These values are independent of factors such as measurement uncertainties, setup errors, and inconsistencies arising from the mix of different phantoms and ion chambers for the two protocols. Therefore, these ratios may serve as a guide for institutions performing measurements for the switch from TG21-to-TG51 based calibration. Any significant deviation in the ratio obtained from measurements versus those presented here should prompt a review to identify possible errors and inconsistencies. For all cylindrical chambers included here, the TG51/TG21 dose ratios are the same within +/-0.6%, irrespective of the make and model of the chamber, for each photon and electron beam included. Photon beams

  18. Improved Wide Operating Temperature Range of Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range (-60 to +60 C) to satisfy the requirements of various applications including landers, rovers, penetrators, CEV, CLV, etc. This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. The Department of Energy (DoE) has identified a number of technical barriers associated with the development of Liion rechargeable batteries for PHEVs. For this reason, DoE has interest in the development of advanced electrolytes that will improve performance over a wide range of temperatures, and lead to long life characteristics (5,000 cycles over a 10-year life span). There is also interest in improving the high-voltage stability of these candidate electrolyte systems to enable the operation of up to 5 V with high specific energy cathode materials. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. In addition, the low-temperature performance typically deteriorates rapidly upon being exposed to high temperatures. A number of electrolyte formulations were developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl propionate (MP)-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalate borate) (LiBOB), which have previously been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. These MP-based electrolytes with additives have been shown to have improved performance in experiments with MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 cells.

  19. 7Be (n ,α )4He Reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: Measurement of the Cross Section in a Wide Energy Range at n_TOF at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, M.; Musumarra, A.; Cosentino, L.; Maugeri, E.; Heinitz, S.; Mengoni, A.; Dressler, R.; Schumann, D.; Käppeler, F.; Colonna, N.; Finocchiaro, P.; Ayranov, M.; Damone, L.; Kivel, N.; Aberle, O.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barros, S.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cristallo, S.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; García-Rios, A.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lerendegui, J.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Pappalardo, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Piscopo, M.; Plompen, A.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Vollaire, J.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; n TOF Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The energy-dependent cross section of the 7Be (n ,α )4He reaction, of interest for the so-called cosmological lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of 7Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure 7Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha particles have been recorded in two Si -7Be -Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 1960s at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence reported here clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in BBN calculations. Although new measurements at higher neutron energy may still be needed, the n_TOF results hint at a minor role of this reaction in BBN, leaving the long-standing cosmological lithium problem unsolved.

  20. Energy Dependence of Directed Flow over a Wide Range of Pseudorapidity in Au+Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.; Wuosmaa, A.H.; Baker, M.D.; Barton, D.S.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Gushue, S.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G.A.; Holzman, B.; Pak, R.; Remsberg, L.P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Stankiewicz, M.A.; Steinberg, P.; Sukhanov, A.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M.P.

    2006-07-07

    We report on measurements of directed flow as a function of pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at energies of {radical}(s{sub NN})=19.6, 62.4, 130 and 200 GeV as measured by the PHOBOS detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These results are particularly valuable because of the extensive, continuous pseudorapidity coverage of the PHOBOS detector. There is no significant indication of structure near midrapidity and the data surprisingly exhibit extended longitudinal scaling similar to that seen for elliptic flow and charged particle pseudorapidity density.

  1. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons measured on an airplane over a wide range of altitude and latitude.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, P; Clem, J M; Wilson, J W

    2004-01-01

    Crews of high-altitude aircraft are exposed to radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). To help determine such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude airplane. The primary instrument was a sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer. Its detector responses were calculated for energies up to 100 GeV using the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.5.d with improved nuclear models and including the effects of the airplane structure. New calculations of GCR-induced particle spectra in the atmosphere were used to correct for spectrometer counts produced by protons, pions and light nuclear ions. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the corrected measured count rates using the deconvolution code MAXED 3.1. The results for the measured cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron dose equivalent and effective dose rates, and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cut-off agree well with results from recent calculations of GCR-induced neutron spectra.

  2. A New Wide-Range Equation of State for Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, John H.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the development of a new wide-range equation of state (EOS) for xenon. Three different prior EOS models predicted significant variations in behavior along the high pressure Hugoniot from an initial liquid state at 163.5 K and 2.97 g/cm3, which is near the triple point. Experimental measurements on Sandia's Z machine as well as density functional theory based molecular dynamics calculations both invalidate the prior EOS models in the pressure range from 200 to 840 GPa. The reason behind these EOS model disagreements is found to lie in the contribution from the thermal electronic models. A new EOS, based upon the standard separation of the Helmholtz free energy into ionic and electronic components, is constructed by combining the successful parts of prior models with a semi-empirical electronic model. Both the fluid and fcc solid phases are combined in a wide-range, multi-phase table. The new EOS is tabulated on a fine temperature and density grid, to preserve phase boundary information, and is available as table number 5191 in the LANL SESAME database. Improvements over prior EOS models are found not only along the Hugoniot, but also along the melting curve and in the region of the liquid-vapor critical point. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  4. Optical galaxy cluster detection across a wide redshift range

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang

    2009-04-01

    bands is very efficient. Multi-color CCD photometry allows combined detection and redshift estimation for clusters across broad redshift ranges. However, the lack of precise information about galaxy positions along the line of sight leads to contamination by projection, which plagues both cluster detection and the measurement of their properties. The dominance of red sequence galaxies, tightly clustered along the E/S0 ridgeline, provides a powerful method for de-projecting field galaxies. We developed an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model to fit the galaxies color distribution around clusters by taking into account the measurement errors. By this technique, we can detect the red sequence color clustering and extract unbiased information about the evolution of the red sequence ridgeline and its width. Precision measurements of ridgelines yields better estimates of cluster richness and possibly their dynamical state, leading to better estimates of cluster mass. By using the red sequence clustering in color space identified from the Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model, together with the projected NFW filter in the projected RA/DEC plane, we developed a new and efficient cluster finding algorithm that can reliably detect galaxy clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 to 1.4. We have also run the cluster finder on legacy SDSS DR7 data and assembled an approximately volume limited cluster catalog across redshifts from 0.1 to 0.5. The algorithm has been tested against a Monte Carlo mock catalog, showing the identified clusters are highly complete and pure. With the completion of this thesis, we build the first and essential step towards precision cluster cosmology. Meanwhile, the large optical cluster catalog across a wide redshift range makes possible the systematic and detailed investigation of cluster formation and evolution.

  5. The All-Particle Spectrum of Primary Cosmic Rays in the Wide Energy Range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV Observed with the Tibet-III Air-Shower Array

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, X. H.; Guo, H. W.; Hu, Haibing; Fan, C.; Feng, C. F.; He, M.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.

    2008-05-10

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} eV using 5.5 x 10{sup 7} events collected from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located 4300 m above sea level (an atmospheric depth of 606 g cm{sup -2}). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We discuss our extensive Monte Carlo calculations and the model dependencies involved in the final result, assuming interaction models QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1, and heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) primary composition models. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. A detector simulation was also performed to improve our accuracy in determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under various plausible model parameters are not significantly different from each other, which was the expected result given the characteristics of the experiment at high altitude, where the air showers of the primary energy around the knee reach near-maximum development, with their features dominated by electromagnetic components, leading to a weak dependence on the interaction model or the primary mass. This is the highest statistical and the best systematics-controlled measurement covering the widest energy range around the knee energy region.

  6. Wide-dynamic-range promoters engineered for cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Ho; Lindblad, Peter

    2013-04-22

    Cyanobacteria, prokaryotic cells with oxygenic photosynthesis, are excellent bioengineering targets to convert solar energy into solar fuels. Tremendous genetic engineering approaches and tools have been and still are being developed for prokaryotes. However, the progress for cyanobacteria is far behind with a specific lack of non-native inducible promoters. We report the development of engineered TetR-regulated promoters with a wide dynamic range of transcriptional regulation. An optimal 239 (±16) fold induction in darkness (white-light-activated heterotrophic growth, 24 h) and an optimal 290 (±93) fold induction in red light (photoautotrophic growth, 48 h) were observed with the L03 promoter in cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain ATCC27184 (i.e. glucose-tolerant Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803). By altering only few bases of the promoter in the narrow region between the -10 element and transcription start site significant changes in the promoter strengths, and consequently in the range of regulations, were observed. The non-native inducible promoters developed in the present study are ready to be used to further explore the notion of custom designed cyanobacterial cells in the complementary frameworks of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology.

  7. A wide dynamic range x-ray streak camera system

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Lihong; Yang Qinlao; Niu Hanben; Liao Hua; Zhou Junlan; Ding Yunkun

    2008-02-15

    An x-ray streak camera with wide dynamic range and a large slit photocathode of 30 mm length has been developed and calibrated. In order to achieve wide dynamic range, a conventional streak tube has been improved and the camera system has been designed without microchannel plate electron amplifier. As a result, a dynamic range of 922 is achieved in a single shot mode with laser pulse of 30 ps (full width at half maximum) at time resolution of better than 31 ps.

  8. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  9. A wide-range metrology AFM and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Dongxian

    2005-02-01

    In view of the fact that the application field of a dual tunneling-unit scanning tunneling microscope (DTU-STM) was strongly limited by sample conductivity, a dual imaging unit atomic force microscope (DIU-AFM) was developed for wide-range nano-metrology. A periodic grating is employed as a reference sample. The DIU-AFM simultaneously scans the grating and a test sample by using one single XY scanner. Their images thus have the same lateral size, and the length of the test sample image can be precisely measured by counting the number of periodic features of the reference grating. We further developed a new method of implementing wide-range nano-metrology. By alternatively moving the XY scanner in the X direction using a step motor, a series of pairs of images are obtained and can be spliced into two wide-range reference and test ones, respectively. Again, the two spliced images are of the same size, and the length of test image can be measured based on the reference grating features. In this way, wide-range metrology with nanometer order accuracy is successfully realized.

  10. Home on the Wide-Open Range of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Genny

    2011-01-01

    Kate Bornstein and S. Bear Bergman's "Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation" is a collection of narratives written by individuals with a wide range of gender identities and expressions from around the world. The text shows how gender-nonconforming people are changing how society looks at gender. As many of the individuals who are challenging gender…

  11. Home on the Wide-Open Range of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Genny

    2011-01-01

    Kate Bornstein and S. Bear Bergman's "Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation" is a collection of narratives written by individuals with a wide range of gender identities and expressions from around the world. The text shows how gender-nonconforming people are changing how society looks at gender. As many of the individuals who are challenging gender…

  12. A wide linear range surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhanliang; He, Yonghong; Shao, Yonghong; Guo, Jihua

    2006-09-01

    A new surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on polarization interferometry and angle modulation is presented. Its feature is that it can provide the same sensitivity in a wide refractive index (RI) range. Moreover, the sensitivity ofthis SPR sensor is insensitive to the thickness of gold films over about 5 mu. Experimental results show that its resolution in an integration time of 0.5 second is 1.7 × 10 -7 refractive index units (RIU). It demonstrates great potential to be commercialized and widely applied in biological research.

  13. A Wide Dynamic Range Tapped Linear Array Image Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washkurak, William D.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.; Prince, N. Daryl

    1988-08-01

    Detectors for acousto-optic signal processing applications require fast transient response as well as wide dynamic range. There are two major choices of detectors: conductive or integration mode. Conductive mode detectors have an initial transient period before they reach then' i equilibrium state. The duration of 1 his period is dependent on light level as well as detector capacitance. At low light levels a conductive mode detector is very slow; response time is typically on the order of milliseconds. Generally. to obtain fast transient response an integrating mode detector is preferred. With integrating mode detectors. the dynamic range is determined by the charge storage capability of the tran-sport shift registers and the noise level of the image sensor. The conventional net hod used to improve dynamic range is to increase the shift register charge storage capability. To achieve a dynamic range of fifty thousand assuming two hundred noise equivalent electrons, a charge storage capability of ten million electrons would be required. In order to accommodate this amount of charge. unrealistic shift registers widths would be required. Therefore, with an integrating mode detector it is difficult to achieve a dynamic range of over four orders of magnitude of input light intensity. Another alternative is to solve the problem at the photodetector aml not the shift, register. DALSA's wide dynamic range detector utilizes an optimized, ion implant doped, profiled MOSFET photodetector specifically designed for wide dynamic range. When this new detector operates at high speed and at low light levels the photons are collected and stored in an integrating fashion. However. at bright light levels where transient periods are short, the detector switches into a conductive mode. The light intensity is logarithmically compressed into small charge packets, easily carried by the CCD shift register. As a result of the logarithmic conversion, dynamic ranges of over six orders of

  14. Ternary bulk heterojunction for wide spectral range organic photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hojung; Kim, Jaehoon; Lee, Changhee

    2017-08-01

    Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) system, dual electron donors and an acceptor, was studied for developing wide spectral range organic photodetectors (OPDs). With two electron donor polymers with different bandgaps and an efficient electron acceptor of [6,6]-Phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM), different blend ratios for ternary BHJ OPD were examined to achieve high photoresponsivity over a wide spectral range. OPDs based on ternary BHJ showed improved photovoltage response compared to binary BHJ. Current-voltage (J-V) characteristics as a function of external bias and light illumination were measured to reveal the underlying charge recombination mechanism which is found to be dominantly ruled by space charge limit (SCL) effect. Additional in-depth analyses including absorbance, cross-section scanning electron microscope (SEM), incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) were performed.

  15. Wide temperature range electronic device with lead attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide temperature range is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.

  16. Distant and wide range wireless power transfer from metamedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Luo, Xudong; Ma, Hongru

    2016-07-01

    Based on electromagnetic scattering theory, a model of superscatterer enhanced distant wireless power transfer (WPT) device has designed and analyzed with the concept of transformation optics. The numerical results obtained through a series expansion method reveal that a properly designed ss-WPT has high efficiency for long transfer distances as well as a wide transfer range. The transfer distance can be further enlarged by fine tuning of the design. These effects can be explained qualitatively through the study of magnetic flux.

  17. A method for the evaluation of wide dynamic range cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ping Wah; Lu, Yu Hua

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-component metric for the evaluation of digital or video cameras under wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes. The method is based on a single image capture using a specifically designed WDR test chart and light box. Test patterns on the WDR test chart include gray ramps, color patches, arrays of gray patches, white bars, and a relatively dark gray background. The WDR test chart is professionally made using 3 layers of transparencies to produce a contrast ratio of approximately 110 dB for WDR testing. A light box is designed to provide a uniform surface with light level at about 80K to 100K lux, which is typical of a sunny outdoor scene. From a captured image, 9 image quality component scores are calculated. The components include number of resolvable gray steps, dynamic range, linearity of tone response, grayness of gray ramp, number of distinguishable color patches, smearing resistance, edge contrast, grid clarity, and weighted signal-to-noise ratio. A composite score is calculated from the 9 component scores to reflect the comprehensive image quality in cameras under WDR scenes. Experimental results have demonstrated that the multi-component metric corresponds very well to subjective evaluation of wide dynamic range behavior of cameras.

  18. High accuracy magnetic field sensors with wide operation temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'evskii, I. S.; Vinichenko, A. N.; Rubakin, D. I.; Bolshakova, I. A.; Kargin, N. I.

    2016-10-01

    n+InAs(Si) epitaxial thin films heavily doped by silicon and Hall effect magnetic field sensors based on this structures have been fabricated and studied. We have demonstrated the successful formation of highly doped InAs thin films (∼100 nm) with the different intermediate layer arrangement and appropriate electron mobility values. Hall sensors performance parameters have been measured in wide temperature range. Obtained sensitivity varied from 1 to 40 Ω/T, while the best linearity and lower temperature coefficient have been found in the higher doped samples with lower electron mobility. We attribute this to the electron system degeneracy and decreased phonon contribution to electron mobility and resistance.

  19. A Wide Range Neutron Detector for Space Nuclear Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nassif, Eduardo; Sismonda, Miguel; Matatagui, Emilio; Pretorius, Stephan

    2007-01-30

    We propose here a versatile and innovative solution for monitoring and controlling a space-based nuclear reactor that is based on technology already proved in ground based reactors. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) allows for a reduction in the complexity of space based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. A ground model, predecessor of the proposed system, has been installed and is operating at the OPAL (Open Pool Advanced Light Water Research Reactor) in Australia, providing long term functional data. A space compatible Engineering Qualification Model of the WRND has been developed, manufactured and verified satisfactorily by analysis, and is currently under environmental testing.

  20. Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

  1. Low Power, Wide Dynamic Range Carbon Nanotube Vacuum Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Manohara, Harish M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation presents carbon nanotube vacuum pressure sensor gauges that operate at low power and exhibit a wide-dynamic range based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The fabrication facility, and the formation process are shown. Pressure sensitivity was found to increase rapidly as the bias power was increased. In addition, by etching part of the thermal SiO2 beneath the tubes and minimizing heat conduction through the substrate, pressure sensitivity was extended toward lower pressures. Results are compared to a conventional thin film meander resistor, which was fabricated and whose pressure response was also measured for comparative purposes.

  2. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  3. Ozone formation in pulsed SDBD in a wide pressure range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Nudnova, Maryia; mipt Team

    2011-10-01

    Ozone concentration in surface anode-directed DBD for wide pressure range (150 - 1300 torr) was experimentally measured. Voltage and pressure effect were investigated. Reduced electric field was measured for anode-directed and cathode-directed SDBD. E/n values in cathode-directed SDBD is higher than in cathode-directed on 50 percent at atmospheric pressure. E/n value increase leads to decrease the rate of oxygen dissociation and Ozone formation at lower pressures. Radiating region thickness of sliding discharge was measured. Typical thickness of radiating zone is 0.4-1.0 mm within pressure range 220-740 torr. It was shown that high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge due to high E/n value produces less Ozone with compare to other discharges. Kinetic model was proposed to describe Ozone formation in the pulsed nanosecond SDBD.

  4. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  5. Wide-Range Probing of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Yoo, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Yun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Choe, Sug-Bong

    2017-01-01

    The Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) in magnetic objects is of enormous interest, because it generates built-in chirality of magnetic domain walls (DWs) and topologically protected skyrmions, leading to efficient motion driven by spin–orbit torques. Because of its importance for both potential applications and fundamental research, many experimental efforts have been devoted to DMI investigation. However, current experimental probing techniques cover only limited ranges of the DMI strength and have specific sample requirements. Thus, there are no versatile methods to quantify DMI over a wide range of values. Here, we present such an experimental scheme, which is based on the angular dependence of asymmetric DW motion. This method can be used to determine values of DMI much larger than the maximum strength of the external magnetic field strength, which demonstrates that various DMI strengths can be quantified with a single measurement setup. This scheme may thus prove essential to DMI-related emerging fields in nanotechnology. PMID:28361907

  6. Wide-Range Probing of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duck-Ho; Yoo, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Yun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Choe, Sug-Bong

    2017-03-01

    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in magnetic objects is of enormous interest, because it generates built-in chirality of magnetic domain walls (DWs) and topologically protected skyrmions, leading to efficient motion driven by spin-orbit torques. Because of its importance for both potential applications and fundamental research, many experimental efforts have been devoted to DMI investigation. However, current experimental probing techniques cover only limited ranges of the DMI strength and have specific sample requirements. Thus, there are no versatile methods to quantify DMI over a wide range of values. Here, we present such an experimental scheme, which is based on the angular dependence of asymmetric DW motion. This method can be used to determine values of DMI much larger than the maximum strength of the external magnetic field strength, which demonstrates that various DMI strengths can be quantified with a single measurement setup. This scheme may thus prove essential to DMI-related emerging fields in nanotechnology.

  7. Wide range optofluidically tunable multimode interference fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J. E.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.; LiKamWa, P.; May-Arrioja, D. A.

    2014-08-01

    An optofluidically tunable fiber laser based on multimode interference (MMI) effects with a wide tuning range is proposed and demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on an MMI fiber filter fabricated using a special fiber known as no-core fiber, which is a multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding. Therefore, when the MMI filter is covered by liquid the optical properties of the no-core fiber are modified, which allow us to tune the peak wavelength response of the MMI filter. Rather than applying the liquid on the entire no-core fiber, we change the liquid level along the no-core fiber, which provides a highly linear tuning response. In addition, by selecting the adequate refractive index of the liquid we can also choose the tuning range. We demonstrate the versatility of the optofluidically tunable MMI filter by wavelength tuning two different gain media, erbium doped fiber and a semiconductor optical amplifier, achieving tuning ranges of 55 and 90 nm respectively. In both cases, we achieve side-mode suppression ratios (SMSR) better than 50 dBm with output power variations of less than 0.76 dBm over the whole tuning range.

  8. FEA of CMUTs Suitable for Wide Gas Pressure Range Applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Min-Chieh; Kupnik, Mario; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2010-10-11

    The ability of ultrasound transducers to operate over a wide and varying pressure range is essential in applications such as ultrasonic flow metering (UFM) of flare gas. We propose a new operational mode for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), in which the plate is in permanent contact with the bottom of the cavity, even at zero DC bias and 1 atm pressure. Finite element analysis (FEA) software was used to investigate the performance of these CMUTs within the pressure range of 1 to 20 atm. First, we performed a static analysis to determine the plate deflection and, thus, the gap height. Further, from the static analysis, we obtained the static and free capacitances for calculating the coupling efficiency, and a modal analysis identified possible design geometries for frequencies lower than ~ 300 kHz. Our calculations show that conventionally operated CMUTs have huge changes in static operational point at different pressures, while our proposed mode exhibits an acceptable frequency range (73 - 340 kHz) over 1 - 20 atm pressure and an improved coupling efficiency at lower dc bias voltages. A donut shape partial electrode further allows us to tune the coupling efficiency, which translates into a better performance, especially at the higher pressure range. FEA shows that our proposed operation mode is a promising solution for flare gas metering applications.

  9. Study on Method of Wide Dynamic Range Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Teng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic data acquisition system is an indispensable device for seismic signal digitalization processing. Its performance is directly related to the final seismic signal acquisited, and ultimately affect the results of the data processing. The amplitude of seismic signal has a great span, its dynamic range even reached more than 160dB. And the dynamic range of the output signal of broadband seismometer is greater than 150dB too. Yet the dynamic range of 24-bit DAS(Data Acquisition System) which is currently widespread used and based on Σ-ΔA/D converter is only about 130dB. This lead to that the small seismic signal can't be recorded by 24-bit DAS as well as the amplitude of big seismic event wave recorded by it would be limited. For instance, since the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 Earthquake is a huge seismic event, the amplitudes of seismic wave recorded by all the 24-bit seismometors in Sichuan Province in China are seriously limited. It makes the earthquake monitoring station lost its function when we seriously need the data, and we lost the rare huge seismic event wave data for late studying. It is the requirement for the DAS in practical application that for a small seismic signal recorded, it needed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and has a high resolution, and for a big one, it is demanded to record the signal perfectly and not to be limited of its amplitude. According to this, we present a new method of wide dynamic range data acquisition: The Analog-to-Digital Converter classifies the input signal amplitude into several levels; The smaller-amplitude-level input voltage signal is digitalized with higher resolution while lower resolution digitalized for the bigger-amplitude-level input; Every amplitude-level-signal can be digitalized by an independent ordinary 24-bit Σ-ΔA/D converter for its dynamic range is less smaller; And finally, the controller-processing unit make all the level signal digital outputs into a 32-bit data, which has high resolution and

  10. Precise digital integration in wide time range: theory and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batrakov, A. M.; Pavlenko, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The digital integration method based on using high-speed precision analog-to-digital converters (ADC) has become widely used over the recent years. The paper analyzes the limitations of this method that are caused by the signal properties, ADC sampling rate and noise spectral density of the ADC signal path. This analysis allowed creating digital integrators with accurate synchronization and achieving an integration error of less than 10-5 in the time range from microseconds to tens of seconds. The structure of the integrator is described and its basic parameters are presented. The possibilities of different ADC chips in terms of their applicability to digital integrators are discussed. A comparison with other integrating devices is presented.

  11. Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Bukonte, L. Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.

    2014-03-28

    The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10{sup 15} Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T{sub m}, resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures.

  12. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-21

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  13. Range-wide Determinants of Plague Distribution in North America

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Sean P.; Ellis, Christine; Gage, Kenneth L.; Enscore, Russell E.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2010-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is established across western North America, and yet little is known of what determines the broad-scale dimensions of its overall range. We tested whether its North American distribution represents a composite of individual host–plague associations (the “Host Niche Hypothesis”), or whether mammal hosts become infected only at sites overlapping ecological conditions appropriate for plague transmission and maintenance (the “Plague Niche Hypothesis”). We took advantage of a novel data set summarizing plague records in wild mammals newly digitized from paper-based records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop range-wide tests of ecological niche similarity between mammal host niches and plague-infected host niches. Results indicate that plague infections occur under circumstances distinct from the broader ecological distribution of hosts, and that plague-infected niches are similar among hosts; hence, evidence coincides with the predictions of the Plague Niche Hypothesis, and contrasts with those of the Host Niche Hypothesis. The “plague niche” is likely driven by ecological requirements of vector flea species. PMID:20889857

  14. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nuñez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  15. Range-wide phenotypic and genetic differentiation in wild sunflower.

    PubMed

    McAssey, Edward V; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M

    2016-11-10

    Divergent phenotypes and genotypes are key signals for identifying the targets of natural selection in locally adapted populations. Here, we used a combination of common garden phenotyping for a variety of growth, plant architecture, and seed traits, along with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to characterize range-wide patterns of diversity in 15 populations of wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) sampled along a latitudinal gradient in central North America. We analyzed geographic patterns of phenotypic diversity, quantified levels of within-population SNP diversity, and also determined the extent of population structure across the range of this species. We then used these data to identify significantly over-differentiated loci as indicators of genomic regions that likely contribute to local adaptation. Traits including flowering time, plant height, and seed oil composition (i.e., percentage of saturated fatty acids) were significantly correlated with latitude, and thus differentiated northern vs. southern populations. Average pairwise FST was found to be 0.21, and a STRUCTURE analysis identified two significant clusters that largely separated northern and southern individuals. The significant FST outliers included a SNP in HaFT2, a flowering time gene that has been previously shown to co-localize with flowering time QTL, and which exhibits a known cline in gene expression. Latitudinal differentiation in both phenotypic traits and SNP allele frequencies is observed across wild sunflower populations in central North America. Such differentiation may play an important adaptive role across the range of this species, and could facilitate adaptation to a changing climate.

  16. Storm surge and tidal range energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  17. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera TrackingThe NASA Ames Sun-photometer-Satellite Group, DOE, PNNL Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, and NASA Goddard's AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) team recently collaborated on the development of a new airborne sunphotometry instrument that provides information on gases and aerosols extending far beyond what can be derived from discrete-channel direct-beam measurements, while preserving or enhancing many of the desirable AATS features (e.g., compactness, versatility, automation, reliability). The enhanced instrument combines the sun-tracking ability of the current 14-Channel NASA Ames AATS-14 with the sky-scanning ability of the ground-based AERONET Sun/sky photometers, while extending both AATS-14 and AERONET capabilities by providing full spectral information from the UV (350 nm) to the SWIR (1,700 nm). Strengths of this measurement approach include many more wavelengths (isolated from gas absorption features) that may be used to characterize aerosols and detailed (oversampled) measurements of the absorption features of specific gas constituents. The Sky Scanning Sun Tracking Airborne Radiometer (3STAR) replicates the radiometer functionality of the AATS-14 instrument but incorporates modern COTS technologies for all instruments subsystems. A 19-channel radiometer bundle design is borrowed from a commercial water column radiance instrument manufactured by Biospherical Instruments of San Diego California (ref, Morrow and Hooker)) and developed using NASA funds under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The 3STAR design also incorporates the latest in robotic motor technology embodied in Rotary actuators from Oriental motor Corp. having better than 15 arc seconds of positioning accuracy. Control system was designed, tested and simulated using a Hybrid-Dynamical modeling methodology. The design also replaces the classic quadrant detector tracking sensor with a

  18. Compression of polypropylene across a wide range of strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, M. I.; Buckley, C. P.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    Three grades of polypropylene were tested in uniaxial compression at room temperature, across a wide range of strain rate: 10-4 s-1 to 104 s-1. One grade is a conventional polypropylene homopolymer. The two other grades are the polypropylene forming the matrix phase of a continuous glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastic composite prepreg, with and without blending with a carbon-black master batch. Tests at the highest strain rates were performed using a compression split Hopkinson pressure bar. The test specimens, for all the three rates, were imaged using appropriate digital cameras in order to observe the deformation process. In addition, the images obtained were analysed digitally to obtain true strain measurements for the medium rates category. All three grades of polypropylene showed pronounced strain-rate dependence of compressive yield stress, increasing by factors of up to 4 across the range of rates. At the lowest rates, there was close agreement between the yield stresses for all three materials, and also close agreement with the Eyring theory. Considering the highest strain rates, however, yield stresses increased more rapidly with log(strain-rate) than would be expected from a linear Eyring prediction and values for the three materials diverged. This was attributed to the contributions made in each material by both alpha and beta relaxation processes. Also prominent in the medium- and high-rate experimental results was pronounced post-yield strain softening, greatest at the highest strain-rates. This resulted from a combination of thermal softening from adiabatic heating, and structural rejuvenation as often seen in glassy polymers in quasi-static tests.

  19. Wide range modeling study of dimethyl ether oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Dagaut, P.; Boettner, J-C; Cathonnet, M.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model has been used to study dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation over a wide range of conditions. Experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at I and 10 atm, 0.2 < 0 < 2.5, and 800 < T < 1300 K were modeled, in addition to those generated in a shock tube at 13 and 40 bar, 0 = 1.0 and 650 :5 T :5 1300 K. The JSR results are particularly valuable as they include concentration profiles of reactants, intermediates and products pertinent to the oxidation of DME. These data test the Idnetic model severely, as it must be able to predict the correct distribution and concentrations of intermediate and final products formed in the oxidation process. Additionally, the shock tube results are very useful, as they were taken at low temperatures and at high pressures, and thus undergo negative temperature dependence (NTC) behavior. This behavior is characteristic of the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbon fuels, (e.g. the primary reference fuels, n-heptane and iso- octane) under similar conditions. The numerical model consists of 78 chemical species and 336 chemical reactions. The thermodynamic properties of unknown species pertaining to DME oxidation were calculated using THERM.

  20. Wide-range displacement expressions for standard fracture mechanics specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapp, J. A.; Gross, B.; Leger, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Wide-range algebraic expressions for the displacement of cracked fracture mechanics specimens are developed. For each specimen two equations are given: one for the displacement as a function of crack length, the other for crack length as a function of displacement. All the specimens that appear in ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399) are represented in addition to the crack mouth displacement for a pure bending specimen. For the compact tension sample and the disk-shaped compact tension sample, the displacement at the crack mouth and at the load line are both considered. Only the crack mouth displacements for the arc-shaped tension samples are presented. The agreement between the displacements or crack lengths predicted by the various equations and the corresponding numerical data from which they were developed are nominally about 3 percent or better. These expressions should be useful in all types of fracture testing including fracture toughness, K-resistance, and fatigue crack growth.

  1. Wide-range displacement expressions for standard fracture mechanics specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapp, J. A.; Gross, B.; Leger, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Wide-range algebraic expressions for the displacement of cracked fracture mechanics specimens are developed. For each specimen two equations are given: one for the displacement as a function of crack length, the other for crack length as a function of displacement. All the specimens that appear in ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399) are represented in addition to the crack mouth displacement for a pure bending specimen. For the compact tension sample and the disk-shaped compact tension sample, the displacement at the crack mouth and at the load line are both considered. Only the crack mouth displacements for the arc-shaped tension samples are presented. The agreement between the displacements or crack lengths predicted by the various equations and the corresponding numerical data from which they were developed are nominally about 3 percent or better. These expressions should be useful in all types of fracture testing including fracture toughness, K-resistance, and fatigue crack growth.

  2. Cooling Function in Wide Range of Density and Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Ferland, G. J.

    2013-06-01

    This work focuses on how the plasma cooling function changes with density and metallicity over a wide range of temperature (104 K2×104 K that describe the different dependencies and can be applied to other cooling functions. We finally present our fitting results that can be used in hydrodynamics code easily, along with tables that can be used when greater precision is used.

  3. Range-Wide Snow Leopard Phylogeography Supports Three Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Janecka, Jan E; Zhang, Yuguang; Li, Diqiang; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Bayaraa, Munkhtsog; Galsandorj, Naranbaatar; Wangchuk, Tshewang R; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Li, Juan; Lu, Zhi; Uulu, Kubanychbek Zhumabai; Gaur, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Kumar, Kesav; Hussain, Shafqat; Muhammad, Ghulam; Jevit, Matthew; Hacker, Charlotte; Burger, Pamela; Wultsch, Claudia; Janecka, Mary J; Helgen, Kristofer; Murphy, William J; Jackson, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the Holocene (∼8000 years ago) coinciding with increased temperatures, precipitation, and upward treeline shift in the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple analyses supported 3 primary genetic clusters: (1) Northern (the Altai region), (2) Central (core Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau), and (3) Western (Tian Shan, Pamir, trans-Himalaya regions). Accordingly, we recognize 3 subspecies, Panthera uncia irbis (Northern group), Panthera uncia uncia (Western group), and Panthera uncia uncioides (Central group) based upon genetic distinctness, low levels of admixture, unambiguous population assignment, and geographic separation. The patterns of variation were consistent with desert-basin "barrier effects" of the Gobi isolating the northern subspecies (Mongolia), and the trans-Himalaya dividing the central (Qinghai, Tibet, Bhutan, and Nepal) and western subspecies (India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Hierarchical Bayesian clustering analysis revealed additional subdivision into a minimum of 6 proposed management units: western Mongolia, southern Mongolia, Tian Shan, Pamir-Himalaya, Tibet-Himalaya, and Qinghai, with spatial autocorrelation suggesting potential connectivity by dispersing individuals up to ∼400 km. We provide a foundation for global conservation of snow leopard subspecies, and set the stage for in-depth landscape genetics and genomic studies. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Reconciling deep convection with wide range statistical scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Classical "two-scale" theories of convection (e.g. Malkus 1957) single out a "convective scale" somewhere in the meso-scale. Theoretically, they rely on the classical picture of atmospheric motions which postulates a three dimensional isotropic turbulence at small scales and a 2-D isotropic turbulence at large scales. This classical statistical picture itself relies empirically on observations taken by aircraft flying on isobaric trajectories which observed a break in wind spectra typically at around 40 km. However, by closely scrutinizing state-of-the art aircraft observations of pressure, (aircraft) altitude and wind using cross-correlation and other techniques, recent work shows that rather than being a physical scale separation between k**-5/3 and k**-3 (3-D and 2-D) regimes that the actual transition is between k**-5/3 and k**-2.4 spectra and is in fact a completely spurious consequence of the transition from the (different) isoheight (small scales) to isobaric (large scale) spectra. The actual isoheight spectra is found to be scaling over huge ranges. This reinterpretation is bolstered by other work using drop sondes, lidars and passive and active satellite radiances. This presentation focuses on the important consequences that this reinterpretation has for our views of convection. We describe an alternative model in which the underlying dynamical processes are anisotropic multiplicative cascades with different exponents in the horizontal and vertical directions. This has two consequences. First, that structures will systematically change shape/morphology with scale; in this case going from vertically oriented "cells" at small scales to flattened strata at large scales. Second, that the fields will have strong singularities (hence coherent structures) distributed over sparse fractal sets (multifractals). Basing ourselves on analyses of CloudSat reflectivities (convection surrogates) which show that the latter do indeed respect anisotropic cascades, we

  5. Reconciling deep convection with wide range statistical scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, J.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Classical “two-scale” theories of convection (e.g. Malkus 1957) single out a “convective scale” somewhere in the meso-scale. Theoretically, they rely on the classical picture of atmospheric motions which postulates a three dimensional isotropic turbulence at small scales and a 2-D isotropic turbulence at large scales. This classical statistical picture itself relies empirically on observations taken by aircraft flying on isobaric trajectories which observed a break in wind spectra typically at around 40 km. However, by closely scrutinizing state-of-the art aircraft observations of pressure, (aircraft) altitude and wind using cross-correlation and other techniques, recent work shows that rather than being a physical scale separation between k**-5/3 and k**-3 (3-D and 2-D) regimes that the actual transition is between k**-5/3 and k**-2.4 spectra and is in fact a completely spurious consequence of the transition from the (different) isoheight (small scales) to isobaric (large scale) spectra. The actual isoheight spectra is found to be scaling over huge ranges. This reinterpretation is bolstered by other work using drop sondes, lidars and passive and active satellite radiances. This talk focuses on the important consequences that this reinterpretation has for our views of convection. We describe an alternative model in which the underlying dynamical processes are anisotropic multiplicative cascades with different exponents in the horizontal and vertical directions. This has two consequences. First, that structures will systematically change shape/morphology with scale; in this case going from vertically oriented “cells” at small scales to flattened strata at large scales. Second, that the fields will have strong singularities (hence coherent structures) distributed over sparse fractal sets (multifractals). Basing ourselves on analyses of CloudSat reflectivities (convection surrogates) which show that the latter do indeed respect anisotropic cascades, we

  6. Dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities. The partition functions for molecular and atomic species are evaluated, in a statistical-mechanically consistent way, implementing recent developments in the literature and taking high-density effects into account. A new chemical model (free energy function) is introduced in which the fluid is considered as a mixture of diatomic molecules, atoms, ions, and free electrons. Intensive short range hard core repulsion is taken into account together with partial degeneracy of free electrons and Coulomb interactions among charged particles. Samples of computational results are presented as a set of isotherms for the degree of ionization, dissociated fraction of molecules, pressure, and specific internal energy for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Predictions from the present model calculations show an improved and sensible physical behavior compared to other results in the literature.

  7. Wide tracking range, auto ranging, low jitter phase lock loop for swept and fixed frequency systems

    DOEpatents

    Kerner, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a wide tracking range phase locked loop (PLL) circuit that achieves minimal jitter in a recovered clock signal, regardless of the source of the jitter (i.e. whether it is in the source or the transmission media). The present invention PLL has automatic harmonic lockout detection circuitry via a novel lock and seek control logic in electrical communication with a programmable frequency discriminator and a code balance detector. (The frequency discriminator enables preset of a frequency window of upper and lower frequency limits to derive a programmable range within which signal acquisition is effected. The discriminator works in combination with the code balance detector circuit to minimize the sensitivity of the PLL circuit to random data in the data stream). In addition, the combination of a differential loop integrator with the lock and seek control logic obviates a code preamble and guarantees signal acquisition without harmonic lockup. An adaptive cable equalizer is desirably used in combination with the present invention PLL to recover encoded transmissions containing a clock and/or data. The equalizer automatically adapts to equalize short haul cable lengths of coaxial and twisted pair cables or wires and provides superior jitter performance itself. The combination of the equalizer with the present invention PLL is desirable in that such combination permits the use of short haul wires without significant jitter.

  8. Braze alloy holds bonding strength over wide temperature range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Copper-based quaternary alloys of the solid solution type is used for vacuum furnace brazing of large stainless steel components at a maximum temperature of 1975 deg F. The alloy has high bonding strength and good ductility over a temperature range extending from the cryogenic region to approximately 800 deg F.

  9. Log amplifier instrument measures physiological biopotentials over wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kado, R. T.

    1970-01-01

    To record biopotentials with extreme dynamic ranges, biopotential inputs are capacitatively coupled to a miniature, low power, solid-state signal conditioner consisting of a two-stage differential preamplifier that has a low noise figure. The ouput of the preamplifier uses diodes to provide an overall gain which is nearly logarithmic.

  10. Setup for magnetoelectric measurement in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, S.; Sweta, K.; Sahoo, M. R.; Barik, A.; Vishwakarma, P. N.

    2017-05-01

    An experimental setup is designed and developed to measure magnetoelectric (ME) voltage, following the dynamic method. Excitation magnetic field of frequency 220Hz and amplitude of 20Oe is employed to induce the ME voltage which in turn is measured using the lock-in technique. Field dependence of the ME voltage is also measured in the magnetic field ranging -10kOe to +10kOe. In this setup the measurement can be carried out in the temperature range 400K to 125K using the combination of heater and liquid nitrogen. Calibration of the setup is done using Cr2O3 as standard. After calibration, a test measurement is done on BiFeO3; a well know ME material. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of ME voltage measurement on polycrystalline BiFeO3 is carried out. Theoretically predicted linear behavior of ME in case of BiFeO3, is well reproduced here.

  11. Faraday isolator stably operating in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, E. A.; Voitovich, A. V.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-03-01

    A method of stabilizing Faraday isolator characteristics at varying temperatures is proposed in this letter. The method is based on the use of a magnetic system with an inhomogeneous magnetic field and a magneto-optical element holder made of a material with a high value of thermal expansion coefficient. Changing the rotation angle of the polarization plane of radiation caused by the temperature variation of the magneto-optical element and the temperature dependence of its Verdet constant is compensated by its shifting in the magnetic field. The developed device demonstrates an isolation ratio of more than 40 dB at a temperature range of 25 °C. Estimates show the possibility of providing an isolation ratio of more than 45 dB in a temperature range of 60 °C.

  12. Wind energy conversion in the MW range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lois, L.

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to show that certain wind patterns above the continental United States are particularly suited for wind energy conversion utilizing wind powered stations in the MWe range, (2) to describe a system specifically designed for such stations, and (3) to present calculations which show that such a system is within the range of existing technology. The proposed system is based on the existence of a wind pattern called the low level jet in which (a) the average wind speed is 2.0 to 3.0 times higher than at the 300 ft level, and (b) the diurnal and seasonal variations are smaller than at 300 ft. The higher specific power and utilization factor which result from the characteristics of the low level jet contribute to higher power level per installation and power cost per unit energy produced.

  13. Wide spectral range characterization of antireflective coatings and their optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Ohlídal, Ivan; Jankuj, Jiří

    2015-09-01

    Development of antireflective coatings realized by thin film systems requires their characterization and optimization of their properties. Functional properties of such interference devices are determined by optical constants and thicknesses of the individual films and various defects taking place in these systems. In optics industry the characterization of the films is mostly performed in a relatively narrow spectral range using simple dispersion models and, moreover, the defects are not taken into account at all. This manner of characterization fails if applied to real-world non-ideal thin film systems because the measured data do not contain sufficient information about all the parameters describing the system including imperfections. Reliable characterization requires the following changes: extension of spectral range of measurements, combination of spectrophotometry and ellipsometry, utilization of physically correct dispersion models (Kramers-Kronig consistency, sum rules), inclusion of structural defects instrument imperfection into the models and simultaneous processing of all experimental data. This enables us to remove or reduce a correlation among the parameters searched so that correct and sufficiently precise determination of parameter values is achieved. Since the presence and properties of the defects are difficult to control independently by tuning of the deposition conditions, the optimization does not in general involve the elimination of defects. Instead they are taken into account in the design of the film systems. The outlined approach is demonstrated on the characterization and optimization of ultraviolet antireflective coating formed by double layer of Al2O3 and MgF2 deposited on fused silica.

  14. The remarkable wide range spatial scaling of TRMM precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, J.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Allaire, V.

    2007-12-01

    The advent of space borne precipitation radar has opened up the possibility of studying the variability of global precipitation over huge ranges of scale while avoiding many of the calibration and sparse network problems which plague ground based rain gage and radar networks. We studied 1176 consecutive orbits of attenuation- corrected near surface reflectivity measurements from the TRMM satellite PR instrument. We find that for well- measured statistical moments (orders 0 < q < 2) corresponding to dBZ < 57 and probabilities > 10**-6, that the residuals with respect to a pure scaling (power law) variability are remarkably low: to within 6.4 percent over the range 20,000 km down to 4.3 km. We argue that higher order moments are biased due to inadequately corrected attenuation effects. When a stochastic three - parameter universal multifractal cascade model is used to model both the reflectivity and the minimum detectable signal of the radar (which was about twice the mean), we find that we can explain all the same statistics to within 4.6 percent over the same range. The effective outer scale of the variability was found to be 32,000 +- 2000 km. The fact that this is somewhat larger than the planetary scale (20,000 km) is a consequence of the residual variability of precipitation at the planetary scales. With the help of numerical simulations we were able to estimate the three fundamental parameters as alpha = 1.5, C1 = 0.63 +- 0.02 and H = 0.00 +- 0.01 (the multifractal index, the codimension of the mean and the nonconservation parameter respectively). There was no error estimate on α since although alpha = 1.5 was roughly the optimum value, this conclusion depended on assumptions about the instrument at both low and high reflectivities. The value H = 0 means that the reflectivity can be modeled as a pure multiplicative process, i.e. that the reflectivity is conserved from scale to scale. We show that by extending the model down to the inner "relaxation scale

  15. The remarkable wide range spatial scaling of TRMM precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Allaire, V. C.

    2008-10-01

    The advent of space borne precipitation radar has opened up the possibility of studying the variability of global precipitation over huge ranges of scale while avoiding many of the calibration and sparse network problems which plague ground based rain gage and radar networks. We studied 1176 consecutive orbits of attenuation-corrected near surface reflectivity measurements from the TRMM satellite PR instrument. We find that for well-measured statistical moments (orders 0 < q < 2) corresponding to radar reflectivities with dBZ < 57 and probabilities > 10 - 6 , that the residuals with respect to a pure scaling (power law) variability are remarkably low: ± 6.4% over the range 20,000 km down to 4.3 km. We argue that higher order moments are biased due to inadequately corrected attenuation effects. When a stochastic three — parameter universal multifractal cascade model is used to model both the reflectivity and the minimum detectable signal of the radar (which was about twice the mean), we find that we can explain the same statistics to within ± 4.6% over the same range. The effective outer scale of the variability was found to be 32,000 ± 2000 km. The fact that this is somewhat larger than the planetary scale (20,000 km) is a consequence of the residual variability of precipitation at the planetary scales. With the help of numerical simulations we were able to estimate the three fundamental parameters as α ≈ 1.5, C1 = 0.63 ± 0.02 and H = 0.00 ± 0.01 (the multifractal index, the codimension of the mean and the nonconservation parameter respectively). There was no error estimate on α since although α = 1.5 was roughly the optimum value, this conclusion depended on assumptions about the instrument at both low and high reflectivities. The value H = 0 means that the reflectivity can be modeled as a pure multiplicative process, i.e. that the reflectivity is conserved from scale to scale. We show that by extending the model down to the inner "relaxation scale

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    2001-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  17. Microcalorimetry: Wide Temperature Range, High Field, Small Sample Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Frances

    2000-03-01

    We have used Si micromachining techniques to fabricate devices for measuring specific heat or other calorimetric signals from microgram-quantity samples over a temperature range from 1 to 900K in magnetic fields to date up to 8T. The devices are based on a relatively robust silicon nitride membrane with thin film heaters and thermometers. Different types of thermometers are used for different purposes and in different temperature ranges. These devices are particularly useful for thin film samples (typically 200-400 nm thick at present) deposited directly onto the membrane through a Si micromachined evaporation mask. They have also been used for small single crystal samples attached by conducting grease or solder, and for powder samples dissolved in a solvent and dropped onto devices. The measurement technique used (relaxation method) is particularly suited to high field measurements because the thermal conductance can be measured once in zero field and is field independent, while the time constant of the relaxation does not depend on thermometer calibration. Present development efforts include designs which show promise for time-resolved calorimetry measurements of biological samples in small amounts of water. Samples measured to date include amorphous magnetic thin films (a-TbFe2 and giant negative magnetoresistance a-Gd-Si alloys), empty and filled fullerenes (C_60, K_3C_60, C_82, La@C_82, C_84, and Sc_2@C_84), single crystal manganites (La_1-xSr_xMnO_3), antiferromagnetic multilayers (NiO/CoO, NiO/MgO, and CoO/MgO), and nanoparticle magnetic materials (CoO in a Ag matrix).

  18. Energy Expenditure Ranges and Muscular Work Grades

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. R.; Crowden, G. P.

    1963-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a field study which was planned to ascertain by metabolic measurement the rates of energy expenditure of men and women on productive effort at work in modern factories. The investigation which is described was carried out during a period of peace-time full employment, mainly in factories associated with the Slough Industrial Health Service in which a nutritional survey of the calorie intake of male operatives had been made by the Ministry of Health and the Medical Research Council in 1952. The rates of energy expenditure of 70 men and 54 women in 27 occupational groups were measured by indirect calorimetric methods. On the basis of the criteria for the classification of work according grades to its heaviness, adopted by the Factory Department of the Ministry of Labour, muscular work grades have been ascribed to the occupations studied. From the distribution of 390 metabolic measurements, ranges of energy expenditure have been computed for occupations classed as sedentary, light, moderate, heavy, or very heavy, Observation of recurrent phase variations in types of productive effort in the work-cycle indicated that wider work grades, such as light-to-moderate or moderate-to-heavy, are needed to cover the energy expenditure rates of men and women in many occupations. The data obtained in this study have enabled a table termed the “Slough Scales” to be compiled giving ranges of energy expenditure and pulmonary ventilation rates for the various work grades ascribed to occupations. The mean rates of energy expenditure of 257 workers (in industries in different parts of England and Scotland) which have been calculated from data published by other investigators have been found to fall within the ranges specified in these scales for the work grades of their occupations. It is felt, therefore, that the Slough Scales represent a reasonably true appraisal of the relation between the Ministry of Labour occupational work grades and the

  19. Wide vacuum pressure range monitoring by Pirani SAW sensor.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Pascal; Elmazria, Omar; Sarry, Frederic; Bouvot, Laurent; Kambara, Hisanori; Singh, Kanwar J; Alnot, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    A new kind of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been developed to measure sub-atmospheric pressure below 100 mtorr with accuracy better than 0.1 mtorr. It provides an efficient measuring solution in the pressure range inaccessible in past by conventional diaphragm-based SAW sensors. Indeed, because of the small bending force in lower pressure and limited sensitivity, diaphragm-based SAW sensors are only suited to monitor relatively high pressure with a precision hardly better than 0.5 torr. To reach precision level better than 1 mtorr at sub-atmospheric pressure for vacuum technology applications, a radically different SAW-based solution is necessary. Our device aims to measure sub-atmospheric pressure less than 100 mtorr with a threshold resolution better than 0.1 mtorr. The concept is similar to the one used by Pirani pressure gauges. However, it is claimed that a heated and suspended SAW device should have better sensitivity. A theoretical model based on the basic concepts of gas kinetic theory and thermodynamics is presented. The validity of the model is checked by comparison between theoretical and experimental results.

  20. Silicon drift chamber with extended energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanti, Claudio; Dal Fiume, Daniele; Fiorini, Carlo; Longoni, Antonio; Mauri, Alessandro; Perotti, Francesco; Rossi, Elio; Stephen, John B.

    2000-12-01

    The requirement for future X-ray Astronomy instrumentation to exhibit a combination of good energy resolution and an extended energy range may be fulfilled by the development of a X ray detectors made from coupling a Silicon Drift Chamber (SDC), to a scintillation crystal. We report on such a detector made with an SDC of 3 mm diameter and using a Caesium Iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillator. The radiation input window is located on the Si side of the assembly so than soft X-rays are directly detected by the SDC. This allows a minimum threshold of about 1 keV at 0 degrees Celsius to be obtained. The Silicon Drift Chamber acts also as a photodiode able to detect the scintillation light produced by the CsI(Tl), thus extending the energy range of such a device up to some MeV. The discrimination of events between these two detection layers is performed by using a pulse shape discriminator in order to differentiate between the different rise times of the collected charge. The detector concept is discussed on the basis of the results already achieved and the future developments foreseen.

  1. A high speed, wide dynamic range digitizer circuit for photomultiplier tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, R.J.; Foster, G.W.; Knickerbocker, K.; Sarraj, M.; Tschirhart, R.; Whitmore, J.; Zimmerman, T.; Lindgren, M.

    1994-06-01

    High energy physics experiments running at high interaction rates frequently require long record lengths for determining a level 1 trigger. The easiest way to provide a long event record is by digital means. In applications requiring wide dynamic range, however, digitization of an analog signal to obtain the digital record has been impossible due to lack of high speed, wide range FADCs. One such application is the readout of thousands of photomultiplier tubes in fixed target and colliding beam experiment calorimeters. A circuit has been designed for digitizing PMT signals over a wide dynamic range (17--18 bits) with 8 bits of resolution at rates up to 53 MHz. Output from the circuit is in a floating point format with a 4 bit exponent and an 8 bit mantissa. The heart of the circuit is a full custom integrated circuit called the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder). The design of the QIE and associated circuitry reported here permits operation over a 17 bit dynamic range. Tests of the circuit with a PMT input and a pulsed laser have provided respectable results with little off line correction. Performance of the circuit for demanding applications can be significantly enhanced with additional off line correction. Circuit design, packaging issues, and test results of a multirange device are presented for the first time.

  2. ^{7}Be(n,α)^{4}He Reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: Measurement of the Cross Section in a Wide Energy Range at n_TOF at CERN.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, M; Musumarra, A; Cosentino, L; Maugeri, E; Heinitz, S; Mengoni, A; Dressler, R; Schumann, D; Käppeler, F; Colonna, N; Finocchiaro, P; Ayranov, M; Damone, L; Kivel, N; Aberle, O; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bacak, M; Balibrea-Correa, J; Barros, S; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Beinrucker, C; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Caamaño, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cardella, R; Casanovas, A; Castelluccio, D M; Cerutti, F; Chen, Y H; Chiaveri, E; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Cristallo, S; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dupont, E; Duran, I; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Furman, W; Ganesan, S; García-Rios, A; Gawlik, A; Glodariu, T; Göbel, K; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Harada, H; Heftrich, T; Heyse, J; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Katabuchi, T; Kavrigin, P; Kimura, A; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lerendegui, J; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Lo Meo, S; Lonsdale, S J; Losito, R; Macina, D; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mastromarco, M; Mazzone, A; Mendoza, E; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Montesano, S; Nolte, R; Oprea, A; Pappalardo, A; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Piscopo, M; Plompen, A; Porras, I; Praena, J; Quesada, J; Rajeev, K; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego-Perez, A; Rout, P; Rubbia, C; Ryan, J; Sabate-Gilarte, M; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Sedyshev, P; Smith, A G; Stamatopoulos, A; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Vollaire, J; Wallner, A; Warren, S; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wolf, C; Woods, P J; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2016-10-07

    The energy-dependent cross section of the ^{7}Be(n,α)^{4}He reaction, of interest for the so-called cosmological lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of ^{7}Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure ^{7}Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha particles have been recorded in two Si-^{7}Be-Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 1960s at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence reported here clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in BBN calculations. Although new measurements at higher neutron energy may still be needed, the n_TOF results hint at a minor role of this reaction in BBN, leaving the long-standing cosmological lithium problem unsolved.

  3. Performance characterization of Lithium-ion cells possessing carbon-carbon composite-based anodes capable of operating over a wide temperature range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Hossain, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Loutfy, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has interest in secondary energy storage batteries that display high specific energy, high energy density, long life characteristics, and perform well over a wide range of temperatures, in order to enable a number of future applications.

  4. Energy efficiency study of single-wide manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Andrews, G.J.; Stovall, T.K.; Kelly, T.

    1999-12-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was among Tennessee Technological University, Clayton Homes, Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Manufactured homes now make up a substantial portion of the new home market, and improving the energy efficiency of these homes would save significant amounts of energy. This project explored the impact of differing levels of attic insulation, the use of evacuated insulation panels, and the application of a solar reflective roof coating. The performance of the installed roof cavity insulation compared favorably with that predicted by laboratory measurements. The more heavily insulated of the two units used about 30% less energy over the period of the project than the standard unit. Based on the experimental data, computer simulations for nine cities were completed for a single-wide manufactured home with the solar reflective roof coating. Annual electric power savings ranged from 894 kWh in Rapid City to 2119 kWh for the same roof area in Los Angeles. The field performance of vacuum insulation panels was compared with laboratory performance. The panels will perform as expected if protected from puncture.

  5. Axial nano-displacement measurement with high resolution and wide range based on asymmetrical illumination.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Kuang, Cuifang; Ge, Jianhong; Liu, Xu

    2013-03-25

    We propose a novel axial nano-displacement measuring approach. Based on asymmetrical illumination, the axial drifts of the sample plane can be measured by detecting the position of the centroid of the focal spot. Both CCD and QD are used as the detector in the system and two data processing models are designed. With a relatively simple and applicable configuration, the proposed system can realize a wide measuring range of >4λand a high axial resolution of 2nm. Moreover, the presented approach is immune to the influence caused by the energy fluctuation of the laser source. Possessing these advantages, this measuring method has big potential to be applied in modern engineering and scientific researches.

  6. An accurate Fortran code for computing hydrogenic continuum wave functions at a wide range of parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-12-01

    The accurate computations of hydrogenic continuum wave functions are very important in many branches of physics such as electron-atom collisions, cold atom physics, and atomic ionization in strong laser fields, etc. Although there already exist various algorithms and codes, most of them are only reliable in a certain ranges of parameters. In some practical applications, accurate continuum wave functions need to be calculated at extremely low energies, large radial distances and/or large angular momentum number. Here we provide such a code, which can generate accurate hydrogenic continuum wave functions and corresponding Coulomb phase shifts at a wide range of parameters. Without any essential restrict to angular momentum number, the present code is able to give reliable results at the electron energy range [10,10] eV for radial distances of [10,10] a.u. We also find the present code is very efficient, which should find numerous applications in many fields such as strong field physics. Program summaryProgram title: HContinuumGautchi Catalogue identifier: AEHD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1233 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7405 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 in fixed format Computer: AMD Processors Operating system: Linux RAM: 20 MBytes Classification: 2.7, 4.5 Nature of problem: The accurate computation of atomic continuum wave functions is very important in many research fields such as strong field physics and cold atom physics. Although there have already existed various algorithms and codes, most of them can only be applicable and reliable in a certain range of parameters. We present here an accurate FORTRAN program for

  7. Wide-Area Persistent Energy-Efficient Maritime Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wide-Area Persistent Energy -Efficient Maritime Sensing...http://people.ee.duke.edu/~jk/ LONG-TERM GOALS The goal of this project is persistent maritime sensing by energy -efficient collection and...fundamentally limited by the energy used for communication, navigation, computation, and/or propulsion. Our concept overcomes these limitations by

  8. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Tomohiro Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-16

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  9. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomohiro; Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-01

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  10. Thermal analysis of the mixtures of paraffin with aluminum in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, S. A.; Maklashova, I. V.; Levitskaya, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    The mixtures and composites of wax, paraffin and metals are widely used as energy efficient formulations and phase change materials for heat storage. Aluminum is frequently employed in the formulations of many composite explosives or propellants. Metal fuel additives are used in advanced explosive formulations to achieve higher combustion temperatures and longer pressure pulses. In this project, Al-paraffin wax composite materials were prepared and characterized. The thermal stability of the prepared powders was determined by differential scanning calorimeter, simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis- differential thermal analysis in the temperature range 30-1300°C at atmospheric pressure. The results of differential scanning calorimeter showed that the thermal performance and structure of the composite materials are stable up to 200°C.The paraffindecompositionwith an energy release is possible at temperatures over 200°C and the oxidation of aluminum may be at a temperature above its melting point.It is shown that the maximum total amount of heat generated by the thermal decomposition of the composition was at the mass fraction of aluminum of 16% - 18%.

  11. Computer-Drawn Field Lines and Potential Surfaces for a Wide Range of Field Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Siegmund; Schneider, Hermann

    1976-01-01

    Describes a computer program that computes field lines and equipotential surfaces for a wide range of field configurations. Presents the mathematical technique and details of the program, the input data, and different modes of graphical representation. (MLH)

  12. Cascaded optical isolator configuration having high-isolation characteristics over a wide temperature and wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, K; Kawakami, S

    1987-07-01

    A new configuration of a cascaded optical isolator with high isolation over a wide range of temperature and wavelength is proposed. The configuration consists of two unit isolators, each of which is optimized for a different temperature and wavelength.

  13. Thermal stimulated current response in cupric oxide single crystal thin films over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kungan; Wu, Shuxiang; Yu, Fengmei; Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yunjia; Meng, Meng; Wang, Gaili; Zhang, Yueli; Li, Shuwei

    2017-01-01

    Cupric oxide single crystal thin films (~26 nm) were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction show that the thin films are 2  ×  2 reconstructed with an in-plane compression and out-of-plane stretching. A thermal stimulated current measurement indicates that the electric polarization response is shown in the special 2D cupric oxide single crystal thin film over a wide temperature range from 130 K to near-room temperature. We infer that the abnormal electric response involves the changing of phase transition temperature induced by structure distortion, the spin frustration and the magnetic fluctuation effect of a short-range magnetic order, or the combined action of both of the two factors mentioned above. This work suggests a promising clue for finding new room temperature single phase multiferroics or tuning phase transition temperatures.

  14. Wide-temperature range operation supercapacitors from nanostructured activated carbon fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kaihsuan; Masarapu, Charan; Ko, Tsehao; Wei, Bingqing

    Electrochemical power sources that offer high energy and power densities and, can also withstand a harsh temperature range have become extremely desirable in applications ranging from civilian portable electronic devices to military weapons. In this report, we demonstrated a wide temperature withstanding supercapacitor which can be operated from 100 °C to -40 °C within a voltage window from -2 V to 2 V. The performance of the supercapacitor coin cells, assembled with nanostructured activated carbon fabric (ACF) as the electrode material and 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF 4) in polypropylene carbonate (PC) solution as the electrolyte, was systematically studied within the set temperature window. The ACF supercapacitor yielded ideal rectangular shapes in cyclic voltammograms within 0-100 °C with an average mass capacitance of 90 F g -1 and, 60 F g -1 at -25 °C. The capacitance was still over 20 F g -1 at the extremely low temperature of -40 °C. Another exciting feature of the ACF supercapacitors was that they resumed their room temperature capacitance when cooled from 100 °C and defrosted from -40 °C, demonstrating an excellent repeatability and stability. The charge-discharge behavior of the ACF supercapacitors showed long-cycle stability at extreme temperatures. These high electrochemical performances make this type of supercapacitors very promising in many practical applications.

  15. A color balancing method for wide range Remote Sensing imagery based on Regionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Li, H. T.; Gu, H. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Quick mosaicking of wide range remote sensing imagery is an important foundation for land resource survey and dynamic monitoring of environment and nature disasters. It is also technically important for basis imagery of geographic information acquiring and geographic information product updating. This paper mainly focuses on one key technique of mosaicking, color balancing for wide range Remote Sensing imagery. Due to huge amount of data, large covering rage, great variety of climate and geographical condition, color balancing for wide range remote sensing imagery is a difficult problem. In this paper we use Ecogeographic regionalization to divide the large area into several regions based on terrains and climatic data, construct the algorithmic framework of a color balancing method according to the regionalization result, which conduct from region edge to center to fit wide range imagery mosaicking. The experimental results with wide range HJ-1 dataset show that our method can significantly improve the wide range of remote sensing imagery color balancing effects: making images well-proportioned mosaicking and better in keeping images' original information. In summary, this color balancing method based on regionalization could be a good solution for nationwide remote sensing image color balancing and mosaicking.

  16. The wide-range ejector flowmeter: calibrated gas evacuation comprising both high and low gas flows.

    PubMed

    Waaben, J; Brinkløv, M M; Jørgensen, S

    1984-11-01

    The wide-range ejector flowmeter is an active scavenging system applying calibrated gas removal directly to the anaesthetic circuit. The evacuation rate can be adjusted on the flowmeter under visual control using the calibration scale ranging from 200 ml X min-1 to 151 X min-1. The accuracy of the calibration was tested on three ejector flowmeters at 12 different presettings. The percentage deviation from presetting varied from + 18 to - 19.4 per cent. The ejector flowmeter enables the provision of consistent and accurately calibrated extraction of waste gases and is applicable within a wide range of fresh gas flows.

  17. Novel Absolute Displacement Sensor with Wide Range Based on Malus Law

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Lu, Xiaoping; Lin, Yonggang

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a novel wide range absolute displacement sensor based on polarized light detection principle. The sensor comprises of two sets of polarized light detecting systems which are coupled by pulleys. The inherent disadvantage in optic system like light source intensity drift is solved and absolute measurement with wide-range is achieved. A prototype and the relevant test bed have been built. The test results are in good agreement with expectation. Its measurement range is 540 mm, and its linearity is better than 0.05%. PMID:22303181

  18. A lithium-ion capacitor model working on a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcellona, S.; Piegari, L.

    2017-02-01

    Energy storage systems are spreading both in stationary and transport applications. Among innovative storage devices, lithium ion capacitors (LiCs) are very interesting. They combine the advantages of both traditional electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium ion batteries (LiBs). The behavior of this device is much more similar to ELDCs than to batteries. For this reason, several models developed for traditional ELDCs were extended to LiCs. Anyway, at low temperatures LiCs behavior is quite different from ELDCs and it is more similar to a LiB. Consequently, EDLC models works fine at room temperature but give worse results at low temperatures. This paper proposes a new electric model that, overcoming this issue, is a valid solution in a wide temperature range. Based on only five parameters, depending on polarization voltage and temperature, the proposed model is very simple to be implemented. Its accuracy is verified through experimental tests. From the reported results, it is also shown that, at very low temperatures, the dependence of the resistance from the current has to be taken into account.

  19. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  20. High temperature IR-imager with wide dynamic range for industrial process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Uwe; Hofmann, G.; Wassilew, D.; Heß, N.; Zimmerhackl, M.

    2008-03-01

    State of the art IR-Imager in the near infrared spectral range for monitoring high temperatures in industrial applications are characterized by a number of small measurement ranges. Scenes with a high temperature contrast require several measures switching between these ranges and result in pictures with under range and saturated parts. A newly developed high temperature IR-Imager with a spectral range in the near infrared provides a wide dynamic range by utilizing specialized signal processing. A continuous temperature measurement range from 600°C up to 1500°C is realized with a resolution of 640x480 points and a measuring frequency of 25Hz. Each resulting image contains the full dynamic range and is transmitted via a Fast Ethernet interface in real time.

  1. Dynamic Tensile Properties of Iron and Steels for a Wide Range of Strain Rates and Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Nobusato; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Terumi; Mimura, Koji; Tanimura, Shinji

    The tensile stress-strain curves of iron and a variety of steels, covering a wide range of strength level, over a wide strain rate range on the order of 10-3 ~ 103 s-1, were obtained systematically by using the Sensing Block Type High Speed Material Testing System (SBTS, Saginomiya). Through intensive analysis of these results, the strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress for the large strain region, including the viscous term at high strain rates, the true fracture strength and the true fracture strain were cleared for the material group of the ferrous metals. These systematical data may be useful to develop a practical constitutive model for computer codes, including a fracture criterion for simulations of the dynamic behavior in crash worthiness studies and of work-pieces subjected to dynamic plastic working for a wide strain rate range.

  2. Wide dynamic range wavefront sensor using sub-wavelength grating array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Ke

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new zonal wavefront sensor with a very wide dynamic range. The proposed sensor uses a sub-wavelength grating array to subdivide the input wavefront and produce transmitted light spots on CCD. The wavefront tilts are calculated from the transmissions of a sub-wavelength grating array. The dynamic range and resolution of the proposed sensor are respectively decided by the grating parameters and the sub-unit size of the array. So these two performances of the sensor are independent of one another, which enables the realization of wide dynamic range and high resolution simultaneously. We introduce the principle of the sensor by both Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis and Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods. A simulation is designed to validate our proposed method, and the measurement errors are analyzed. The sensor performs good sensitivity for wide incident angles, which is particularly suitable for spherical input wavefront.

  3. Simple wide-range method for angle measurement with a point fiber-optic output.

    PubMed

    Ilev, I; Kumagai, H; Toyoda, K

    1997-01-01

    We propose a simple optical method for precise, wide-range angle measurement based on the use of a single-mode optical fiber as a registration scheme output. Because of its micrometric core dimensions, the fiber serves as a point receiver that is highly sensitive to angular displacements of focused laser emission. The method allows the independent photoelectric measurement of both rotation and spatial angles of various optical elements, combining a wide angular dynamic range (from 0 degrees to 360 degrees ) with high accuracy (exceeding 3 arcsec).

  4. Testing the abundant center model using range-wide demographic surveys of two coastal dune plants.

    PubMed

    Samis, Karen E; Eckert, Christopher G

    2007-07-01

    It is widely accepted that species are most abundant at the center of their geographic ranges and become progressively rarer toward range limits. Although the abundant center model (ACM) has rarely been tested with range-wide surveys, it influences much thinking about the ecology and evolution of species' distributions. We tested ACM predictions using two unrelated but ecologically similar plants, Camissonia cheiranthifolia and Abronia umbellata. We intensively sampled both throughout their one-dimensional distributions within the Pacific coastal dunes of North America, from northern Baja California, Mexico, to southern Oregon, USA. Data from > 1100 herbarium specimens indicated that these limits have been stable for at least the last 100 years. Range-wide field surveys detected C. cheiranthifolia at 87% of 124 sites and A. umbellata at 54% of 113 sites, but site occupancy did not decline significantly toward range limits for either species. Permutation analysis did not detect a significant fit of geographical variation in local density to the ACM. Mean density did not correlate negatively with mean individual performance (plant size or number of seeds/plant), probably because both species occur at low densities. Although size and seeds per plant varied widely, central populations tended to have the highest values for size only. For C. cheiranthifolia, we observed asymmetry in the pattern of variation between the northern and southern halves of the range consistent with the long-standing prediction that range limits are imposed by different ecological factors in different parts of the geographical distribution. However, these asymmetries were difficult to interpret and likely reflect evolutionary differentiation as well as plastic responses to ecological variation. Both density and seeds per plant contributed to variation in seed production per unit area. In C. cheiranthifolia only, sites with highest seed production tended to occur at the range center, as

  5. Community-Wide Zero Energy Ready Home Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Herk, A.; Beggs, T.

    2016-02-05

    This report outlines the steps a developer can take when creating and implementing high performance standards such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) standards on a community-wide scale. The report also describes the specific examples of how this process is underway in the Stapleton community in Denver, Colorado, by the developer Forest City.

  6. Wide-Range Multiwavelength Observations of Northern TeV Blazars With MAGIC / HESS, Suzaku And KVA

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, M.; Rugamer, S.; Mazin, D.; Firpo, R.; Mannheim, K.; Tavecchio, F.; Teshima, M.; Horns, D.; Costamante, L.; Schwarzburg, S.; Wagner, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sato, R.; Ushio, M.; /JAXA, Sagamihara

    2007-11-14

    We have conducted multiwavelength observations of several northern TeV blazars employing the ground-based {gamma}-ray observatories MAGIC and HESS, the optical KVA telescope, and the Suzaku X-ray satellite. The data taken in 2006 establish measurements of the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions of the rapidly variable blazar emission over a wide range of frequencies. Results allow us to test leptonic and hadronic emission and particle acceleration models which predict different correlations between the optical, X-ray, and very high energy {gamma}-ray emissions. In this presentation, we report on the highlights of the results of these observations.

  7. Ultra-wide Range Gamma Detector System for Search and Locate Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D. Mackenzie Odell; Harpring, Larry J.; Moore, Frank S. Jr.; French, Phillip J.; Gordon, John R.

    2005-10-26

    Collecting debris samples following a nuclear event requires that operations be conducted from a considerable stand-off distance. An ultra-wide range gamma detector system has been constructed to accomplish both long range radiation search and close range hot sample collection functions. Constructed and tested on a REMOTEC Andros platform, the system has demonstrated reliable operation over six orders of magnitude of gamma dose from 100's of uR/hr to over 100 R/hr. Functional elements include a remotely controlled variable collimator assembly, a NaI(Tl)/photomultiplier tube detector, a proprietary digital radiation instrument, a coaxially mounted video camera, a digital compass, and both local and remote control computers with a user interface designed for long range operations. Long range sensitivity and target location, as well as close range sample selection performance are presented.

  8. Oxatub[4]arene: a molecular "transformer" capable of hosting a wide range of organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei; Wang, Hao-Yi; Li, Dong-Hao; Yang, Liu-Pan; Jiang, Wei

    2016-04-28

    The molecular "transformer", oxatub[4]arene, was found to be able to host a wide range of organic cations. The strong binding ability is believed to originate from its four interconvertible and deep-cavity conformers. The binding behavior of such adaptable receptors may provide implications for molecular recognition in nature.

  9. The Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern

    A comparison of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) indicates that the two should be used interchangeably only with caution and understanding of the differences. While there is a moderate to high correlation between the test scores, nevertheless, the two have distinctly different strengths and…

  10. The Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, William R.; Williams, Fern

    1978-01-01

    The article presents a statistical and descriptive comparison, with emphasis on math subtests, of the Wide Range Achievement Test and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, based on scores obtained from clients (in grades 1-12) at a university-affiliated learning disabilities center. (SBH)

  11. Non-parametric estimation of age-related centiles over wide age ranges.

    PubMed

    Pan, H Q; Goldstein, H; Yang, Q

    1990-01-01

    A new method for estimating age-related centile curves has been developed, which is suitable for measurement covering a wide age range. The method was used to calculate weight centile curves of 8995 children from birth to 6 years obtained by the Collaborating Centre for Physical Growth and Psychosocial Development of Children in Shanghai, China.

  12. Range and Energy Straggling in Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tai, Hsiang

    2000-01-01

    A first-order approximation to the range and energy straggling of ion beams is given as a normal distribution for which the standard deviation is estimated from the fluctuations in energy loss events. The standard deviation is calculated by assuming scattering from free electrons with a long range cutoff parameter that depends on the mean excitation energy of the medium. The present formalism is derived by extrapolating Payne's formalism to low energy by systematic energy scaling and to greater depths of penetration by a second-order perturbation. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data.

  13. Performance of Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes in Quallion Prototype Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Tomcsi, M. R.; Nagata, M.; Visco, V.; Tsukamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    For a number of applications, there is a continued interest in the development of rechargeable lithium-based batteries that can effectively operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 deg C). These applications include powering future planetary rovers for NASA, enabling the next generation of automotive batteries for DOE, and supporting many DOD applications. Li-ion technology has been demonstrated to have good performance over a reasonably wide temperature range with many systems; however, there is still a desire to improve the low temperature rate capacity as well as the high temperature resilience. In the current study, we would like to present recent results obtained with prototype Li-Ion cells (manufactured by Quallion, LLC) which include various wide operating temperature range electrolytes developed by both JPL and Quallion. To demonstrate the viability of the technology, a number of performance tests were carried out, including: (a) discharge rate characterization over a wide temperature range (down to -60 deg C) using various rates (up to 20C rates), (b) discharge rate characterization at low temperatures with low temperature charging, (c) variable temperature cycling over a wide temperature range (-40 to +70 deg C), and (d) cycling at high temperature (50 deg C). As will be discussed, impressive rate capability was observed at low temperatures with many systems, as well as good resilience to high temperature cycling. To augment the performance testing on the prototype cells, a number of experimental three electrodes cells were fabricated (including Li reference electrodes) to allow the determination of the lithium kinetics of the respective electrodes and interfacial properties as a function of temperatures.

  14. Performance of Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes in Quallion Prototype Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Tomcsi, M. R.; Nagata, M.; Visco, V.; Tsukamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    For a number of applications, there is a continued interest in the development of rechargeable lithium-based batteries that can effectively operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 deg C). These applications include powering future planetary rovers for NASA, enabling the next generation of automotive batteries for DOE, and supporting many DOD applications. Li-ion technology has been demonstrated to have good performance over a reasonably wide temperature range with many systems; however, there is still a desire to improve the low temperature rate capacity as well as the high temperature resilience. In the current study, we would like to present recent results obtained with prototype Li-Ion cells (manufactured by Quallion, LLC) which include various wide operating temperature range electrolytes developed by both JPL and Quallion. To demonstrate the viability of the technology, a number of performance tests were carried out, including: (a) discharge rate characterization over a wide temperature range (down to -60 deg C) using various rates (up to 20C rates), (b) discharge rate characterization at low temperatures with low temperature charging, (c) variable temperature cycling over a wide temperature range (-40 to +70 deg C), and (d) cycling at high temperature (50 deg C). As will be discussed, impressive rate capability was observed at low temperatures with many systems, as well as good resilience to high temperature cycling. To augment the performance testing on the prototype cells, a number of experimental three electrodes cells were fabricated (including Li reference electrodes) to allow the determination of the lithium kinetics of the respective electrodes and interfacial properties as a function of temperatures.

  15. Noctilucent cloud polarimetry: Twilight measurements in a wide range of scattering angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Maslov, Igor A.; Kozelov, Boris V.; Dlugach, Janna M.

    2016-06-01

    Wide-field polarization measurements of the twilight sky background during several nights with bright and extended noctilucent clouds in central and northern Russia in 2014 and 2015 are used to build the phase dependence of the degree of polarization of sunlight scattered by cloud particles in a wide range of scattering angles (from 40° to 130°). This range covers the linear polarization maximum near 90° and large-angle slope of the curve. The polarization in this angle range is most sensitive to the particle size. The method of separation of scattering on cloud particles from the twilight background is presented. Results are compared with T-matrix simulations for different sizes and shapes of ice particles; the best-fit model radius of particles (0.06 μm) and maximum radius (about 0.1 μm) are estimated.

  16. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  17. Wide spectral range imaging acousto-optic turnable filter used in outer space probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zehong; Wang, Liangqiu; He, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yong

    2014-02-01

    This article introduces a wide spectral range imaging acousto-optic turnable filter made of two transducers. "Mismatch rate" was firstly put forward to represent the degree to which the impedance mismatch and a three stage matching circuit was designed for the filter to improve its spectral range and operating bandwidth. Now the spectral range is from 0.4μm to 1.1μm, the overall operating bandwidth reaches 1.14 octave, the diffraction efficiency over 60%, spectral resolution from 1.3nm to 7.5nm. To get rid of " tin pest", alloy material was used to make bonding layer material instead of pure tin, making the storage temperature of the acousto-optic turnable filter ranges from -65 °C to 85 °C, and the operating temperature from -35 °C to 70 °C.

  18. Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

  19. Creep Analysis for a Wide Stress Range Based on Stress Relaxation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Holm; Naumenko, Konstantin; Gorash, Yevgen

    Many materials exhibit a stress range dependent creep behavior. The power-law creep observed for a certain stress range changes to the viscous type creep if the stress value decreases. Recently published experimental data for advanced heat resistant steels indicates that the high creep exponent (in the range 5-12 for the power-law behavior) may decrease to the low value of approximately 1 within the stress range relevant for engineering structures. The aim of this paper is to confirm the stress range dependence of creep behavior based on the experimental data of stress relaxation. An extended constitutive model for the minimum creep rate is introduced to consider both the linear and the power law creep ranges. To take into account the primary creep behavior a strain hardening function is introduced. The material constants are identified for published experimental data of creep and relaxation tests for a 12%Cr steel bolting material at 500°C. The data for the minimum creep rate are well-defined only for moderate and high stress levels. To reconstruct creep rates for the low stress range the data of the stress relaxation test are applied. The results show a gradual decrease of the creep exponent with the decreasing stress level. Furthermore, they illustrate that the proposed constitutive model well describes the creep rates for a wide stress range.

  20. Jet noise from co-axial nozzles over a wide range of geometric and flow parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Friedman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Free field pure jet noise data were taken for a large range of coaxial nozzle configurations. The core nozzles were circular (1 to 4 in. diameter) and plug types. The fan to core area ratio varied from 0.7 to 43.5, while the velocity ratio typically varied from 0 to 1. For most cases the two nozzles were coplanar but large axial extensions of either nozzle were also tested. Correlation of the data resulted in a simple procedure for estimating ambient temperature subsonic coaxial jet noise spectra over a wide range of geometric and flow parameters.

  1. Wide-range Vacuum Measurements from MWNT Field Emitters Grown Directly on Stainless Steel Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Detian; Zhao, Yangyang; Cheng, Yongjun; Dong, Changkun

    2016-01-01

    The field emission properties and the vacuum measurement application are investigated from the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grown directly on catalytic stainless steel substrates. The MWNT emitters present excellent emission properties after the acid treatment of the substrate. The MWNT gauge is able to work down to the extreme-high vacuum (XHV) range with linear measurement performance in wide range from 10-11 to 10-6 Torr. A modulating grid is attempted with improved gauge sensitivity. The extension of the lower pressure limit is attributed largely to low outgassing effect due to direct growth of MWNTs and justified design of the electron source.

  2. Wide-range Vacuum Measurements from MWNT Field Emitters Grown Directly on Stainless Steel Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Detian; Zhao, Yangyang; Cheng, Yongjun; Dong, Changkun

    2016-12-01

    The field emission properties and the vacuum measurement application are investigated from the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grown directly on catalytic stainless steel substrates. The MWNT emitters present excellent emission properties after the acid treatment of the substrate. The MWNT gauge is able to work down to the extreme-high vacuum (XHV) range with linear measurement performance in wide range from 10(-11) to 10(-6) Torr. A modulating grid is attempted with improved gauge sensitivity. The extension of the lower pressure limit is attributed largely to low outgassing effect due to direct growth of MWNTs and justified design of the electron source.

  3. Wide-range tunability, thermal locking, and mode-crossing effects in Kerr optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Saleh, Khaldoun; Henriet, Rémi; Diallo, Souleymane; Martinenghi, Romain; Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-12-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate some effects related to the Kerr optical frequency comb generation, using a millimeter-size magnesium fluoride ultrahigh quality disk resonator. We show that the Kerr comb tunability can be extremely wide in the Turing pattern (or primary comb) regime, with an intermodal frequency that can be tuned from 4 to 229 multiple free spectral ranges (corresponding to a frequency spacing ranging from 24 GHz to 1.35 THz). We also discuss the role played by thermal locking while pumping the resonator, as well as the effect of modal crossing when broadband combs are generated.

  4. Wide-pressure-range coplanar dielectric barrier discharge: Operational characterisation of a versatile plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čech, J.; Bonaventura, Z.; SÅ¥ahel, P.; Zemánek, M.; Dvořáková, H.; Černák, M.

    2017-01-01

    Many plasma applications could benefit from the versatile plasma source operable at a wide-pressure-range, e.g., from the fraction of Pa to the super-atmospheric conditions. In this paper, the basic characteristics of wide-pressure-range plasma source based on the coplanar dielectric barrier discharge is given. The operational characteristics of this plasma source were measured in nitrogen at pressures ranging from 101 Pa (resp. 10-4 Pa) to 105 Pa. Measurements of the plasma geometry, breakdown voltage, and micro-discharges' behaviour revealed three operational regimes of this plasma source: "high pressure," "transitional" and "low-pressure" with vague boundaries at the pressures of approx. 10 kPa and 1 kPa. It was found that the plasma layer of coplanar dielectric barrier discharge could be expanded up to several centimetres to the half-space above the planar dielectric barrier when the gas pressure is reduced below 1 kPa, which provides an outstanding space to tailor the source for the specific applications. The proposed model of an effective gap distance in the Paschen breakdown criterion enabled us to explain the discharge behaviour fitting the experimental breakdown voltage data in the whole studied pressure range. Under the filament-forming conditions, i.e., at the pressure range from approx. 1-100 kPa, the active plasma volume could be varied through the micro-discharges' lateral thickness scaling with the inverse of the square-root of the gas pressure.

  5. A Highly Linear and Wide Input Range Four-Quadrant CMOS Analog Multiplier Using Active Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhangcai; Jiang, Minglu; Inoue, Yasuaki

    Analog multipliers are one of the most important building blocks in analog signal processing circuits. The performance with high linearity and wide input range is usually required for analog four-quadrant multipliers in most applications. Therefore, a highly linear and wide input range four-quadrant CMOS analog multiplier using active feedback is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a novel configuration of four-quadrant multiplier cell is presented. Its input dynamic range and linearity are improved significantly by adding two resistors compared with the conventional structure. Then based on the proposed multiplier cell configuration, a four-quadrant CMOS analog multiplier with active feedback technique is implemented by two operational amplifiers. Because of both the proposed multiplier cell and active feedback technique, the proposed multiplier achieves a much wider input range with higher linearity than conventional structures. The proposed multiplier was fabricated by a 0.6µm CMOS process. Experimental results show that the input range of the proposed multiplier can be up to 5.6Vpp with 0.159% linearity error on VX and 4.8Vpp with 0.51% linearity error on VY for ±2.5V power supply voltages, respectively.

  6. A wide range of activity duration cutoffs provided unbiased estimates of exposure to computer use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Che-Hsu; Johnson, Peter W; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2008-12-01

    Integrative computer usage monitors have become widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate the exposure-response relationship of computer-related musculoskeletal disorders. These software programs typically estimate the exposure duration of computer use by summing precisely recorded durations of input device activities and durations of inactivity periods shorter than a predetermined activity duration cutoff value, usually 30 or 60 sec. The goal of this study was to systematically compare the validity of a wide range of cutoff values. Computer use activity of 20 office workers was observed for 4 consecutive hours using both a video camera and a usage monitor. Video recordings from the camera were analyzed using specific observational criteria to determine computer use duration. This observed duration then served as the reference and was compared with 238 estimates of computer use duration calculated from the usage monitor data using activity duration cutoffs ranging from 3 to 240 sec in 1-sec increments. Estimates calculated with cutoffs ranging from 28 to 60 sec were highly correlated with the observed duration (Spearman's correlation 0.87 to 0.92) and had nearly ideal linear relationships with the observed duration (slopes and r-squares close to one, and intercepts close to zero). For the same range of cutoff values, when the observed and estimated durations were compared for dichotomous exposure classification across participants, minimal exposure misclassification was observed. It is concluded that activity duration cutoffs ranging from 28 to 60 sec provided unbiased estimates of computer use duration.

  7. Wide pH range tolerance in extremophiles: towards understanding an important phenomenon for future biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Dhakar, Kusum; Pandey, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms that inhabit the extreme pH environments are classified as acidophiles and alkaliphiles. A number of studies emerged from extreme high (hot springs, hydrothermal vents) as well as low temperature (arctic and antarctic regions, sea water, ice shelf, marine sediments, cold deserts, glaciers, temperate forests, and plantations) environments have highlighted the occurrence of microorganisms (thermophiles/psychrophiles) with the ability to tolerate wide pH range, from acidic to alkaline (1.5-14.0 in some cases), under laboratory conditions. However, the sampling source (soil/sediment) of these microorganisms showed the pH to be neutral or slightly acidic/alkaline. The aim of the present review is to discuss the phenomenon of wide pH range tolerance possessed by these microorganisms as a hidden character in perspective of their habitats, possible mechanisms, phylogeny, ecological and biotechnological relevance, and future perspectives. It is believed that the genome is a probable reservoir of the hidden variations. The extremophiles have the ability to adapt against the environmental change that is probably through the expression/regulation of the specific genes that were already present in the genome. The phenomenon is likely to have broad implications in biotechnology, including both environmental (such as bioremediation, biodegradation, and biocontrol), and industrial applications (as a source of novel extremozymes and many other useful bioactive compounds with wide pH range tolerance).

  8. A new wide range Euclidean distance circuit for neural network hardware implementations.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, A; Titus, A H

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an analog very large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a wide range Euclidean distance computation circuit - the key element of many synapse circuits. This circuit is essentially a wide-range absolute value circuit that is designed to be as small as possible (80 /spl times/ 76 /spl mu/m) in order to achieve maximum synapse density while maintaining a wide range of operation (0.5 to 4.5 V) and low power consumption (less than 200 /spl mu/W). The circuit has been fabricated in 1.5-/spl mu/m technology through MOSIS. We present simulated and experimental results of the circuit, and compare these results. Ultimately, this circuit is intended for use as part of a high-density hardware implementation of a self-organizing map (SOM). We describe how this circuit can be used as part of the SOM and how the SOM is going to be used as part of a larger bio-inspired vision system based on the octopus visual system.

  9. Range fluctuations of high energy muons passing through matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minorikawa, Y.; Mitsui, K.

    1985-01-01

    The information about energy spectrum of sea level muons at high energies beyond magnetic spectrographs can be obtained from the underground intensity measurements if the fluctuations problems are solved. The correction factor R for the range fluctuations of high energy muons were calculated by analytical method of Zatsepin, where most probable energy loss parameter are used. It is shown that by using the R at great depth together with the slope, lambda, of the vertical depth-intensity (D-I) curve in the form of exp(-t/lambda), the spectral index, gamma, in the power law energy spectrum of muons at sea level can be obtained.

  10. Modifications to JLab 12 GeV Refrigerator and Wide Range Mix Mode Performance Testing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Hasan, N.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of data obtained during the spring 2013 commissioning of the new 4.5 K refrigeration system at Jefferson Lab (JLab) for the 12 GeV upgrade indicated a wide capacity range with good efficiency and minimal operator interaction. Testing also showed that the refrigerator required higher liquid nitrogen (LN) consumption for its pre-cooler than anticipated by the design. This does not affect the capacity of the refrigerator, but it does result in an increased LN utility cost. During the summer of 2015 the modifications were implemented by the cold box manufacturer, according to a design similar to the JLab 12 GeV cold box specification. Subsequently, JLab recommissioned the cold box and performed extensive performance testing, ranging from 20% to 100% of the design maximum capacity, and in various modes of operation, ranging from pure refrigeration, pure liquefaction, half-and-half mix mode and at selected design modes using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle. The testing demonstrated that the refrigerator system has a good and fairly constant performance over a wide capacity range and different modes of operation. It also demonstrated the modifications resulted in a LN consumption that met the design for the pure refrigeration mode (which is the most demanding) and was lower than the design for the nominal and maximum capacity modes. In addition, a pulsed-load test, similar to what is expected for cryogenic systems supporting fusion experiments, was conducted to observe the response using the Floating Pressure - Ganni Cycle, which was stable and robust. This paper will discuss the results and analysis of this testing pertaining to the LN consumption, the system efficiency over a wide range of capacity and different modes and the behaviour of the system to a pulsed load.

  11. Estimates of the global tidal range energy resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Peter; Walkington, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy generation through tidal lagoons and barrages is an attractive energy source due to tidal predictability and the potential for energy storage. Yet so far, the annual tidal range resource has only been estimated at relatively coarse spatial resolutions and without detailed investigation of the temporal variation from individual or aggregated sites. In this study, we estimate the theoretical tidal range resource of the northwest European shelf seas, using the 3D Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) at roughly 1 km spatial resolution. Through tidal analysis of model output, we calculate the potential energy in both the rising and falling tides and, hence, show temporal variations in PE throughout the year. Based on a range of energy yield thresholds (rather than thresholds based on M2 range and water depth), we calculate the total annual theoretical resource from dual (flood and ebb) strategies. Using the FES global tidal model, which resolves tidal elevations at 1/16° resolution, the global resource was also estimated with the regions with the highest energy yield isolated. We discuss our estimates in relation to the yield that can actually be obtained mechanically, and in relation to the total energy flux of a region and the potential impacts of different lagoon scenarios on the local and far-field energy fluxes.

  12. Widely tunable laser frequency offset lock with 30 GHz range and 5 THz offset.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, J; Noom, D W E; Salumbides, E J; Sheridan, K T; Ubachs, W; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile method to greatly extend the tuning range of optical frequency shifting devices, such as acousto-optic modulators (AOMs). We use this method to stabilize the frequency of a tunable narrow-band continuous-wave (CW) laser to a transmission maximum of an external Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a tunable frequency offset. This is achieved through a servo loop which contains an in-loop AOM for simple radiofrequency (RF) tuning of the optical frequency over the full 30 GHz mode-hop-free tuning range of the CW laser. By stabilizing the length of the FPI to a stabilized helium-neon (HeNe) laser (at 5 THz offset from the tunable laser) we simultaneously transfer the ~ 1 MHz absolute frequency stability of the HeNe laser to the entire 30 GHz range of the tunable laser. Thus, our method allows simple, wide-range, fast and reproducible optical frequency tuning and absolute optical frequency measurements through RF electronics, which is here demonstrated by repeatedly recording a 27-GHz-wide molecular iodine spectrum at scan rates up to 500 MHz/s. General technical aspects that determine the performance of the method are discussed in detail.

  13. Gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser with ultra-wide tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Li, Z.; Hou, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate an all-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) producing nanosecond pulses with variable wavelength in the 2 μm waveband. The laser features tunable operation in an ultra-wide spectral region of 1765 - 2055 nm (24 THz). The nearly 300 nm tunability doubles the record tuning range of existing gain-switched fiber lasers, and to the best of our knowledge, presents the broadest tuning range that has been reported for a monolithic pulsed rare earth doped fiber laser to date. The TDFL can operate at a repetition rate of 5 - 100 kHz with a pulse width as short as 200 ns. A modest compromise in the tuning range allows pulse width reduction to sub-100 ns.

  14. New method of proportional counter feedback biasing for wide-range radiation dose-rate monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.; Guerrant, G.C.; Manning, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A prototypic wide-range radiation dose-rate monitor for civil defense applications has been developed and tested. The specified dose-rate range (0 to 500 R/h) was displayed on a single readout scale by using feedback-controlled biasing of a proportional counter. This new method is based on controlling the avalanche multiplication factor (gas gain) of the counter by varying its bias voltage in response to its measured output current (i.e., detected dose rate). The counter output current varies between 0 and 1.5 nA in a quasi-logarithmic response to dose rates between 0 and 500 R/h. The corresponding values of gas gain and bias voltage range from 1 to 300 and 200 to 1900 V respectively.

  15. Current measurements in a wide dynamic range-applications in electrochemical nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Gábor; Li, Chen; Pobelov, Ilya; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2007-10-24

    Current measurements in a wide dynamic range from low picoamperes up to a few milliamperes are usually carried by implementing logarithmic current-to-voltage converter circuits. Conductance studies in nanoscale metal | molecule | metal junctions require measurements with a high dynamic range, good accuracy and reasonable speed simultaneously. In this work we propose two novel circuit solutions which comply with these conditions: one is based on a high-accuracy, fine-tunable logarithmic current-to-voltage converter. Another circuit implements a double-output (or multiple-output) linear current-to-voltage converter, for which the problem of range-switching has been circumvented. Both circuits were applied in constructing a low-current bipotentiostat dedicated to the electrochemical formation of molecular-scale gaps, and a novel scanning tunnelling microscope preamplifier stage for current-distance spectroscopy studies.

  16. Kilovoltage energy imaging with a radiotherapy linac with a continuously variable energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D. A.; Hansen, V. N.; Thompson, M. G.; Poludniowski, G.; Niven, A.; Seco, J.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: In this paper, the effect on image quality of significantly reducing the primary electron energy of a radiotherapy accelerator is investigated using a novel waveguide test piece. The waveguide contains a novel variable coupling device (rotovane), allowing for a wide continuously variable energy range of between 1.4 and 9 MeV suitable for both imaging and therapy.Method: Imaging at linac accelerating potentials close to 1 MV was investigated experimentally and via Monte Carlo simulations. An imaging beam line was designed, and planar and cone beam computed tomography images were obtained to enable qualitative and quantitative comparisons with kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging systems. The imaging beam had an electron energy of 1.4 MeV, which was incident on a water cooled electron window consisting of stainless steel, a 5 mm carbon electron absorber and 2.5 mm aluminium filtration. Images were acquired with an amorphous silicon detector sensitive to diagnostic x-ray energies. Results: The x-ray beam had an average energy of 220 keV and half value layer of 5.9 mm of copper. Cone beam CT images with the same contrast to noise ratio as a gantry mounted kilovoltage imaging system were obtained with doses as low as 2 cGy. This dose is equivalent to a single 6 MV portal image. While 12 times higher than a 100 kVp CBCT system (Elekta XVI), this dose is 140 times lower than a 6 MV cone beam imaging system and 6 times lower than previously published LowZ imaging beams operating at higher (4-5 MeV) energies. Conclusions: The novel coupling device provides for a wide range of electron energies that are suitable for kilovoltage quality imaging and therapy. The imaging system provides high contrast images from the therapy portal at low dose, approaching that of gantry mounted kilovoltage x-ray systems. Additionally, the system provides low dose imaging directly from the therapy portal, potentially allowing for target tracking during radiotherapy treatment. There is

  17. [Rational range and optimum proportion of energy input in farmland].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Zhou, N; Gao, Z; Yang, W; Miao, G

    2000-04-01

    There exists a rational range of artificial supplemental energy inputs in fields. In the range, the inputs can improve the yield and the output/input ratio. The rational range of energy input in total energy output is bigger than that in the output/input ratio. It is bigger in low yield fields than high yield fields, which suggests that increasing artificial supplemental energy input can increase the production of low yield fields as same as high yield fields. In the rational range of energy input, there exist high efficient lines in water and fertilizer inputs. The highest efficiency occurs when the rational inputs of water and fertilizer occur in these two lines. There also exist optimum lines of energy and economy input proportions. In the two lines, the proportions of energy and economy output/input of water and fertilizer inputs are the highest, which are the optimum of water and fertilizer inputs. Water and fertilizer may replace each other for equal yields, but would result in a decrease in the output/input ratio.

  18. Wide distribution range of rhizobial symbionts associated with pantropical sea-dispersed legumes.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Masaru; Nakata, Sayuri; Aoki, Seishiro; Takayama, Koji; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Ito, Motomi; Miya, Masaki; Kajita, Tadashi

    2016-12-01

    To understand the geographic distributions of rhizobia that associated with widely distributed wild legumes, 66 nodules obtained from 41 individuals including three sea-dispersed legumes (Vigna marina, Vigna luteola, and Canavalia rosea) distributed across the tropical and subtropical coastal regions of the world were studied. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA and nodC genes extracted from the nodules showed that only Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium were associated with the pantropical legumes, and some of the symbiont strains were widely distributed over the Pacific. Horizontal gene transfer of nodulation genes were observed within the Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium lineages. BLAST searches in GenBank also identified records of these strains from various legumes across the world, including crop species. However, one of the rhizobial strains was not found in GenBank, which implies the strain may have adapted to the littoral environment. Our results suggested that some rhizobia, which associate with the widespread sea-dispersed legume, distribute across a broad geographic range. By establishing symbiotic relationships with widely distributed rhizobia, the pantropical legumes may also be able to extend their range much further than other legume species.

  19. Genome-wide measurement of RNA folding energies.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yue; Qu, Kun; Ouyang, Zhengqing; Kertesz, Michael; Li, Jun; Tibshirani, Robert; Makino, Debora L; Nutter, Robert C; Segal, Eran; Chang, Howard Y

    2012-10-26

    RNA structural transitions are important in the function and regulation of RNAs. Here, we reveal a layer of transcriptome organization in the form of RNA folding energies. By probing yeast RNA structures at different temperatures, we obtained relative melting temperatures (Tm) for RNA structures in over 4000 transcripts. Specific signatures of RNA Tm demarcated the polarity of mRNA open reading frames and highlighted numerous candidate regulatory RNA motifs in 3' untranslated regions. RNA Tm distinguished noncoding versus coding RNAs and identified mRNAs with distinct cellular functions. We identified thousands of putative RNA thermometers, and their presence is predictive of the pattern of RNA decay in vivo during heat shock. The exosome complex recognizes unpaired bases during heat shock to degrade these RNAs, coupling intrinsic structural stabilities to gene regulation. Thus, genome-wide structural dynamics of RNA can parse functional elements of the transcriptome and reveal diverse biological insights.

  20. Applying GSH to a wide range of experiments in granular media.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario

    2015-03-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a continuum-mechanical theory for granular media, whose wide range of applicability is shown in this paper. Simple, frequently analytic solutions are related to classic observations at different shear rates, including: i) static stress distribution, clogging; ii) elasto-plastic motion: loading and unloading, approach to the critical state, angle of stability and repose; iii) rapid dense flow: the μ-rheology, Bagnold scaling and the stress minimum; iv) elastic waves, compaction, wide and narrow shear band. Less conventional experiments have also been considered: shear jamming, creep flow, visco-elastic behavior and non-local fluidization. With all these phenomena ordered, related, explained and accounted for, though frequently qualitatively, we believe that GSH may be taken as a unifying framework, providing the appropriate macroscopic vocabulary and mindset that help one coming to terms with the breadth of granular physics.

  1. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Masahiro; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Kotera, Ippei; Okabe, Kohki; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Takeharu

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species. PMID:28212432

  2. A regional density distribution based wide dynamic range algorithm for infrared camera systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gyuhee; Kim, Yongsung; Joung, Shichang; Shin, Sanghoon

    2014-10-01

    Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imaging system has been widely used for both military and civilian purposes. Military applications include target acquisition and tracking, night vision system. Civilian applications include thermal efficiency analysis, short-ranged wireless communication, weather forecasting and other various applications. The dynamic range of FLIR imaging system is larger than one of commercial display. Generally, auto gain controlling and contrast enhancement algorithm are applied to FLIR imaging system. In IR imaging system, histogram equalization and plateau equalization is generally used for contrast enhancement. However, they have no solution about the excessive enhancing when luminance histogram has been distributed in specific narrow region. In this paper, we proposed a Regional Density Distribution based Wide Dynamic Range algorithm for Infrared Camera Systems. Depending on the way of implementation, the result of WDR is quite different. Our approach is single frame type WDR algorithm for enhancing the contrast of both dark and white detail without loss of bins of histogram with real-time processing. The significant change in luminance caused by conventional contrast enhancement methods may introduce luminance saturation and failure in object tracking. Proposed method guarantees both the effective enhancing in contrast and successive object tracking. Moreover, since proposed method does not using multiple images on WDR, computation complexity might be significantly reduced in software / hardware implementation. The experimental results show that proposed method has better performance compared with conventional Contrast enhancement methods.

  3. Wide range of susceptibility to rhabdoviruses in homozygous clones of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Quillet, Edwige; Dorson, Michel; Le Guillou, Sandrine; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Inbred lines differentially susceptible to diseases are a powerful tool to get insights into the mechanisms of genetic resistance to pathogens. In fish, chromosome manipulation techniques allow a quick production of such homozygous lines. Using gynogenesis, we produced nine homozygous clones of rainbow trout from a domestic population (INRA Sy strain). We examined the variability between clones for resistance to two rhabdoviruses, the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Intraperitoneal injections and waterborne infections were performed in parallel for both viruses. No survival was recorded after intraperitoneal injection of VHSV or IHNV, indicating that fish from all clones were fully susceptible to both viruses by this route of infection. In contrast, the different clones showed a wide range of survival frequency after waterborne infection. The resistance levels to VHSV ranged from 0 to 99% and resistance was not abrogated when resistant and sensitive animals were mixed and subjected to waterborne infection. VHSV was recovered from 10% of resistant fish after waterborne infection, confirming that virus replication was possible in this context but effective only in a low proportion of the population. The different clones also exhibited a wide range of survival (0-68%) after a waterborne infection with IHNV. Although VHSV-resistant clones were not fully resistant to IHNV, the susceptibility to IHNV and VHSV tended to be correlated, suggesting that non-specific mechanisms common to both viruses were involved.

  4. Delay Discounting of Monetary Rewards over a Wide Range of Amounts

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Oliveira, Luís; Chang, Seo Eun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards over a wide range of amounts (from $20 to $10 million) in order to determine how reward amount affects the parameters of the hyperboloid discounting function and to compare fits of the hyperboloid model with fits of two discounting models used in neuroeconomics: the quasi-hyperbolic and the double-exponential. Of the three models assessed, the hyperboloid provided the best fit to the delay discounting data. The present delay discounting results may be compared to those of a previous study on probability discounting (Myerson, Green, & Morris, 2011) that used the same extended range of amounts. The hyperboloid function accurately described both types of discounting, but reward amount had opposite effects on the degree of discounting. Importantly, the amount of delayed reward affected the rate parameter of the hyperboloid discounting function but not its exponent, whereas the opposite was true for the amount of probabilistic reward. The finding that the exponent of the hyperboloid discounting function remains relatively constant across a wide range of delayed amounts provides strong support for a psychophysical scaling interpretation, and stands in stark contrast to the finding that the exponent of the hyperboloid function increases with the amount of probabilistic reward. Taken together, these findings argue that delay and probability discounting involve fundamentally different decision-making mechanisms. PMID:24037826

  5. Measurement of the dielectric properties of dispersive materials over a wide frequency range.

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Luis Leroy; Salazar, Robert Austin; Bacon, Larry Donald; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2003-06-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves through dispersive media forms the basis for a wide variety of applications. Rapid advances in materials have produced new products with tailored responses across frequency bands. Many of these new materials, such as radar absorbing material and photonic crystals, are dispersive in nature. This, in turn, has opened up the possibility for the exploitation of these dispersive dielectric properties for a variety of applications. Thus, it is desirable to know the electromagnetic properties of both man-made and natural materials across a wide frequency range. With the advent of transient pulsers with sub-nanosecond risetimes and rates of voltage rise approaching 10**16 V/s, the frequencies of interest in the transient response extend to approximately the 2 GHz range. Although a network analyzer can provide either frequency- or time-domain data (by inverse transform), common TEM cells are only rated to 0.5 to 1.5 GHz--significantly below the maximum frequency of interest. To extend the frequency range to include 2 GHz, a TEM cell was characterized and a deembedding algorithm was applied to account, in part, for the limitations of the cell. The de-embedding technique is described along with such measurement issues such as clear time and sneak around. Measurements of complex permittivity of common drinking water are shown. This frequency extension will lead to more expansive testing of dielectric materials of interest.

  6. High sensitive/wide dynamic range, field emission pressure sensor based on fully embedded CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taak, S.; Rajabali, S.; Darbari, S.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of high sensitivity-wide dynamic range field emission pressure sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reported. In this work, CNTs are grown inside an array of micromachined holes in order to ensure a high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range by allowing anode-cathode proximity while preventing anode-cathode direct contact simultaneously. External pressure is applied to a Si-based flexible anode, which results in consequent variations in emission current, due to electric field changes. Microcavities in this structure have been formed by a Si deep vertical etching process, while the CNTs have been grown by direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Also, it is demonstrated that a similar fabrication process can be applied to implement a device with an electrically controllable emission current. A high sensitivity of 1.5-13.7 µA kPa-1 (with Vanode/cathode < 100 V) within a dynamic range from around 0.1 to 1 GPa, is measured in this experiment.

  7. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiangwei, Yin; Ning, Li; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 × 0.28 mm2. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  8. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Kotera, Ippei; Okabe, Kohki; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Takeharu

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species.

  9. Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Jensen, Jennifer; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Habitat availability ultimately limits the distribution and abundance of wildlife species. Consequently, it is paramount to identify where wildlife habitat is and understand how it changes over time in order to implement large scale wildlife conservation plans. Yet, no work has quantified the degree of change in range-wide breeding habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), despite the species being listed as endangered by the U.S. federal government. Thus, using available geographic information system (GIS) data and Landsat satellite imagery we quantified range-wide warbler breeding habitat change from 1999-2001 to 2010-2011. We detected a 29% reduction in total warbler breeding habitat and found that warbler breeding habitat was removed and became more fragmented at uneven rates across the warbler’s breeding range during this time period. This information will assist researchers and managers in prioritizing breeding habitat conservation efforts for the species and provide a foundation for more realistic carrying capacity scenarios when modeling golden-cheeked warbler populations over time. Additionally, this study highlights the need for future work centered on quantifying golden-cheeked warbler movement rates and distances in order to assess the degree of connectivity between increasingly fragmented habitat patches.

  10. Wide-Range Temperature Sensors with High-Level Pulse Train Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of temperature sensors have been developed for wide-range temperature applications. The two sensors measure temperature in the range of -190 to +200 C and utilize a thin-film platinum RTD (resistance temperature detector) as the temperature-sensing element. Other parts used in the fabrication of these sensors include NPO (negative-positive- zero) type ceramic capacitors for timing, thermally-stable film or wirewound resistors, and high-temperature circuit boards and solder. The first type of temperature sensor is a relaxation oscillator circuit using an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) operational amplifier as a comparator. The output is a pulse train with a period that is roughly proportional to the temperature being measured. The voltage level of the pulse train is high-level, for example 10 V. The high-level output makes the sensor less sensitive to noise or electromagnetic interference. The output can be read by a frequency or period meter and then converted into a temperature reading. The second type of temperature sensor is made up of various types of multivibrator circuits using an SOI type 555 timer and the passive components mentioned above. Three configurations have been developed that were based on the technique of charging and discharging a capacitor through a resistive element to create a train of pulses governed by the capacitor-resistor time constant. Both types of sensors, which operated successfully over the wide temperature range, have potential use in extreme temperature environments including jet engines and space exploration missions.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Wide Range Optical Fiber Turbine Flow Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuhuan; Guo, Yingqing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel fiber turbine flow sensor was proposed and demonstrated for liquid measurement with optical fiber, using light intensity modulation to measure the turbine rotational speed for converting to flow rate. The double-circle-coaxial (DCC) fiber probe was introduced in frequency measurement for the first time. Through the divided ratio of two rings light intensity, the interference in light signals acquisition can be eliminated. To predict the characteristics between the output frequency and flow in the nonlinear range, the turbine flow sensor model was built. Via analyzing the characteristics of turbine flow sensor, piecewise linear equations were achieved in expanding the flow measurement range. Furthermore, the experimental verification was tested. The results showed that the flow range ratio of DN20 turbine flow sensor was improved 2.9 times after using piecewise linear in the nonlinear range. Therefore, combining the DCC fiber sensor and piecewise linear method, it can be developed into a strong anti-electromagnetic interference(anti-EMI) and wide range fiber turbine flowmeter. PMID:27428976

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Wide Range Optical Fiber Turbine Flow Sensor.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhuan; Guo, Yingqing

    2016-07-15

    In this paper, a novel fiber turbine flow sensor was proposed and demonstrated for liquid measurement with optical fiber, using light intensity modulation to measure the turbine rotational speed for converting to flow rate. The double-circle-coaxial (DCC) fiber probe was introduced in frequency measurement for the first time. Through the divided ratio of two rings light intensity, the interference in light signals acquisition can be eliminated. To predict the characteristics between the output frequency and flow in the nonlinear range, the turbine flow sensor model was built. Via analyzing the characteristics of turbine flow sensor, piecewise linear equations were achieved in expanding the flow measurement range. Furthermore, the experimental verification was tested. The results showed that the flow range ratio of DN20 turbine flow sensor was improved 2.9 times after using piecewise linear in the nonlinear range. Therefore, combining the DCC fiber sensor and piecewise linear method, it can be developed into a strong anti-electromagnetic interference(anti-EMI) and wide range fiber turbine flowmeter.

  13. Resource Selection and Its Implications for Wide-Ranging Mammals of the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L.; Machado, Ricardo B.; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J.; Wasser, Samuel K.

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  14. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  15. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Froese, Jens G; Smith, Carl S; Durr, Peter A; McAlpine, Clive A; van Klinken, Rieks D

    2017-01-01

    Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  16. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs’ resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations. PMID:28472113

  17. The gates open wide. [The Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    For independent electric producers, the new energy law opens wide the gate to the future. It does not give an entitlement or a subsidy; merely the freedom to expand - along with utilities - electricity's share of the next century's energy market. If anything, the new law, by removing investment barriers and creating the right to transmission access, affirms the potential of electrical generation and urges us all to get on with the job. It underscores the most powerful forces for future growth: the increasing demand for more electric power, greater production at less cost, and lessening demand on the environment's resources. With half-century-old barriers to broader production finally down, the real action now belongs to the regulators. It's one thing to pass a bill. It's quite another to make it work. The reform bill does not deregulate, but essentially defines public policy objectives (competitive markets), creates a framework to develop them, and vest responsibility for the regulation of the generation and sale of power where it belongs: with state public utility commissions and the FERC. It is going to be up to them to set the limits of the market, and to set the pace of expansion; in other words, to rearrange the play to achieve the bill's objective.

  18. Wide Range Concentration Control of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Generated Ozone for Soil Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Takayama, Masahiro; Strycewska, Henryka Danuta; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Gyoutoku, Yutaka; Tachibana, Masahiro

    We have developed ozone (O3) generation system suitable to soil sterilization. Wide range concentration control of O3 is required for the sterilization treatment depending on the soil property and plant growth. The dielectric barrier discharges using electrode such as Pyramid type is studied. Surface discharges are also applied to generate high concentration for quick sterilization of the agricultural soil. The treated soil properties under ozone sterilization were evaluated using pH and electrical conductivity. It is shown that ozone distribution in the soil is controlled mostly by the conditions such as concentration and flow rate as well as soil conditions of moisture and compositions.

  19. Wide-range dynamic strain measurements based on K-BOTDA and frequency-agile technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dengwang; Dong, Yongkang; Wang, Benzhang; Zhang, Hongying; Lu, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel fast Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system using the coefficient K spectrum which is defined as the ratio of phase-shift and gain of Brillouin amplification, where K features linear response, immune to the variation of pump power and a wide measure range. For a 30ns-square pump pulse, the frequency span of K spectrum can reach up to 200MHz. In dynamic strain experiment, a multi-slope assisted K-BOTDA with the measured strain of 5358.3μɛ and the vibration frequency of 6.01Hz and 12.05Hz are demonstrated.

  20. A new method for achieving enhanced dielectric response over a wide temperature range

    DOE PAGES

    Maurya, Deepam; Sun, Fu -Chang; Pamir Alpay, S.; ...

    2015-10-19

    We report a novel approach for achieving high dielectric response over a wide temperature range. In this approach, multilayer ceramic heterostructures with constituent compositions having strategically tuned Curie points (TC) were designed and integrated with varying electrical connectivity. Interestingly, these multilayer structures exhibited different dielectric behavior in series and parallel configuration due to variations in electrical boundary conditions resulting in the differences in the strength of the electrostatic coupling. The results are explained using nonlinear thermodynamic model taking into account electrostatic interlayer interaction. We believe that present work will have huge significance in design of high performance ceramic capacitors.

  1. Range performance of the DARPA AWARE wide field-of-view visible imager.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J M; Judd, K P; Olson, C C; Novak, K; Waterman, J R; Feller, S; McCain, S; Anderson, J; Brady, D

    2016-06-01

    In a prior paper, we described a new imaging architecture that addresses the need for wide field-of-view imaging combined with the resolution required to identify targets at long range. Over the last two years substantive improvements have been made to the system, both in terms of the size, weight, and power of the camera as well as to the optics and data management software. The result is an overall improvement in system performance, which we demonstrate via a maritime target identification experiment.

  2. Development of a precision, wide-dynamic-range actuator for use in active optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Aubrun, J-N.; Zacharie, D. F.; Perez, E. O.

    1989-01-01

    The design, operation, and performance of a wide-dynamic-range optical-quality actuator are discussed. The actuator uses a closed-loop control system to maintain accurate positioning and has an rms noise performance of 20 nm. A unique force offloading mechanism allows the actuator coil to dissipate less than 3 mW under quiescent conditions. The operation of an experimental segmented optical system that uses 18 of the actuators is examined to show how they are integrated into an actual system.

  3. A new method for achieving enhanced dielectric response over a wide temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Maurya, Deepam; Sun, Fu -Chang; Pamir Alpay, S.; Priya, Shashank

    2015-10-19

    We report a novel approach for achieving high dielectric response over a wide temperature range. In this approach, multilayer ceramic heterostructures with constituent compositions having strategically tuned Curie points (TC) were designed and integrated with varying electrical connectivity. Interestingly, these multilayer structures exhibited different dielectric behavior in series and parallel configuration due to variations in electrical boundary conditions resulting in the differences in the strength of the electrostatic coupling. The results are explained using nonlinear thermodynamic model taking into account electrostatic interlayer interaction. We believe that present work will have huge significance in design of high performance ceramic capacitors.

  4. Voltage-controlled narrowband and wide, variable-range four-segment quartz crystal oscillator.

    PubMed

    Ruslan, Ruzaini; Satoh, Tomio; Akitsu, Tetsuya

    2012-03-01

    In this work, our goal is to develop a voltage-controlled variable-frequency quartz crystal oscillator with narrowband response, wide, variable frequency range and the capacity to oscillate across the series resonance frequency using a four-segment configuration of a quartz crystal oscillator. In conventional quartz oscillators, the quartz resonator is inserted in the feedback loop between the input and the output of the active circuit, providing sufficient gain and the phase relation. In the oscillator developed here, the quartz crystal resonator is inserted between the loop circuit and the ground potential. The performance of the voltage-controlled variable-frequency oscillator is demonstrated across the series resonance frequency.

  5. Development of wide-ranged diamond-based detector unit for gamma radiation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, M. A.; Boyko, A. V.; Chebyshev, S. B.; Cherkashin, I. I.; Kireev, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    In the article the description of wide-ranged diamond-based detector unit is given. Characteristics of the diamond detector were studied in current and in impulse mode. As well it was studied how detector's sensitivity depends on power doze within the limits from 10-3 to 0,4Gy/h (impulse mode) and from 10-1to 2 104Gy/h (current mode). On the basis of the obtained data it is possible to estimate about the possibility of using the detector to prevent emergency accident on a nuclear power plant and for everyday control at a nuclear power plant.

  6. Wide-range adjustment technique of playback wavelength of MBDCG Lippmann hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Dong, Guangxing; Li, Jiangfeng; Du, Jinglei

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, a new technique is presented for adjusting the playback wavelength of Lippmann holograms recorded in methylene-blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG). The main feature of this technique is introducing a water-soluble organic reagent into MBDCG photosensitive layer as preswelling reagent and wavelength adjuster. This method has wide wavelength adjustment range and high signal-to-noise ratio, can be applied to adjust the playback wavelength of reflection hologram quantitatively by changing the concentration of preswelling reagent. Its possible applications include color image display, holographic optical elements, and optical anti-counterfeiting.

  7. Design and operation of the wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Loguillo, M. J.; Lucas, M. S.; Delaire, O.; Tang, X.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Fultz, B.

    2012-01-15

    The wide angular-range chopper spectrometer ARCS at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is optimized to provide a high neutron flux at the sample position with a large solid angle of detector coverage. The instrument incorporates modern neutron instrumentation, such as an elliptically focused neutron guide, high speed magnetic bearing choppers, and a massive array of {sup 3}He linear position sensitive detectors. Novel features of the spectrometer include the use of a large gate valve between the sample and detector vacuum chambers and the placement of the detectors within the vacuum, both of which provide a window-free final flight path to minimize background scattering while allowing rapid changing of the sample and sample environment equipment. ARCS views the SNS decoupled ambient temperature water moderator, using neutrons with incident energy typically in the range from 15 to 1500 meV. This range, coupled with the large detector coverage, allows a wide variety of studies of excitations in condensed matter, such as lattice dynamics and magnetism, in both powder and single-crystal samples. Comparisons of early results to both analytical and Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument performance demonstrate that the instrument is operating as expected and its neutronic performance is understood. ARCS is currently in the SNS user program and continues to improve its scientific productivity by incorporating new instrumentation to increase the range of science covered and improve its effectiveness in data collection.

  8. Surrogate runner model for draft tube losses computation within a wide range of operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, R.; Muntean, S.; Ciocan, T.; de Colombel, T.; Leroy, P.

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a quasi two-dimensional (Q2D) methodology for assessing the swirling flow exiting the runner of hydraulic turbines at arbitrary operating points, within a wide operating range. The Q2D model does not need actual runner computations, and as a result it represents a surrogate runner model for a-priori assessment of the swirling flow ingested by the draft tube. The axial, radial and circumferential velocity components are computed on a conical section located immediately downstream the runner blades trailing edge, then used as inlet conditions for regular draft tube computations. The main advantage of our model is that it allows the determination of the draft tube losses within the intended turbine operating range in the early design stages of a new or refurbished runner, thus providing a robust and systematic methodology to meet the optimal requirements for the flow at the runner outlet.

  9. A wide concentration range olfactometer for delivery of short reproducible odor pulses.

    PubMed

    Vigouroux, M; Viret, P; Duchamp, A

    1988-05-01

    A multistage dynamic flow dilution olfactometer allowing the delivery of precisely controlled stimuli over a wide concentration range is presented. Discrete concentration values, in the range 10(-6) to 5.6 X 10(-2) of the saturated vapor of an odorous compound, are obtained from two original concentration by combining 4 dilution stages. Short stimulus pulses, of a known and reproducible concentration and with short rising and falling times, are sampled from steady concentration levels. A programmable controller manages the olfactometer dilution stage selection, the odor stimulus switch and starts the peripheral devices required by the experiment. The programming of olfactometer function makes it an extremely flexible system for various experimental projects in olfaction.

  10. Robust, wide-range hydrogen sensor for use in commercial, space, and government applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhorter, P.; Rodriguez, J.

    Hydrogen leaks pose a constant fire and explosion threat, and existing techniques for detecting hydrogen suffer from a number of limitations. Existing hydrogen sensors have limited dynamic range, poor reproducibility and reversibility, are subject to false alarms, and tend to be slow, unreliable and difficult to use. In order to address this need, Sandia has designed, fabricated, tested, and demonstrated a new generation of hydrogen sensor which overcomes the limitations of existing technology. This new technology, known as the Robust, Wide-Range Hydrogen Sensor Technology, was created by integrating special catalytic alloy films into Sandia's existing CMOS micro-electronic based hydrogen sensor technology. The Sensor contains PdNi transistor sensors for detecting low concentrations of hydrogen, PdNi resistor sensors for detecting higher concentrations of hydrogen, and on-chip micro-thermometers and micro-heaters for maintaining constant chip temperature.

  11. Phased array ultrasonic inspection method for homogeneous tube inspection over a wide oblique angle range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Benoit; Painchaud-April, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    As seamless tube manufacturers push quality requirements for their products, automated phased array Rotating Tube Inspection Systems (RTIS) are now required to provide continuous NDE detection performances over a wide angular range of oblique flaws. One major impact of this new reality is a paradigm shift for the calibration method use. This change is driven by the requirement to meet homogeneous detection over broad oblique flaw angle intervals, whereas standard practice only requires calibration at specific discrete angles. This paper presents an innovative method specifically designed to obtain high productivity and homogeneous inspection measurements over an oblique flaw range extending from -45 to 45 degrees. Experimental results from the application of the method on various tubes presenting multiple artificial flaws support the quantitative performance evaluation.

  12. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-27

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  13. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: Friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion. PMID:24970387

  14. Narrow Angle Wide Spectral Range Radiometer Design FEANICS/REEFS Radiometer Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camperchioli, William

    2005-01-01

    A critical measurement for the Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) microgravity combustion experiment is the net radiative flux emitted from the gases and from the solid fuel bed. These quantities are measured using a set of narrow angle, wide spectral range radiometers. The radiometers are required to have an angular field of view of 1.2 degrees and measure over the spectral range of 0.6 to 30 microns, which presents a challenging design effort. This report details the design of this radiometer system including field of view, radiometer response, radiometric calculations, temperature effects, error sources, baffling and amplifiers. This report presents some radiometer specific data but does not present any REEFS experiment data.

  15. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: Friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  16. Wide range equation of state for fluid hydrogen from density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping

    2013-09-15

    Wide range equation of state (EOS) for liquid hydrogen is ultimately obtained by combining two kinds of density functional theory (DFT) molecular dynamics simulations, namely, first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations. Specially, the present introduction of short cutoff radius pseudopotentials enables the EOS to be available in the range from 9.82 × 10{sup −4} to 1.347 × 10{sup 3} g/cm{sup 3} and up to 5 × 10{sup 7} K. By comprehensively comparing with various attainable experimental and theoretical data, we derive the conclusion that our DFT-EOS can be readily and reliably applied to hydrodynamic simulations of the inertial confinement fusion.

  17. An ultra wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with a linear response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Ho; Mase, Mitsuhito; Kawahito, Shoji; Sasaki, Masaaki; Wakamori, Yasuo; Ohta, Yukihiro

    2006-02-01

    An ultra wide dynamic range (WDR) CMOS image sensor (CIS) and the details of evaluation are presented. The proposed signal readout technique of extremely short accumulation (ESA) enables the dynamic range of image sensor to be expanded up to 146dB. Including the ESA signals, total of 4 different accumulation time signals are read out in one frame period based on burst readout technique. To achieve the high-speed signal readout required for the multiple exposure signals, column parallel A/D converters are integrated at the upper and lower sides of pixel arrays. The improved 12-bits cyclic ADCs with a built-in correlated double sampling (CDS) circuit has the differential non-linearity (DNL) of +/-0.3LSB.

  18. Catechol derivatives as fluorescent chemosensors for wide-range pH detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelio, Emilia; Hernando, Jordi; Imaz, Inhar; Bardají, Gisela G; Alibés, Ramon; Busqué, Félix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new family of catechol derivatives designed to behave as fluorescent chemosensors for wide-range pH detection has been described. These compounds were prepared by covalently coupling a catechol unit with other aromatic rings, thus obtaining pi-delocalized systems with both pH-responsive groups and fluorescent behavior. In the case of a pyridine-catechol derivative, this leads to up to three different protonation states with distinct optical properties in organic media, as corroborated by density functional theory calculations. By applying dual-wavelength detection techniques, this compound shows complementary "off-on-off" and "on-off-on" emission profiles upon pH variation, a behavior that can be exploited to perform acidity detection over a broad pH range.

  19. A wide range tunable fiber Bragg grating using fast changeable electromagnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayed, Heba A.; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Aboul Seoud, A. K.; Aly, Moustafa H.

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a silica-based tunable fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) filter with a wavelength tuning range over 60 nm. A magnetically TFBG package is employed to obtain a wide wavelength tuning range from 1540 to 1602 nm which covers the entire C band and most of the L-band. TFBG is achieved by varying an input current to a solenoid, resulting in an electromagnetic force, used as a strain (tension and compression) on the FBG. This approach is fast, has a broad band of tuning wavelengths and achieves a power reduction as no continuous supply of power is needed to maintain the set shift, due to the latch system used. This novel TFBG device can have a variety of applications in optical fiber communication systems such as programmable optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs), dispersion compensators and tunable lasers.

  20. Electrical Transport Over Wide Temperature Range In Doped And Undoped Polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Taunk, Manish; Chand, Subhash

    2010-12-01

    Polypyrrole was synthesized by chemical oxidation method by varying oxidant to monomer molar ratio for the optimization of electrical conductivity without using any external dopant. The conductivity in doped polypyrrole reached up to a maximum value of 7.2 S/cm. Neutralization of doped polypyrrole was done with aqueous ammonium hydroxide and three orders of reduced conductivity was obtained in neutral polypyrrole. Doping and neutralization of polypyrrole samples was supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Doped and undoped samples of polypyrrole were then electrically characterized over wide temperature range of 10-300 K. Stronger and weak temperature dependence of conductivity was revealed by undoped and doped polypyrrole samples respectively. An effort has been made to explore the electrical transport in doped and undoped polypyrrole by charge transport models. The experimental data obeys Kivelson's hopping model in temperature range of 60-300 K and fluctuation assisted tunneling was dominant conduction mechanism below 80 K.

  1. Iron based carbon nanocomposites for electromagnetic wave absorber with wide bandwidth in GHz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. R.; Itoh, M.; Horikawa, T.; Taguchi, E.; Mori, H.; Machida, K.

    2006-02-01

    The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of resin compacts containing 40 vol. % composite powders of α-Fe/C(a), and Fe3C/C(a) were characterized in a frequency range of 0.05 26.5 GHz, according to a conventional reflection/transmission technique. The real part (ɛr ') and the imaginary part (ɛr '') of relative permittivity were constantly low in the 2 14 GHz (ɛr '= ˜12.4 and ɛr ''= ˜0.6) for α-Fe/C(a) resin composites, and in the 1 26.5 GHz (ɛr '= ˜9.6 and ɛr ''= ˜0.8) for Fe3C/C(a) ones. The imaginary part (μr '') of relative permeability exhibited wide peaks in the 1 9 GHz range for α-Fe/C(a), and in the 2 26.5 GHz range for Fe3C/C(a) owing to their different magnetocrystalline anisotropy field values. Consequently, the resin compacts with 40 vol. % α-Fe/C(a), and Fe3C/C(a) powders provided good electromagnetic wave absorption performances (reflection loss <-20 dB) in ranges of 4.3 8.2 GHz, and 9 26.5 GHz over absorber thicknesses of 1.8 3.3 mm, and 1.0 2.4 mm, respectively.

  2. A digital wide range neutron flux measuring system for HL-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chen; Wu, Jun; Yin, Zejie

    2017-08-01

    To achieve wide-range, high-integration, and real-time performance on the neutron flux measurement on the HL-2A tokamak, a digital neutron flux measuring (DNFM) system based on the peripheral component interconnection (PCI) eXtension for Instrumentation express (PXIe) bus was designed. This system comprises a charge-sensitive preamplifier and a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based main electronics plug-in. The DNFM totally covers source-range and intermediate-range neutron flux measurements, and increases system integration by a large margin through joining the pulse-counting mode and Campbell mode. Meanwhile, the neutron flux estimation method based on pulse piling proportions is able to choose and switch measuring modes in accordance with current flux, and this ensures the accuracy of measurements when the neutron flux changes suddenly. It has been demonstrated by simulated signals that the DNFM enhances the full-scale measuring range up to 1.9 × 108 cm-2 s-1, with relative error below 6.1%. The DNFM has been verified to provide a high temporal sensitivity at 10 ms time intervals on a single fission chamber on HL-2A. Contributed paper, published as part of the Proceedings of the 3rd Domestic Electromagnetic Plasma Diagnostics Workshop, September 2016, Hefei, China.

  3. Wide dynamic range enrichment method of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes with weak field centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Wieland G.; Tomović, Željko; Weitz, R. Thomas; Krupke, Ralph; Mikhael, Jules

    2017-03-01

    The potential of single–walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to outperform silicon in electronic application was finally enabled through selective separation of semiconducting nanotubes from the as-synthesized statistical mix with polymeric dispersants. Such separation methods provide typically high semiconducting purity samples with narrow diameter distribution, i.e. almost single chiralities. But for a wide range of applications high purity mixtures of small and large diameters are sufficient or even required. Here we proof that weak field centrifugation is a diameter independent method for enrichment of semiconducting nanotubes. We show that the non-selective and strong adsorption of polyarylether dispersants on nanostructured carbon surfaces enables simple separation of diverse raw materials with different SWCNT diameter. In addition and for the first time, we demonstrate that increased temperature enables higher purity separation. Furthermore we show that the mode of action behind this electronic enrichment is strongly connected to both colloidal stability and protonation. By giving simple access to electronically sorted SWCNTs of any diameter, the wide dynamic range of weak field centrifugation can provide economical relevance to SWCNTs.

  4. Wide dynamic range enrichment method of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes with weak field centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Wieland G.; Tomović, Željko; Weitz, R. Thomas; Krupke, Ralph; Mikhael, Jules

    2017-01-01

    The potential of single–walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to outperform silicon in electronic application was finally enabled through selective separation of semiconducting nanotubes from the as-synthesized statistical mix with polymeric dispersants. Such separation methods provide typically high semiconducting purity samples with narrow diameter distribution, i.e. almost single chiralities. But for a wide range of applications high purity mixtures of small and large diameters are sufficient or even required. Here we proof that weak field centrifugation is a diameter independent method for enrichment of semiconducting nanotubes. We show that the non-selective and strong adsorption of polyarylether dispersants on nanostructured carbon surfaces enables simple separation of diverse raw materials with different SWCNT diameter. In addition and for the first time, we demonstrate that increased temperature enables higher purity separation. Furthermore we show that the mode of action behind this electronic enrichment is strongly connected to both colloidal stability and protonation. By giving simple access to electronically sorted SWCNTs of any diameter, the wide dynamic range of weak field centrifugation can provide economical relevance to SWCNTs. PMID:28317942

  5. DISCOUNTING OF DELAYED AND PROBABILISTIC LOSSES OVER A WIDE RANGE OF AMOUNTS

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Oliveira, Luís; Chang, Seo Eun

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined delay and probability discounting of hypothetical monetary losses over a wide range of amounts (from $20 to $500,000) in order to determine how amount affects the parameters of the hyperboloid discounting function. In separate conditions, college students chose between immediate payments and larger, delayed payments and between certain payments and larger, probabilistic payments. The hyperboloid function accurately described both types of discounting, and amount of loss had little or no systematic effect on the degree of discounting. Importantly, the amount of loss also had little systematic effect on either the rate parameter or the exponent of the delay and probability discounting functions. The finding that the parameters of the hyperboloid function remain relatively constant across a wide range of amounts of delayed and probabilistic loss stands in contrast to the robust amount effects observed with delayed and probabilistic rewards. At the individual level, the degree to which delayed losses were discounted was uncorrelated with the degree to which probabilistic losses were discounted, and delay and probability loaded on two separate factors, similar to what is observed with delayed and probabilistic rewards. Taken together, these findings argue that although delay and probability discounting involve fundamentally different decision-making mechanisms, nevertheless the discounting of delayed and probabilistic losses share an insensitivity to amount that distinguishes it from the discounting of delayed and probabilistic gains. PMID:24745086

  6. Kinetics of silicide formation over a wide range of heating rates spanning six orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Garcia, Gemma; Clavaguera-Mora, Maria T.; Peral, Inma; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2014-07-07

    Kinetic processes involving intermediate phase formation are often assumed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. This behavior is usually inferred from limited data over narrow temperature intervals, where the exponential dependence is generally fully satisfied. However, direct evidence over wide temperature intervals is experimentally challenging and data are scarce. Here, we report a study of silicide formation between a 12 nm film of palladium and 15 nm of amorphous silicon in a wide range of heating rates, spanning six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10{sup 5 }K/s, or equivalently more than 300 K of variation in reaction temperature. The calorimetric traces exhibit several distinct exothermic events related to interdiffusion, nucleation of Pd{sub 2}Si, crystallization of amorphous silicon, and vertical growth of Pd{sub 2}Si. Interestingly, the thickness of the initial nucleation layer depends on the heating rate revealing enhanced mass diffusion at the fastest heating rates during the initial stages of the reaction. In spite of this, the formation of the silicide strictly follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the whole temperature interval explored. A kinetic model is used to fit the calorimetric data over the complete heating rate range. Calorimetry is complemented by structural analysis through transmission electron microscopy and both standard and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  7. Biased diffusion in tubes of alternating diameter: Numerical study over a wide range of biasing force

    SciTech Connect

    Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Antipov, Anatoly E.; Zitserman, Vladimir Yu.

    2015-11-07

    This paper is devoted to particle transport in a tube formed by alternating wide and narrow sections, in the presence of an external biasing force. The focus is on the effective transport coefficients—mobility and diffusivity, as functions of the biasing force and the geometric parameters of the tube. Dependences of the effective mobility and diffusivity on the tube geometric parameters are known in the limiting cases of no bias and strong bias. The approximations used to obtain these results are inapplicable at intermediate values of the biasing force. To bridge the two limits Brownian dynamics simulations were run to determine the transport coefficients at intermediate values of the force. The simulations were performed for a representative set of tube geometries over a wide range of the biasing force. They revealed that there is a range of the narrow section length, where the force dependence of the mobility has a maximum. In contrast, the diffusivity is a monotonically increasing function of the force. A simple formula is proposed, which reduces to the known dependences of the diffusivity on the tube geometric parameters in both limits of zero and strong bias. At intermediate values of the biasing force, the formula catches the diffusivity dependence on the narrow section length, if the radius of these sections is not too small.

  8. Oxidation and combustion of the n-hexene isomers: A wide range kinetic modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Vanhove, Guillaume; Ranzi, Eliseo

    2008-12-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to study the oxidation of the straight-chain isomers of hexene over a wide range of operating conditions. The main features of this detailed kinetic mechanism, which includes both high and low temperature reaction pathways, are presented and discussed with special emphasis on the main classes of reactions involved in alkene oxidation. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions including shock tube, jet stirred reactor and rapid compression machine. The different reactivities of the three isomers have been successfully predicted by the model. Isomerization reactions of the hexenyl radicals were found to play a significant role in the chemistry and interactions of the three n-hexene isomers. A comparative reaction flux analysis is used to verify and discuss the fundamental role of the double bond position in the isomerization reactions of alkenyl radicals, as well as the impact of the allylic site in the low and high temperature mechanism of fuel oxidation. (author)

  9. Oxidation and combustion of the n-hexene isomers: a wide range kinetic modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Vanhove, G; Pitz, W J; Ranzi, E

    2008-03-12

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to study the oxidation of the straight-chain isomers of hexene over a wide range of operating conditions. The main features of this detailed kinetic mechanism, which includes both high and low temperature reaction pathways, are presented and discussed with special emphasis on the main classes of reactions involved in alkene oxidation. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions including shock tube, jet stirred reactor and rapid compression machine. The different reactivities of the three isomers have been successfully predicted by the model. Isomerization reactions of the hexenyl radicals were found to play a significant role in the chemistry and interactions of the three n-hexene isomers. A comparative reaction flux analysis is used to verify and discuss the fundamental role of the double bond position in the isomerization reactions of alkenyl radicals, as well as the impact of the allylic site in the low and high temperature mechanism of fuel oxidation.

  10. Biased diffusion in tubes of alternating diameter: Numerical study over a wide range of biasing force.

    PubMed

    Makhnovskii, Yurii A; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Antipov, Anatoly E; Zitserman, Vladimir Yu

    2015-11-07

    This paper is devoted to particle transport in a tube formed by alternating wide and narrow sections, in the presence of an external biasing force. The focus is on the effective transport coefficients--mobility and diffusivity, as functions of the biasing force and the geometric parameters of the tube. Dependences of the effective mobility and diffusivity on the tube geometric parameters are known in the limiting cases of no bias and strong bias. The approximations used to obtain these results are inapplicable at intermediate values of the biasing force. To bridge the two limits Brownian dynamics simulations were run to determine the transport coefficients at intermediate values of the force. The simulations were performed for a representative set of tube geometries over a wide range of the biasing force. They revealed that there is a range of the narrow section length, where the force dependence of the mobility has a maximum. In contrast, the diffusivity is a monotonically increasing function of the force. A simple formula is proposed, which reduces to the known dependences of the diffusivity on the tube geometric parameters in both limits of zero and strong bias. At intermediate values of the biasing force, the formula catches the diffusivity dependence on the narrow section length, if the radius of these sections is not too small.

  11. A high gain wide dynamic range transimpedance amplifier for optical receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lianxi, Liu; Jiao, Zou; Yunfei, En; Shubin, Liu; Yue, Niu; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    As the front-end preamplifiers in optical receivers, transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs) are commonly required to have a high gain and low input noise to amplify the weak and susceptible input signal. At the same time, the TIAs should possess a wide dynamic range (DR) to prevent the circuit from becoming saturated by high input currents. Based on the above, this paper presents a CMOS transimpedance amplifier with high gain and a wide DR for 2.5 Gbit/s communications. The TIA proposed consists of a three-stage cascade pull push inverter, an automatic gain control circuit, and a shunt transistor controlled by the resistive divider. The inductive-series peaking technique is used to further extend the bandwidth. The TIA proposed displays a maximum transimpedance gain of 88.3 dBΩ with the -3 dB bandwidth of 1.8 GHz, exhibits an input current dynamic range from 100 nA to 10 mA. The output voltage noise is less than 48.23 nV/√Hz within the -3 dB bandwidth. The circuit is fabricated using an SMIC 0.18 μm 1P6M RFCMOS process and dissipates a dc power of 9.4 mW with 1.8 V supply voltage.

  12. Nonlinear analysis and dynamic compensation of stylus scanning measurement with wide range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Heiyang; Liu, Xiaojun; Lu, Wenlong

    2011-12-01

    Surface topography is an important geometrical feature of a workpiece that influences its quality and functions such as friction, wearing, lubrication and sealing. Precision measurement of surface topography is fundamental for product quality characterizing and assurance. Stylus scanning technique is a widely used method for surface topography measurement, and it is also regarded as the international standard method for 2-D surface characterizing. Usually surface topography, including primary profile, waviness and roughness, can be measured precisely and efficiently by this method. However, by stylus scanning method to measure curved surface topography, the nonlinear error is unavoidable because of the difference of horizontal position of the actual measured point from given sampling point and the nonlinear transformation process from vertical displacement of the stylus tip to angle displacement of the stylus arm, and the error increases with the increasing of measuring range. In this paper, a wide range stylus scanning measurement system based on cylindrical grating interference principle is constructed, the originations of the nonlinear error are analyzed, the error model is established and a solution to decrease the nonlinear error is proposed, through which the error of the collected data is dynamically compensated.

  13. Substrate material selection method for multilayer diffractive optics in a wide environmental temperature range.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mingxu; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhao, Chunzhu; Zhang, Bo; Mao, Shan; Zhao, Yuanming; Zhao, Lidong

    2017-04-01

    We present a substrate material selection method for multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs) to obtain high polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency (PIDE) in a wide environmental temperature range. The extended expressions of the surface relief heights for the MLDOEs are deduced with consideration of the influence of the environmental temperature. The PIDE difference Δη¯(λ) and PIDE change factor F are introduced to select a reasonable substrate material combination. A smaller value of Δη¯(λ) or F indicates a smaller decrease of the PIDE in a wide temperature range, and the corresponding substrate material combination is better. According to the deduced relation, double-layer and three-layer DOEs with different combinations are discussed. The results show that IRG26 and zinc sulfide is the best substrate material combination in the infrared waveband for double-layer DOEs, and polycarbonate is more reasonable than polymethyl methacrylate as the middle filling optical material for three-layer DOEs when the two substrate materials are the same.

  14. Understanding the wide geographic range of a clonal perennial grass: plasticity versus local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2016-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation may allow widely distributed plant species to either acclimate or adapt to environmental heterogeneity. Given the typically low genetic variation of clonal plants across their habitats, phenotypic plasticity may be the primary adaptive strategy allowing them to thrive across a wide range of habitats. In this study, the mechanism supporting the widespread distribution of the clonal plant Leymus chinensis was determined, i.e. phenotypic plasticity or local specialization in water use efficiency (WUE; reflected by foliar δ13C). To test whether plasticity is required for the species to thrive in different habitats, samples were collected across its distribution in the Mongolian steppe, and a controlled watering experiment was conducted with two populations at two different sites. Five populations were also transplanted from different sites into a control environment, and the foliar δ13C was compared between the control and original habitats, to test for local specialization in WUE. Results demonstrated decreased foliar δ13C with increasing precipitation during controlled watering experiments, with divergent responses between the two populations assessed. Change in foliar δ13C (−3.69 ‰) due to water addition was comparable to fluctuations of foliar δ13C observed in situ (−4.83 ‰). Foliar δ13C differed by −0.91 ‰ between two transplanted populations; however, this difference was not apparent between the two populations when growing in their original habitats. Findings provide evidence that local adaptation affects foliar δ13C much less than phenotypic plasticity. Thus, plasticity in WUE is more important than local adaptation in allowing the clonal plant L. chinensis to occupy a wide range of habitats in the Mongolian steppe. PMID:26644341

  15. Neutral octadecyl monolith for reversed phase capillary electrochromatography of a wide range of solutes.

    PubMed

    Karenga, Samuel; El Rassi, Ziad

    2008-08-01

    A neutral octadecyl monolithic (ODM) column for RP capillary electrochromatography (RP-CEC) has been developed. The ODM column was prepared by the in situ polymerization of octadecyl acrylate (ODA) as the monomer and trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker, in a ternary porogenic solvent containing cyclohexanol, ethylene glycol, and water. The ODM column exhibited cathodal EOF over a wide range of pH and ACN concentration in the mobile phase despite the fact that it was devoid of any fixed charges. It is believed that the EOF is due to the adsorption of ions from the mobile phase onto the surface of the monolith thus imparting to the neutral ODM column the zeta potential necessary to support the EOF required for mass transport across the monolithic column. Furthermore, the adsorption of mobile phase ions to the neutral monolith modulated solute retention and affected the separation selectivity. The wide applications of the neutral ODM column were demonstrated by its ability to separate a wide range of small and large solutes, both neutral and charged. While the separation of the neutral solutes was based on RP retention mechanism, the charged solutes were separated on the basis of their electrophoretic mobility and hydrophobic interaction with the C18 ligands of the stationary phase. As a typical result, the neutral monolithic column was able to separate peptides quite rapidly with a separation efficiency of nearly 200,000 plates/m, and this efficiency was exploited in tryptic peptide mapping of standard proteins, e. g., lysozyme and cytochrome C, by isocratic elution.

  16. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project; energy resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Oil, natural gas, and coal (energy resources) have been produced from rocks in the Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming for more than a century, and significant quantities of oil and gas continue to be developed in the study area of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (fig. 1). As an infrastructure resource, energy resources helped to fuel past development of (1) urban areas in the Front Range as well as (2) some of the manufacturing and mining upon which the urban centers were built and thrived. At present, much of the oil and gas extracted from rocks beneath the Front Range urban corridor is used locally; the people living in the urban area provide a need and viable marketplace for these commodities.

  17. A single-element, thermal, flow-velocity sensor with wide dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Durst, F.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2001-11-01

    Thermal flow sensors with a wide dynamic range approaching 1:1000 are presently not available in spite of the large demand for such sensors in practical fluid flow measurements. During the last meeting (paper JG4, Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, no. 9, p. 141, 2000), we described such a probe consisting of a minute wire heated using sinusoidal alternating current and two sensing wires acting as resistance thermometers and set parallel to, and at a small distance on either side of, the pulsed wire. Herein we detail the development of a single wire heated using square waves of electrical current. The elimination of the sensing wires reduces the complexity as well as the cost of the sensor and improves its spatial resolution. Unlike time-of-flight sensors, however, the present single-element sensor is sensitive to the physical properties and temperature of the ambient fluid. The present device is suited for measuring slowly-varying unidirectional flows over a very wide dynamic range. For a given current amplitude and frequency, the nominal output of the single sensor is the increase in wire temperature (or resistance) between times just before the leading edge of the current pulse and just after the trailing edge of the pulse. In practice, an integral of the resistance over the pulse duration is computed and averaged over several pulses. This output is a function of the wire’s time constant or thermal inertia and thus of the flow speed as well as the heat convected from the heated wire to the flow. We exploit the fact that the time constant decreases as the flow speed increases while the rate of heat transfer increases. At very low flow speeds, the response is determined almost entirely by the time constant whereas at high speeds the device acts almost like a constant-current hot-wire anemometer. At low speeds, therefore, the wire thermal inertia augments the output signal of the basic hot wire increasing its speed range and sensitivity above that of a conventional hot

  18. Energy and dissipation range spectra in the inertial range of homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhot, V.; She, Z.-S.; Orszag, S. A.

    A study is conducted of deviations from Kolmogorov's inertial-range scaling behavior using the dynamical 'renormalization group' (RNG) analysis of turbulence; RNG has been found to yield good predictions for inertial-range statistics including the Kolmogorov and the Batchelor-Obukhov-Corrsin constants. Attention is given to the implications of the deviations for higher-order statistics of small-scale turbulence. It was established by Edwards (1964) that the relation between the exponent of the inertial range energy spectrum and that of the Gaussian force correlation spectrum is independent of the perturbation expansion. It is presently shown that this relationship holds even for higher-order correlation functions.

  19. Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth's outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to the first adiabatic invariant μ = 4-200 MeV/G. The electron diffusion coefficients due to hiss scattering are calculated at L = 2-6, and the modeled energy band of effective pitch angle scattering is also well correlated with the constant μ lines and is consistent with the observed energy range of electron decay. Using the previously developed statistical plasmaspheric hiss model during modestly disturbed periods, we perform a 2-D Fokker-Planck simulation of the electron phase space density evolution at L = 3.5 and demonstrate that plasmaspheric hiss causes the significant decay of 100 keV-1 MeV electrons with the largest decay rate occurring at around 340 keV, forming anisotropic pitch angle distributions at lower energies and more flattened distributions at higher energies. Our study provides reasonable estimates of the electron populations that can be most significantly affected by plasmaspheric hiss and the consequent electron decay profiles.

  20. Color signal encoding for high dynamic range and wide color gamut based on human perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezamabadi, Mahdi; Miller, Scott; Daly, Scott; Atkins, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A new EOTF based on human perception, called PQ (Perceptual Quantizer), was proposed in a previous work (SMPTE Mot. Imag. J 2013, 122:52-59) and its performance was evaluated for a wide range of luminance levels and encoding bitdepth values. This paper is an extension of that previous work to include the color aspects of the PQ signal encoding. The efficiency of the PQ encoding and bit-depth requirements were evaluated and compared for standard color gamuts of Rec 709 (SRGB), and the wide color gamuts of Rec 2020, P3, and ACES for a variety of signal representations as RGB, YCbCr, and XYZ. In a selected color space for any potential local gray level 26 color samples were simulated by deviating one quantization step from the original color in each signal dimension. The quantization step sizes were simulated based on the PQ and gamma curves for different bit-depth values and luminance ranges for each of the color gamut spaces and signal representations. Color differences between the gray field and the simulated color samples were computed using CIE DE2000 color difference equation. The maximum color difference values (quantization error) were used as a metric to evaluate the performance of the corresponding EOTF curve. Extended color gamuts were found to require more bits to maintain low quantization error. Extended dynamic range required fewer additional bits in to maintain quantization error. Regarding the visual detection thresholds, the minimum bit-depth required by the PQ and gamma encodings are evaluated and compared through visual experiments.

  1. Piezo-based, high dynamic range, wide bandwidth steering system for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasikov, Nir; Peled, Gal; Yasinov, Roman; Feinstein, Alan

    2017-05-01

    Piezoelectric motors and actuators are characterized by direct drive, fast response, high positioning resolution and high mechanical power density. These properties are beneficial for optical devices such as gimbals, optical image stabilizers and mirror angular positioners. The range of applications includes sensor pointing systems, image stabilization, laser steering and more. This paper reports on the construction, properties and operation of three types of piezo based building blocks for optical steering applications: a small gimbal and a two-axis OIS (Optical Image Stabilization) mechanism, both based on piezoelectric motors, and a flexure-assisted piezoelectric actuator for mirror angular positioning. The gimbal weighs less than 190 grams, has a wide angular span (solid angle of > 2π) and allows for a 80 micro-radian stabilization with a stabilization frequency up to 25 Hz. The OIS is an X-Y, closed loop, platform having a lateral positioning resolution better than 1 μm, a stabilization frequency up to 25 Hz and a travel of +/-2 mm. It is used for laser steering or positioning of the image sensor, based on signals from a MEMS Gyro sensor. The actuator mirror positioner is based on three piezoelectric actuation axes for tip tilt (each providing a 50 μm motion range), has a positioning resolution of 10 nm and is capable of a 1000 Hz response. A combination of the gimbal with the mirror positioner or the OIS stage is explored by simulations, indicating a <10 micro-radian stabilization capability under substantial perturbation. Simulations and experimental results are presented for a combined device facilitating both wide steering angle range and bandwidth.

  2. Development and testing of a novel single-wire sensor for wide range flow velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Durst, F.

    2004-05-01

    Thermal flow sensors with a wide dynamic range, e.g. 1:1000 and more, are currently not available in spite of the great demand for such sensors in practical fluid flow measurements. The present paper introduces a sensor of this kind. The new sensor is mechanically the same as the 'sending' wire of the two-wire thermal flow sensor described by Durst et al, but it is excited by discrete, widely separated, square waves of electrical current rather than a continuous sinusoidal current. The nominal 'output' of the new sensor is the increase in wire temperature so that an integral of the resistance over the pulse length can be used for measurements. This 'output' is a function of the time constant ('thermal inertia') of the heated wire and thus also of the velocity of flow. The time constant decreases as the flow velocity increases, while the heat transfer increases. At very low flow velocities the response is determined almost entirely by the time constant of the wire while at high velocities the device acts almost like a 'constant current' hot-wire anemometer. That is, the effect of thermal inertia augments the output signal of the basic hot wire, thus increasing the flow rate range/sensitivity of the device, especially at the low-velocity end, above than that of a simple hot-wire flowmeter. The sensor described here was developed for slowly changing unidirectional flows, and uses one wire of 12.5 µm diameter. It is excited at 30 Hz frequency and its usable flow velocity range is 0.01-25 m s-1.

  3. Long-range energy transport in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Roden, Jan J J; Bennett, Doran I G; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2016-06-28

    We simulate the long-range inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II-from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center-using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation-localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation-and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall long-range energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.

  4. Long-range energy transport in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Jan J. J.; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the long-range inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II - from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center - using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation - localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation - and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall long-range energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.

  5. Ultrafast and Wide Range Analysis of DNA Molecules Using Rigid Network Structure of Solid Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Rahong, Sakon; Yasui, Takao; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Meng, Gang; He, Yong; Zhuge, Fuwei; Kaji, Noritada; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing sizes of DNA via electrophoresis using a gel has played an important role in the recent, rapid progress of biology and biotechnology. Although analyzing DNA over a wide range of sizes in a short time is desired, no existing electrophoresis methods have been able to fully satisfy these two requirements. Here we propose a novel method using a rigid 3D network structure composed of solid nanowires within a microchannel. This rigid network structure enables analysis of DNA under applied DC electric fields for a large DNA size range (100 bp–166 kbp) within 13 s, which are much wider and faster conditions than those of any existing methods. The network density is readily varied for the targeted DNA size range by tailoring the number of cycles of the nanowire growth only at the desired spatial position within the microchannel. The rigid dense 3D network structure with spatial density control plays an important role in determining the capability for analyzing DNA. Since the present method allows the spatial location and density of the nanostructure within the microchannels to be defined, this unique controllability offers a new strategy to develop an analytical method not only for DNA but also for other biological molecules. PMID:24918865

  6. Ultrafast and wide range analysis of DNA molecules using rigid network structure of solid nanowires.

    PubMed

    Rahong, Sakon; Yasui, Takao; Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Meng, Gang; He, Yong; Zhuge, Fuwei; Kaji, Noritada; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2014-06-11

    Analyzing sizes of DNA via electrophoresis using a gel has played an important role in the recent, rapid progress of biology and biotechnology. Although analyzing DNA over a wide range of sizes in a short time is desired, no existing electrophoresis methods have been able to fully satisfy these two requirements. Here we propose a novel method using a rigid 3D network structure composed of solid nanowires within a microchannel. This rigid network structure enables analysis of DNA under applied DC electric fields for a large DNA size range (100 bp-166 kbp) within 13 s, which are much wider and faster conditions than those of any existing methods. The network density is readily varied for the targeted DNA size range by tailoring the number of cycles of the nanowire growth only at the desired spatial position within the microchannel. The rigid dense 3D network structure with spatial density control plays an important role in determining the capability for analyzing DNA. Since the present method allows the spatial location and density of the nanostructure within the microchannels to be defined, this unique controllability offers a new strategy to develop an analytical method not only for DNA but also for other biological molecules.

  7. Connectivity of wood thrush breeding, wintering, and migration sites based on range-wide tracking.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Calandra Q; McKinnon, Emily A; Fraser, Kevin C; Macpherson, Maggie P; Casbourn, Garth; Friesen, Lyle; Marra, Peter P; Studds, Colin; Ryder, T Brandt; Diggs, Nora E; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-02-01

    Many migratory animals are experiencing rapid population declines, but migration data with the geographic scope and resolution to quantify the complex network of movements between breeding and nonbreeding regions are often lacking. Determining the most frequently used migration routes and nonbreeding regions for a species is critical for understanding population dynamics and making effective conservation decisions. We tracked the migration of individual Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) (n = 102) from across their range with light-level geolocators and, for the first time, quantified migration routes and wintering regions for distinct breeding populations. We identified regional and species-level migratory connectivity networks for this declining songbird by combining our tracking results with range-wide breeding abundance estimates and forest cover data. More than 50% of the species occupied the eastern wintering range (Honduras to Costa Rica), a region that includes only one-third of all wintering habitat and that is undergoing intensive deforestation. We estimated that half of all Wood Thrushes in North America migrate south through Florida in fall, whereas in spring approximately 73% funnel northward through a narrow span along the central U.S. Gulf Coast (88-93°W). Identifying migratory networks is a critical step for conservation of songbirds and we demonstrated with Wood Thrushes how it can highlight conservation hotspots for regional populations and species as a whole. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Optical side scattering radiometry for high resolution, wide dynamic range longitudinal assessment of optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Sandoghchi, S R; Petrovich, M; Gray, D R; Chen, Y; Wheeler, N V; Bradley, T D; Wong, N H L; Jasion, G T; Hayes, J; Fokoua, E Numkam; Alonso, M B; Mousavi, S M; Richardson, D J; Poletti, F

    2015-10-19

    Current optical reflectometric techniques used to characterize optical fibers have to trade-off longitudinal range with spatial resolution and therefore struggle to provide simultaneously wide dynamic range (>20dB) and high resolution (<10cm). In this work, we develop and present a technique we refer to as Optical Side Scattering Radiometry (OSSR) capable of resolving discrete and distributed scattering properties of fibers along their length with up to 60dB dynamic range and 5cm spatial resolution. Our setup is first validated on a standard single mode telecoms fiber. Then we apply it to a record-length 11km hollow core photonic band-gap fiber (HC-PBGF) the characterization requirements of which lie far beyond the capability of standard optical reflectometric instruments. We next demonstrate use of the technique to investigate and explain the unusually high loss observed in another HC-PBGF and finally demonstrate its flexibility by measuring a HC-PBGF operating at a wavelength of 2µm. In all of these examples, good agreement between the OSSR measurements and other well-established (but more limited) characterization methods, i.e. cutback loss and OTDR, was obtained.

  9. LNA with wide range of gain control and wideband interference rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jhen-Ji; Chen, Duan-Yu

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a low-noise amplifier (LNA) design with a wide-range gain control characteristic that integrates adjustable current distribution and output impedance techniques. For a given gain characteristic, the proposed LNA provides better wideband interference rejection performance than conventional LNA. Moreover, the proposed LNA also has a wider gain control range than conventional LNA. Therefore, it is suitable for satellite communications systems. The simulation results demonstrate that the voltage gain control range is between 14.5 and 34.2 dB for such applications (2600 MHz); the input reflection coefficient is less than -18.9 dB; the noise figure (NF) is 1.25 dB; and the third-order intercept point (IIP3) is 4.52 dBm. The proposed LNA consumes 23.85-28.17 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V. It is implemented by using TSMC 0.18-um RF CMOS process technology.

  10. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  11. Solar tri-diurnal variation of cosmic rays in a wide range of rigidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, S.; Ueno, H.; Fujii, Z.; Morishita, I.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar tri-diurnal variations of cosmic rays have been analyzed in a wide range of rigidity, using data from neutron monitors, and the surface and underground muon telescopes for the period 1978-1983. The rigidity spectrum of the anisotropy in space is assumed to be of power-exponential type as (P/gamma P sub o) to the gamma exp (gamma-P/P sub o). By means of the best-fit method between the observed and the expected variations, it is obtained that the spectrum has a peak at P (=gamma P sub o) approx = 90 GV, where gamma=approx 3.0 and P sub o approx. 30 GV. The phase in space of the tri-diurnal variation is also obtained as 7.0 hr (15 hr and 23 hr LT), which is quite different from that of approx. 1 hr. arising from the axisymmetric distribution of cosmic rays with respect to the IMF.

  12. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-Yu; Hsieh, Fan-Chun; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Shao-En; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Wu, Chia-Che

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage. PMID:25421736

  13. Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application. PMID:27628747

  14. A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang; Kevin Beard; Jay Benesch; Yu-Chiu Chao; Arne Freyberger; Joseph Grames; Reza Kazimi; Geoffrey Krafft; Rui Li; Nikolitsa Merminga; Benard Poelker; Byung Yunn

    2004-07-01

    A PARMELA model of the CEBAF injector valid over a wide range of beam parameters Yuhong Zhang, Kevin Beard, Jay Benesch, Yu-Chiu Chao, Arne Freyberger, Joseph Grames, Reza Kazimi, Geoff Krafft, Rui Li, Lia Merminga, Matt Poelker, Michael Tiefenback, Byung Yunn Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 USA An earlier PARMELA model of the Jefferson Lab CEBAF photoinjector was recently revised. The initial phase space distribution of an electron bunch was determined by measuring spot size and pulselength of the driver laser and by beam emittance measurements. The improved model has been used for simulations of the simultaneous delivery of the Hall A beam required for a hypernuclear experiment, and the Hall C beam required for the G0 parity violation experiment.

  15. Activation of lumbar spinal wide-dynamic range neurons by a sanshool derivative.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Carolyn M; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Simons, Christopher T; Slack, Jay; McCluskey, T Scott; Furrer, Stefan; Carstens, E

    2009-04-01

    The enigmatic sensation of tingle involves the activation of primary sensory neurons by hydroxy-alpha-sanshool, a tingly agent in Szechuan peppers, by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels. Central mechanisms mediating tingle sensation are unknown. We investigated whether a stable derivative of sanshool-isobutylalkenyl amide (IBA)-excites wide-dynamic range (WDR) spinal neurons that participate in transmission of chemesthetic information from the skin. In anesthetized rats, the majority of WDR and low-threshold units responded to intradermal injection of IBA in a dose-related manner over a >5-min time course and exhibited tachyphylaxis at higher concentrations (1 and 10%). Almost all WDR and low-threshold units additionally responded to the pungent agents mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) and/or capsaicin, prompting reclassification of the low-threshold cells as WDR. The results are discussed in terms of the functional role of WDR neurons in mediating tingle sensation.

  16. Wide Range Vacuum Pumps for the SAM Instrument on the MSL Curiosity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Farley, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Creare Incorporated and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center developed and space qualified two wide range pumps (WRPs) that were included in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. This instrument was subsequently integrated into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity Rover," launched aboard an Atlas V rocket in 2011, and landed on August 6, 2012, in the Gale Crater on Mars. The pumps have now operated for more than 18 months in the Gale Crater and have been evacuating the key components of the SAM instrument: a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and six gas chromatograph columns. In this paper, we describe the main design challenges and the ways in which they were solved. This includes the custom design of a miniaturized, high-speed motor to drive the turbo drag pump rotor, analysis of rotor dynamics for super critical operation, and bearing/lubricant design/selection.

  17. Raman spectroscopic characterization of CH4 density over a wide range of temperature and pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shang, Linbo; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, Robert; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2014-01-01

    The positions of the CH4 Raman ν1 symmetric stretching bands were measured in a wide range of temperature (from −180 °C to 350 °C) and density (up to 0.45 g/cm3) using high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsule. The results show that the Raman band shift is a function of both methane density and temperature; the band shifts to lower wavenumbers as the density increases and the temperature decreases. An equation representing the observed relationship among the CH4 ν1 band position, temperature, and density can be used to calculate the density in natural or synthetic CH4-bearing inclusions.

  18. Activation of Lumbar Spinal Wide-Dynamic Range Neurons by a Sanshool Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Carolyn M.; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Simons, Christopher T.; Slack, Jay; McCluskey, T. Scott; Furrer, Stefan; Carstens, E.

    2009-01-01

    The enigmatic sensation of tingle involves the activation of primary sensory neurons by hydroxy-α-sanshool, a tingly agent in Szechuan peppers, by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels. Central mechanisms mediating tingle sensation are unknown. We investigated whether a stable derivative of sanshool—isobutylalkenyl amide (IBA)—excites wide-dynamic range (WDR) spinal neurons that participate in transmission of chemesthetic information from the skin. In anesthetized rats, the majority of WDR and low-threshold units responded to intradermal injection of IBA in a dose-related manner over a >5-min time course and exhibited tachyphylaxis at higher concentrations (1 and 10%). Almost all WDR and low-threshold units additionally responded to the pungent agents mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) and/or capsaicin, prompting reclassification of the low-threshold cells as WDR. The results are discussed in terms of the functional role of WDR neurons in mediating tingle sensation. PMID:19164099

  19. An arrayed accelerometer device of a wide range of detection for integrated CMOS-MEMS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Toshifumi; Yamane, Daisuke; Matsushima, Takaaki; Masu, Kazuya; Machida, Katsuyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the design and experimental results of an arrayed accelerometer device in 3 × 3 format that can detect wide range of acceleration between 1G and 20G (1G = 9.8 m/s2). Implemented in a single chip has been performed by gold electroplating for integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor-microelectromechanical systems (CMOS-MEMS) technology. An equivalent circuit of a MEMS accelerometer has been developed with an electrical circuit simulator to demonstrate the mixed-behavior of the arrayed sensor device and sensing CMOS circuits. Mechanical and electrical crosstalk between the arrayed elements is analyzed on the electrical field distributions. Experimental results show that the resonant frequency and readout capacitance as a function of applied acceleration have been well explained by the results of the multi-physics simulation. As a result, it is confirmed that the proposed device is applicable to an integrated CMOS-MEMS arrayed accelerometer.

  20. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Benedetti, Stefania; di Bona, Alessandro; Lollobrigida, Valerio; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Lupi, Stefano; Valeri, Sergio; Torelli, Piero

    2015-10-01

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general.

  1. Development of wide dynamic range beam loss monitor system for J-PARC main ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, K.; Toyama, T.; Kamikubota, N.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-07-01

    The new beam loss monitor (BLM) system now in operation at the main ring of J- PARC consists of an isolated front-end current to voltage converter, a VME-based 24 bit ADC system. A dual detector system employs a proportional-type gas chamber (PBLM) and an air- filled ionization chamber (AIC). The system shows a wide dynamic range of 160 dB. It can detect the low level signal that would arise in the case of the detection of residual dose in the ring itself after the beam has been turned off as well as an event such as high level beam loss at the collimators. The signal rise time of the waveform obtained is 17 µs which is fast enough to meet the speed requirement of the Machine Protection System (MPS); which is that the MPS should dump the beam within 100 µs when the beam loss signal exceeds the reference levels set in the ADC system.

  2. Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in human disease.

    PubMed

    Fadeel, B; Orrenius, S

    2005-12-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated process of cell deletion and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. Numerous studies in recent years have revealed that apoptosis is a constitutive suicide programme expressed in most, if not all cells, and can be triggered by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic signals. Many human diseases can be attributed directly or indirectly to a derangement of apoptosis, resulting in either cell accumulation, in which cell eradication or cell turnover is impaired, or cell loss, in which the apoptotic programme is inadvertently triggered. In addition, defective macrophage engulfment and degradation of cell corpses may also contribute to a dysregulation of tissue homeostasis. An increased understanding of the signalling pathways that govern the execution of apoptosis and the subsequent clearance of dying cells may thus yield novel targets for therapeutic intervention in a wide range of human maladies.

  3. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities

    PubMed Central

    Altimus, C.M.; Güler, A.D.; Alam, N.M.; Arman, A.C.; Prusky, G.T.; Sampath, A.P.; Hattar, S

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs are not well understood. We demonstrate in genetic mouse models lacking functional rods, or where rods are the only functional photoreceptors, that rods are solely responsible for photoentrainment at scotopic light intensities. Surprisingly, rods were also capable of driving circadian photoentrainment at photopic intensities where they were incapable of supporting a visually–guided behavior. Using animals in which cone photoreceptors were ablated, we demonstrate that rods signal through cones at high light intensities, but not low light intensities. Thus two distinct retinal circuits drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. PMID:20711184

  4. Australian SKA Pathfinder: A High-Dynamic Range Wide-Field of View Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBoer, D. R.; Gough, R. G.; Bunton, J. D.; Cornwell, T. J.; Beresford, R. J.; Johnston, S.; Feain, I. J.; Schinckel, A. E.; Jackson, C. A.; Kesteven, M. J.; Chippendale, A.; Hampson, G. A.; O'Sullivan, J. D.; Hay, S. G.; Jacka, C. E.; Sweetnam, T. W.; Storey, M. C.; Ball, L.; Boyle, B. J.

    2009-08-01

    The Australia SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a new telescope under development as a world-class high-dynamic-range wide-field-of-view survey instrument. It will utilize focal plane phased array feeds on the 36 12-m antennas that will compose the array. The large amounts of data present a huge computing challenge, and ASKAP will store data products in an archive after near real-time pipeline processing. This powerful instrument will be deployed at a new radio-quiet observatory, the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the midwest region of Western Australia, to enable sensitive surveys of the entire sky to address some of the big questions in contemporary physics. As a pathfinder for the SKA, ASKAP will demonstrate field of view enhancement and computing/processing technology as well as the operation of a large-scale radio array in a remote and radio-quiet region of Australia.

  5. A New Case of Syringocystadenocarcinoma Papilliferum: A Rare Pathology for a Wide-Ranging Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Beatrice; Bianchini, Enzo; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Cavazzini, Luigi; Lanza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We report a new case of p63/cytokeratin 7 (CK7) positive syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (SCACP), on the shoulder of an 88-year-old man, with superficial dermal infiltration and squamoid differentiation. We describe the 24th case of SCACP, the malignant counterpart of syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP). At the present, we do not know whether SCACP arises from eccrine or apocrine glands because of the contrasting opinions in the literature. Only few histochemical and ultrastructural studies have previously advised that SCACP could arise from pluripotent stem cells. Through our case, we wish to suggest the stem cell-like properties of the syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum. This rare neoplasm shows two different patterns of stem cell marker expression in the glandular and squamous components, respectively. For the double phenotype of SCACP, we propose it like an intriguing model to study histogenesis and stem cell properties for more wide-ranging epithelial tumors. PMID:24959179

  6. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Lupi, Stefano; Torelli, Piero

    2015-10-28

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general.

  7. Parallel PWMs Based Fully Digital Transmitter with Wide Carrier Frequency Range

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Dake

    2013-01-01

    The carrier-frequency (CF) and intermediate-frequency (IF) pulse-width modulators (PWMs) based on delay lines are proposed, where baseband signals are conveyed by both positions and pulse widths or densities of the carrier clock. By combining IF-PWM and precorrected CF-PWM, a fully digital transmitter with unit-delay autocalibration is implemented in 180 nm CMOS for high reconfiguration. The proposed architecture achieves wide CF range of 2 M–1 GHz, high power efficiency of 70%, and low error vector magnitude (EVM) of 3%, with spectrum purity of 20 dB optimized in comparison to the existing designs. PMID:24223503

  8. Wide-Range Filter-Based Sinusoidal Wave Synthesizer for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    PubMed

    Chia-Ling Wei; Yi-Wen Wang; Bin-Da Liu

    2014-06-01

    A filter-based wide-range programmable sinusoidal wave synthesizer for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement is proposed. The adopted filter is implemented with switched-capacitor circuits, so its corner frequency is accurate and adjustable by changing its switching frequency. The proposed sine wave synthesizer is implemented by using a 0.35 μm 2P4M 3.3 V mixed-signal polycide process. According to the measured results, the output frequency of the proposed synthesizer is 40 mHz-40 kHz . The measured total harmonic distortion is 0.073% at 10 Hz and 0.075% at 10 kHz, both of which are better than that of a typical function generator.

  9. Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu

    2016-09-01

    The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical temperature over a wide range of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application.

  10. Wide Temperature Range Thermopower in GaAs/AlGaAs Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamatagi, M. D.; Sankeshwar, N. S.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2009-06-01

    A systematic analysis of wide-temperature-range (2

  11. Wide range tuning of resonant frequency for a vortex core in a regular triangle magnet

    PubMed Central

    Yakata, Satoshi; Tanaka, Terumitsu; Kiseki, Kohei; Matsuyama, Kimihide; Kimura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    A magnetic vortex structure stabilized in a micron or nano-sized ferromagnetic disk has a strong potential as a unit cell for spin-based nano-electronic devices because of negligible magnetostatic interaction and superior thermal stability. Moreover, various intriguing fundamental physics such as bloch point reversal and symmetry breaking can be induced in the dynamical behaviors in the magnetic vortex. The static and dynamic properties of the magnetic vortex can be tuned by the disk dimension and/or the separation distance between the disks. However, to realize these modifications, the preparations of other devices with different sample geometries are required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that, in a regular-triangle Permalloy dot, the dynamic properties of a magnetic vortex are greatly modified by the application of the in-plane magnetic field. The obtained wide range tunability based on the asymmetric position dependence of the core potential provides attractive performances in the microwave spintronic devices. PMID:24356511

  12. Wide range tuning of resonant frequency for a vortex core in a regular triangle magnet.

    PubMed

    Yakata, Satoshi; Tanaka, Terumitsu; Kiseki, Kohei; Matsuyama, Kimihide; Kimura, Takashi

    2013-12-20

    A magnetic vortex structure stabilized in a micron or nano-sized ferromagnetic disk has a strong potential as a unit cell for spin-based nano-electronic devices because of negligible magnetostatic interaction and superior thermal stability. Moreover, various intriguing fundamental physics such as bloch point reversal and symmetry breaking can be induced in the dynamical behaviors in the magnetic vortex. The static and dynamic properties of the magnetic vortex can be tuned by the disk dimension and/or the separation distance between the disks. However, to realize these modifications, the preparations of other devices with different sample geometries are required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that, in a regular-triangle Permalloy dot, the dynamic properties of a magnetic vortex are greatly modified by the application of the in-plane magnetic field. The obtained wide range tunability based on the asymmetric position dependence of the core potential provides attractive performances in the microwave spintronic devices.

  13. Wide free-spectral-range triple ring resonator as optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sabitabrata; Mandal, S.

    2011-08-01

    A waveguide-based wide free-spectral-range (FSR) triple ring resonator (TRR) as an optical filter has been investigated in this article. The transmittance of the TRR is presented in Z-domain. The delay line signal processing approach and Mason's gain formula have been used to develop the transmittance of the TRR. The TRR in the article is capable of providing an FSR up to 605 GHz with lower crosstalk limited within -10 dB. Another efficacious scheme of TRR with much wider FSR of 1029 GHz and with reduced unit delay length is presented in the article. Here also crosstalk, as well as resonance loss, remains within reasonable limits. The FSRs obtained using the present TRR architectures in this work are until now reported as maximum for a corresponding class of optical ring resonators. The issues of group delay and dispersion, two important parameters associated with high frequency optical communication have been addressed in this article.

  14. Adaptive and freeze-tolerant heteronetwork organohydrogels with enhanced mechanical stability over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hainan; Zhao, Ziguang; Cai, Yudong; Zhou, Jiajia; Hua, Wenda; Chen, Lie; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jianqi; Han, Dong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Many biological organisms with exceptional freezing tolerance can resist the damages to cells from extra-/intracellular ice crystals and thus maintain their mechanical stability at subzero temperatures. Inspired by the freezing tolerance mechanisms found in nature, here we report a strategy of combining hydrophilic/oleophilic heteronetworks to produce self-adaptive, freeze-tolerant and mechanically stable organohydrogels. The organohydrogels can simultaneously use water and oil as a dispersion medium, and quickly switch between hydrogel- and organogel-like behaviours in response to the nature of the surrounding phase. Accordingly, their surfaces display unusual adaptive dual superlyophobic in oil/water system (that is, they are superhydrophobic under oil and superoleophobic under water). Moreover, the organogel component can inhibit the ice crystallization of the hydrogel component, thus enhancing the mechanical stability of organohydrogel over a wide temperature range (-78 to 80 °C). The organohydrogels may have promising applications in complex and harsh environments.

  15. Wide range tuning of resonant frequency for a vortex core in a regular triangle magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakata, Satoshi; Tanaka, Terumitsu; Kiseki, Kohei; Matsuyama, Kimihide; Kimura, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    A magnetic vortex structure stabilized in a micron or nano-sized ferromagnetic disk has a strong potential as a unit cell for spin-based nano-electronic devices because of negligible magnetostatic interaction and superior thermal stability. Moreover, various intriguing fundamental physics such as bloch point reversal and symmetry breaking can be induced in the dynamical behaviors in the magnetic vortex. The static and dynamic properties of the magnetic vortex can be tuned by the disk dimension and/or the separation distance between the disks. However, to realize these modifications, the preparations of other devices with different sample geometries are required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that, in a regular-triangle Permalloy dot, the dynamic properties of a magnetic vortex are greatly modified by the application of the in-plane magnetic field. The obtained wide range tunability based on the asymmetric position dependence of the core potential provides attractive performances in the microwave spintronic devices.

  16. Methylene-blue sensitized dichromated gelatin: wide-range colour adjustment of reflection hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Dong, Guangxing; Guo, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Li, Jianfeng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new technique is presented for adjusting the playback wavelength of reflection holograms recorded in methylene-blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG). During the fabrication of the MBDCG medium, a water-soluble organic reagent is introduced homogeneously into the photosensitive layer as a preswelling reagent and wavelength adjuster. This method has a wide wavelength adjustment range (up to 200 nm, almost covering the entire visible spectral region), high diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio, and can be applied to quantitatively adjust the playback wavelength of reflection hologram by changing the concentration of the preswelling reagent. Its possible applications include colour image display, holographic optical elements, optical communication and optical anti-counterfeiting.

  17. Study of Saturn Electrostatic Discharges in a Wide Range of Timec SCALES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylostna, K.; Zakharenko, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Kolyadin, V.; Zarka, P.; Griemeier, J.-M.; Litvinenko, G.; Sidorchuk, M.; Rucker, H.; Fischer, G.; Cecconi, B.; Coffre, A.; Denis, L.; Nikolaenko, V.; Shevchenko, V.

    Saturn Electrostatic discharges (SED) are sporadic broadband impulsive radio bursts associated with lightning in Saturnian atmosphere. After 25 years of space investigations in 2006 the first successful observations of SED on the UTR-2 radio telescope were carried out [1]. Since 2007 a long-term program of ED search and study in the Solar system has started. As a part of this program the unique observations with high time resolution were taken in 2010. New possibilities of UTR-2 radio telescope allowed to provide a long-period observations and study with high temporal resolution. This article presents the results of SED study in a wide range of time scales: from seconds to microseconds. For the first time there were obtained a low frequency spectrum of SED. We calculated flux densities of individual bursts at the maximum achievable time resolution. Flux densities of most intensive bursts reach 4200 Jy.

  18. Integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of orbital angular momentum modes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Peng; Feng, Xue; Xu, Yuntao; Cui, Kaiyu; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Due to the nature of infinite dimensionality, the orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been considered as a new degree of freedom of light and widely expanded the scopes of substantial optical applications such as optical telecommunication, quantum information, particle manipulation and imaging. In recent years, the integrated photonic OAM emitters have been actively investigated due to both compactness and tunability. Essentially, the number of available OAM modes by dynamic switching should be large enough so that the dimensionality of OAM could be explored as much as possible. In this work, an integrated photonic emitter with a wide switching range of OAM modes is theoretically developed, numerically simulated, and experimentally verified. The independence of the micro-ring cavity and the scattering unit provides the flexibility to design the device and optimize the performance. Specifically, the dynamic switching of nine OAM modes (l = −4 ~ 4) with azimuthal polarization has been demonstrated by electrically controlled thermo-optic effect. PMID:26936327

  19. Natural selection constrains neutral diversity across a wide range of species.

    PubMed

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Hartl, Daniel L; Sackton, Timothy B

    2015-04-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the amount of neutral polymorphisms within a species will increase proportionally with the census population size (Nc). However, this prediction has not been borne out in practice: while the range of Nc spans many orders of magnitude, levels of genetic diversity within species fall in a comparatively narrow range. Although theoretical arguments have invoked the increased efficacy of natural selection in larger populations to explain this discrepancy, few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been conducted. In this work, we provide a direct test of this hypothesis using population genomic data from a wide range of taxonomically diverse species. To do this, we relied on the fact that the impact of natural selection on linked neutral diversity depends on the local recombinational environment. In regions of relatively low recombination, selected variants affect more neutral sites through linkage, and the resulting correlation between recombination and polymorphism allows a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the impact of selection on linked neutral diversity. By comparing whole genome polymorphism data and genetic maps using a coalescent modeling framework, we estimate the degree to which natural selection reduces linked neutral diversity for 40 species of obligately sexual eukaryotes. We then show that the magnitude of the impact of natural selection is positively correlated with Nc, based on body size and species range as proxies for census population size. These results demonstrate that natural selection removes more variation at linked neutral sites in species with large Nc than those with small Nc and provides direct empirical evidence that natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics.

  20. Natural Selection Constrains Neutral Diversity across A Wide Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Sackton, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the amount of neutral polymorphisms within a species will increase proportionally with the census population size (Nc). However, this prediction has not been borne out in practice: while the range of Nc spans many orders of magnitude, levels of genetic diversity within species fall in a comparatively narrow range. Although theoretical arguments have invoked the increased efficacy of natural selection in larger populations to explain this discrepancy, few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been conducted. In this work, we provide a direct test of this hypothesis using population genomic data from a wide range of taxonomically diverse species. To do this, we relied on the fact that the impact of natural selection on linked neutral diversity depends on the local recombinational environment. In regions of relatively low recombination, selected variants affect more neutral sites through linkage, and the resulting correlation between recombination and polymorphism allows a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the impact of selection on linked neutral diversity. By comparing whole genome polymorphism data and genetic maps using a coalescent modeling framework, we estimate the degree to which natural selection reduces linked neutral diversity for 40 species of obligately sexual eukaryotes. We then show that the magnitude of the impact of natural selection is positively correlated with Nc, based on body size and species range as proxies for census population size. These results demonstrate that natural selection removes more variation at linked neutral sites in species with large Nc than those with small Nc and provides direct empirical evidence that natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics. PMID:25859758

  1. Propulsion over a wide Mach number range. Final Report M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resler, Edwin L., Jr.; Greenberg, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    Criteria is presented to assess the relative merits of different propulsion systems. Previous references focus mainly on subsonic or low supersonic flight speeds. The main focus here is on a higher range, from low supersonic to orbital velocities. Air breathing propulsion systems for hypersonic flight persent the engine designer with circumstances that differ in important fundamental ways from those encountered in engines designed for operation at subsonic or low supersonic speeds. This analysis highlights the importance of various features of hypersonic engine design. Since the performance of hypersonic engines are energy limited, unlike low speed engines which are stagnation pressure limited, the efficient use of the energy of the fuel used is critical to minimize the take-off fuel mass fraction of the vehicle. Furthermore, since the required energy increase of a vehicle per incremental speed change increases with speed, the engine must be designed to operate efficiently at high speed. An analysis of engine performance in terms of entropy changes of the flow passing through the engine allows comparison of various engine designs as well as a convenient method to determine the effect of individual engine component efficiencies on overall engine performance.

  2. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance

  3. Range-wide Yangtze freshwater dolphin expedition: The last chance to see Baiji?

    PubMed

    Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding; Zhang, Xianfeng; Pfluger, August; Barrett, Leigh

    2006-10-01

    the main stream of the river, and in captivity, has to be considered urgently as the short-term goal of ex situ strategies. Since the abundance of porpoises is higher than that of the Baiji, we have first established breeding populations of them in the semi-natural reserves and in captivity. But, considering the extremely low density of Baiji in the river, an immediate range-wide Yangtze Baiji survey is an urgent need for locating and capturing sufficient Baiji for successfully establishing a breeding population of them in semi-natural reserves. Two semi-natural reserves (in Shishou, Hubei Province, and Tongling, Anhui Province) have been set up along the river in order to establish breeding populations of the Baiji and the porpoises. So far, several small groups of porpoises that were caught in the main stream of the river have successively been introduced into the semi-natural reserves. Under careful management, these animals in both of the semi-natural reserves not only survive, but can also reproduce naturally and successfully. At least one or three calves were born in each reserve each year. Additionally, a breeding group of porpoises is being established at the Baiji Dolphinarium at the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan. There are presently four adults and one calf living in the Dolphinarium. The calf, born in July, 2005, is the first captive bred Yangtze Finless Porpoise in the world. In preparation for the range-wide Yangtze cetacean survey, a 9-day pilot expedition on the river near Wuhan was conducted in March, 2006, in order to develop methods for locating the Baiji. No Baiji were expected to be seen in such a short period but about 40 porpoise sightings were observed. Results of the pilot survey indicated that traditional visual and acoustical survey methods for cetaceans should be adapted to find the elusive Baiji in the river. Currently, the range-wide Yangtze cetacean survey is in preparation. The survey will cover over 1

  4. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Soil Thermal Conductivity Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Ivan V.; Leong, Wey H.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    The results are reported of an experimental investigation of the soil thermal conductivity over a wide temperature range, for various water contents and two soil types. The results are particularly important in predictions of underground heat transfer, which require a quantitative understanding of the coupled dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on texture, temperature, and water content. In the research, comprehensive sets of thermal conductivity for Ottawa sand (coarse soil) and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam (medium soil) are experimentally obtained using the guarded hot-plate method, for temperatures ranging from 2° C to 92° C and water contents varying from complete dryness to full saturation. For both soils, the thermal conductivity is observed to vary in three stages with respect to increasing water content: a very minor increase as water content increases to the permanent wilting point, a steep increase as water content further increases to field capacity, and a minor increase (for temperatures less than 72° C) or decrease for (temperatures greater than 72° C) when the field capacity is exceeded. Then, on the basis of gathered datasets, a similar Ke(Sr,T) form of the soil thermal conductivity model by Tarnawski et al. is used to empirically fit the data. The resulted correlations fit the data well with their overall root-relative-mean-square percentage errors of 4.7 % and 6.1 % for Ottawa sand and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam, respectively, and are suitable for most engineering applications.

  6. Spectroscopic technique with wide range of wavelength information improves near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Hideo; Aoki, Hiromichi; Eura, Shigeru; Ebe, Kazutoshi

    2009-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calculates hemoglobin parameters, such as oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) using the near-infrared light around the wavelength of 800nm. This is based on the modified-Lambert-Beer's law that changes in absorbance are proportional to changes in hemoglobin parameters. Many conventional measurement methods uses only a few wavelengths, however, in this research, basic examination of NIRS measurement was approached by acquiring wide range of wavelength information. Venous occlusion test was performed by using the blood pressure cuff around the upper arm. Pressure of 100mmHg was then applied for about 3 minutes. During the venous occlusion, the spectrum of the lower arm muscles was measured every 15 seconds, within the range of 600 to 1100nm. It was found that other wavelength bands hold information correlating to this venous occlusion task. Technique of improving the performance of NIRS measurement using the Spectroscopic Method is very important for Brain science.

  7. Molecular diffusion measurement in lipid bilayers over wide concentration ranges: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Har, Jia Yi; Sankaran, Jagadish; Hong, Yimian; Kannan, Balakrishnan; Wohland, Thorsten

    2008-04-04

    Molecular diffusion in biological membranes is a determining factor in cell signaling and cell function. In the past few decades, three main fluorescence spectroscopy techniques have emerged that are capable of measuring molecular diffusion in artificial and biological membranes at very different concentration ranges and spatial resolutions. The widely used methods of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single-particle tracking (SPT) can determine absolute diffusion coefficients at high (>100 microm(-2)) and very low surface concentrations (single-molecule level), respectively. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), on the other hand, is well-suited for the intermediate concentration range of about 0.1-100 microm(-2). However, FCS in general requires calibration with a standard dye of known diffusion coefficient, and yields only relative measurements with respect to the calibration. A variant of FCS, z-scan FCS, is calibration-free for membrane measurements, but requires several experiments at different well-controlled focusing positions. A recently established FCS method, electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device-based total internal reflection FCS (TIR-FCS), referred to here as imaging TIR-FCS (ITIR-FCS), is also independent of calibration standards, but to our knowledge no direct comparison between these different methods has been made. Herein, we seek to establish a comparison between FRAP, SPT, FCS, and ITIR-FCS by measuring the lateral diffusion coefficients in two model systems, namely, supported lipid bilayers and giant unilamellar vesicles.

  8. Charge-integrating organic heterojunction phototransistors for wide-dynamic-range image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Adrien; Gaikwad, Abhinav; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Solution-processed phototransistors can substantially advance the performance of image sensors. Phototransistors exhibit large photoconductive gain and a sublinear responsivity to irradiance, which enables a logarithmic sensing of irradiance that is akin to the human eye and has a wider dynamic range than photodiode-based image sensors. Here, we present a novel solution-processed phototransistor composed of a heterostructure between a high-mobility organic semiconductor and an organic bulk heterojunction. The device efficiently integrates photogenerated charge during the period of a video frame then quickly discharges it, which significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio compared with sampling photocurrent during readout. Phototransistor-based image sensors processed without photolithography on plastic substrates integrate charge with external quantum efficiencies above 100% at 100 frames per second. In addition, the sublinear responsivity to irradiance of these devices enables a wide dynamic range of 103 dB at 30 frames per second, which is competitive with state-of-the-art image sensors.

  9. An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide temperature range

    PubMed Central

    Tobo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at temperatures of −25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide temperature range. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at temperatures above −30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire temperature range (about −30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. PMID:27596247

  10. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  11. An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobo, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at temperatures of -25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide temperature range. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at temperatures above -30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire temperature range (about -30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation.

  12. Range-wide population genetic structure of the Caribbean sea fan coral, Gorgonia ventalina.

    PubMed

    Andras, Jason P; Rypien, Krystal L; Harvell, Catherine D

    2013-01-01

    The population structure of benthic marine organisms is of central relevance to the conservation and management of these often threatened species, as well as to the accurate understanding of their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. A growing body of evidence suggests that marine populations can be structured over short distances despite theoretically high dispersal potential. Yet the proposed mechanisms governing this structure vary, and existing empirical population genetic evidence is of insufficient taxonomic and geographic scope to allow for strong general inferences. Here, we describe the range-wide population genetic structure of an ecologically important Caribbean octocoral, Gorgonia ventalina. Genetic differentiation was positively correlated with geographic distance and negatively correlated with oceanographically modelled dispersal probability throughout the range. Although we observed admixture across hundreds of kilometres, estimated dispersal was low, and populations were differentiated across distances <2 km. These results suggest that populations of G. ventalina may be evolutionarily coupled via gene flow but are largely demographically independent. Observed patterns of differentiation corroborate biogeographic breaks found in other taxa (e.g. an east/west divide near Puerto Rico), and also identify population divides not discussed in previous studies (e.g. the Yucatan Channel). High genotypic diversity and absence of clonemates indicate that sex is the primary reproductive mode for G. ventalina. A comparative analysis of the population structure of G. ventalina and its dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium, indicates that the dispersal of these symbiotic partners is not coupled, and symbiont transmission occurs horizontally.

  13. A wide-range programmable frequency synthesizer based on a finite state machine filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alser, Mohammed H.; Assaad, Maher M.; Hussin, Fawnizu A.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, an FPGA-based design and implementation of a fully digital wide-range programmable frequency synthesizer based on a finite state machine filter is presented. The advantages of the proposed architecture are that, it simultaneously generates a high frequency signal from a low frequency reference signal (i.e. synthesising), and synchronising the two signals (signals have the same phase, or a constant difference) without jitter accumulation issue. The architecture is portable and can be easily implemented for various platforms, such as FPGAs and integrated circuits. The frequency synthesizer circuit can be used as a part of SERDES devices in intra/inter chip communication in system-on-chip (SoC). The proposed circuit is designed using Verilog language and synthesized for the Altera DE2-70 development board, with the Cyclone II (EP2C35F672C6) device on board. Simulation and experimental results are included; they prove the synthesizing and tracking features of the proposed architecture. The generated clock signal frequency of a range from 19.8 MHz to 440 MHz is synchronized to the input reference clock with a frequency step of 0.12 MHz.

  14. Vapor-deposited alcohol glasses reveal a wide range of kinetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylinski, M.; Chua, Y. Z.; Beasley, M. S.; Schick, C.; Ediger, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    In situ AC nanocalorimetry was used to characterize vapor-deposited glasses of six mono- and di-alcohol molecules. Benzyl alcohol glasses with high kinetic stability and decreased heat capacity were prepared. When annealed above the glass transition temperature Tg, transformation of these glasses into the supercooled liquid took 103.4 times longer than the supercooled liquid relaxation time (τα). This kinetic stability is similar to other highly stable organic glasses prepared by vapor deposition and is the first clear demonstration of an alcohol forming a stable glass. Vapor deposited glasses of five other alcohols exhibited moderate or low kinetic stability with isothermal transformation times ranging from 100.7 to 102 τα. This wide range of kinetic stabilities is useful for investigating the factors that control stable glass formation. Using our current results and literature data, we compare the kinetic stability of vapor deposited glasses prepared from 14 molecules and find a correlation with the value of τα at 1.25 Tg. We also observe that some vapor-deposited glasses exhibit decreased heat capacity without increased kinetic stability.

  15. Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing. Subsequently, BT2 was partially amplified in all strains, and sequence analysis performed after construction of a BT2 database that showed length ranged from approximately 723 (T. ajelloi) to 808 nucleotides (M. persicolor) in different species. Intraspecific sequence variation was found in some species, but T. tonsurans, T. equinum, T. concentricum, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum, T. eriotrephon, E. floccosum, M. canis, M. ferrugineum, and M. audouinii were invariant. The sequences were found to be relatively conserved among different strains of the same species. The species with the closest resemblance were Arthroderma benhamiae and T. concentricum and T. tonsurans and T. equinum with 100% and 99.8% identity, respectively; the most distant species were M. persicolor and M. amazonicum. The dendrogram obtained from BT2 topology was almost compatible with the species concept based on ITS sequencing, and similar clades and species were distinguished in the BT2 tree. Here, beta tubulin was characterized in a wide range of dermatophytes in order to assess intra- and interspecies variation and resolution and was found to be a taxonomically valuable gene.

  16. Three dimensional atmospheric dynamics of terrestrial exoplanets over a wide range of orbital and atmospheric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Y.; Showman, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters, suggests that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone-including transitions to Snowballlike states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks-depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, pattern of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, planetary mass, surface gravity, heat flux from a parent star and atmospheric mass affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley cells, and the equator-to-pole temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global-scale climate feedbacks that control the width of the habitable zone.

  17. Atmospheric dynamics of terrestrial exoplanets over a wide range of orbital and atmospheric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters, suggests that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone--including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks--depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, pattern of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, planetary mass, surface gravity, heat flux from a parent star, atmospheric mass and optical thickness affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley cells, and the equator-to-pole temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global-scale climate feedbacks that control the width of the habitable zone.

  18. Wide Dynamic Range Front-end Electronics for Beam Current and Position Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Rawnsley, W. R.; Potter, R. J.; Verzilov, V. A.; Root, L.

    2006-11-20

    An Analog Devices log detector, AD8306, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), ADSP-21992, have been found useful for building wide dynamic range, accurate and inexpensive front-end electronics to measure and process the RF signals from TRIUMF's beam monitors. The high-precision log detector has a useful dynamic range of over 100 dB. The 160 MHz mixed-signal DSP is used to digitize the log detector output, linearize it via a lookup table, perform temperature compensation, and remove the variable duty cycle 1 kHz pulse structure of the beam. This approach has been applied to two types of devices in a 500 MeV proton beamline. The 0.1% DC to CW total current monitor is based on a capacitive pickup resonant at 46.11 MHz, the second harmonic of the bunch frequency. The DSP software provides low pass filtering, calculates the antilog of the data and passes the output to a CAMAC input register. The BPM electronics process data from inductive pickup loops. The DSP controls a GaAs switch which multiplexes signals from four adjacent pickups to a single log detector. The DSP performs difference-over-sum or log-ratio data analysis along with averaging over an arbitrary number of samples.

  19. Ni-doped TiO2 nanotubes for wide-range hydrogen sensing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Doping of titania nanotubes is one of the efficient way to obtain improved physical and chemical properties. Through electrochemical anodization and annealing treatment, Ni-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated and their hydrogen sensing performance was investigated. The nanotube sensor demonstrated a good sensitivity for wide-range detection of both dilute and high-concentration hydrogen atmospheres ranging from 50 ppm to 2% H2. A temperature-dependent sensing from 25°C to 200°C was also found. Based on the experimental measurements and first-principles calculations, the electronic structure and hydrogen sensing properties of the Ni-doped TiO2 with an anatase structure were also investigated. It reveals that Ni substitution of the Ti sites could induce significant inversion of the conductivity type and effective reduction of the bandgap of anatase oxide. The calculations also reveal that the resistance change for Ni-doped anatase TiO2 with/without hydrogen absorption was closely related to the bandgap especially the Ni-induced impurity level. PMID:24624981

  20. A nonlinear model of magnetorheological elastomer with wide amplitude range and variable frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Dong, Xufeng; Li, Luyu; Ou, Jinping

    2017-06-01

    To develop control algorithms that taking maximum advantage of rapidly varying rheological properties of MR elastomer devices, models must be developed that can adequately characterize the smart material’s intrinsic nonlinearity. However, most existing MRE models are only effective within a narrow strain amplitude range and under certain loading frequencies. To derive a MRE model with better applicability, MR elastomer samples were fabricated and their steady-state response under harmonic loading with different strain amplitudes, frequencies and magnetic fields were tested. Following a review of several existing models of MR elastomer, a new revised Bouc-Wen model is proposed that can effectively portray the behavior of the material. Comparison with experimental results indicates that the model is accurate over a wide range of frequencies, strain amplitudes and magnetic flux densities. A simplified model was then proposed after parametric study. As the magnetic field is the only determinant of the parameters, the simplified model is adequate for base isolation devices design and simulation.

  1. Range-wide wetland associations of the King Rail: A multi-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glisson, Wesley J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Borgmann, Kathi L.; Laxson, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    King Rail populations have declined and identifying wetland features that influence King Rail occupancy can help prevent further population declines. We integrated continent-wide marsh bird survey data with spatial wetland data from the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) to examine wetland features that influenced King Rail occupancy throughout the species’ range. We analyzed wetland data at 7 spatial scales to examine the scale(s) at which 68 wetland features were most strongly related to King Rail occupancy. Occupancy was most strongly associated with estuarine features and brackish and tidal saltwater regimes. King Rail occupancy was positively associated with emergent and scrub-shrub wetlands and negatively associated with forested wetlands. The best spatial scale for assessing King Rail occupancy differed among wetland features; we could not identify one spatial scale (among all wetland features) that best explained variation in occupancy. Future research on King Rail habitat that includes multiple spatial scales is more likely to identify the suite of features that influence occupancy. Our results indicate that NWI data may be useful for predicting occupancy based on broad habitat features across the King Rail’s range, which may help inform management decisions for this and other wetland-dependent birds.

  2. Polarization mosaicing: high dynamic range and polarization imaging in a wide field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechner, Yoav Y.; Nayar, Shree K.

    2003-12-01

    We present an approach for imaging the polarization state of scene points in a wide field of view, while enhancing the radiometric dynamic range of imaging systems. This is achieved by a simple modification of image mosaicking, which is a common technique in remote sensing. In traditional image mosaics, images taken in varying directions or positions are stitched to obtain a larger image. Yet, as the camera moves, it senses each scene point multiple times in overlapping regions of the raw frames. We rigidly attach to the camera a fixed, spatially varying polarization and attenuation filter. This way, the camera motion-induced multiple measurements per scene point are taken under different optical settings. This is in contrast to the redundant measurements of traditional mosaics. Computational algorithms then analyze the data to extract polarization imaging with high dynamic range across the mosaic field of view. We developed a Maximum Likelihood method to automatically register the images, in spite of the challenging spatially varying effects. Then, we use Maximum Likelihood to handle, in a single framework, variable exposures (due to transmittance variations), saturation, and partial polarization filtering. As a by product, these results enable polarization settings of cameras to change while the camera moves, alleviating the need for camera stability. This work demonstrates the modularity of the Generalized Mosaicing approach, which we recently introduced for multispectral image mosaics. The results are useful for the wealth of polarization imaging applications, in addition to mosaicking applications, particularly remote sensing. We demonstrate experimental results obtained using a system we built.

  3. Wide spectral-range imaging spectroscopy of photonic crystal microbeads for multiplex biomolecular assay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    Suspension assay using optically color-encoded microbeads is a novel way to increase the reaction speed and multiplex of biomolecular detection and analysis. To boost the detection speed, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system is of great interest for quickly decoding the color codes of the microcarriers. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is a potential candidate for this task due to its advantages in HSI measurement. However, conventional IFTS is only popular in IR spectral bands because it is easier to track its scanning mirror position in longer wavelengths so that the fundamental Nyquist criterion can be satisfied when sampling the interferograms; the sampling mechanism for shorter wavelengths IFTS used to be very sophisticated, high-cost and bulky. In order to overcome this handicap and take better usage of its advantages for HSI applications, a new wide spectral range IFTS platform is proposed based on an optical beam-folding position-tracking technique. This simple technique has successfully extended the spectral range of an IFTS to cover 350-1000nm. Test results prove that the system has achieved good spectral and spatial resolving performances with instrumentation flexibilities. Accurate and fast measurement results on novel colloidal photonic crystal microbeads also demonstrate its practical potential for high-throughput and multiplex suspension molecular assays.

  4. An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Tobo, Yutaka

    2016-09-06

    Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at temperatures of -25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide temperature range. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at temperatures above -30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire temperature range (about -30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation.

  5. Development of gyrotrons for fusion with power exceeding 1 MW over a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Minami, R.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kato, T.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Mutoh, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Sano, F.; Ono, M.; Mitsunaka, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Megawatt-class gyrotrons covering a wide frequency range (14 GHz-300 GHz) are in increasing demand for nuclear fusion. Recent electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive experiments highlight a requirement of megawatt-scale gyrotrons at a relatively lower frequency (14-35 GHz) range of some plasma devices, like GAMMA 10/PDX of the University of Tsukuba, QUEST of Kyushu University, NSTX-U of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and Heliotron J of Kyoto University. Collaborative studies for designing a new 28 GHz/35 GHz dual-frequency gyrotron and a 14 GHz gyrotron have commenced. Operation above 1 MW of 28 GHz/35 GHz dual oscillation was demonstrated experimentally. Further in the design of dual-frequency gyrotron, operations with 2 MW 3 s and 0.4 MW CW (continuous wave) at 28 GHz, and power exceeding 1 MW for 3 s at 34.8 GHz have been shown to be feasible. The 14 GHz gyrotron is expected to operate above 1 MW. We are also developing higher frequency gyrotrons (77-300 GHz). The joint program of National Institute for Fusion Science and the University of Tsukuba developed two new 154 GHz gyrotrons for the large helical device after the demonstration of three 77 GHz gyrotrons. The 154 GHz gyrotrons achieved a maximum output power of 1.25 MW and quasi-CW operation of 0.35 MW for 30 min.

  6. Vapor-deposited alcohol glasses reveal a wide range of kinetic stability.

    PubMed

    Tylinski, M; Chua, Y Z; Beasley, M S; Schick, C; Ediger, M D

    2016-11-07

    In situ AC nanocalorimetry was used to characterize vapor-deposited glasses of six mono- and di-alcohol molecules. Benzyl alcohol glasses with high kinetic stability and decreased heat capacity were prepared. When annealed above the glass transition temperature Tg, transformation of these glasses into the supercooled liquid took 10(3.4) times longer than the supercooled liquid relaxation time (τα). This kinetic stability is similar to other highly stable organic glasses prepared by vapor deposition and is the first clear demonstration of an alcohol forming a stable glass. Vapor deposited glasses of five other alcohols exhibited moderate or low kinetic stability with isothermal transformation times ranging from 10(0.7) to 10(2) τα. This wide range of kinetic stabilities is useful for investigating the factors that control stable glass formation. Using our current results and literature data, we compare the kinetic stability of vapor deposited glasses prepared from 14 molecules and find a correlation with the value of τα at 1.25 Tg. We also observe that some vapor-deposited glasses exhibit decreased heat capacity without increased kinetic stability.

  7. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  8. Energy Spectrum in the Dissipation Range of Fluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. O.; Chen, S.; Doolen, G. D.; Kraichnan, R. H.; Wang, L.-P.; Zhou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution, direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to study the energy spectrum in the dissipation range. An energy spectrum of the form A(k/k( sub d))(sup alpha) exp[- betak/k(sub d) is confirmed. The possible values of the parameters alpha and beta, as well as their dependence on Revnolds numbers and length scales, are investigated, showing good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. A "bottleneck'-type effect is reported at k/k(sub d) approximately 4, exhibiting a possible transition from near-dissipation to far- dissipation.

  9. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  10. Competition of linearly polarized modes in fibers with Bragg gratings over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Floyd, Bertram; Abeywickrema, Ujitha; Fedin, Igor

    2012-10-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) embedded in conventional fibers may serve as temperature sensors over a wide temperature range and withstand temperatures around 1200 K. A variety of linearly polarized (LP) modes for the wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm may be sustained in fibers with and without FBGs. The composition of the LP modes and their competition is instrumental for understanding physics of thermo-optics and thermal expansion effects in silica-based fibers. The first objective of this work was to model mathematically the competition between LP modes and modal distribution using the solutions of Bessel equations for the fibers with and without the gratings. Computer generated modes were constructed and the cut-off V-numbers (and Eigen values W and U) were determined. Theoretical results then were compared with experimental observations of LP modes for two separate ranges of temperatures: 77- 300 K and 300-1200 K. To study the formation of LP modes over the first temperature range, liquid nitrogen was used to cool down the fiber and a thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature of the fiber. Real time recording of the modal structure was performed using digital imaging and data acquisition instrumentation. To study LP modes between 300- 1200 K, the fibers were inserted into a tube furnace with temperature control. The wavelength of the infrared radiation was reflected by a FBG and detected by an optical spectrum analyzer. Radiation at the visible wavelength propagated through the fibers, and transmitted visible light was collected, analyzed and recorded with a CCD camera to monitor distribution of the LP modes in the samples with and without the FBGs.

  11. A wide host-range metagenomic library from a waste water treatment plant yields a novel alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L; Richardson, David J; Johnston, Andrew W B

    2005-12-01

    Using DNA obtained from the metagenome of an anaerobic digestor in a waste water treatment plant, we constructed a gene library cloned in the wide host-range cosmid pLAFR3. One cosmid enabled Rhizobium leguminosarum to grow on ethanol as sole carbon and energy source, this being due to the presence of a gene, termed adhEMeta. The AdhEMeta protein most closely resembles the AdhE alcohol dehydrogenase of Clostridium acetobutylicum, where it catalyses the formation of ethanol and butanol in a two-step reductive process. However, cloned adhEMeta did not confer ethanol utilization ability to Escherichia coli or to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, even though it was transcribed in both these hosts. Further, cell-free extracts of E. coli and R. leguminosarum containing cloned adhEMeta had butanol and ethanol dehydrogenase activities when assayed in vitro. In contrast to the well-studied AdhE proteins of C. acetobutylicum and E. coli, the enzyme specified by adhEMeta is not inactivated by oxygen and it enables alcohol to be catabolized. Cloned adhEMeta did, however, confer one phenotype to E. coli. AdhE- mutants of E. coli fail to ferment glucose and introduction of adhEMeta restored the growth of such mutants when grown under fermentative conditions. These observations show that the use of wide host-range vectors enhances the efficacy with which metagenomic libraries can be screened for genes that confer novel functions.

  12. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models

    PubMed Central

    Remsing, Richard C.; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object. PMID:26929375

  13. Long-ranged contributions to solvation free energies from theory and short-ranged models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsing, Richard C.; Liu, Shule; Weeks, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Long-standing problems associated with long-ranged electrostatic interactions have plagued theory and simulation alike. Traditional lattice sum (Ewald-like) treatments of Coulomb interactions add significant overhead to computer simulations and can produce artifacts from spurious interactions between simulation cell images. These subtle issues become particularly apparent when estimating thermodynamic quantities, such as free energies of solvation in charged and polar systems, to which long-ranged Coulomb interactions typically make a large contribution. In this paper, we develop a framework for determining very accurate solvation free energies of systems with long-ranged interactions from models that interact with purely short-ranged potentials. Our approach is generally applicable and can be combined with existing computational and theoretical techniques for estimating solvation thermodynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach by examining the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic and ionic solutes and the solvation of a large, highly charged colloid that exhibits overcharging, a complex nonlinear electrostatic phenomenon whereby counterions from the solvent effectively overscreen and locally invert the integrated charge of the solvated object.

  14. A Study on Flow Behavior of AA5086 Over a Wide Range of Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh, A.; Jamshidi Aval, H.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2016-03-01

    Flow stress behavior of AA5086 was determined using tensile testing at different temperatures from room temperature to 500 °C and strain rates varying between 0.002 and 1 s-1. The strain rate sensitivity parameter and occurrence of dynamic strain aging were then investigated in which an Arrhenius-type model was employed to study the serrated flow. Additionally, hot deformation behavior at temperatures higher than 320 °C was evaluated utilizing hyperbolic-sine constitutive equation. Finally, a feed forward artificial neural network model with back propagation learning algorithm was proposed to predict flow stress for all deformation conditions. The results demonstrated that the strain rate sensitivity at temperature range of 25-270 °C was negative due to occurrence of dynamic strain aging leading to significant reduction in fracture strain. The serrated yielding activation energy was found to be 46.1 kJ/mol. It indicated that the migration of Mg-atoms could be the main reason for this phenomenon. The hot deformation activation energy of AA5086 was also calculated about 202.3 kJ/mol while the dynamic recovery was the main softening process. Moreover, the ANN model having two hidden layers was shown to be an efficient structure for determining flow stress of the examined alloy for all temperatures and strain rates.

  15. Measurement of a wide-range of X-ray doses using specialty doped silica fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sani, S. F.; Hammond, R.; Jafari, S. M.; Wahab, Norfadira; Amouzad Mahdiraji, G.; Siti Shafiqah, A. S.; Abdul Rashid, H. A.; Maah, M. J.; Aldousari, H.; Alkhorayef, M.; Alzimami, M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Using six types of tailor-made doped optical fibres, we carry out thermoluminescent (TL) studies of X-rays, investigating the TL yield for doses from 20 mGy through to 50 Gy. Dosimetric parameters were investigated for nominal 8 wt% Ge doped fibres that in two cases were co-doped, using B in one case and Br in the other. A comparative measurement of surface analysis has also been made for non-annealed and annealed capillary fibres, use being made of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Comparison was made with the conventional TL phosphor LiF in the form of the proprietary product TLD-100, including dose response and glow curves investigated for X-rays generated at 60 kVp over a dose range from 2 cGy to 50 Gy. The energy response of the fibres was also performed for X-rays generated at peak accelerating potentials of 80 kVp, 140 kVp, 250 kVp and 6 MV photons for an absorbed dose of 2 Gy. Present results show the samples to be suitable for use as TL dosimeters, with good linearity of response and a simple glow curve (simple trap) distribution. It has been established that the TL performance of an irradiated fibre is not only influenced by radiation parameters such as energy, dose-rate and total dose but also the type of fibre.

  16. Energy based correlation criteria in the mid-frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, J.; Winter, R.; Wandel, M.; Böswald, M.

    2017-07-01

    Aircraft structures are characterized by their lightweight design. As such, they are prone to vibrations. Numerical models based on the Finite Element Method often show significant deviations when the mid-frequency range is considered, where strong interaction between vibrations and acoustics is present. Model validation based on experimental modal data is often not possible due to the high modal density that aircraft fuselage structures exhibit in this frequency range. Classical correlation criteria like the Modal Assurance Criterion require mode shapes and can therefore not be applied. Other correlation criteria using frequency response data, such as the Frequency Domain Assurance Criterion, are highly sensitive to even small structural modifications and fail to indicated the correlation between test and analysis data in the mid-frequency range. Nevertheless, validated numerical models for the mid- to high-frequency ranges are a prerequisite for acoustic comfort predictions of aircraft cabin. This paper presents a new method for the correlation of response data from test and analysis in the mid-frequency range to support model validation in the mid-frequency range and to enable the usage of finite element models in this frequency range. The method is validated on a stiffened cylindrical shell structure, which represents a scale-model of an aircraft fuselage. The correlation criterion presented here is inspired by Statistical Energy Analysis and is based on kinetic energies integrated over frequency bands and spatially integrated over surface areas of the structure. The objective is to indicate frequency bands where the finite element model needs to be adjusted to better match with experimental observations and to locate the areas where these adjustments should be applied.

  17. Black silicon n-type photodiodes with high response over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Juha; Juntunen, Mikko A.; Laine, Hannu S.; Vähänissi, Ville; Repo, Päivikki; Dönsberg, Timo; Savin, Hele

    2017-05-01

    Commercial photodiodes suffer from reflection losses and different recombination losses that reduce the collection efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. Recently, we realized a near-ideal silicon photodiode, which steps closer to the physical performance limits of silicon photodiodes than any other silicon photodiode realized before. Our device exhibits an external quantum efficiency above 95% over the wavelength range of 235 - 980 nm, and provides a very high response at incident angles of up to 70 degrees. The high quantum efficiency is reached by 1) virtually eliminating front surface reflectance by forming a "black silicon" nanostructured surface having dimensions in the range of wavelength of optical light and 2) using an induced junction for signal collection, formed by negatively charged alumina, instead of a conventional doped p-n junction. Here, we describe the latest efforts in further development of the photodiode technology. In particular, we report improvements both in the short wavelength response via better control of the surface quality, and superior response to photons with energies close to the silicon bandgap.

  18. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  19. [Lidocaine transportation through a cellophane membrane by wide range AC frequencies].

    PubMed

    Izumikawa, Hitomi

    2005-06-01

    This study examined whether lidocaine molecules can be transported through an artificial membrane by the application of AC. A cellophane membrane was placed between donor and receptor compartments. The donor compartment was filled with lidocaine hydrochloride (40 and 60 mmol/l) and the receptor compartment with pure water. A sine wave at 5 voltage levels and 5 frequencies was applied between the parallel plate electrodes. The impedance of the solution in the receptor compartment was measured to determine the concentration of the lidocaine. The transportation efficiency in the condition of high concentration was markedly enhanced with the application of 15 and 20 V at every frequency. Although no frequency dependence was observed in the 500 Hz to 100 kHz range, the transportation efficiency was markedly enhanced at 1 MHz. It is considered that lidocaine ions are transported by vibration or rotation energy induced by AC. The formation of electrode polarization is decreased in the high-frequency range resulting in attenuation of the voltage drop in the solution and increase of the transportation efficiency with the passage of AC.

  20. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-21

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1) at 10 mA g(-1) (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step.

  1. Wide-range photoabsorption cross-sections of simple metals: large basis-set OPW calculations for sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Hikaru

    2013-02-01

    Photoabsorption cross-sections of simple metals are formulated through a solid-state band theory based on the orthogonalized-plane-wave (OPW) method in Slater’s local-exchange approximation, where interband transitions of core and conduction electrons are evaluated up to the soft x-ray regime by using large basis sets. The photoabsorption cross-sections of a sodium crystal are computed for a wide photon energy range from 3 to 1800 eV. It is found that the numerical results reproduce the existing x-ray databases fairly well for energies above the L2,3-edge (31 eV), verifying a consistency between solid-state and atomic models for inner-shell photoabsorption; additional oscillatory structures in the present spectra manifest solid-state effects. Our computed results in the vacuum ultraviolet regime (6-30 eV) are also in better agreement with experimental data compared to earlier theories, although some discrepancies remain in the range of 20-30 eV. The influence of the core eigenvalues on the absorption spectra is examined.

  2. Phase Curves of 10 Trojan Asteroids in BVI over a Wide Phase Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Martha W.; Schaefer, B. E.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Tourtellotte, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    We have used the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope at CTIO to acquire 50 nights of B, V, and I observations from very low to high phase angles of the following 10 Trojans: 588 Achilles, 1208 Troilus, 1383 Limburgia, 4348 Poulydamas, 6998 Tithonus, 8317 Eurysaces, 12126 (1999 RM11), 13323 (1998 SQ), 24506 (2001 BS15), and 51378 (2001 AT33). Due to the queue scheduling of this telescope we were able to obtain many observations over a wide range of phase angles in only a few years, including a significant number at < 0.5 deg. All the phase curves are roughly linear over the entire phase range (as much as +/- 10 deg), with slopes between about 0.045 and 0.075 mag/deg (except for 51378, which displays an anomalous slope near zero). There may be evidence for rotational modulation in some cases. There appear to be no pronounced opposition spikes, and no differences between the phase curves in different colors. With the exception of 51378, these slopes are higher than is possible with shadow-hiding alone; therefore coherent backscatter must be involved. The slopes are consistent with similar published slopes for many types of asteroids. In particular, the phase curves of the Trojan asteroids are similar to the phase curves of non-Trojan P-type asteroids. However, the phase curves are not consistent with those of E- and S-type asteroids, which show prominent opposition spikes. The slopes are not inconsistent with those of gray Centaurs, but are greatly inconsistent with the slopes of red Centaurs. This agrees with the prediction (see B. E. Schaefer et al. poster, this conference) that the Trojans should have similar surge properties to the gray Centaurs. We thank the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program for support.

  3. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  4. Non-Malignant Thyroid Diseases Following a Wide Range of Radiation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Elaine; Brenner, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Background The thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive human organs. While it is well known that radiation exposure increases the risk of thyroid cancer, less is known about its effects in relation to non-malignant thyroid diseases. Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of high and low dose radiation on benign structural and functional diseases of the thyroid. Methods We examined the results of major studies from cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy or thyrotoxicosis patients treated with high doses of iodine-131, patients treated with moderate to high dose radiotherapy for benign diseases, persons exposed to low doses from environmental radiation and survivors of the atomic bombings who were exposed to a range of doses. We evaluated radiation effects on structural (tumors, nodules), functional (hyper- and hypothyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Results Following a wide range of doses of ionizing radiation, an increased risk of thyroid adenomas and nodules was observed in a variety of populations and settings. The dose response appeared to be linear at low to moderate doses, but in one study there was some suggestion of a reduction in risk above 5 Gy. The elevated risk for benign tumors continues for decades following exposure. Considerably less consistent findings are available regarding functional thyroid diseases including autoimmune diseases. In general, associations for these outcomes were fairly weak and significant radiation effects were most often observed following high doses, particularly for hypothyroidism. Conclusions A significant radiation dose-response relation was demonstrated for benign nodules and follicular adenomas. The effects of radiation on functional thyroid diseases are less clear, partly due to the greater difficulties studying these diseases. PMID:21128812

  5. Atmospheric Dynamics of Terrestrial Exoplanets over a Wide Range of Orbital and Atmospheric Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  6. Atmospheric Dynamics of Terrestrial Exoplanets Over a Wide Range of Orbital and Atmospheric Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the mid-1990s, nearly 1800 exoplanets have been discovered around other stars. Exoplanet discovery and characterization began with giant planets, but as the observational techniques are advancing the emphasis is gradually shifting to smaller worlds. The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggests that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone---including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks---depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, pattern of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) including a hydrological cycle, we discuss the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, planetary mass, surface gravity, heat flux from a parent star, optical thickness and atmospheric mass affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet stream, Hadley and Ferrel cells and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we will

  7. Wide range of mercury contamination in chicks of southern ocean seabirds.

    PubMed

    Blévin, Pierre; Carravieri, Alice; Jaeger, Audrey; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Using top predators as sentinels of the marine environment, Hg contamination was investigated within the large subantarctic seabird community of Kerguelen Islands, a remote area from the poorly known Southern Indian Ocean. Chicks of 21 sympatric seabirds presented a wide range of Hg concentrations, with the highest contaminated species containing ~102 times more feather Hg than the less contaminated species. Hence, Kerguelen seabirds encompass the whole range of chick feather Hg values that were previously collected worldwide in poorly industrialized localities. Using stable isotopes, the effects of foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C) and trophic positions (reflected by δ(15)N) on Hg concentrations were investigated. Species-related Hg variations were highly and positively linked to feather δ(15)N values, thus highlighting the occurrence of efficient Hg biomagnification processes within subantarctic marine trophic webs. By contrast, Hg contamination overall correlated poorly with feeding habitats, because of the pooling of species foraging within different isotopic gradients corresponding to distinct seabird habitats (benthic, pelagic, neritic and oceanic). However, when focusing on oceanic seabirds, Hg concentration was related to feather δ(13)C values, with species feeding in colder waters (lower δ(13)C values) south of Kerguelen Islands being less prone to be contaminated than species feeding in northern warmer waters (higher δ(13)C values). Within the context of continuous increase in global Hg emissions, Kerguelen Islands that are located far away from anthropogenic sources can be considered as an ideal study site to monitor the temporal trend of global Hg contamination. The present work helps selecting some seabird species as sentinels of environmental pollution according to their high Hg concentrations and their contrasted foraging ecology.

  8. Wide Range of Mercury Contamination in Chicks of Southern Ocean Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Blévin, Pierre; Carravieri, Alice; Jaeger, Audrey; Chastel, Olivier; Bustamante, Paco; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Using top predators as sentinels of the marine environment, Hg contamination was investigated within the large subantarctic seabird community of Kerguelen Islands, a remote area from the poorly known Southern Indian Ocean. Chicks of 21 sympatric seabirds presented a wide range of Hg concentrations, with the highest contaminated species containing ∼102 times more feather Hg than the less contaminated species. Hence, Kerguelen seabirds encompass the whole range of chick feather Hg values that were previously collected worldwide in poorly industrialized localities. Using stable isotopes, the effects of foraging habitats (reflected by δ13C) and trophic positions (reflected by δ15N) on Hg concentrations were investigated. Species-related Hg variations were highly and positively linked to feather δ15N values, thus highlighting the occurrence of efficient Hg biomagnification processes within subantarctic marine trophic webs. By contrast, Hg contamination overall correlated poorly with feeding habitats, because of the pooling of species foraging within different isotopic gradients corresponding to distinct seabird habitats (benthic, pelagic, neritic and oceanic). However, when focusing on oceanic seabirds, Hg concentration was related to feather δ13C values, with species feeding in colder waters (lower δ13C values) south of Kerguelen Islands being less prone to be contaminated than species feeding in northern warmer waters (higher δ13C values). Within the context of continuous increase in global Hg emissions, Kerguelen Islands that are located far away from anthropogenic sources can be considered as an ideal study site to monitor the temporal trend of global Hg contamination. The present work helps selecting some seabird species as sentinels of environmental pollution according to their high Hg concentrations and their contrasted foraging ecology. PMID:23349912

  9. Carbon nanotube vacuum gauges with wide-dynamic range and processes thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature thermal conductivity gauge employs a carbon single-walled-nanotube. The gauge operates on the principle of thermal exchange between the voltage-biased nanotube and the surrounding gas at low levels of power and low temperatures to measure vacuum across a wide dynamic range. The gauge includes two terminals, a source of constant voltage to the terminals, a single-walled carbon nanotube between the terminals, a calibration of measured conductance of the nanotube to magnitudes of surrounding vacuum and a current meter in electrical communication with the source of constant voltage. Employment of the nanotube for measuring vacuum includes calibrating the electrical conductance of the nanotube to magnitudes of vacuum, exposing the nanotube to a vacuum, applying a constant voltage across the nanotube, measuring the electrical conductance of the nanotube in the vacuum with the constant voltage applied and converting the measured electrical conductance to the corresponding calibrated magnitude of vacuum using the calibration. The nanotube may be suspended to minimize heat dissipation through the substrate, increasing sensitivity at even tower pressures.

  10. Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-02-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities.

  11. A Wide-Range Displacement Sensor Based on Plastic Fiber Macro-Bend Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Hou, Yulong; Zhang, Huixin; Jia, Pinggang; Su, Shan; Fang, Guocheng; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the strategy of fabricating an all fiber wide-range displacement sensor based on the macro-bend coupling effect which causes power transmission between two twisted bending plastic optical fibers (POF), where the coupling power changes with the bending radius of the fibers. For the sensor, a structure of two twisted plastic fibers is designed with the experimental platform that we constructed. The influence of external temperature and displacement speed shifts are reported. The displacement sensor performance is the sensor test at different temperatures and speeds. The sensor was found to be satisfactory at both room temperature and 70 °C when the displacement is up to 140 mm. The output power is approximately linear to a displacement of 110 mm–140 mm under room temperature and 2 mm/s speed at 19.805 nW/mm sensitivity and 0.12 mm resolution. The simple structure of the sensor makes it reliable for other applications and further utilizations, promising a bright future. PMID:28117701

  12. Performance of MEMS Silicon Oscillator, ASFLM1, under Wide Operating Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) resonator-based oscillators began to be offered as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts by a few companies [1-2]. These quartz-free, miniature silicon devices could compete with the traditional crystal oscillators in providing the timing (clock function) for many digital and analog electronic circuits. They provide stable output frequency, offer great tolerance to shock and vibration, and are immune to electro-static discharge [1-2]. In addition, they are encapsulated in compact lead-free packages, cover a wide frequency range (1 MHz to 125 MHz), and are specified, depending on the grade, for extended temperature operation from -40 C to +85 C. The small size of the MEMS oscillators along with their reliability and thermal stability make them candidates for use in space exploration missions. Limited data, however, exist on the performance and reliability of these devices under operation in applications where extreme temperatures or thermal cycling swings, which are typical of space missions, are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the evaluation of an ABRACON Corporation MEMS silicon oscillator chip, type ASFLM1, under extreme temperatures.

  13. Assessment of Operation of EMK21 MEMS Silicon Oscillator Over Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Electronic control systems, data-acquisition instrumentation, and microprocessors require accurate timing signals for proper operation. Traditionally, ceramic resonators and crystal oscillators provided this clock function for the majority of these systems. Over the last few years, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) resonator-based oscillators began to surface as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts by a few companies. These quartz-free, miniature silicon devices could easily replace the traditional crystal oscillators in providing the timing/clock function for many digital and analog circuits. They are reported to provide stable output frequency, offer great tolerance to shock and vibration, and are immune to electro-static discharge [ 1-2]. In addition, they are encapsulated in compact lead-free packages and cover a wide frequency range (1 MHz to 125 MHz). The small size of the MEMS oscillators along with their thermal stability make them ideal candidates for use in space exploration missions. Limited data, however, exist on the performance and reliability of these devices under operation in applications where extreme temperatures or thermal cycling swings, which are typical of space missions, are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the evaluation of an Ecliptek Corporation MEMS silicon oscillator chip under extreme temperatures.

  14. A “twisted” microfluidic mixer suitable for a wide range of flow rate applications

    PubMed Central

    Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Mashraei, Yousof; Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Salama, Khaled Nabil

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new “twisted” 3D microfluidic mixer fabricated by a laser writing/microfabrication technique. Effective and efficient mixing using the twisted micromixers can be obtained by combining two general chaotic mixing mechanisms: splitting/recombining and chaotic advection. The lamination of mixer units provides the splitting and recombination mechanism when the quadrant of circles is arranged in a two-layered serial arrangement of mixing units. The overall 3D path of the microchannel introduces the advection. An experimental investigation using chemical solutions revealed that these novel 3D passive microfluidic mixers were stable and could be operated at a wide range of flow rates. This micromixer finds application in the manipulation of tiny volumes of liquids that are crucial in diagnostics. The mixing performance was evaluated by dye visualization, and using a pH test that determined the chemical reaction of the solutions. A comparison of the tornado-mixer with this twisted micromixer was made to evaluate the efficiency of mixing. The efficiency of mixing was calculated within the channel by acquiring intensities using ImageJ software. Results suggested that efficient mixing can be obtained when more than 3 units were consecutively placed. The geometry of the device, which has a length of 30 mm, enables the device to be integrated with micro total analysis systems and other lab-on-chip devices. PMID:27453767

  15. An Integrated Programmable Wide-range PLL for Switching Synchronization in Isolated DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Miad

    In this thesis, two Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) based synchronization schemes are introduced and applied to a bi-directional Dual-Active-Bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter with an input voltage up to 80 V switching in the range of 250 kHz to 1 MHz. The two schemes synchronize gating signals across an isolated boundary without the need for an isolator per transistor. The Power Transformer Sensing (PTS) method utilizes the DAB power transformer to indirectly sense switching on the secondary side of the boundary, while the Digital Isolator Sensing (DIS) method utilizes a miniature transformer for synchronization and communication at up to 100 MHz. The PLL is implemented on-chip, and is used to control an external DAB power-stage. This work will lead to lower cost, high-frequency isolated dc-dc converters needed for a wide variety of emerging low power applications where isolator cost is relatively high and there is a demand for the reduction of parts.

  16. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.

  17. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities.

    PubMed

    Buchhave, Lars A; Latham, David W; Johansen, Anders; Bizzarro, Martin; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brugamyer, Erik; Caldwell, Caroline; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Ford, Eric B; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Hansen, Terese; Isaacson, Howard; Laird, John B; Lucas, Philip W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Morse, Jon A; Robertson, Paul; Shporer, Avi; Stefanik, Robert P; Still, Martin; Quinn, Samuel N

    2012-06-13

    The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a 'fossil' record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets, supporting the model that planets form by accumulation of dust and ice particles. Recent ground-based surveys suggest that this correlation is weakened for Neptunian-sized planets. However, how the relationship between size and metallicity extends into the regime of terrestrial-sized exoplanets is unknown. Here we report spectroscopic metallicities of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but on average a metallicity close to that of the Sun), whereas large planets preferentially form around stars with higher metallicities. This observation suggests that terrestrial planets may be widespread in the disk of the Galaxy, with no special requirement of enhanced metallicity for their formation.

  18. A Wide-Range Displacement Sensor Based on Plastic Fiber Macro-Bend Coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Hou, Yulong; Zhang, Huixin; Jia, Pinggang; Su, Shan; Fang, Guocheng; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun

    2017-01-20

    This paper proposes the strategy of fabricating an all fiber wide-range displacement sensor based on the macro-bend coupling effect which causes power transmission between two twisted bending plastic optical fibers (POF), where the coupling power changes with the bending radius of the fibers. For the sensor, a structure of two twisted plastic fibers is designed with the experimental platform that we constructed. The influence of external temperature and displacement speed shifts are reported. The displacement sensor performance is the sensor test at different temperatures and speeds. The sensor was found to be satisfactory at both room temperature and 70 °C when the displacement is up to 140 mm. The output power is approximately linear to a displacement of 110 mm-140 mm under room temperature and 2 mm/s speed at 19.805 nW/mm sensitivity and 0.12 mm resolution. The simple structure of the sensor makes it reliable for other applications and further utilizations, promising a bright future.

  19. Development of radon sources with a high stability and a wide range

    SciTech Connect

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-12-15

    A solid {sup 222}Rn (radon) source using a fibrous and porous SiC ceramic disk was developed. The emission rate of radon emanated from the disk depended on the content of {sup 226}Ra and the sintering temperature. A {sup 226}Ra sulfate ({sup 226}RaSO{sub 4}) solution was dropped on a fibrous SiC ceramic disk (33 mmφ) of 1 mm in thickness, and sintered at 400 °C. The radon concentration from a disk containing {sup 226}Ra of 1.85 MBq was measured to be 38 kBq m{sup −3} at a carrier airflow rate of 0.5 L min{sup −1}. By adjusting the {sup 226}Ra content or the sweep airflow rate, the radon concentrations were easily controlled over a wide range of over three orders of magnitude. The concentration was very stable for a long term. The compactness of the source disk made is easy for handling the source container and the shielding of gamma radiation from {sup 226}Ra and its decay products. Such advantages in a radon generation system are desirable for experiments of high-level, large-scale radon exposure.

  20. Recent range-wide demographic expansion in a Taiwan endemic montane bird, Steere's Liocichla (Liocichla steerii)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The subtropical island of Taiwan is an area of high endemism and a complex topographic environment. Phylogeographic studies indicate that vicariance caused by Taiwan's mountains has subdivided many taxa into genetic phylogroups. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the evolutionary history of an endemic montane bird, Steere's Liocichla (Liocichla steerii), fit the general vicariant paradigm for a montane organism. Results We found that while mountains appear to channel gene flow they are not a significant barrier for Steere's Liocichla. Recent demographic expansion was evident, and genetic diversity was relatively high across the island, suggesting expansion from multiple areas rather than a few isolated refugia. Ecological niche modeling corroborated the molecular results and suggested that populations of Steere's Liocichla are connected by climatically suitable habitat and that there was less suitable habitat during the Last Glacial Maximum. Conclusions Genetic and ecological niche modeling data corroborate a single history--Steere's Liocichla was at lower density during the Last Glacial Maximum and has subsequently expanded in population density. We suggest that such a range-wide density expansion might be an overlooked cause for the genetic patterns of demographic expansion that are regularly reported. We find significant differences among some populations in FST indices and an admixture analysis. Though both of these results are often used to suggest conservation action, we affirm that statistically significant results are not necessarily biologically meaningful and we urge caution when interpreting highly polymorphic data such as microsatellites. PMID:20219124

  1. Development of radon sources with a high stability and a wide range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A solid 222Rn (radon) source using a fibrous and porous SiC ceramic disk was developed. The emission rate of radon emanated from the disk depended on the content of 226Ra and the sintering temperature. A 226Ra sulfate (226RaSO4) solution was dropped on a fibrous SiC ceramic disk (33 mmϕ) of 1 mm in thickness, and sintered at 400 °C. The radon concentration from a disk containing 226Ra of 1.85 MBq was measured to be 38 kBq m-3 at a carrier airflow rate of 0.5 L min-1. By adjusting the 226Ra content or the sweep airflow rate, the radon concentrations were easily controlled over a wide range of over three orders of magnitude. The concentration was very stable for a long term. The compactness of the source disk made is easy for handling the source container and the shielding of gamma radiation from 226Ra and its decay products. Such advantages in a radon generation system are desirable for experiments of high-level, large-scale radon exposure.

  2. Development of radon sources with a high stability and a wide range.

    PubMed

    Fukutsu, K; Yamada, Y

    2013-12-01

    A solid (222)Rn (radon) source using a fibrous and porous SiC ceramic disk was developed. The emission rate of radon emanated from the disk depended on the content of (226)Ra and the sintering temperature. A (226)Ra sulfate ((226)RaSO4) solution was dropped on a fibrous SiC ceramic disk (33 mmφ) of 1 mm in thickness, and sintered at 400 °C. The radon concentration from a disk containing (226)Ra of 1.85 MBq was measured to be 38 kBq m(-3) at a carrier airflow rate of 0.5 L min(-1). By adjusting the (226)Ra content or the sweep airflow rate, the radon concentrations were easily controlled over a wide range of over three orders of magnitude. The concentration was very stable for a long term. The compactness of the source disk made is easy for handling the source container and the shielding of gamma radiation from (226)Ra and its decay products. Such advantages in a radon generation system are desirable for experiments of high-level, large-scale radon exposure.

  3. Very Low Population Structure in a Highly Mobile and Wide-Ranging Endangered Bird Species

    PubMed Central

    Kvistad, Lynna; Ingwersen, Dean; Pavlova, Alexandra; Bull, James K.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity following fragmentation and degradation of habitat is a major issue in conservation biology. As competition for resources increases following habitat loss and fragmentation, severe population declines may occur even in common, highly mobile species; such demographic decline may cause changes within the population structure of the species. The regent honeyeater, Anthochaera phrygia, is a highly nomadic woodland bird once common in its native southeast Australia. It has experienced a sharp decline in abundance since the late 1970s, following clearing of large areas of its preferred habitat, box-ironbark woodland, within the last 200 years. A captive breeding program has been established as part of efforts to restore this species. This study used genetic data to examine the range-wide population structure of regent honeyeaters, including spatial structure, its change through time, sex differences in philopatry and mobility, and genetic differences between the captive and wild populations. There was low genetic differentiation between birds captured in different geographic areas. Despite the recent demographic decline, low spatial structure appears to have some temporal consistency. Both sexes appear to be highly mobile, and there does not seem to be significant genetic differentiation between the captive and wild populations. We conclude that management efforts for survival of this species, including habitat protection, restoration, and release of captive-bred birds into the wild, can treat the species as effectively a single genetic population. PMID:26649426

  4. Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-01

    The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates (10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and temperatures (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and temperature-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass (α ) transition and the secondary (β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.

  5. Removal of GABAA Receptor γ2 Subunits from Parvalbumin Neurons Causes Wide-Ranging Behavioral Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Vekovischeva, Olga Y.; Swinny, Jerome D.; Rantanen, Ville; Toppila, Esko; Höger, Harald; Sieghart, Werner; Wulff, Peer; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral significance of fast synaptic inhibition by αβγ2-type GABAA receptors on parvalbumin (Pv) cells. The GABAA receptor γ2 subunit gene was selectively inactivated in Pv-positive neurons by Cre/loxP recombination. The resulting Pv-Δγ2 mice were relatively healthy in the first postnatal weeks; but then as Cre started to be expressed, the mice progressively developed wide-ranging phenotypic alterations including low body weight, motor deficits and tremor, decreased anxiety levels, decreased pain sensitivity and deficient prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and impaired spatial learning. Nevertheless, the deletion was not lethal, and mice did not show increased mortality even after one year. Autoradiography with t-butylbicyclophosphoro[35S]thionate suggested an increased amount of GABAA receptors with only α and β subunits in central nervous system regions that contained high levels of parvalbumin neurons. Using BAC-transgenesis, we reduced some of the Pv-Δγ2 phenotype by selectively re-expressing the wild-type γ2 subunit back into some Pv cells (reticular thalamic neurons and cerebellar Pv-positive neurons). This produced less severe impairments of motor skills and spatial learning compared with Pv-Δγ2 mice, but all other deficits remained. Our results reveal the widespread significance of fast GABAergic inhibition onto Pv-positive neurons for diverse behavioral modalities, such as motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, emotional behavior and nociception. PMID:21912668

  6. Development of an Indirect Stereolithography Technology for Scaffold Fabrication with a Wide Range of Biomaterial Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering, which is the study of generating biological substitutes to restore or replace tissues or organs, has the potential to meet current needs for organ transplantation and medical interventions. Various approaches have been attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) solid freeform fabrication technologies to tissue engineering for scaffold fabrication. Among these, the stereolithography (SL) technology not only has the highest resolution, but also offers quick fabrication. However, a lack of suitable biomaterials is a barrier to applying the SL technology to tissue engineering. In this study, an indirect SL method that combines the SL technology and a sacrificial molding process was developed to address this challenge. A sacrificial mold with an inverse porous shape was fabricated from an alkali-soluble photopolymer by the SL technology. A sacrificial molding process was then developed for scaffold construction using a variety of biomaterials. The results indicated a wide range of biomaterial selectivity and a high resolution. Achievable minimum pore and strut sizes were as large as 50 and 65 μm, respectively. This technology can also be used to fabricate three-dimensional organ shapes, and combined with traditional fabrication methods to construct a new type of scaffold with a dual-pore size. Cytotoxicity tests, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography analyses, showed that this technology has great potential for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22443315

  7. Magnetic Properties of the Stack of HTSC Tapes in a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnev, Igor; Abin, Dmitriy; Osipov, Maxim; Pokrovskiy, Sergey; Ermolaev, Yuriy; Mineev, Nikolay

    The trapped field strength of HTSC stacks were measured in the temperature range T=4-80 K and dc magnetic fields up to 8 Т. A single 12 mm by 12 mm square samples were cut from commercial (RE)BCO tape 12 mm wide and then stacked together. The number of layers in the stacks was varied from n=5 to n=250. Trapped field strength was measured by means of Hall probe which was placed directly on the stacks surface. The dependences of remnant field strength Brem on number of layers in the stacks at different temperature Brem (n) as well as on temperature dependences Brem (T) at various n were obtained. It was found that Brem (n) dependences have a nonlinear character with a tendency to saturation for n > 60. The maximum remnant (trapped) field was found to be more than 2.5 Т at T=4 К. The relaxation of trapped field was studied also and it was determined that the rate of relaxation processes tends to decrease with the increase in a number of tapes in the stack. The correlation between dependency Brem (n) and dependency of magnetic levitation force measured at T=77 K at zero field cooling were found.

  8. A robust color signal processing with wide dynamic range WRGB CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a robust color reproduction methodology by a simple calculation with a new color matrix using the formerly developed wide dynamic range WRGB lateral overflow integration capacitor (LOFIC) CMOS image sensor. The image sensor was fabricated through a 0.18 μm CMOS technology and has a 45 degrees oblique pixel array, the 4.2 μm effective pixel pitch and the W pixels. A W pixel was formed by replacing one of the two G pixels in the Bayer RGB color filter. The W pixel has a high sensitivity through the visible light waveband. An emerald green and yellow (EGY) signal is generated from the difference between the W signal and the sum of RGB signals. This EGY signal mainly includes emerald green and yellow lights. These colors are difficult to be reproduced accurately by the conventional simple linear matrix because their wave lengths are in the valleys of the spectral sensitivity characteristics of the RGB pixels. A new linear matrix based on the EGY-RGB signal was developed. Using this simple matrix, a highly accurate color processing with a large margin to the sensitivity fluctuation and noise has been achieved.

  9. Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide range of strain rates ( 10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and temperatures (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and temperature-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass ( α ) transition and the secondary ( β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.

  10. Wide range quantitative photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure non-linear optical absorption of hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has been shown to be a valuable tool for quantifying hemoglobin oxygenation within single vessels. Recently, optical-resolution PAM was developed to achieve higher resolution by reducing the laser beam diameter, which increased the light intensity. As intensity increases, saturation of the optical absorption and multiphoton/ multi-step absorption can occur, which, together with the temperature dependence of thermal expansion, result in a non-linear dependence of the photoacoustic signal on the excitation pulse fluence. For hemoglobin, the major absorber in tissue for photoacoustic imaging, these non-linear phenomena have strong wavelength dependence. To enable quantitative photoacoustic measurements at different wavelengths in the presence of nonlinearity, a careful wide range analysis of the intensity-dependent absorption is required. Here, we built a photoacoustic spectrometer, using a tunable nanosecond optical parametric oscillator that operates between 410 nm and 2400 nm as our light source. To reduce uncertainty in our measurements due to inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the optical fluence, we used a flat-top beam illumination and a flat transducer which was mounted in reflection mode, effectively reducing quantitative measurements to a one dimensional problem. Intensity-dependent non-linear spectra of the photoacoustic signals of oxyand deoxy-hemoglobin were obtained. These measurements have the potential to contribute significantly to quantitative functional PAM.

  11. FTIR study of carbonate loss from carbonated apatites in the wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Rau, J V; Cesaro, S Nunziante; Ferro, D; Barinov, S M; Fadeeva, I V

    2004-11-15

    The mineral constituent of bone tissue is a carbonate-substituted apatite (CHA). The thermal stability of the CHA has been revealed to depend on the substitution type and degree, although relatively little is known about this behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the carbonate loss from synthetic CHAs in equilibrium conditions in a wide temperature range. An approach based on FTIR spectroscopy of condensed gas phase was applied to evaluate the CO and CO2 release with increasing temperature. Four different CHAs were studied, which were prepared by either precipitation from solution or the solid-state interaction. The samples differ from each other by the substitution degree. In one of the samples calcium was partially substituted by magnesium. Decomposition was shown to start at surprisingly low temperature, about 400 degrees C, and the CO content increases monotonously with the increase of temperature. The CO2 content goes through a maximum due to its decomposition into carbon monoxide and oxygen, the temperature of this maximum being strongly dependent on the chemical synthesis route. Therefore, control of the sintering atmosphere with respect to the CO2/CO ratio is needed when preparing the carbonated apatite bioceramics.

  12. Wide division ratio range programmable frequency divider with close-to-50% output duty-cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianhui; Wang, Shengyang; Huang, Fuqing

    2011-09-01

    A novel wide division ratio (DR) range programmable frequency divider is presented in this article, which is based on the proposed divide-by-2/3/4 cell. The divider's output is buffered by a divide-by-2 cell; hence, it can achieve the close-to-50% output duty-cycle. The DRs can be set via the convenient provisions of binary bits. When the DR is even, the output duty-cycle is exactly 50%. If the DR is odd, the output duty-cycle is k/(2 k + 1), where k is a natural number, therefore, it becomes close-to-50% with an increasing k. A divider with eight DR control bits, which can realise the DRs from 8 to 511, is implemented in standard 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, the die area is 0.02 mm2. The measured results show that the divider can obtain 44.4-50% output duty-cycle which corroborates with the calculation.

  13. Newly Identified Bacteriolytic Enzymes That Target a Wide Range of Clinical Isolates of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Krunal K.; Paskaleva, Elena E.; Wu, Xia; Grover, Navdeep; Mundra, Ruchir V.; Chen, Kevin; Zhang, Yongrong; Yang, Zhiyong; Feng, Hanping; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Kane, Ravi S.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile has emerged as a major cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients, with increasing mortality rate and annual healthcare costs exceeding $3 billion. Since C. difficile infections are associated with the use of antibiotics, there is an urgent need to develop treatments that can inactivate the bacterium selectively without affecting commensal microflora. Lytic enzymes from bacteria and bacteriophages show promise as highly selective and effective antimicrobial agents. These enzymes often have a modular structure, consisting of a catalytic domain and a binding domain. In the current work, using consensus catalytic domain and cell-wall binding domain sequences as probes, we analyzed in silico the genome of C. difficile, as well as phages infecting C. difficile. We identified two genes encoding cell lytic enzymes with possible activity against C. difficile. We cloned the genes in a suitable expression vector, expressed and purified the protein products, and tested enzyme activity in vitro. These newly identified enzymes were found to be active against C. difficile cells in a dose-dependent manner. We achieved a more than 4-log reduction in the number of viable bacteria within 5 h of application. Moreover, we found that the enzymes were active against a wide range of C. difficile clinical isolates. We also characterized the biocatalytic mechanism by identifying the specific bonds cleaved by these enzymes within the cell wall peptidoglycan. These results suggest a new approach to combating the growing healthcare problem associated with C. difficile infections. PMID:27260850

  14. A wide-range model for simulation of pump-probe experiments with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Andreev, Nikolay E.; Apfelbaum, Eugeny M.; Itina, Tatiana E.; Khishchenko, Konstatntin V.; Kostenko, Oleg F.; Levashov, Pavel R.; Veysman, Mikhail E.

    2012-09-01

    High precision pump-probe experiments can provide a valuable information about material states out of equilibrium. A wide-range numerical model is used for the description of material response on ultrashort laser action. The model is developed on the basis of two-temperature hydrodynamics with heat transport, ionization, plasma expansion, electron-ion collisions and two-temperature equation of state for an irradiated substance. Comparison of experimental findings with the results of simulation is used both for the numerical model verification and for calculation of plasma thermodynamic parameters that cannot be measured directly in experiment. An aluminum target is heated by an intense 400 nm (2ω) pump laser pulse that is incident normal to the planar target. Weak S- and P-polarized probe pulses with wavelength 800 nm (1ω) are used for diagnostics of the plasma. Both probe pulses illuminate the target at a 45° angle. Calculation of the reflectivity and phase shift of probe pulses with both polarizations are in good agreement with experiment.

  15. Performance of wide temperature range electrolytes for Li-Ion capacitor pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappetto, A.; Cao, W. J.; Luo, J. F.; Hagen, M.; Adams, D.; Shelikeri, A.; Xu, K.; Zheng, J. P.

    2017-08-01

    Four types of wide temperature-range electrolyte formulations based on carbonate and carboxylate esters were evaluated at various temperatures in lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) pouch cells consisting of both hard carbon (HC) and graphite negative electrodes (NEs) with thin lithium foil and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrodes (PEs). The electrolytes containing methyl butyrate (MB) with various additives enabled the LIC to operate at -40 °C, where all electrolytes based only on carbonates fail. MB-containing electrolyte with lithium Difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) as additive showed the best cycling performance over 5000 cycles. Lithium plating also occurred on graphite NEs when charged at low temperatures starting at -20 °C, which resulted in the non-linear curves. When charged at 30 °C and discharged at -40 °C, graphite NE based LIC displayed regular linear charge-discharge curves without lithium plating. In comparison, HC NE based LICs showed better capacity retention at -40 °C and no signs of lithium plating. It could be concluded that low temperature performance of LIC was influenced by both electrolyte formulations and negative electrode material.

  16. Electro-optical detector for use in a wide mass range mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electro-optical detector is disclosed for use in a wide mass range mass spectrometer (MS), in the latter the focal plane is at or very near the exit end of the magnetic analyzer, so that a strong magnetic field of the order of 1000G or more is present at the focal plane location. The novel detector includes a microchannel electron multiplier array (MCA) which is positioned at the focal plane to convert ion beams which are focused by the MS at the focal plane into corresponding electron beams which are then accelerated to form visual images on a conductive phosphored surface. These visual images are then converted into images on the target of a vidicon camera or the like for electronic processing. Due to the strong magnetic field at the focal plane, in one embodiment of the invention, the MCA with front and back parallel ends is placed so that its front end forms an angle of not less than several degrees, preferably on the order of 10.degree.-20.degree., with respect to the focal plane, with the center line of the front end preferably located in the focal plane. In another embodiment the MCA is wedge-shaped, with its back end at an angle of about 10.degree.-20.degree. with respect to the front end. In this embodiment the MCA is placed so that its front end is located at the focal plane.

  17. Very Low Population Structure in a Highly Mobile and Wide-Ranging Endangered Bird Species.

    PubMed

    Kvistad, Lynna; Ingwersen, Dean; Pavlova, Alexandra; Bull, James K; Sunnucks, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity following fragmentation and degradation of habitat is a major issue in conservation biology. As competition for resources increases following habitat loss and fragmentation, severe population declines may occur even in common, highly mobile species; such demographic decline may cause changes within the population structure of the species. The regent honeyeater, Anthochaera phrygia, is a highly nomadic woodland bird once common in its native southeast Australia. It has experienced a sharp decline in abundance since the late 1970s, following clearing of large areas of its preferred habitat, box-ironbark woodland, within the last 200 years. A captive breeding program has been established as part of efforts to restore this species. This study used genetic data to examine the range-wide population structure of regent honeyeaters, including spatial structure, its change through time, sex differences in philopatry and mobility, and genetic differences between the captive and wild populations. There was low genetic differentiation between birds captured in different geographic areas. Despite the recent demographic decline, low spatial structure appears to have some temporal consistency. Both sexes appear to be highly mobile, and there does not seem to be significant genetic differentiation between the captive and wild populations. We conclude that management efforts for survival of this species, including habitat protection, restoration, and release of captive-bred birds into the wild, can treat the species as effectively a single genetic population.

  18. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Cantilever Wide Dynamic Range Acceleration/Vibration /Pressure Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2003-09-02

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/V2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  19. Ultrananocrystalline diamond cantilever wide dynamic range acceleration/vibration/pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2002-07-23

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/N2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  20. Phase transitions of pea starch over a wide range of water content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les

    2012-06-27

    The phase transitions of pea starch over a wide range of water content were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Swelling of starch granules increased progressively with increasing water content. The main endotherm G broadened progressively with increasing water content up to 94.5 wt % (water:starch ratio 15:1), above which it became too broad to define. The corresponding peak and conclusion temperatures and enthalpy change increased with increasing water content. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, at a water:starch ratio of 2:1 (water content of 70.7 wt %), starch granules only swelled partially with discernible granular contours still clearly evident. The results of swelling power tests and SEM images revealed that the endotherm G obtained at a water:starch ratio of 2:1 represented only partial swelling of starch granules. The transition from a narrow to broad endotherm G was interpreted to reflect the thermal transition behavior progressing from limited swelling to maximum swelling and then partial dissolution and leaching of starch polymers from the granules.

  1. Equation of State and Heat Capacity of Water over a Wide Range of Thermodynamic Parameters (Uravnenie Sostoyaniya i Teploemkost Vody v Shirokom Diapazone Termodinamicheskikh Parametrov),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The equation of state and heat capacity obtained from this work make it possible to determine the energy and pressure of water from its temperature...and density over a wide range of thermodynamic parameters, with an error of 15-20%. The equation of state and heat capacity also determine, in

  2. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Verena E; Lecomte, Nicolas; Janke, Axel; Selva, Nuria; Sokolov, Alexander A; Haun, Timm; Steyer, Katharina; Nowak, Carsten; Hailer, Frank

    2013-06-05

    Many boreo-temperate mammals have a Pleistocene fossil record throughout Eurasia and North America, but only few have a contemporary distribution that spans this large area. Examples of Holarctic-distributed carnivores are the brown bear, grey wolf, and red fox, all three ecological generalists with large dispersal capacity and a high adaptive flexibility. While the two former have been examined extensively across their ranges, no phylogeographic study of the red fox has been conducted across its entire Holarctic range. Moreover, no study included samples from central Asia, leaving a large sampling gap in the middle of the Eurasian landmass. Here we provide the first mitochondrial DNA sequence data of red foxes from central Asia (Siberia), and new sequences from several European populations. In a range-wide synthesis of 729 red fox mitochondrial control region sequences, including 677 previously published and 52 newly obtained sequences, this manuscript describes the pattern and timing of major phylogeographic events in red foxes, using a Bayesian coalescence approach with multiple fossil tip and root calibration points. In a 335 bp alignment we found in total 175 unique haplotypes. All newly sequenced individuals belonged to the previously described Holarctic lineage. Our analyses confirmed the presence of three Nearctic- and two Japan-restricted lineages that were formed since the Mid/Late Pleistocene. The phylogeographic history of red foxes is highly similar to that previously described for grey wolves and brown bears, indicating that climatic fluctuations and habitat changes since the Pleistocene had similar effects on these highly mobile generalist species. All three species originally diversified in Eurasia and later colonized North America and Japan. North American lineages persisted through the last glacial maximum south of the ice sheets, meeting more recent colonizers from Beringia during postglacial expansion into the northern Nearctic. Both brown

  3. Bi-directional flow sensor with a wide dynamic range for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Al-Salaymeh, A; Jovanović, J; Durst, F

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a novel three-wire thermal flow sensor for medical applications. The present innovation for low-frequency measurements involves the use of a pulsed-wire anemometer with a comparatively large wire diameter (12.5 microm and larger) together with a novel signal processing approach. A small wire is heated using a sinusoidal alternating current, and two sensing wires, acting as resistance thermometers, are set parallel to, and at a small distance on either side of, the pulsed wire. The thermal wake of the pulsed wire is convected downstream to one of the two receiving wires which detect its delayed arrival. This arrangement allows the sensing of both the direction and the flow velocity component normal to the three probes. By appropriate signal processing, the present sensor can be operated such that the phase shift between the periodic current that drives the central wire and the detected signal by either the upstream or downstream wire takes into account a combination of convection, diffusion and the finite thermal response time of both the pulsed wire and the receiving wire. Because the time constants increase as the flow velocity decreases, the time lag due to thermal inertia supplements the time lag due to the true time of flight, thus yielding an effective operating range of 0.05 m/s range of 500:1. This wide velocity range is an order of magnitude larger than that for the traditional time-of-flight pulsed-wire anemometers. An important application of the bi-directional thermal flowmeter is the measurement of human respiration, e.g. for early diagnostics of asthmatic attacks. The main advantage of the present sensor is its low sensitivity to variations in temperature and also to the composition of the flowing gas. Also, a calibration will be not needed for each density and gas used in addition to that for velocity. The resultant design work aimed at developing a sensor that can be mass

  4. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many boreo-temperate mammals have a Pleistocene fossil record throughout Eurasia and North America, but only few have a contemporary distribution that spans this large area. Examples of Holarctic-distributed carnivores are the brown bear, grey wolf, and red fox, all three ecological generalists with large dispersal capacity and a high adaptive flexibility. While the two former have been examined extensively across their ranges, no phylogeographic study of the red fox has been conducted across its entire Holarctic range. Moreover, no study included samples from central Asia, leaving a large sampling gap in the middle of the Eurasian landmass. Results Here we provide the first mitochondrial DNA sequence data of red foxes from central Asia (Siberia), and new sequences from several European populations. In a range-wide synthesis of 729 red fox mitochondrial control region sequences, including 677 previously published and 52 newly obtained sequences, this manuscript describes the pattern and timing of major phylogeographic events in red foxes, using a Bayesian coalescence approach with multiple fossil tip and root calibration points. In a 335 bp alignment we found in total 175 unique haplotypes. All newly sequenced individuals belonged to the previously described Holarctic lineage. Our analyses confirmed the presence of three Nearctic- and two Japan-restricted lineages that were formed since the Mid/Late Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogeographic history of red foxes is highly similar to that previously described for grey wolves and brown bears, indicating that climatic fluctuations and habitat changes since the Pleistocene had similar effects on these highly mobile generalist species. All three species originally diversified in Eurasia and later colonized North America and Japan. North American lineages persisted through the last glacial maximum south of the ice sheets, meeting more recent colonizers from Beringia during postglacial expansion into the

  5. Ion range estimation by using dual energy computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hünemohr, Nora; Krauss, Bernhard; Dinkel, Julien; Gillmann, Clarissa; Ackermann, Benjamin; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Inaccurate conversion of CT data to water-equivalent path length (WEPL) is one of the most important uncertainty sources in ion treatment planning. Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging might help to reduce CT number ambiguities with the additional information. In our study we scanned a series of materials (tissue substitutes, aluminum, PMMA, and other polymers) in the dual source scanner (Siemens Somatom Definition Flash). Based on the 80kVp/140SnkVp dual energy images, the electron densities ϱe and effective atomic numbers Zeff were calculated. We introduced a new lookup table that translates the ϱe to the WEPL. The WEPL residuals from the calibration were significantly reduced for the investigated tissue surrogates compared to the empirical Hounsfield-look-up table (single energy CT imaging) from (-1.0±1.8)% to (0.1±0.7)% and for non-tissue equivalent PMMA from -7.8% to -1.0%. To assess the benefit of the new DECT calibration, we conducted a treatment planning study for three different idealized cases based on tissue surrogates and PMMA. The DECT calibration yielded a significantly higher target coverage in tissue surrogates and phantom material (i.e. PMMA cylinder, mean target coverage improved from 62% to 98%). To verify the DECT calibration for real tissue, ion ranges through a frozen pig head were measured and compared to predictions calculated by the standard single energy CT calibration and the novel DECT calibration. By using this method, an improvement of ion range estimation from -2.1% water-equivalent thickness deviation (single energy CT) to 0.3% (DECT) was achieved. If one excludes raypaths located on the edge of the sample accompanied with high uncertainties, no significant difference could be observed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Surrogate Immiscible Liquid Solution Pairs with Refractive Indexes Matchable Over a Wide Range of Density and Viscosity Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksena, Rajat; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2014-11-01

    Use of laser diagnostics in liquid-liquid flows is limited by refractive index mismatch. This can be avoided using a surrogate pair of immiscible index-matched liquids, with density and viscosity ratios matching those of the original liquid pair. We demonstrate that a wide range of density and viscosity ratios is accessible using aqueous solutions of 1,2-propanediol and CsBr (for which index, density, and viscosity are available), and solutions of light and heavy silicone oils and 1-bromooctane (for which we measured the same properties at 119 compositions). For each liquid phase, polynomials in the composition variables were fitted to index and density and to the logarithm of kinematic viscosity, and the fits were used to determine accessible density and viscosity ratios for each matchable index. Index-matched solution pairs can be prepared with density and viscosity ratios equal to those for water-liquid CO2 at 0oC over a range of pressure, and for water-crude oil and water-trichloroethylene, each over a range of temperature. For representative index-matched solutions, equilibration changes index, density, and viscosity only slightly, and chemical analysis show that no component of either solution has significant interphase solubility. Partially supported by Intl. Inst. for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research.

  7. Tribological behavior and self-healing functionality of TiNbCN-Ag coatings in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, A. V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Levashov, E. A.; Shtansky, D. V.

    2017-02-01

    Ag- and Nb-doped TiCN coatings with about 2 at.% of Nb and Ag contents varied between 4.0 and 15.1 at.% were designed as promising materials for tribological applications in a wide temperature range. We report on the structure, mechanical, and tribological properties of TiNbCN-Ag coatings fabricated by simultaneous co-sputtering of TiC0.5 + 10%Nb2C and Ag targets in comparison with those of Ag-free coating. The tribological characteristics were evaluated during constant-temperature tests both at room temperature and 300 °C, as well as during dynamic temperature ramp tests in the range of 25-700 °C. The coating structure and elemental composition were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The coating microstructures and elemental compositions inside wear tracks, as well as the wear products, were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that simultaneous alloying with Nb and Ag permits to overcome the main drawbacks of TiCN coatings such as their relatively high values of friction coefficient at elevated temperatures and low oxidation resistance. It is shown that a relatively high amount of Ag (15 at.%) is required to provide enhanced tribological behavior in a wide temperature range of 25-700 °C. In addition, the prepared Ag-doped coatings demonstrated active oxidation protection and self-healing functionality due to the segregation of Ag metallic particles in damage areas such as cracks, pin-holes, or oxidation sites.

  8. Power wheelchair range testing and energy consumption during fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; VanSickle, D P; Albright, S J; Stewart, K J; Flannery, M; Robertson, R N

    1995-10-01

    The range of a power wheelchair depends on many factors including: battery type, battery state, wheelchair/rider weight, terrain, the efficiency of the drive train, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three methods of estimating power wheelchair range. Another significant purpose was to compare the current draw on pavement to current draw on an International Standards Organization (ISO) Double Drum tester at one m/sec. Tests were performed on seven different power wheelchairs unloaded, and loaded with an ISO 100 kg test dummy. Each chair was configured according to the manufacturer's specifications, and tires were properly inflated. Experienced test technicians were used for the tennis court tests, and treadmill tests. An ISO 100 kg test dummy was used for the ISO Double Drum test. Energy consumption was measured over a distance of 1500 m for each of the three test conditions. The rolling surface was level in all cases. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) between the predicted range at maximum speed for the three tests. Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in estimated range at maximum speed between the Double Drum test and the treadmill test, as well as between the Double Drum test and the tennis court test. Our results indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the predicted range at maximal speed between the treadmill and tennis court tests. A simple relationship does not exist between the results of range testing with the Double Drum tester and the tennis court. An alternative would be to permit the use of a treadmill for range testing as simple relationships between all pertinent treadmill and tennis court range data were found. For the Double Drum tester used, the current demand is higher than under normal usage. This presents a problem as current is related to load torque in a power wheelchair. Hence, the Double

  9. Predicting sorption of organic acids to a wide range of carbonized sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Many contaminants and infochemicals are organic acids that undergo dissociation under environmental conditions. The sorption of dissociated anions to biochar and other carbonized sorbents is typically lower than that of neutral species. It is driven by complex processes that are not yet fully understood. It is known that predictive approaches developed for neutral compounds are unlikely to be suitable for organic acids, due to the effects of dissociation on sorption. Previous studies on the sorption of organic acids to soils have demonstrated that log Dow, which describes the decrease in hydrophobicity of acids upon dissociation, is a useful alternative to log Kow. The aim of the present study was to adapt a log Dow based approach to describe the sorption of organic acids to carbonized sorbents. Batch experiments were performed with a series of 9 sorbents (i.e., carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, and sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon), and four acids commonly used for pesticidal and biocidal purposes (i.e., 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB, and triclosan). Sorbents were comprehensively characterized, including by N2 and CO2 physisorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The wide range of sorbents considered allows (i) discussing the mechanisms driving the sorption of neutral and anionic species to biochar, and (ii) their dependency on sorbate and sorbent properties. Results showed that the sorption of the four acids was influenced by factors that are usually not considered for neutral compounds (i.e., pH, ionic strength). Dissociation affected the sorption of the four compounds, and sorption of the anions ranged over five orders of magnitude, thus substantially contributing to sorption in some cases. For prediction purposes, most of the variation in sorption to carbonized sorbents (89%) could be well described with a two-parameter regression equation including log Dow and sorbent specific surface area. The proposed model

  10. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    develop a simple conceptual model to explain the observations along the wide range of vegetation densities investigated. At low plant densities, each plant acted independently and caused flow separation and convergence around each plant, similar to in the Coulthard (2005] experiment. At medium densities, individual plants start to interact together with narrow channels developing longitudinally between vegetative bars. Finally at very high densities, there was both lateral and longitudinal interaction between plants meaning that flow was diverted around them forming wandering, meandering channels. In summary, the relationship between vegetation density and channel braiding is more complex than previous thought, taking a parabolic shape, with maximum braiding occurring at medium vegetation densities.

  11. Centrifugally Driven Flow in Diverse Porous Media Over Wide-Ranging Moisture Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Caputo, M. C.

    2003-12-01

    Centrifugal force has been successfully applied to measurement of saturated and unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils and rock. The basis of most methods is to apply a steady flow of water, by either a constant head or a metering pump, to a sample in a centrifuge. If the centrifugal force is great enough to constitute the dominant driving force, measurements of the steady-state flux, water content, and matric pressure can yield highly accurate values of hydraulic conductivity and water retention. The great force permits measurement of properties and conditions that are otherwise impossible or impractical. For example an experiment lasting a few days can measure unsaturated conductivity as low as 1E-9 cm/s. Our new approach expands the range of media and conditions to which centrifugal techniques are applicable, using an assessment of the deviations from steadiness that can be tolerated without appreciable loss of accuracy and a quasi-steady methodology that controls flow within acceptable limits. Secondary goals are to reduce the cost and specialized nature of the necessary equipment, and to reduce the operator time and level of training required. Recent tests demonstrate these new techniques for carbonatic rock and other porous media. Numerical simulations predict the performance of the quasi-steady approach over a wide range of speeds and radii of rotation corresponding to various configurations, including centrifuges that are mass-produced for general laboratory use and the much larger ones designed for geotechnical applications. These simulations use a solution of Darcy's law in a centrifugal field to predict moisture conditions and net driving force within a sample, in order to assess the validity of these conditions for hydraulic property measurement. The tests and simulations show the improved techniques are useful for most porous rock and sedimentary media. With its simplified apparatus, capacity for larger samples, and the adaptability to various

  12. Wide-ranging phylogeographic structure of invasive red lionfish in the Western Atlantic and Greater Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterfield, John S.; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Silliman, Brian R.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Buddo, Dayne; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Searle, Linda; Allen, Aarin Conrad; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that has rapidly expanded its presence in the Western Hemisphere. We collected 214 invasive red lionfish samples from nine countries and territories, including seven unpublished locations. To more comprehensively evaluate connectivity, we compiled our d-loop sequence data with 846 published sequences, resulting in 1,060 samples from 14 locations. We found low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003) and moderate haplotype diversity (h = 0.59). Using haplotype population pairwise ΦST tests, we analyzed possible phylogeographic breaks that were previously proposed based on other reef organisms. We found support for the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos versus Caribbean break (ΦST = 0.12) but not for the Northwestern Caribbean, Eastern Caribbean, or US East Coast versus Bahamas breaks. The Northern Region had higher variation and more haplotypes, supporting introductions of at least five haplotypes to the region. Our wide-ranging samples showed that a lower-frequency haplotype in the Northern Region dominated the Southern Region and suggested multiple introductions, possibly to the south. We tested multiple scenarios of phylogeographic structure with analyses of molecular variance and found support for a Northern and Southern Region split at the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos versus Caribbean break (percentage of variation among regions = 8.49 %). We found that Puerto Rico clustered with the Southern Region more strongly than with the Northern Region, as opposed to previous reports. We also found the rare haplotype H03 for the first time in the southern Caribbean (Panama), indicating that either secondary releases occurred or that the low-frequency haplotypes have had time to disperse to extreme southern Caribbean locations.

  13. Hadley circulation strength and width in a wide range of simulated climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, R.; Adam, O.; Lionello, P.; Schneider, T.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how the Hadley circulation (HC) responds to global warming is crucial because it determines climatic features such as the seasonal migration of the ITCZ, the extent of subtropical arid regions and the strength of the monsoons. Here we analyse changes in the HC strength and width in the set of PMIP3 and CMIP5 simulations, spanning a wide range of climate conditions from Last Glacial Maximum to future RCP projections. The large climate change signal emerging from comparing paleoclimate simulations to future scenarios offers the possibility to analyse the corresponding HC change and to investigate its response to large variations of the factors controlling it. The results confirm that the HC generally expands and weakens as the global mean temperature increases, consistent with results from other studies. Furthermore, we find an asymmetric HC response between the northern and southern hemisphere in the rate at which the HC edges shift poleward with global warming. The mid-latitude static stability and meridional temperature gradients affect the HC edges to different degrees in the two hemispheres. In the southern hemisphere the increase in the mid-latitude static stability is associated with a poleward shift of the southern HC edge, while in the northern hemisphere, the reduction in the meridional temperature gradient plays the dominant role in the poleward shift of the northern HC edge. The two hemispheres also exhibit very different changes of HC strength. The HC weakening with global warming occurs primarily in the northern hemisphere, while there is no change, or even a slighter weakening in the southern hemisphere. The HC changes also have pronounced seasonal signatures. The maximum poleward shift of the northern HC edge occurs one month later (from August to September) in future global warming scenarios than when comparing pre-industrial simulations with the Last Glacial Maximum.

  14. Optimising Habitat-Based Models for Wide-Ranging Marine Predators: Scale Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, K. L.; Hazen, E. L.; Jacox, M.; Edwards, C. A.; Bograd, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting the responses of marine top predators to dynamic oceanographic conditions requires habitat-based models that sufficiently capture environmental preferences. Spatial resolution and temporal averaging of environmental data layers is a key aspect of model construction. The utility of surfaces contemporaneous to animal movement (e.g. daily, weekly), versus synoptic products (monthly, seasonal, climatological) is currently under debate, as is the optimal spatial resolution for predictive products. Using movement simulations with built-in environmental preferences (correlated random walks, multi-state hidden Markov-type models) together with modeled (Regional Oceanographic Modeling System, ROMS) and remotely-sensed (MODIS-Aqua) datasets, we explored the effects of degrading environmental surfaces (3km - 1 degree, daily - climatological) on model inference. We simulated the movements of a hypothetical wide-ranging marine predator through the California Current system over a three month period (May-June-July), based on metrics derived from previously published blue whale Balaenoptera musculus tracking studies. Results indicate that models using seasonal or climatological data fields can overfit true environmental preferences, in both presence-absence and behaviour-based model formulations. Moreover, the effects of a degradation in spatial resolution are more pronounced when using temporally averaged fields than when using daily, weekly or monthly datasets. In addition, we observed a notable divergence between the `best' models selected using common methods (e.g. AUC, AICc) and those that most accurately reproduced built-in environmental preferences. These findings have important implications for conservation and management of marine mammals, seabirds, sharks, sea turtles and large teleost fish, particularly in implementing dynamic ocean management initiatives and in forecasting responses to future climate-mediated ecosystem change.

  15. Accurate Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth over a Wide Range in Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L

    2016-06-30

    Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, <0.05) on time scales of <10 s for droplets containing involatile or volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of <±0.2% at water activities >0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1).

  16. Human T-cell leukemia viruses are highly unstable over a wide range of temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Masahiko; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Roy, Bibhuti Bhusan; Shimizu, Akira; Hoque, Sk Ariful; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2012-03-01

    The biological properties of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and HTLV type II (HTLV-II) are not well elucidated as cell-free viruses. We established new assay systems to detect the infectivity of cell-free HTLVs and examined the stability of cell-free HTLVs at different temperatures. HTLVs lost infectivity more rapidly than did bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is genetically related to HTLVs. The half-lives of three HTLV-I strains (two cosmopolitan strains and one Melanesian strain) at 37 °C were approximately 0.6 h, whereas the half-life of a BLV strain was 8.5 h. HTLV-I rapidly lost infectivity unexpectedly at 0 and 4 °C. We examined the stability of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes with HTLV-I, HTLV-II or BLV Env proteins, and the Env proteins of HTLVs were found to be more unstable at 4 and 25 °C than the Env proteins of the BLV. Over the course of the viral life cycle, heat treatment inhibited HTLV-I infection at the phase of attachment to the host cells, and inhibition was more marked upon entry into the cells. The HTLV-I Env surface (SU) protein (gp46) was easily released from virions during incubation at 37 °C. However, this release was inhibited by pre-treatment of the virions with N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting that the inter-subunit bond between gp46 SU and gp21 transmembrane (TM) proteins is rearranged by disulfide bond isomerization. HTLVs are highly unstable over a wide range of temperatures because the disulfide bonds between the SU and TM proteins are labile.

  17. Newly identified bacteriolytic enzymes that target a wide range of clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Krunal K; Paskaleva, Elena E; Wu, Xia; Grover, Navdeep; Mundra, Ruchir V; Chen, Kevin; Zhang, Yongrong; Yang, Zhiyong; Feng, Hanping; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kane, Ravi S

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile has emerged as a major cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients, with increasing mortality rate and annual healthcare costs exceeding $3 billion. Since C. difficile infections are associated with the use of antibiotics, there is an urgent need to develop treatments that can inactivate the bacterium selectively without affecting commensal microflora. Lytic enzymes from bacteria and bacteriophages show promise as highly selective and effective antimicrobial agents. These enzymes often have a modular structure, consisting of a catalytic domain and a binding domain. In the current work, using consensus catalytic domain and cell-wall binding domain sequences as probes, we analyzed in silico the genome of C. difficile, as well as phages infecting C. difficile. We identified two genes encoding cell lytic enzymes with possible activity against C. difficile. We cloned the genes in a suitable expression vector, expressed and purified the protein products, and tested enzyme activity in vitro. These newly identified enzymes were found to be active against C. difficile cells in a dose-dependent manner. We achieved a more than 4-log reduction in the number of viable bacteria within 5 h of application. Moreover, we found that the enzymes were active against a wide range of C. difficile clinical isolates. We also characterized the biocatalytic mechanism by identifying the specific bonds cleaved by these enzymes within the cell wall peptidoglycan. These results suggest a new approach to combating the growing healthcare problem associated with C. difficile infections. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2568-2576. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading Subtest “Holds” in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135

  19. Multicolor photoacoustic imaging by a single transducer with piezoelectric copolymer film in a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Miya; Tsujita, Kazuhiro; Bansaku, Isao; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    We built a photoacoustic tomographic (PAT) imaging system by scanning a single detector (φ 3.5 mm) made of piezoelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), which had been fabricated for diagnostic photoacoustic measurement of cartilage tissues in our group. The PAT images of a phantom were obtained at two excitation wavelength of 687.5 nm and 795 nm. The phantom was made of agar including a black hair and agarose gels dissolving indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB). Laser pulses (685-900 nm) were generated from a Ti:Sappire tunable laser to excite ICG and MB molecules. The PAT image at 687.5 nm shows signals due to all absorption sources. This is good agreement with dimension of the phantom. The PAT image at 795 nm shows a strong signal due to the ICG-dyed gel and almost no signal due to the MB-dyed gel. This result indicated that absorption sources were extracted by excitation wavelength according to their absorption spectra. The signal/noise ratio of the PAT images were compared between the P(VDF-TrFE) transducer in our group and a PZT transducer (Parametrics V309, 5 MHz, φ 12.7 mm) which is commercially available. The P(VDF-TrFE) transducer was more sensitive by 9 times (120 times per area) than the PZT transducer. By using this imaging system with a P(VDF-TrFE) transducer which is highly sensitive in a wide frequency range, we will achieve frequency analysis of the PAT images to associate photoacoustic waveforms with physical properties of sample tissues.

  20. Wide-range screening of psychoactive substances by FIA-HRMS: identification strategies.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Recreational drugs (illicit drugs, human and veterinary medicines, legal highs, etc.) often contain lacing agents and adulterants which are not related to the main active ingredient. Serious side effects and even the death of the consumer have been related to the consumption of mixtures of psychoactive substances and/or adulterants, so it is important to know the actual composition of recreational drugs. In this work, a method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is proposed for the fast identification of psychoactive substances in recreational drugs and legal highs. The FIA and HRMS working conditions were optimized in order to detect a wide range of psychoactive compounds. As most of the psychoactive substances are acid-base compounds, methanol-0.1 % aqueous formic acid (1:1 v/v) as a carrier solvent and electrospray in both positive ion mode and negative ion mode were used. Two data acquisition modes, full scan at high mass resolution (HRMS) and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry (ddMS/HRMS) with a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass analyzer were used, resulting in sufficient selectivity for identification of the components of the samples. A custom-made database containing over 450 substances, including psychoactive compounds and common adulterants, was built to perform a high-throughput target and suspect screening. Moreover, online accurate mass databases and mass fragmenter software were used to identify unknowns. Some examples, selected among the analyzed samples of recreational drugs and legal highs using the FIA-HRMS(ddMS/HRMS) method developed, are discussed to illustrate the screening strategy used in this study. The results showed that many of the analyzed samples were adulterated, and in some cases the sample composition did not match that of the supposed marketed substance.

  1. Assessing the umbrella value of a range-wide conservation network for jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Thornton, Daniel; Zeller, Kathy; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi; Crooks, Kevin; Burdeh, Christopher; Rabinowitz, Alan; Quigley, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel, large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and fragmentation indices of ~1500 co-occurring mammal species, we show that jaguar populations and corridors overlap a substantial amount and percentage of high-quality habitat for co-occurring mammals and that the jaguar network performs better than random networks in protecting high-quality, interior habitat. Significantly, the effectiveness of the jaguar network as an umbrella would not have been noticeable had we focused on species richness as our sole metric of umbrella utility. Substantial inter-order variability existed, indicating the need for complementary conservation strategies for certain groups of mammals. We offer several reasons for the positive result we document, including the large spatial scale of our analysis and our focus on multiple metrics of umbrella effectiveness. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a regional, single-species conservation strategy can serve as an effective umbrella for the larger community and should help conserve viable populations and connectivity for a suite of co-occurring mammals. Current and future range-wide planning exercises for other large predators may therefore have important umbrella benefits.

  2. Hadley circulation extent and strength in a wide range of simulated climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Roberta; Adam, Ori; Lionello, Piero; Schneider, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Hadley circulation (HC) dynamics is crucial because its changes affect the seasonal migration of the ITCZ, the extent of subtropical arid regions and the strength of the monsoons. Despite decades of study, the factors controlling its strength and extent have remained unclear. Here we analyse how HC strength and extent change over a wide range of climate conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to future projections. The large climate change between paleoclimate simulations and future scenarios offers the chance to analyse robust HC changes and their link to large-scale factors. The HC shrinks and strengthens in the coldest simulation relative to the warmest. A progressive poleward shift of its edges is evident as the climate warms (at a rate of 0.35°lat./K in each hemisphere). The HC extent and strength both depend on the isentropic slope, which in turn is related to the meridional temperature gradient, subtropical static stability and tropopause height. In multiple robust regression analysis using these as predictors, we find that the tropical tropopause height does not add relevant information to the model beyond surface temperature. Therefore, primarily the static stability and secondarily the meridional temperature contrast together account for the bulk of the almost the total HC variance. However, the regressions leave some of the northern HC edge and southern HC strength variance unexplained. The effectiveness of this analysis is limited by the correlation among the predictors and their relationship with mean temperature. In fact, for all simulations, the tropical temperature explains well the variations of HC except its southern hemisphere intensity. Hence, it can be used as the sole predictor to diagnose the HC response to greenhouse-induced global warming. How to account for the evolution of the southern HC strength remains unclear, because of the large inter-model spread in this quantity.

  3. Acceptance of embryonic stem cells by a wide developmental range of mouse tetraploid embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Jen; Amano, Tomokazu; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Yuqing Eugene; Tian, X Cindy

    2010-08-01

    Tetraploid (4N) complementation assay is regard as the most stringent characterization test for the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The technology can generate mice fully derived from the injected ES cell (ES-4N) with 4N placentas. However, it remains a very inefficient procedure owing to a lack of information on the optimal conditions for ES incorporation into the 4N embryos. In the present study, we injected ES cells from embryos of natural fertilization (fES) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (ntES) into 4N embryos at various stages of development to determine the optimal stage of ES cells integration by comparing the efficiency of full-term ES-4N mouse generation. Our results demonstrate that fES/ntES cells can be incorporated into 4N embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and blastocyst stages and full-term mice can be generated. Interestingly, ntES cells injected into the 4-cell group resulted in the lowest efficiency (5.6%) compared to the 2-cell (13.8%, P > 0.05) and blastocyst (16.7%, P < 0.05) stages. Because 4N embryos start to form compacted morulae at the 4-cell stage, we investigated whether the lower efficiency at this stage was due to early compaction by injecting ntES cells into artificially de-compacted embryos treated with calcium free medium. Although the treatment changed the embryonic morphology, it did not increase the efficiency of ES-4N mice generation. Immunochemistry of the cytoskeleton displayed microtubule and microfilament polarization at the late 4-cell stage in 4N embryos, which suggests that de-compaction treatment cannot reverse the polarization process. Taken together, we show here that a wide developmental range of 4N embryos can be used for 4N complementation and embryo polarization and compaction may restrict incorporation of ES cells into 4N embryos.

  4. Microextraction versus exhaustive extraction approaches for simultaneous analysis of compounds in wide range of polarity.

    PubMed

    Mirnaghi, Fatemeh S; Goryński, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-11-05

    This article discusses comparison of microextraction versus exhaustive extraction approaches for simultaneous extraction of compounds in wide range of polarity at low and high volumes of sample by comparing solid phase extraction (SPE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Here, both systems are discussed theoretically and evaluated based on experimental data. Experimental comparisons were conducted in terms of extraction recovery, sensitivity, and selectivity for the extraction of doping agent compounds (logP: 0.14-4.98), using C18 as the extraction phase. The extraction recovery of both systems was studied at different volumes of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The distribution constant of SPME in thin-film geometry (i.e., thin-film microextraction/TFME) as well as the retention factor and breakthrough volume for the SPE system were evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of polar and non-polar compounds. Using 1 mL of sample, the extraction recovery and sensitivity of the SPE system (100 mg sorbent) was comparable with that of TFME format of SPME (15 mg sorbent) for all analytes, with the exception of most polar compounds, due to the smaller amount of the extraction phase in SPME. Breakthrough in the SPE system was observed for more polar compounds in a 25 mL sample; however, this situation did not affect the quantitation of TFME, as this technique operates in equilibrium mode. Experimental values for breakthrough volume were in good match with the calculated theoretical values. Results indicate that the microextraction approach is more suitable for untargeted determinations, where the breakthrough volume cannot be determined prior to the experiment. In addition, when both methods are at optimum conditions, findings suggest that, despite the smaller volume of the extraction phase in TFME, the sensitivity of TFME can exceed that of SPE for samples where the target analytes vary substantially in polarity.

  5. Assessing the umbrella value of a range-wide conservation network for jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Thornton, Daniel; Zeller, Kathy; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi; Crooks, Kevin; Burdett, Christopher; Rabinowitz, Alan; Quigley, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel, large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and fragmentation indices of ~1500 co-occurring mammal species, we show that jaguar populations and corridors overlap a substantial amount and percentage of high-quality habitat for co-occurring mammals and that the jaguar network performs better than random networks in protecting high-quality, interior habitat. Significantly, the effectiveness of the jaguar network as an umbrella would not have been noticeable had we focused on species richness as our sole metric of umbrella utility. Substantial inter-order variability existed, indicating the need for complementary conservation strategies for certain groups of mammals. We offer several reasons for the positive result we document, including the large spatial scale of our analysis and our focus on multiple metrics of umbrella effectiveness. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a regional, single-species conservation strategy can serve as an effective umbrella for the larger community and should help conserve viable populations and connectivity for a suite of co-occurring mammals. Current and future range-wide planning exercises for other large predators may therefore have important umbrella benefits. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Optimising Habitat-Based Models for Wide-Ranging Marine Predators: Scale Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, K. L.; Hazen, E. L.; Jacox, M.; Edwards, C. A.; Bograd, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the responses of marine top predators to dynamic oceanographic conditions requires habitat-based models that sufficiently capture environmental preferences. Spatial resolution and temporal averaging of environmental data layers is a key aspect of model construction. The utility of surfaces contemporaneous to animal movement (e.g. daily, weekly), versus synoptic products (monthly, seasonal, climatological) is currently under debate, as is the optimal spatial resolution for predictive products. Using movement simulations with built-in environmental preferences (correlated random walks, multi-state hidden Markov-type models) together with modeled (Regional Oceanographic Modeling System, ROMS) and remotely-sensed (MODIS-Aqua) datasets, we explored the effects of degrading environmental surfaces (3km - 1 degree, daily - climatological) on model inference. We simulated the movements of a hypothetical wide-ranging marine predator through the California Current system over a three month period (May-June-July), based on metrics derived from previously published blue whale Balaenoptera musculus tracking studies. Results indicate that models using seasonal or climatological data fields can overfit true environmental preferences, in both presence-absence and behaviour-based model formulations. Moreover, the effects of a degradation in spatial resolution are more pronounced when using temporally averaged fields than when using daily, weekly or monthly datasets. In addition, we observed a notable divergence between the `best' models selected using common methods (e.g. AUC, AICc) and those that most accurately reproduced built-in environmental preferences. These findings have important implications for conservation and management of marine mammals, seabirds, sharks, sea turtles and large teleost fish, particularly in implementing dynamic ocean management initiatives and in forecasting responses to future climate-mediated ecosystem change.

  7. [A wide-ranging project to the best use of S. Niccolo Psychiatric Hospital].

    PubMed

    Vannozzi, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    The S. Niccolò Psychiatric Hospital was one of the most important health institutions not only for Siena but for the entire Tuscan district and beyond. It was known to serve all the catchment area for mentally ill patients coming from other cities. At a national level, it is also one of the most beautiful models of hospital architecture of the "village" type, the expression of a late nineteenth-century tendency to perceive mental disorders as illnesses that could be improved and cured through "moral treatment", with work and distraction as the principal therapeutic instruments. The closure of the psychiatric hospital in Siena provided for by the Italian psychiatric reform of 1978 actually took place over an extremely long period of time. It was definitively closed only on 30 September 1999 and was the last psychiatric hospital in Tuscany to cease its activity. Its history, the importance it had for the considerable number of committed patients, the extension of the area of the hospital over 183,574 m2 and its organization in 16 edifices, mean that S. Niccolò is now an architectonic complex of great value and interest but also subject to progressive deterioration. This reality, together with the urgency of salvaging the collections of books from its very rich library and its archives of administrative documents and medical records, has led the author to prepare a wide-ranging and extremely complex project that aims at the best use of S. Niccolò. Thanks to the collaboration of a group of experts from various Faculties of the University of Siena, and beginning with a multidisciplinary study of S. Niccolò's history, the project proceeds to the identification of concrete actions of cultural policy as well.

  8. pMUT+ASIC integrated platform for wide range ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillak, J.; Saeed, N.; Khazaaleh, S.; Viegas, J.; Yoo, J.

    2017-03-01

    We propose an integrated platform of Aluminum Nitrate (AlN) based Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (pMUT) phased array with Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for medical imaging and industrial diagnosis. The ASIC provides wide driving range for frequencies between 100 kHz and 5 MHz and channelscalable, programmable application adaptive transmitting beamformer. The system supports operation in various media, including gasses, liquids and biological tissue. The scan resolution for 5 MHz operation is 68 μm in air. The beamformer covers a test volume from -30° to +30° with a step of 3° and scan depth of 10 cm. The ASIC system features low noise receiver electronics, power saving transmission circuitry, and high-voltage drive of large capacitance transducer (up to 500 pF). Integrated pMUT phased array consists of 4 channels of single-membrane ultrasonic transducer of 400 nm deflection and 20 pF feed-thru capacitance, which produce 15 Pa pressure at 500 μm distance from the surface of the transducers. The active area of the ASIC is (700×1490) μm2, which includes channel scalable TX, 8-channale low noise RX, digital back end with autonomous beamformer and power management unit. The system is battery powered with 3.3V-5V standard supply, representing a truly portable solution for ultrasonic applications. Given the CMOS-compatible fabrication process for the AlN pMUTs, dense, miniaturized arrays are possible. Furthermore the smooth surface of dielectric AlN renders optical quality MEMS surfaces for integration in miniaturized photonic + ultrasound microsystems.

  9. Long-range correlation energy calculated from coupled atomic response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; DiStasio, Robert A.

    2014-05-14

    An accurate determination of the electron correlation energy is an essential prerequisite for describing the structure, stability, and function in a wide variety of systems. Therefore, the development of efficient approaches for the calculation of the correlation energy (and hence the dispersion energy as well) is essential and such methods can be coupled with many density-functional approximations, local methods for the electron correlation energy, and even interatomic force fields. In this work, we build upon the previously developed many-body dispersion (MBD) framework, which is intimately linked to the random-phase approximation for the correlation energy. We separate the correlation energy into short-range contributions that are modeled by semi-local functionals and long-range contributions that are calculated by mapping the complex all-electron problem onto a set of atomic response functions coupled in the dipole approximation. We propose an effective range-separation of the coupling between the atomic response functions that extends the already broad applicability of the MBD method to non-metallic materials with highly anisotropic responses, such as layered nanostructures. Application to a variety of high-quality benchmark datasets illustrates the accuracy and applicability of the improved MBD approach, which offers the prospect of first-principles modeling of large structurally complex systems with an accurate description of the long-range correlation energy.

  10. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  11. Heavy reliance on carbohydrate across a wide range of exercise intensities during voluntary arm ergometry in persons with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kevin A; Burns, Patricia; Kressler, Jochen; Nash, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    To describe and compare substrate oxidation and partitioning during voluntary arm ergometry in individuals with paraplegia and non-disabled individuals over a wide range of exercise intensities. Cross-sectional study. Clinical research facility. Ten apparently healthy, sedentary men with paraplegia and seven healthy, non-disabled subjects. Rest and continuous progressive voluntary arm ergometry between 30 and 80% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak). Total energy expenditure and whole body rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. A maximal whole body fat oxidation (WBFO) rate of 0.13 ± 0.07 g/minute was reached at 41 ± 9% VO2peak for subjects with paraplegia, although carbohydrate became the predominant fuel source during exercise exceeding an intensity of 30-40% VO2peak. Both the maximal WBFO rate (0.06 ± 0.04 g/minute) and the intensity at which it occurred (13 ± 3% VO2peak) were significantly lower for the non-disabled subjects than those with paraplegia. Sedentary individuals with paraplegia are more capable of oxidizing fat during voluntary arm ergometry than non-disabled individuals perhaps due to local adaptations of upper body skeletal muscle used for daily locomotion. However, carbohydrate is the predominant fuel source oxidized across a wide range of intensities during voluntary arm ergometry in those with paraplegia, while WBFO is limited and maximally achieved at low exercise intensities compared to that achieved by able-bodied individuals during leg ergometry. These findings may partially explain the diminished rates of fat loss imposed by acute bouts of physical activity in those with paraplegia.

  12. Heavy reliance on carbohydrate across a wide range of exercise intensities during voluntary arm ergometry in persons with paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Kevin A.; Burns, Patricia; Kressler, Jochen; Nash, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Context/objective To describe and compare substrate oxidation and partitioning during voluntary arm ergometry in individuals with paraplegia and non-disabled individuals over a wide range of exercise intensities. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Clinical research facility. Participants Ten apparently healthy, sedentary men with paraplegia and seven healthy, non-disabled subjects. Interventions Rest and continuous progressive voluntary arm ergometry between 30 and 80% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak). Outcome measures Total energy expenditure and whole body rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results A maximal whole body fat oxidation (WBFO) rate of 0.13 ± 0.07 g/minute was reached at 41 ± 9% VO2peak for subjects with paraplegia, although carbohydrate became the predominant fuel source during exercise exceeding an intensity of 30–40% VO2peak. Both the maximal WBFO rate (0.06 ± 0.04 g/minute) and the intensity at which it occurred (13 ± 3% VO2peak) were significantly lower for the non-disabled subjects than those with paraplegia. Conclusion Sedentary individuals with paraplegia are more capable of oxidizing fat during voluntary arm ergometry than non-disabled individuals perhaps due to local adaptations of upper body skeletal muscle used for daily locomotion. However, carbohydrate is the predominant fuel source oxidized across a wide range of intensities during voluntary arm ergometry in those with paraplegia, while WBFO is limited and maximally achieved at low exercise intensities compared to that achieved by able-bodied individuals during leg ergometry. These findings may partially explain the diminished rates of fat loss imposed by acute bouts of physical activity in those with paraplegia. PMID:23941790

  13. A simple and wide-range refractive index measuring approach by using a sub-micron grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Chun-Che; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the design and simulation results of a high-precision low-cost refractometer that demonstrates the main advantage of a wide measurement range (1 ≤ n ≤ 2). The proposed design is based on the diffractive properties of sub-micron gratings and Snell's Law. The precision and uncertainty factors of the proposed system were tested and analyzed, revealing that the proposed refractometer demonstrates a wide measurement range with sensitivity of 10-4.

  14. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  15. Characteristics of an OSLD in the diagnostic energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Senan, Rani M.; Hatab, Mustapha R.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry has been recently introduced in radiation therapy as a potential alternative to the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using OSL point dosimeters in the energy range used in diagnostic imaging. Methods: NanoDot OSL dosimeters (OSLDs) were used in this study, which started with testing the homogeneity of a new packet of nanoDots. Reproducibility and the effect of optical treatment (bleaching) were then examined, followed by an investigation of the effect of accumulated dose on the OSLD indicated doses. OSLD linearity, angular dependence, and energy dependence were also studied. Furthermore, comparison with LiF:Mg,Ti TLD chips using standard CT dose phantoms at 80 and 120 kVp settings was performed. Results: Batch homogeneity showed a coefficient of variation of <5%. Single-irradiation measurements with bleaching after each OSL readout was found to be associated with a 3.3% reproducibility (one standard deviation measured with a 8 mGy test dose), and no systematic change in OSLDs sensitivity could be noted from measurement to measurement. In contrast, the multiple-irradiation readout without bleaching in between measurements was found to be associated with an uncertainty (using a 6 mGy test dose) that systematically increased with accumulated dose, reaching 42% at 82 mGy. Good linearity was shown by nanoDots under general x-ray, CT, and mammography units with an R{sup 2} > 0.99. The angular dependence test showed a drop of approximately 70% in the OSLD response at 90 deg. in mammography (25 kVp). With the general radiography unit, the maximum drop was 40% at 80 kVp and 20% at 120 kVp, and it was only 10% with CT at both 80 and 120 kVp. The energy dependence study showed a range of ion chamber-to-OSLDs ratios between 0.81 and 1.56, at the energies investigated (29-62 keV). A paired t-test for comparing the OSLDs and TLDs showed no significant

  16. A universal prediction of stall onset for airfoils at a wide range of Reynolds number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Wallace J., II

    M > 250, these waves delay in the mean flow the onset of large separation to values of A s that increase with ReM, in contrast to MST predictions, and overlap the As RANS predictions. The RANS computed A s shows a continuing increase with ReM and good agreement for a wide range of Reynolds number with much available experimental data for the stall of airfoils. The simulations also exhibit the existence of stall hysteresis loops between As and a reattachment value of A, which is greater than MST stall prediction for a given ReM . The reduced-order model is also applied to predict the onset of leading-edge sheet cavitation on thin, smooth, hydrofoils. The approach determines the minimum pressure coefficient and a universal criterion for the critical cavitation number as function of hydrofoil's geometry, Reynolds number, and fluid thermodynamic properties. Predictions show agreement with results from available experimental data.

  17. A parameterization of momentum roughness length and displacement height for a wide range of canopy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoef, A.; McNaughton, K. G.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

    d-data across 16 selected canopies can be explained, whereas the analogous value for the z0-data (24 datapoints available) is 81%. This makes the R94 model, with only two coefficients and its relatively simple equations, a useful universal tool for predicting z0 and d values for all kinds of canopies. For comparison, a similar fitting exercise is made using simple linear equations based on obstacle height only (e.g. Brutsaert, 1982) and another formula involving canopy height as well as roughness density (Lettau, 1969). The fitted Brutsaert equations explain 98% and 62% of the variance in the d and z0-data, respectively. Lettau's equation for prediction of z0 performs unsatisfactorily (r2 values <0, even after fitting of the coefficient) and so it is concluded that the drag partition model is definitely the most effective for prediction of the momentum roughness lengths for a wide rang of canopy densities.

  18. Community-Wide Zero Energy Ready Home Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Herk, A.; Beggs, T.

    2016-02-05

    This report outlines the steps a developer can use when looking to create and implement higher performance standards such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) standards in a community. The report also describes the specific examples of how this process was followed by a developer, Forest City, in the Stapleton community in Denver, Colorado. IBACOS described the steps used to begin to bring the DOE ZERH standard to the Forest City Stapleton community based on 15 years of community-scale development work done by IBACOS. As a result of this prior IBACOS work, the team gained an understanding of the various components that a master developer needs to consider and created strategies for incorporating those components in the initial phases of development to achieve higher performance buildings in the community. An automated scoring system can be used to perform an internal audit that provides a detailed and consistent evaluation of how several homes under construction or builders' floor plans compare with the requirements of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program. This audit can be performed multiple times at specific milestones during construction to allow the builder to make changes as needed throughout construction for the project to meet Zero Energy Ready Home standards. This scoring system also can be used to analyze a builder's current construction practices and design.

  19. Wide energy electron precipitations and their impact on the middle atmosphere associated with the pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Turunen, E. S.; Kurita, S.; Kero, A.; Verronen, P. T.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G. D.; Santolik, O.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rodger, C. J.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2015-12-01

    The pulsating aurora is caused by intermittent precipitations of tens keV electrons. It is also expected that not only tens keV electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the polar ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave-particle interactions. We analyzed a pulsating aurora event in November 2012 using several ground-based observation data from EISCAT radar, riometer, sub-ionospheric radio wave receivers, and the Van Allen Probes satellite. The electron density profile obtained from EISCA Tromsø VHF radar identifies electron density enhancements at >68 km altitudes. The electron energy spectrum derived from the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method indicates the wide energy electron precipitations from 10 - 200 keV, suggesting precipitation of the population from the outer belt. The riometer and network of sub-ionospheric radio wave observations also show energetic electron precipitations coinciding with the electron density enhancements at 68 km altitude. During this period, footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Tromsø, and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower-band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Using the satellite-observed LBC and trapped electrons as an initial condition, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave-particle interactions. The simulation showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV. This result is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated with the MCMC method. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range from the plasma sheet to the outer belt simultaneously precipitate into the polar ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora. Using the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC) model that is a detailed coupled neutral and ion chemistry model of the upper atmosphere, we also discuss the possible impacts on the middle atmosphere due to precipitations of wide energy electrons.

  20. Multiple-input multiple-output synthetic aperture ladar system for wide-range swath with high azimuth resolution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Qin, Bao; Yan, Yun; Xing, Mengdao

    2016-02-20

    For the trade-off between the high azimuth resolution and the wide-range swath in the single-input single-output synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) system, the range swath of the SAL system is restricted to a narrow range, this paper proposes a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture ladar system. The MIMO system adopts a low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to avoid a range ambiguity for the wide-range swath and in azimuth adopts the multi-channel method to achieve azimuth high resolution from the unambiguous azimuth wide-spectrum signal, processed through adaptive digital beam-forming technology. Simulations and analytical results are presented.

  1. Effect of a single-channel wide dynamic range compression circuit on perception of stop consonant place of articulation.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, M S; Rice, T

    2000-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that altering the amplitude of a consonant in a specific frequency region relative to an adjacent vowel's amplitude in the same frequency region will affect listeners' perception of the consonant place of articulation. Hearing aids with single-channel, fast-acting wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) alter the overall consonant-vowel (CV) intensity ratio by increasing consonant energy. Perhaps one reason WDRC has had limited success in improving speech recognition performance is that the natural amplitude balances between consonant and vowel are altered in crucial frequency regions, thus disturbing the aforementioned amplitude cue for determining place of articulation. The current study investigated the effect of a WDRC circuit on listeners' perception of place of articulation when the relative amplitude of consonant and vowel was manipulated. The stimuli were a continuum of synthetic CV syllables stripped of all place cues except relative consonant amplitudes. Acoustic analysis of the CVs before and after hearing aid processing showed a predictable increase in high-frequency energy, particularly for the burst of the consonant. Alveolar bursts had more high-frequency energy than labial bursts. Twenty-five listeners with normal hearing and 5 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss labeled the consonant sound of the CV syllables in unaided form and after the syllables were recorded through a hearing aid with single-channel WDRC. There were significantly more listeners who were unable to produce a category boundary when labeling the aided stimuli. Of those listeners who did yield a category boundary for both aided and unaided stimuli, there were significantly more alveolar responses for the aided condition. These results can be explained by the acoustic analyses of the aided stimuli.

  2. Experimentally determined attenuation and modulus in Earth analogue materials over a wide range of frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, C.; Fujisawa, K.; Takei, Y.; Hiraga, T.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic observations, particularly in areas of active tectonics, show large variations and can be affected by many variables, including temperature, composition, grain size, volatile content and the presence of small quantities of melt or other fluids. The understanding and interpretation of seismic wave dispersion and attenuation data can be significantly enhanced through improved knowledge of material dynamic response at the grain scale (and smaller). The organic binary system borneol-diphenylamine is a suitable analogue of melting in the Earth’s mantle. Not only does the solid phase deform through the same deformation mechanisms (diffusion creep, dislocation creep) observed in geologic materials, but the moderate and controllable dihedral angle (40° at 316 K) exhibited by this system provides an equilibrium melt-geometry very similar to that of the olivine + basalt system [Takei, 2000]. With a eutectic melting temperature (TE = 316 K at ambient pressure) just above room temperature, borneol-diphenylamine provides an attractive chemical analogue to study the properties of solid-melt interaction, obviating the difficulties associated with high-temperature, high-pressure experimentation. We have initiated compression-compression cyclic loading experiments on single phase (borneol; TM = 477 K) and multiphase (borneol-diphenylamine) aggregates. Our newly developed apparatus is able to apply and measure very small stress and strain amplitudes with high accuracy using a piezoelectric actuator and optical displacement meters, respectively. The planned experimental conditions are P = 1 atm, T = 298 - 333 K, strain amplitude <10-5, f = 10-4 - 102 Hz, and melt fraction φ = 0 - 0.1. The combination of low (sub seismic) frequency data obtained from these forced oscillation experiments and high-frequency data (f = 102 - 106) from ultrasonic wave transmission measurements allows us to explore the dissipation and Young’s modulus over a frequency range of some ten decades

  3. Charge-transfer (CT) orbitals for the one-electron description of CT excitations in a wide range of donor-acceptor separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    A transformation of the virtual Kohn-Sham orbitals is proposed to a set of charge-transfer orbitals (CTOs) adapted to description of CT excitations. The CTO scheme offers a simple estimate of the CT excitation energy with an orbital energy difference. This estimate reproduces well the reference values of the configuration interaction (CI) method in a wide range of donor-acceptor separations in the paradigmatic He -Be complex. CTO-based orbital energy and shape indices are proposed to assess the suitability of the CT description with virtual orbitals of a given basis set. Both indices yield correct trends for the Kohn-Sham and Hartree-Fock orbitals.

  4. Opening and reversible control of a wide energy gap in uniform monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Cheolho; Shin, Ha-Chul; Song, Inkyung; Kim, Minkook; Park, Ji-Hoon; Nam, Jungho; Oh, Dong-Hwa; Woo, Sunhee; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Park, Chong-Yun; Ahn, Joung Real

    2013-10-08

    For graphene to be used in semiconductor applications, a 'wide energy gap' of at least 0.5 eV at the Dirac energy must be opened without the introduction of atomic defects. However, such a wide energy gap has not been realized in graphene, except in the cases of narrow, chemically terminated graphene nanostructures with inevitable edge defects. Here, we demonstrated that a wide energy gap of 0.74 eV, which is larger than that of germanium, could be opened in uniform monolayer graphene without the introduction of atomic defects into graphene. The wide energy gap was opened through the adsorption of self-assembled twisted sodium nanostrips. Furthermore, the energy gap was reversibly controllable through the alternate adsorption of sodium and oxygen. The opening of such a wide energy gap with minimal degradation of mobility could improve the applicability of graphene in semiconductor devices, which would result in a major advancement in graphene technology.

  5. Appleton Papers Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste (Paper machine at Appleton's West Carrollton paper mill)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Plant-wide energy survey at the Appleton Papers, Inc. West Carrollton paper mill resulted in 21 recommendations for projects to reduce energy consumption and waste production and improve process efficiency.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  7. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future. PMID:27653976

  8. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-09-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future.

  9. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-09-22

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future.

  10. Data resources for range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, T.J.; Veblen, K.E.; Farinha, M.A.; Aldridge, C.L.; Casazza, M.L.; Pyke, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this series were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report "Range-Wide Assessment of Livestock Grazing Across the Sagebrush Biome." This report can be accessed through the USGS Publications Warehouse (online linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1263/). The dataset contains spatial and tabular data related to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grazing Allotments. We reviewed the BLM national grazing allotment spatial dataset available from the GeoCommunicator National Integrated Land System (NILS) website in 2007 (http://www.geocommunicator.gov). We identified several limitations in those data and learned that some BLM State and/or field offices had updated their spatial data to rectify these limitations, but maintained the data outside of NILS. We contacted appropriate BLM offices (State or field, 25 in all) to obtain the most recent data, assessed the data, established a data development protocol, and compiled data into a topologically enforced dataset throughout the area of interest for this project (that is, the pre-settlement distribution of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Western United States). The final database includes three spatial datasets: Allotments (BLM Grazing Allotments), OUT_Polygons (nonallotment polygons used to ensure topology), and Duplicate_Polygon_Allotments. See Appendix 1 of the aforementioned report for complete methods. The tabular data presented here consists of information synthesized by the Land Health Standard (LHS) analysis (Appendix 2), and data obtained from the BLM Rangeland Administration System (http://www.blm.gov/ras/). In 2008, available LHS data for all allotments in all regions were compiled by BLM in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request made by a private organization. The BLM provided us with a copy of these data. These data provided three major types of information that were of interest: (1) date(s) (if any) of the most recent LHS evaluation for each

  11. Efficient Exciton Harvesting through Long-Range Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbin; Ohkita, Hideo; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2015-04-27

    Efficient exciton collection at charge-generation sites is one of the key requirements for the improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells, because only excitons arriving at a donor/acceptor interface can be dissociated into free charge carriers. We evaluated the effective diffusion length in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) by using donor/acceptor bilayers with two different exciton-quenching acceptors. One is an insoluble fullerene polymer (p-PCBVB), which is an efficient electron-accepting material with negligible absorption in the visible region. The other is a low-bandgap polymer, poly[(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl], (PSBTBT). This polymer has a large absorption band in the near-IR region, which overlaps well with the emission band of P3HT. The effective diffusion length of P3HT excitons is evaluated to be 15 nm for P3HT/p-PCBVB bilayers and improved to 30 nm for P3HT/PSBTBT bilayers. This improvement is ascribed to long-range energy transfer from P3HT to PSBTBT. This finding suggests that the effective diffusion length of P3HT excitons can be increased through long-range energy transfer by incorporating PSBTBT into P3HT/PCBM blends. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Energy Feedback at the City-Wide Scale A comparison to building scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Richard Allan

    Climate change is a growing concern throughout the world. In the United States, leadership has so far failed to establish targeted reductions and agreement on mitigation strategies. Despite this, many large cities are taking on the challenge of measuring their emissions, establishing targeted reductions, and defining strategies for mitigation in the form of Climate Action Plans. Reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by these cities is usually based on a one-time, annual calculation. Many studies have been conducted on the impact of providing energy use data or feedback to households, and in some cases, institutional or commercial businesses. In most of those studies, the act of providing feedback has resulted in a reduction of energy use, ranging from 2% to 15%, depending upon the features of the feedback. Many of these studies included only electric use. Studies where all energy use was reported are more accurate representations of GHG emissions. GHG emissions and energy use are not the same, depending on the fuel source and in the case of this paper, the focus is on reducing energy use. This research documents the characteristics of the feedback provided in those studies in order to determine which are most effective and should be considered for application to the community-wide scale. Eleven studies, including five primary and six secondary research papers, were reviewed and analyzed for the features of the feedback. Trends were established and evaluated with respect to their effectiveness and potential for use at the community-wide scale. This paper concludes that additional research is required to determine if the use of energy feedback at the city scale could result in savings similar to those observed at the household scale. This additional research could take advantage of the features assessed here in order to be more effective and to implement the features that are best able to scale up. Further research is needed to determine whether combining city-wide

  13. A wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with dual charge storage in a pixel and a multiple sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamic range expansion technique of CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple exposures. Each pixel contains two photodiodes, PD1 and PD2 whose sensitivity can be set independently by the accumulation time. The difference of charge accumulation time in both photodiode can be manipulated to expand the dynamic range of the sensor. It allows flexible control of the dynamic range since the accumulation time in PD2 is adjustable. The multiple exposure technique used in the sensor reduces the motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image when capturing fast-moving objects. It also reduces the signal-to-nose ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signals in the synthesized wide dynamic range image. A wide dynamic range camera with 320x240 pixels image sensor has been tested. It is found that the sampling of 4 times for the short accumulation time signals is sufficient for the reduction of motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image, and the signal-to-noise ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signal is improved by 6 dB using 4 short-time exposures.

  14. Wide Pressure Range Measurement due to the Exchange of Heater Driving of the Temperature Difference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Noriaki; Kimura, Mitsuteru

    We have extended measurable pressure range of the thin film Pirani vacuum sensor that is still sensitive above 1×105 Pa (1 atmosphere). In our thin film Pirani vacuum sensor, our proposed temperature difference sensor of the short circuit Seebeck-current detection type thermocouple is used in order to get extremely high sensitivity, especially both in very low pressure range and in higher pressure range than 1×104 Pa. In our new pressure sensor the cantilever type sensing region, in which a microheater and two thermocouples are formed to measure the temperature difference, is adopted. Therefore, we can use the null method to measure very small pressure accurately in the high vacuum range (low pressure range). On the other hand in the higher pressure than 1×104 Pa., we could expand the pressure range by adoption of the vibration of the sensing cantilever based on the sudden heating due to the exchange of heater driving. We have achieved much wider measurable pressure range over 8 digits by use of our new simple thin film Pirani vacuum sensor than that of the traditional one.

  15. Wide-Dynamic-Range Analog-to-Digital Conversion for HFDF.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP High-frequency direction finder (HFDF), lasers , fiber optics, switches, a. ,~esed~cea~ ad .Ab4 digitization, noise/jammer...dynamic-range digitization of wideband HFDF data, using a synchronously driven laser /fiber-optic system. Development activity reported is in the areas...dynamic- range digitization of wideband HFDF data, using a synchronously driven laser /fiber-optic system. The background of the concept and previous work

  16. Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Designed for a Wide Temperature Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    ion battery performance steeply declines as the operating temperature dips below -10° C . Additionally, battery characteristics rapidly deteriorate...at temperatures above 60° C . We report on the development of a new family of Li-ion battery electrolytes designed to operate over a wide temperature...formulations may now be discharged at rates as high as C /4 at -50° C . Further, such cells demonstrate long cycle life both at room temperature and at

  17. Kinetics of heterogeneous reaction of CaCO3 particles with gaseous HNO3 over a wide range of humidity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Gibson, E R; Cain, J P; Wang, H; Grassian, V H; Laskin, A

    2008-02-21

    Heterogeneous reaction kinetics of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles was investigated using a particle-on-substrate stagnation flow reactor (PS-SFR). This technique utilizes the exposure of substrate deposited, isolated, and narrowly dispersed particles to a gas mixture of HNO3/H2O/N2, followed by microanalysis of individual reacted particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (CCSEM/EDX). The first series of experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure, room temperature and constant relative humidity (40%) with a median dry particle diameter of Dp = 0.85 mum, particle loading densities 2 x 104 /= 0.06 (x3//2). In a second series of experiments, HNO3 uptake on CaCO3 particles of the same size was examined over a wide range of relative humidity, from 10 to 80%. The net reaction probability was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, from gammanet >/= 0.003 at RH = 10% to 0.21 at 80%.

  18. AKARI IRC 2.5-5 μm spectroscopy of infrared galaxies over a wide luminosity range

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki

    2014-10-20

    We present the result of a systematic infrared 2.5-5 μm spectroscopic study of 22 nearby infrared galaxies over a wide infrared luminosity range (10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) obtained from the AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC). The unique band of the AKARI IRC spectroscopy enables us to access both the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature from star-forming activity and the continuum of torus-dust emission heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Applying our AGN diagnostics to the AKARI spectra, we discover 14 buried AGNs. The large fraction of buried AGNs suggests that AGN activity behind the dust is almost ubiquitous in ultra-/luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). We also find that both the fraction and energy contribution of buried AGNs increase with infrared luminosity from 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}, including normal infrared galaxies with L {sub IR} < 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}. The energy contribution from AGNs in the total infrared luminosity is only ∼7% in LIRGs and ∼20% in ULIRGs, suggesting that the majority of the infrared luminosity originates from starburst activity. Using the PAH emission, we investigate the luminosity relation between star formation and AGNs. We find that these infrared galaxies exhibit higher star formation rates than optically selected Seyfert galaxies with the same AGN luminosities, implying that infrared galaxies could be an early evolutionary phase of AGN.

  19. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  20. Wide range stress intensity factor expressions for ASTM E 399 standard fracture toughness specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srawley, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    For each of the two types of specimens, bend and compact, described previously for plane strain fracture toughness of materials, E 399, a polynominal expression is given for calculation of the stress intensity factor, K, from the applied force, P, and the specimen dimensions. It is explicitly stated, however, that these expressions should not be used outside the range of relative crack length, a/W, from 0.45 to 0.55. While this range is sufficient for the purpose of E 399, the same specimen types are often used for other purposes over a much wider range of a/W; for example, in the study of fatigue crack growth. Expressions are presented which are at least as accurate as those in E 399-74, and which cover much wider ranges of a/W: for the three-point bend specimen from 0 to 1; and for the compact specimen from 0.2 to 1. The range has to be restricted for the compact specimen because of the proximity of the loading pin holes to the crackline, which causes the stress intensity factor to be sensitive to small variations in dimensions when a/W is small. This is a penalty inherently associated with the compactness of the specimen.

  1. High dynamic, high resolution and wide range single shot temporal pulse contrast measurement.

    PubMed

    Oksenhendler, Thomas; Bizouard, Pierre; Albert, Olivier; Bock, Stefan; Schramm, Ulrich

    2017-05-29

    A novel apparatus for the single-shot measurement of the temporal pulse contrast of modern ultra-short pulse lasers is presented, based on a simple yet conceptual refinement of the self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI) approach. The introduction of the spatial equivalent of a temporal delay by tilted beams analyzed with a high quality imaging spectrometer, enables unprecedented performance in dynamic, temporal range and resolution simultaneously. Demonstrated consistently in simulation and experiment at the front-end of the PW laser Draco, the full range of the ps temporal contrast defining the quality of relativistic laser-solid interaction could be measured with almost 80 dB dynamic range, 18ps temporal window, and 18fs temporal resolution. Additionally, spatio-temporal coupling as in the case of a pulse front tilt can be quantitatively explored.

  2. Implication of high dynamic range and wide color gamut content distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Taoran; Pu, Fangjun; Yin, Peng; Chen, Tao; Husak, Walt

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) and Wider Color Gamut (WCG) content represents a greater range of luminance levels and a more complete reproduction of colors found in real-world scenes. The current video distribution environments deliver Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) signal. Therefore, there might be some significant implication on today's end-to-end ecosystem from content creation to distribution and finally to consumption. For SDR content, the common practice is to apply compression on Y'CbCr 4:2:0 using gamma transfer function and non-constant luminance 4:2:0 chroma subsampling. For HDR and WCG content, it is desirable to examine if such signal format still works well for compression, and it is interesting to know if the overall system performance can be further improved by exploring different signal formats and processing workflows. In this paper, we will provide some of our insight into those problems.

  3. SCD's uncooled detectors and video engines for a wide-range of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bikov, L.; Giladi, A.; Shiloah, N.; Elkind, S.; Kogan, I.; Maayani, S.; Amsterdam, A.; Vaserman, I.; Duman, O.; Hirsh, Y.; Schapiro, F.; Tuito, A.; Ben-Ezra, M.

    2011-06-01

    Over the last decade SCD has established a state of the art VOx μ-Bolometer product line. Due to its overall advantages this technology is penetrating a large range of systems. In addition to a large variety of detectors, SCD has also recently introduced modular video engines with an open architecture. In this paper we will describe the versatile applications supported by the products based on 17μm pitch: Low SWaP short range systems, mid range systems based on VGA arrays and high-end systems that will utilize the XGA format. These latter systems have the potential to compete with cooled 2nd Gen scanning LWIR arrays, as will be demonstrated by TRM3 system level calculations.

  4. Fixed-gain CMOS differential amplifiers with no external feedback for a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, Vratislav; Klisnick, Geoffroy; Sou, Gérard; Redon, Michel; Kreisler, Alain J.; Dégardin, Annick F.

    2009-11-01

    We present original CMOS amplifiers designed for the DC to 10 MHz frequency range and operating in the 70-380 K temperature range. Aimed applications concern readout circuitry to be associated with THz bolometric pixels (either high- Tc superconducting or uncooled semiconducting), which require accuracy, low noise and low power consumption. Two designs are described that both exhibit high fixed-gain (40 dB) in a feedback-free architecture, which is based on a new low-transconductance composite transistor for an accurate control of this gain. Both amplifiers have been realized in a regular 0.35 μm CMOS process and tested in the 4.2-380 K temperature range, exhibiting good agreement between designed and measured characteristics.

  5. Return Customers: Foraging Site Fidelity and the Effect of Environmental Variability in Wide-Ranging Antarctic Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  6. Return customers: foraging site fidelity and the effect of environmental variability in wide-ranging antarctic fur seals.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  7. Wide-range, picoampere-sensitivity multichannel VLSI potentiostat for neurotransmitter sensing.

    PubMed

    Murari, Kartikeya; Thakor, Nitish; Stanacevic, Milutin; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Neurotransmitter sensing is critical in studying nervous pathways and neurological disorders. A 16-channel current-measuring VLSI potentiostat with multiple ranges from picoamperes to microamperes is presented for electrochemical detection of electroactive neurotransmitters like dopamine, nitric oxide etc. The analog-to-digital converter design employs a current-mode, first-order single-bit delta-sigma modulator architecture with a two-stage, digitally reconfigurable oversampling ratio for ranging the conversion scale. An integrated prototype is fabricated in CMOS technology, and experimentally characterized. Real-time multi-channel acquisition of dopamine concentration in vitro is performed with a microfabricated sensor array.

  8. A novel approach for assessing density and range-wide abundance of prairie dogs

    Treesearch

    Aaron N. Facka; Paulette L. Ford; Gary W. Roemer

    2008-01-01

    Habitat loss, introduced disease, and government-sponsored eradication programs have caused population declines in all 5 species of prairie dogs. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) currently occupy only about 2% of an extensive geographic range (160 million hectares) and were recently considered for listing under the United States...

  9. Low breeding propensity and wide-ranging movements by marbled murrelets in Washington

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Martin G. Raphael; Thomas D. Bloxton; Patrick G. Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a threatened seabird that forages in nearshore marine waters but nests inland, commonly in older coniferous forests. Information on ranging behavior and breeding propensity can be useful for informing management, especially when comparisons can be made between declining or threatened populations...

  10. Range-wide threats to a foundation tree species from disturbance interactions

    Treesearch

    Whalen W. Dillon; Ross K. Meentemeyer; John B. Vogler; Richard C. Cobb; Margaret R. Metz; David M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    The geographic range of tanoak, Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S. H. Oh (Fagaceae), encompasses tremendous physiographic variability, diverse plant communities, and complex disturbance regimes (e.g., development, timber harvest, and wildfire) that now also include serious threats posed by the invasive forest...

  11. Pulse-field electrophoresis indicates full-length Mycoplasma chromosomes range widely in size.

    PubMed Central

    Neimark, H C; Lange, C S

    1990-01-01

    Full-size linear chromosomes were prepared from mycoplasmas by using gamma-irradiation to introduce one (on average) double-strand break in their circular chromosomes. Chromosome sizes were estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) from the mobilities of these full-length molecules relative to DNA size references. Sizes estimated for Ureaplasma urealyticum T960 and 16 Mycoplasma species ranged from 684 kbp (M. hominis) to 1315 kbp (M. iowae). Using this sample, we found no correlation between the mobility of the full-size linear chromosomes and their G + C content. Sizes for A. laidlawii and A. hippikon were within the range expected from renaturation kinetics. PFGE size estimates are in good agreement with sizes determined by other methods, including electron microscopy, an ordered clone library, and summation of restriction fragments. Our estimates also agree with those from renaturation kinetics for both the largest and some of the smallest chromosomes, but in the intermediate size range, renaturation kinetics consistently provides lower values than PFGE or electron microscopy. Our PFGE estimates show that mycoplasma chromosomes span a continual range of sizes, with several intermediate values falling between the previously recognized large and small chromosome size clusters. Images PMID:2216718

  12. Wide field of view laser beacon system for three dimensional aircraft range measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. Y.

    1982-01-01

    A system that measures accurately the distance from an aircraft to a helicoper for rotor noise flight testing was developed. The system measures the range and angles between two aircraft using laser optics. This system can be applied in collision avoidance, robotics and other measurement critical tasks.

  13. A detector based on silica fibers for ion beam monitoring in a wide current range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Carzaniga, T. S.; Ereditato, A.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Scampoli, P.

    2016-03-01

    A detector based on doped silica and optical fibers was developed to monitor the profile of particle accelerator beams of intensity ranging from 1 pA to tens of μA. Scintillation light produced in a fiber moving across the beam is measured, giving information on its position, shape and intensity. The detector was tested with a continuous proton beam at the 18 MeV Bern medical cyclotron used for radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research. For currents from 1 pA to 20 μA, Ce3+ and Sb3+ doped silica fibers were used as sensors. Read-out systems based on photodiodes, photomultipliers and solid state photomultipliers were employed. Profiles down to the pA range were measured with this method for the first time. For currents ranging from 1 pA to 3 μA, the integral of the profile was found to be linear with respect to the beam current, which can be measured by this detector with an accuracy of ~1%. The profile was determined with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. For currents ranging from 5 μA to 20 μA, thermal effects affect light yield and transmission, causing distortions of the profile and limitations in monitoring capabilities. For currents higher than ~1 μA, non-doped optical fibers for both producing and transporting scintillation light were also successfully employed.

  14. An all-particle primary energy spectrum in the 3 200 PeV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garyaka, A. P.; Martirosov, R. M.; Ter-Antonyan, S. V.; Erlykin, A. D.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Jones, L. W.; Procureur, J.

    2008-11-01

    We present an all-particle primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum in the 3 × 106-2 × 108 GeV energy range obtained by a multi-parametric event-by-event evaluation of the primary energy. The results are obtained on the basis of an expanded EAS data set detected at mountain level (700 g cm-2) by the GAMMA experiment. The energy evaluation method has been developed using the EAS simulation with the SIBYLL interaction model taking into account the response of GAMMA detectors and reconstruction uncertainties of EAS parameters. Nearly unbiased (<5%) energy estimations regardless of a primary nuclear mass with an accuracy of about 15-10% in the 3 × 106-2 × 108 GeV energy range respectively are attained. An irregularity ('bump') in the spectrum is observed at primary energies of ~7.4 × 107 GeV. This bump exceeds a smooth power-law fit to the data by about 4 standard deviations. By not rejecting the stochastic nature of the bump completely, we examined the systematic uncertainties of our methods and conclude that they cannot be responsible for the observed feature.

  15. Polynomial approximations of thermodynamic properties of arbitrary gas mixtures over wide pressure and density ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, D. O.

    1972-01-01

    Computer programs for flow fields around planetary entry vehicles require real-gas equilibrium thermodynamic properties in a simple form which can be evaluated quickly. To fill this need, polynomial approximations were found for thermodynamic properties of air and model planetary atmospheres. A coefficient-averaging technique was used for curve fitting in lieu of the usual least-squares method. The polynomials consist of terms up to the ninth degree in each of two variables (essentially pressure and density) including all cross terms. Four of these polynomials can be joined to cover, for example, a range of about 1000 to 11000 K and 0.00001 to 1 atmosphere (1 atm = 1.0133 x 100,000 N/m sq) for a given thermodynamic property. Relative errors of less than 1 percent are found over most of the applicable range.

  16. Astable Oscillator Circuits using Silicon-on-Insulator Timer Chip for Wide Range Temperature Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Culley, Dennis; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Two astable oscillator circuits were constructed using a new silicon-on-insulator (SOI) 555 timer chip for potential use as a temperature sensor in harsh environments encompassing jet engine and space mission applications. The two circuits, which differed slightly in configuration, were evaluated between -190 and 200 C. The output of each circuit was made to produce a stream of rectangular pulses whose frequency was proportional to the sensed temperature. The preliminary results indicated that both circuits performed relatively well over the entire test temperature range. In addition, after the circuits were subjected to limited thermal cycling over the temperature range of -190 to 200 C, the performance of either circuit did not experience any significant change.

  17. Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Halin, Izhal Abdul; Hasan, Wan Zuha Wan

    2009-01-01

    The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region. PMID:22303133

  18. Precise control of coupling strength in photonic molecules over a wide range using nanoelectromechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guoqiang; Deng, Jie; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-01-01

    Photonic molecules have a range of promising applications including quantum information processing, where precise control of coupling strength is critical. Here, by laterally shifting the center-to-center offset of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, we demonstrate a method to precisely and dynamically control the coupling strength of photonic molecules through integrated nanoelectromechanical systems with a precision of a few GHz over a range of several THz without modifying the nature of their constituent resonators. Furthermore, the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from negative (strong coupling regime) to zero (weak coupling regime) and further to positive (strong coupling regime) and vice versa. Our work opens a door to the optimization of the coupling strength of photonic molecules in situ for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the development of efficient quantum information devices. PMID:27097883

  19. Moment method analysis of microstrip antennas over a wide frequency range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, B. W.; Newman, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    Expressions for the self and mutual impedance between microstrip antenna modes on a grounded dielectric slab are presented. The mutual impedance between the microstrip modes and a vertical current filament in the dielectric is also presented. These are the quantities required in a method of moments analysis of the microstrip antenna. Entire domain expansion modes, suitable for representing the microstrip current over a broad frequency range, are used. Efficient methods for the evaluation of the mutual impedance elements are described.

  20. Winding Schemes for Wide Constant Power Range of Double Stator Transverse Flux Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Tausif; Hassan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-05-01

    Different ring winding schemes for double sided transverse flux machines are investigated in this paper for wide speed operation. The windings under investigation are based on two inverters used in parallel. At higher power applications this arrangement improves the drive efficiency. The new winding structure through manipulation of the end connection splits individual sets into two and connects the partitioned turns from individual stator sets in series. This configuration offers the flexibility of torque profiling and a greater flux weakening region. At low speeds and low torque only one winding set is capable of providing the required torque thus providing greater fault tolerance. At higher speeds one set is dedicated to torque production and the other for flux control. The proposed method improves the machine efficiency and allows better flux weakening which is desirable for traction applications.

  1. Ductility of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Skripnyak, Nataliya V.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.

    Ductility of ultrafine grained (UFG) metal alloys with a distribution of grain size was investigated in wide loading conditions by numerical simulation. The multiscale models with a unimodal and a bimodal grain size distributions were developed using the data of structure research of hexagonal close packed and face center cubic UFG alloys. Macroscopic fracture is considered as a result of the formation of percolation clusters of damage at the mesoscopic level. The critical fracture strain of UFG alloys on the mesoscale level depends on the relative volumes of coarse grains. The nucleation of damages at quasi-static and dynamic loading is associated with strain localization in UFG partial volumes with bimodal grain size distribution. The concentration of damages arise in the vicinity of the boundaries of coarse and ultrafine grains. The occurrence of a bimodal grain size distributions causes the increase of UFG alloys' ductility, but decrease of their tensile strength. Linkoping University, Sweden.

  2. A Wirelessly Powered Smart Contact Lens with Reconfigurable Wide Range and Tunable Sensitivity Sensor Readout Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Liou, Wei-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai

    2017-01-01

    This study presented a wireless smart contact lens system that was composed of a reconfigurable capacitive sensor interface circuitry and wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID) addressable system for sensor control and data communication. In order to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort, a capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available bio-compatible lens material and a standard manufacturing process. The results indicated that the reconfigurable sensor interface achieved sensitivity and baseline tuning up to 120 pF while consuming only 110 μW power. The range and sensitivity tuning of the readout circuitry ensured a reliable operation with respect to sensor fabrication variations and independent calibration of the sensor baseline for individuals. The on-chip voltage scaling allowed the further extension of the detection range and prevented the implementation of large on-chip elements. The on-lens system enabled the detection of capacitive variation caused by pressure changes in the range of 2.25 to 30 mmHg and hydration level variation from a distance of 1 cm using incident power from an RFID reader at 26.5 dBm. PMID:28067859

  3. A Wirelessly Powered Smart Contact Lens with Reconfigurable Wide Range and Tunable Sensitivity Sensor Readout Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Liou, Wei-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai

    2017-01-07

    This study presented a wireless smart contact lens system that was composed of a reconfigurable capacitive sensor interface circuitry and wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID) addressable system for sensor control and data communication. In order to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort, a capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available bio-compatible lens material and a standard manufacturing process. The results indicated that the reconfigurable sensor interface achieved sensitivity and baseline tuning up to 120 pF while consuming only 110 μW power. The range and sensitivity tuning of the readout circuitry ensured a reliable operation with respect to sensor fabrication variations and independent calibration of the sensor baseline for individuals. The on-chip voltage scaling allowed the further extension of the detection range and prevented the implementation of large on-chip elements. The on-lens system enabled the detection of capacitive variation caused by pressure changes in the range of 2.25 to 30 mmHg and hydration level variation from a distance of 1 cm using incident power from an RFID reader at 26.5 dBm.

  4. Lithium fluoride detectors for recording gamma rays over a wide dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Erkin, V.G.; Persinen, A.A.

    1987-02-01

    The authors have combined thermoluminescent and spectrophotometric methods to measure doses in the range 1 x 10/sup -4/ to 6 x 10/sup 5/ Gy with DTG-4 detectors of diameter 5 mm and thickness 1 mm. We used a /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs source (doses 10/sup -4/-10 Gy), as well as an MRKh-..gamma..-20 apparatus (doses of 10/sup 2/-6 x 10/sup 5/ Gy). The gamma doses were monitored with a set of ionization chambers in the VA-J-18 apparatus as well as with ferrous sulfate dosemeters. The light sum was recorded over the range 20-200/sup 0/C with a Harshaw model 2000-D instrument and with a KDT-1. The optical absorption spectra were measured with an SF-26 spectrophotometer over the range 200-600 nm. The detectors were irradiated in batches of five for each dose in plastic cassettes providing obedience to the electron-equilibrium conditions.

  5. Distortion-triggered loss of long-range order in solids with bonding energy hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Kolobov, A V; Krbal, M; Fons, P; Tominaga, J; Uruga, T

    2011-04-01

    An amorphous-to-crystal transition in phase-change materials like Ge-Sb-Te is widely used for data storage. The basic principle is to take advantage of the property contrast between the crystalline and amorphous states to encode information; amorphization is believed to be caused by melting the materials with an intense laser or electrical pulse and subsequently quenching the melt. Here, we demonstrate that distortions in the crystalline phase may trigger a collapse of long-range order, generating the amorphous phase without going through the liquid state. We further show that the principal change in optical properties occurs during the distortion of the still crystalline structure, upsetting yet another commonly held belief that attributes the change in properties to the loss of long-range order. Furthermore, our results suggest a way to lower energy consumption by condensing phase change inducing energy into shorter pulses or through the use of coherent phonon excitation.

  6. Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Jeffrey D; Strange, James P; Stewart, Isaac J; Cameron, Sydney A

    2011-12-01

    The increasing evidence for population declines in bumble bee (Bombus) species worldwide has accelerated research efforts to explain losses in these important pollinators. In North America, a number of once widespread Bombus species have suffered serious reductions in range and abundance, although other species remain healthy. To examine whether declining and stable species exhibit different levels of genetic diversity or population fragmentation, we used microsatellite markers to genotype populations sampled across the geographic distributions of two declining (Bombus occidentalis and Bombus pensylvanicus) and four stable (Bombus bifarius; Bombus vosnesenskii; Bombus impatiens and Bombus bimaculatus) Bombus species. Populations of declining species generally have reduced levels of genetic diversity throughout their range compared to codistributed stable species. Genetic diversity can be affected by overall range size and degree of isolation of local populations, potentially confounding comparisons among species in some cases. We find no evidence for consistent differences in gene flow among stable and declining species, with all species exhibiting weak genetic differentiation over large distances (e.g. >1000 km). Populations on islands and at high elevations experience relatively strong genetic drift, suggesting that some conditions lead to genetic isolation in otherwise weakly differentiated species. B. occidentalis and B. bifarius exhibit stronger genetic differentiation than the other species, indicating greater phylogeographic structure consistent with their broader geographic distributions across topographically complex regions of western North America. Screening genetic diversity in North American Bombus should prove useful for identifying species that warrant monitoring, and developing management strategies that promote high levels of gene flow will be a key component in efforts to maintain healthy populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A new ecologically clean sensitive wide-range nondestructive sealing test method

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz`mina, V.T.

    1995-03-01

    A diffusional magnetic-discharge method can be used to check sealing from the leakage of helium from the workpiece, which is based on a diffusional magnetic discharge detector. This method replaces three monitoring methods as regards leak range: high-sensitivity mass spectrometry, manometric, and liquid. The uses of the method are numerous: from monitoring sealed bodies of small components such as microcircuits and other microelectronic components to the detection of leaks in major pipelines, other pipework, and cable sheaths. Characteristics are given for the equipment and instrument that implement the method.

  8. Michaelis-Menten speeds up tau-leaping under a wide range of conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng; Fu, Jin; Cao, Yang; Petzold, Linda

    2011-04-07

    This paper examines the benefits of Michaelis-Menten model reduction techniques in stochastic tau-leaping simulations. Results show that although the conditions for the validity of the reductions for tau-leaping remain the same as those for the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), the reductions result in a substantial speed-up for tau-leaping under a different range of conditions than they do for SSA. The reason of this discrepancy is that the time steps for SSA and for tau-leaping are determined by different properties of system dynamics.

  9. Ultra-sensitive wide dynamic range temperature sensor based on in-fiber Lyot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikbakht, Hamed; Poorghdiri Isfahani, Mohamad Hosein; Latifi, Hamid

    2017-04-01

    An in-fiber Lyot interferometer for temperature measurement is presented. The sensor utilizes high temperature-dependence of the birefringence in Panda polarization maintaining fibers to achieve high resolution in temperature measurements. Temperature variation modulates the phase difference between the polarization modes propagating in different modes of the Panda fiber. The Lyot interferometer produces a spectrum which varies with the phase difference. Therefore, by monitoring this spectrum a high resolution of 0.003°C was achieved. A fiber Bragg grating is added to the setup to expand its dynamic range. This sensor does not need complicated fabrication process and can be implemented in many applications.

  10. Michaelis–Menten speeds up tau-leaping under a wide range of conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng; Fu, Jin; Cao, Yang; Petzold, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the benefits of Michaelis–Menten model reduction techniques in stochastic tau-leaping simulations. Results show that although the conditions for the validity of the reductions for tau-leaping remain the same as those for the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), the reductions result in a substantial speed-up for tau-leaping under a different range of conditions than they do for SSA. The reason of this discrepancy is that the time steps for SSA and for tau-leaping are determined by different properties of system dynamics. PMID:21476748

  11. Wide spectral range confocal microscope based on endlessly single-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R; Ovchinnikov, Yu B; Hayes, J; Richardson, D J; Fu, Y J; Lin, S D; See, P; Sinclair, A G

    2010-08-30

    We report an endlessly single mode, fiber-optic confocal microscope, based on a large mode area photonic crystal fiber. The microscope confines a very broad spectral range of excitation and emission wavelengths to a single spatial mode in the fiber. Single-mode operation over an optical octave is feasible. At a magnification of 10 and λ = 900 nm, its resolution was measured to be 1.0 μm (lateral) and 2.5 μm (axial). The microscope's use is demonstrated by imaging single photons emitted by individual InAs quantum dots in a pillar microcavity.

  12. "Feathered" fractal surfaces to minimize secondary electron emission for a wide range of incident angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Charles; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2017-07-01

    Complex structures on a material surface can significantly reduce the total secondary electron emission from that surface. The reduction occurs due to the capture of low-energy, true secondary electrons emitted at one point of the structure and intersecting another. We performed Monte Carlo calculations to demonstrate that fractal surfaces can reduce net secondary electron emission produced by the surface as compared to the flat surface. Specifically, we describe one surface, a "feathered" surface, which reduces the secondary electron emission yield more effectively than other previously considered configurations. Specifically, feathers grown onto a surface suppress secondary electron emission from shallow angles of incidence more effectively than velvet. We find that, for the surface simulated, secondary electron emission yield remains below 20% of its un-suppressed value, even for shallow incident angles, where the velvet-only surface gives reduction factor of only 50%.

  13. Adaptive reshaper for high dynamic range and wide color gamut video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Taoran; Pu, Fangjun; Yin, Peng; Pytlarz, Jaclyn; Chen, Tao; Husak, Walt

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) and Wider Color Gamut (WCG) content represents a greater range of luminance levels and a more complete reproduction of colors found in real-world scenes. The characteristics of HDR/WCG content are very different from the SDR content. It poses a challenge to the compression system which is originally designed for SDR content. Recently in MPEG/VCEG, two directions have been taken to improve compression performances for HDR/WCG video using HEVC Main10 codec. The first direction is to improve HDR-10 using encoder optimization. The second direction is to modify the video signal in pre/post processing to better fit compression system. The process therefore is out of coding loop and does not involve changes to the HEVC specification. Among many proposals in the second direction, reshaper is identified to be the key component. In this paper, a novel luma reshaper is presented which re-allocates the codewords to help codec improve subjective quality. In addition, encoder optimization can be performed jointly with reshaping. Experiments are conducted with ICtCp color difference signal. Simulation results show that if both joint optimization of reshaper and encoder are carried out, there is evidence that improvement over the HDR-10 anchor can be achieved.

  14. Genomic compatibility occurs over a wide range of parental genetic similarity in an outcrossing plant

    PubMed Central

    Willi, Yvonne; Van Buskirk, Josh

    2005-01-01

    The theory of inbreeding and outbreeding suggests that there is a hump-shaped relationship between the genetic similarity of sexually reproducing parents and the performance of their offspring. Inbreeding depression occurs when genetic similarity is high, whereas hybrid breakdown is expected when genetic similarity is low. Between these extremes, the effect of genetic similarity on fitness is unclear. We studied the shape of this relationship by crossing 65 target genotypes of the clonal, self-incompatible Ranunculus reptans with partner genotypes spanning a broad scale of genetic similarity, ranging from crosses within populations to between-population crosses and hybridisation with a closely related species. Offspring were raised in outdoor tubs. Results revealed a quadratic relationship between parental genetic distance and offspring performance, with the clonal component of fitness more strongly hump-shaped than the sexual component. Optimal genetic similarity encompassed a broad range of within-population and between-population crosses. This pattern of genomic compatibility has important implications for the evolution of mating systems and mate choice. PMID:16006327

  15. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx combustors for supersonic high-altitude aircraft gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    An initial rig program tested the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) and Vortex Air Blast (VAB) systems in small can combustor configurations for NOx emissions at a simulated high altitude, supersonic cruise condition. The VAB combustor demonstrated the capability of meeting the NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at the cruise condition. In addition, the program served to demonstrate the limited low-emissions range available from the lean, premixed combustor. A follow-on effort was concerned with the problem of operating these lean, premixed combustors with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle conditions. Various techniques have been demonstrated that allow satisfactory operation on both the JIC and VAB combustors at idle with CO emissions below 20 g/kg fuel. The VAB combustor was limited by flashback/autoignition phenomena at the cruise conditions to a pressure of 8 atmospheres. The JIC combustor was operated up to the full design cruise pressure of 14 atmospheres without encountering an autoignition limitation although the NOx levels, in the 2-3 g NO2/kg fuel range, exceeded the program goal.

  16. Mesoscopic surface roughness of ice crystals pervasive across a wide range of ice crystal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, N. B.; Miller, A.; Amaral, M.; Cumiskey, A.

    2014-03-01

    Here we show high-magnification images of hexagonal ice crystals acquired by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). Most ice crystals were grown and sublimated in the water vapor environment of an FEI-Quanta-200 ESEM, but crystals grown in a laboratory diffusion chamber were also transferred intact and imaged via ESEM. All of these images display prominent mesoscopic topography including linear striations, ridges, islands, steps, peaks, pits, and crevasses; the roughness is not observed to be confined to prism facets. The observations represent the most highly magnified images of ice surfaces yet reported and expand the range of conditions where the rough surface features are known to be conspicuous. Microscale surface topography is seen to be ubiquitously present at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, at super-saturated and sub-saturated conditions, on all crystal facets, and irrespective of substrate. Despite the constant presence of surface roughness, the patterns of roughness are observed to be dramatically different between growing and sublimating crystals, and transferred crystals also display qualitatively different patterns of roughness. Crystals are also demonstrated to sometimes exhibit inhibited growth in moderately supersaturated conditions following exposure to near-equilibrium conditions, a phenomena interpreted as evidence of 2-D nucleation. New knowledge of the characteristics of these features could affect the fundamental understanding of ice surfaces and their physical parameterization in the context of satellite retrievals and cloud modeling. Links to Supplement videos of ice growth and sublimation are provided.

  17. Mesoscopic surface roughness of ice crystals pervasive across a wide range of ice crystal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, N. B.; Miller, A.; Amaral, M.; Cumiskey, A.

    2014-11-01

    Here we show high-magnification images of hexagonal ice crystals acquired by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Most ice crystals were grown and sublimated in the water vapor environment of an FEI-Quanta-200 ESEM, but crystals grown in a laboratory diffusion chamber were also transferred intact and imaged via ESEM. All of these images display prominent mesoscopic topography including linear striations, ridges, islands, steps, peaks, pits, and crevasses; the roughness is not observed to be confined to prism facets. The observations represent the most highly magnified images of ice surfaces yet reported and expand the range of conditions in which rough surface features are known to be conspicuous. Microscale surface topography is seen to be ubiquitously present at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, in supersaturated and subsaturated conditions, on all crystal facets, and irrespective of substrate. Despite the constant presence of surface roughness, the patterns of roughness are observed to be dramatically different between growing and sublimating crystals, and transferred crystals also display qualitatively different patterns of roughness. Crystals are also demonstrated to sometimes exhibit inhibited growth in moderately supersaturated conditions following exposure to near-equilibrium conditions, a phenomenon interpreted as evidence of 2-D nucleation. New knowledge about the characteristics of these features could affect the fundamental understanding of ice surfaces and their physical parameterization in the context of satellite retrievals and cloud modeling. Links to supplemental videos of ice growth and sublimation are provided.

  18. Study of Particle Motion in He II Counterflow Across a Wide Heat Flux Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastracci, Brian; Takada, Suguru; Guo, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Some discrepancy exists in the results of He II counterflow experiments obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV) when compared with those obtained using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV): using PIV, it was observed that tracer particles move at roughly half the expected normal fluid velocity, v_n/2 , while tracer particles observed using PTV moved at approximately v_n . A suggested explanation is that two different flow regimes were examined since the range of heat flux applied in each experiment was adjacent but non-overlapping. Another PTV experiment attempted to test this model, but the applied heat flux did not overlap with any PIV experiments. We report on the beginnings of a study of solid D_2 particle motion in counterflow using PTV, and the heat flux range overlaps that of all previous visualization studies. The observed particle velocity distribution transitions from a two-peak structure to a single peak as the heat flux is increased. Furthermore, the mean value of one peak in the bi-modal distributions grows at approximately the same rate as v_n , while the mean value of the single-peak distributions grows at roughly 0.4v_n , in reasonable agreement with both previous experiments and with the suggested model.

  19. Thermal and physical properties of sodium niobate ceramics over a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, V. S.; Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Pogorel'tsev, E. I.; Molokeev, M. S.; Raevskaya, S. I.; Suzdalev, D. V.; Raevskii, I. P.

    2013-04-01

    The temperature dependences of the heat capacity C p ( T) and thermal expansion coefficient α( T) of NaNbO3 ceramic samples have been investigated in the temperature range from 2 to 800 K. In addition to the anomalies associated with the known phase transitions at temperatures T 6 ≈ 265 K, T 5 ≈ 638 K, T 4 ≈ 760 K, and T 3 ≈ 793 K, anomalies in the behavior of C p ( T) and α( T) have been observed near T 5″ ≈ 500 K and T 5' ≈ 600 K. It has been found that all the observed structural transformations, according to the values of the entropy change, are not related to the ordering of structural elements. It has been shown that, with an increase in the temperature, the unit cell volume during the phase transitions near 265, 515, 604, and 638 K decreases. The specific features of the transition to the phase R3 c have been examined. Two possible scenarios of the sequence of phase transformations in the temperature range between T 5 and T 6 have been analyzed.

  20. A panoply of insertion devices at SOLEIL for a wide spectral range and flexible polarisation

    SciTech Connect

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Berteaud, P.; Briquez, F.; Chapuis, L.; Elajjouri, T.; Marteau, F.; Filhol, J. M.; Kitegi, C.; Marcouille, O.; Massal, M.; Valleau, M.; Veteran, J.; Chubar, O.

    2010-06-23

    The SOLEIL storage ring presents a very high fraction of its circumference dedicated to accommodate Insertion Devices (ID). Over the 25 presently planned insertion devices presenting a large variety of systems, 16 have been already installed and commissioned in September 2009. The UV-VUV region is covered with electromagnetic devices, offering tuneable polarisations. An electromagnet/permanent magnet undulator using copper sheets coils for fast switching of the helicity is under construction. 13 APPLE-II type undulators, with period ranging from 80 down to 36 mm, provide photons in the 0.1-10 keV region, some of them featuring tapering or quasi-periodicity. Five U20 in vacuum undulators cover typically the 3-30 keV range whereas an in vacuum wiggler, with compensation of the magnetic forces via adequate springs will cover the 10-50 keV spectral domain. R and D on cryogenic in-vacuum undulator is also under progress. A magnetic chicane using permanent magnet dipoles has also been designed in order to accommodate two canted undulators on the same straight section. A wiggler dedicated to slicing (production of femto second long pulses) is also being designed, its radiation will also serve for an X-ray beamline.

  1. Ultra-wide detectable concentration range of GMR biosensors using Fe3O4 microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Qiang; Zong, Weihua; Zhang, Yongcheng; Li, Shandong

    2016-11-01

    Exchange-biased GMR sensors were employed for biodetection using a DC in-plane measuring method and a magnetic label of Fe3O4 microspheres. It was revealed that an ultra-wide concentration span covering five orders from 10 ng/mL to 1000 μg/mL was achieved in a home-made biodetection device. The concentration x dependence of output voltage difference |ΔV| between with and without magnetic labels, exhibits nonlinear futures, which undergoes two functions depending on the concentration region. For the low concentration region from 10 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL, a logarithmic relation of |ΔV|=26.3lgx+91.4 fits well, while for the high concentration region, a negative exponential function of |ΔV|=3113(1-e-x/250) describes the |ΔV|~x relation better. For the former, the "coffee ring" effect, formed during the solvent evaporation, was considered as the main reason for the nonlinear relation. While for the latter with high concentration, the overlap among the particles and the enhanced interaction of the magnetic dipole were responsible for the nonlinear |ΔV|~x relationship. Moreover, the calculated detectable concentration limit is agreed well with the experimental data.

  2. Single & Multiprobe Apertureless Thermal Imaging of Electromagnetic Excitation Over A Wide Range of Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekhter, Rimma; Lewis, Aaron; Kokotov, Sophia; Hamra, Patricia; Fleischman, Boaz; Taha, Hesham

    2013-03-01

    Near-field optical effects have generally been detected using photodetectors. There are no reports on the use of the temperature changes caused by electromagnetic radiation using thermal sensing probes for scanned probe microscopy. In this paper we apply our development of such probes to monitor the effects of electromagnetic radiation at a number of different wavelengths using the heating caused in a sample by specific wavelengths and their propagation. The paper will catalogue effects over a wide spectrum of wavelengths from the near to mid infrared. The thermal sensing probes are based on glass nanopipettes that have metal wires that make a contact at the very tip of a tapered glass structure. These probes are cantilevered and use normal force tuning fork methodology to bring them either into contact or near-contact since this feedback method has no jump to contact instability associated with it. Data will be shown that defines the resolution of such thermal sensing to at least the 32 nm level. In addition the probes have the important attribute of having a highly exposed tip that allows for either optical sensing methodologies with a lens either from directly above or below or heat sensing with a single or additional probe in a multiprobe scanning probe system.

  3. Reversible, Fast, and Wide-Range Oxygen Sensor Based on Nanostructured Organometal Halide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine; Gobbi, Marco; Bonacchi, Sara; Liscio, Fabiola; Ferlauto, Laura; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Nanostructured materials characterized by high surface-volume ratio hold the promise to constitute the active materials for next-generation sensors. Solution-processed hybrid organohalide perovskites, which have been extensively used in the last few years for optoelectronic applications, are characterized by a self-assembled nanostructured morphology, which makes them an ideal candidate for gas sensing. Hitherto, detailed studies of the dependence of their electrical characteristics on the environmental atmosphere have not been performed, and even the effect of a ubiquitous gas such as O2 has been widely overlooked. Here, the electrical response of organohalide perovskites to oxygen is studied. Surprisingly, a colossal increase (3000-fold) in the resistance of perovskite-based lateral devices is found when measured in a full oxygen atmosphere, which is ascribed to a trap healing mechanism originating from an O2 -mediated iodine vacancies filling. A variation as small as 70 ppm in the oxygen concentration can be detected. The effect is fast (<400 ms) and fully reversible, making organohalide perovskites ideal active materials for oxygen sensing. The effect of oxygen on the electrical characteristics of organohalide perovskites must be taken into deep consideration for the design and optimization of any other perovskite-based (opto-) electronic device working in ambient conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Correlation of the Quick Word Test and Wide Range Vocabulary Test with the Shipley-Institute of Living Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The Shipley-Institute of Living Scale (SILS) was used as a criterion to evaluate the Quick Word Test (QWT) and the Wide Range Vocabulary Test Form B (WRVT-B). Testing 50 college students, the correlations were .68 with QWT, .73 with WRVT-B, and .81 between those two tests. (CTM)

  5. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  6. A Graphene-Based Resistive Pressure Sensor with Record-High Sensitivity in a Wide Pressure Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, He; Shu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Bie, Zhi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Li, Cheng; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Pressure sensors are a key component in electronic skin (e-skin) sensing systems. Most reported resistive pressure sensors have a high sensitivity at low pressures (<5 kPa) to enable ultra-sensitive detection. However, the sensitivity drops significantly at high pressures (>5 kPa), which is inadequate for practical applications. For example, actions like a gentle touch and object manipulation have pressures below 10 kPa, and 10-100 kPa, respectively. Maintaining a high sensitivity in a wide pressure range is in great demand. Here, a flexible, wide range and ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor with a foam-like structure based on laser-scribed graphene (LSG) is demonstrated. Benefitting from the large spacing between graphene layers and the unique v-shaped microstructure of the LSG, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is as high as 0.96 kPa-1 in a wide pressure range (0 ~ 50 kPa). Considering both sensitivity and pressure sensing range, the pressure sensor developed in this work is the best among all reported pressure sensors to date. A model of the LSG pressure sensor is also established, which agrees well with the experimental results. This work indicates that laser scribed flexible graphene pressure sensors could be widely used for artificial e-skin, medical-sensing, bio-sensing and many other areas.

  7. A Graphene-Based Resistive Pressure Sensor with Record-High Sensitivity in a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Shu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Bie, Zhi; Xie, Qian-Yi; Li, Cheng; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Pressure sensors are a key component in electronic skin (e-skin) sensing systems. Most reported resistive pressure sensors have a high sensitivity at low pressures (<5 kPa) to enable ultra-sensitive detection. However, the sensitivity drops significantly at high pressures (>5 kPa), which is inadequate for practical applications. For example, actions like a gentle touch and object manipulation have pressures below 10 kPa, and 10–100 kPa, respectively. Maintaining a high sensitivity in a wide pressure range is in great demand. Here, a flexible, wide range and ultra-sensitive resistive pressure sensor with a foam-like structure based on laser-scribed graphene (LSG) is demonstrated. Benefitting from the large spacing between graphene layers and the unique v-shaped microstructure of the LSG, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is as high as 0.96 kPa−1 in a wide pressure range (0 ~ 50 kPa). Considering both sensitivity and pressure sensing range, the pressure sensor developed in this work is the best among all reported pressure sensors to date. A model of the LSG pressure sensor is also established, which agrees well with the experimental results. This work indicates that laser scribed flexible graphene pressure sensors could be widely used for artificial e-skin, medical-sensing, bio-sensing and many other areas. PMID:25721159

  8. Study of the Spectral Properties of Nanocomposites with CdSe Quantum Dots in a Wide Range of Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaryan, K. A.; Eremchev, I. Y.; Karimullin, K. R.; Knyazev, M. V.; Mikhailov, M. A.; Vasilieva, I. A.; Klimusheva, G. V.

    2015-09-01

    Luminescence spectra of the colloidal solution of CdSe quantum dots (in toluene) were studied in a wide range of low temperatures. Samples were synthesized in the liquid crystal matrix of cadmium octanoate (CdC8). A comparative analysis of the obtained data with previous results was performed.

  9. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  10. Compelling Self-Authored Computer Material for Wide-Ranging English as a Second Language (ESL) Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uram, Andrea

    An application of the self-authoring component of commercial software programs is described that can be used effectively in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms whose students have a wide range of literacy skills. The programs described, DOUBLE UP and RHUBARB, are in the form of a puzzle that helps students to practice reconstructing…

  11. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  12. Logistic regression accuracy across different spatial and temporal scales for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet

    Treesearch

    Carolyn B. Meyer; Sherri L. Miller; C. John Ralph

    2004-01-01

    The scale at which habitat variables are measured affects the accuracy of resource selection functions in predicting animal use of sites. We used logistic regression models for a wide-ranging species, the marbled murrelet, (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in a large region in California to address how much changing the spatial or temporal scale of...

  13. Compelling Self-Authored Computer Material for Wide-Ranging English as a Second Language (ESL) Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uram, Andrea

    An application of the self-authoring component of commercial software programs is described that can be used effectively in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms whose students have a wide range of literacy skills. The programs described, DOUBLE UP and RHUBARB, are in the form of a puzzle that helps students to practice reconstructing…

  14. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  15. A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Advanced High-Strength Steels Over a Wide Range of Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingdong, Zhang; Qiang, Cao; Xiaofeng, Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is widely used in automotive industry. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviors of AHSS over a wide range of temperatures, quasi-static tensile experiments were conducted at the temperatures from 298 to 1073 K on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine. The results show that flow behaviors are affected by testing temperature significantly. In order to describe the flow features of AHSS, the Johnson-Cook (JC) model is employed. By introducing polynomial functions to consider the effects of temperature on hardening behavior, the JC model is modified and used to predict flow behavior of AHSS at different experimental conditions. The accuracy of the modified JC model is verified and the predicted flow stress is in good agreement with experimental results, which confirms that the modified JC model can give an accurate and precise estimate over a wide range of temperatures.

  16. A three-dimensional He-CO potential energy surface with improved long-range behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBane, George C.

    2016-12-01

    A weakness of the "CBS + corr" He-CO potential energy surface (Peterson and McBane, 2005) has been rectified by constraining the potential to adopt accurate long-range behavior for He-CO distances well beyond 15a0 . The resulting surface is very similar to the original in the main part of the interaction. Comparison with accurately known bound-state energies indicates that the surface is slightly improved in the region sampled by the highest lying bound states. The positions of shape and Feshbach resonances within a few cm-1 of the j = 1 excitation threshold are essentially unchanged. The low-energy scattering lengths changed noticeably. The revised surface generates a small negative limiting scattering length for collisions with 4He, while the original surface gave a small positive one. Both surfaces yield scattering lengths quite different from the widely used surface of Heijmen et al. (1997) for both He isotopes.

  17. Akzo Nobel Morris Plant Implements a Site-Wide Energy Efficiency Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-01

    Akzo Nobel's Surface Chemistry plant in Morris, Illinois, implemented an energy efficiency plan, which included a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment. The assessment revealed opportunities to save an estimated $1.2 million per year in operating and energy costs, reduce environmental impacts, and improve production capacity.

  18. Format transparent, wide range and independent dispersion monitoring method based on four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Sheng; He, Sheng; Sun, Simin; Ke, Changjian; Liu, Deming

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we propose an improved all optical chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring method based on highly nonlinear power transfer function (PTF) provided by four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs). This method can be applied for various modulation formats, including on-off keying and advanced multi-level modulation formats, without necessitating any changes of the hardware or software. Furthermore, it can expand the CD monitoring range beyond the limitation of Talbot effects and is insensitive to optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). These improvements are achieved by optimizing the profile of the PTF curve and utilizing a sweeping tunable dispersion compensator (TDC) in combination with an extremely simple digital signal processing (DSP) to find the zero residual dispersion point. Numerical simulations are then used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  19. VLSI Potentiostat Array With Oversampling Gain Modulation for Wide-Range Neurotransmitter Sensing.

    PubMed

    Stanacevic, M; Murari, K; Rege, A; Cauwenberghs, G; Thakor, N V

    2007-03-01

    A 16-channel current-measuring very large-scale integration (VLSI) sensor array system for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of electroactive neurotransmiters like dopamine and nitric-oxide is presented. Each channel embeds a current integrating potentiostat within a switched-capacitor first-order single-bit delta-sigma modulator implementing an incremental analog-to-digital converter. The duty-cycle modulation of current feedback in the delta-sigma loop together with variable oversampling ratio provide a programmable digital range selection of the input current spanning over six orders of magnitude from picoamperes to microamperes. The array offers 100-fA input current sensitivity at 3.4-muW power consumption per channel. The operation of the 3 mm times3 mm chip fabricated in 0.5-mum CMOS technology is demonstrated with real-time multichannel acquisition of neurotransmitter concentration.

  20. Flexible, highly sensitive pressure sensor with a wide range based on graphene-silk network structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a flexible, simple-preparation, and low-cost graphene-silk pressure sensor based on soft silk substrate through thermal reduction was demonstrated. Taking silk as the support body, the device had formed a three-dimensional structure with ordered multi-layer structure. Through a simple and low-cost process technology, graphene-silk pressure sensor can achieve the sensitivity value of 0.4 kPa - 1 , and the measurement range can be as high as 140 kPa. Besides, pressure sensor can have a good combination with knitted clothing and textile product. The signal had good reproducibility in response to different pressures. Furthermore, graphene-silk pressure sensor can not only detect pressure higher than 100 kPa, but also can measure weak body signals. The characteristics of high-sensitivity, good repeatability, flexibility, and comfort for skin provide the high possibility to fit on various wearable electronics.

  1. Wide range operation of advanced low NOx aircraft gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Fiorito, R. J.; Butze, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experimental test rig program designed to define and demonstrates techniques which would allow the jet-induced circulation and vortex air blast combustors to operate stably with acceptable emissions at simulated engine idle without compromise to the low NOx emissions under the high-altitude supersonic cruise condition. The discussion focuses on the test results of the key combustor modifications for both the simulated engine idle and cruise conditions. Several range-augmentation techniques are demonstrated that allow the lean-reaction premixed aircraft gas turbine combustor to operate with low NOx emissons at engine cruise and acceptable CO and UHC levels at engine idle. These techniques involve several combinations, including variable geometry and fuel switching designs.

  2. A projection of lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations range-wide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, Jonathan W.; Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, Clay T.; Allan, Nathan L.; O'Meilia, Chris M.

    2017-08-09

    We built a population viability analysis (PVA) model to predict future population status of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, LEPC) in four ecoregions across the species’ range. The model results will be used in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Species Status Assessment (SSA) for the LEPC. Our stochastic projection model combined demographic rate estimates from previously published literature with demographic rate estimates that integrate the influence of climate conditions. This LEPC PVA projects declining populations with estimated population growth rates well below 1 in each ecoregion regardless of habitat or climate change. These results are consistent with estimates of LEPC population growth rates derived from other demographic process models. Although the absolute magnitude of the decline is unlikely to be as low as modeling tools indicate, several different lines of evidence suggest LEPC populations are declining.

  3. Comprehensive polarimetric analysis of Spectralon white reflectance standard in a wide visible range.

    PubMed

    Sanz, J M; Extremiana, C; Saiz, J M

    2013-08-20

    Since polarimetry has extended its use for the study of scattering from surfaces and tissues, Spectralon, a white reflectance standard, is acquiring the role of a polarimetric standard. Both the behavior of Spectralon as a Lambertian surface and its performance as a perfect depolarizer are analyzed in detail. The accuracy of our dynamic polarimeter, together with the polar decomposition to describe the Mueller matrix (MM) depolarizing action, combine to produce a powerful tool for the proper analysis of this scattering surface. Results allowed us to revisit, for confirmation or revision, the role of some MM elements, as described in the bibliography. The conditions under which it can be considered a good Lambertian surface are specified in terms of incidence and scattering angle and verified over a large wavelength range.

  4. Range-wide mtDNA phylogeography yields insights into the origins of Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Vidya, T N C; Sukumar, Raman; Melnick, Don J

    2009-03-07

    Recent phylogeographic studies of the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) reveal two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, an elucidation of which is central to understanding the species's evolution. Previous explanations for the divergent clades include introgression of mtDNA haplotypes between ancestral species, allopatric divergence of the clades between Sri Lanka or the Sunda region and the mainland, historical trade of elephants, and retention of divergent lineages due to large population sizes. However, these studies lacked data from India and Myanmar, which host approximately 70 per cent of all extant Asian elephants. In this paper, we analyse mtDNA sequence data from 534 Asian elephants across the species's range to explain the current distribution of the two divergent clades. Based on phylogenetic reconstructions, estimates of times of origin of clades, probable ancestral areas of origin inferred from dispersal-vicariance analyses and the available fossil record, we believe both clades originated from Elephas hysudricus. This probably occurred allopatrically in different glacial refugia, the alpha clade in the Myanmar region and the beta clade possibly in southern India-Sri Lanka, 1.6-2.1Myr ago. Results from nested clade and dispersal-vicariance analyses indicate a subsequent isolation and independent diversification of the beta clade in both Sri Lanka and the Sunda region, followed by northward expansion of the clade. We also find more recent population expansions in both clades based on mismatch distributions. We therefore suggest a contraction-expansion scenario during severe climatic oscillations of the Quaternary, with range expansions from different refugia during warmer interglacials leading to the varying geographical overlaps of the two mtDNA clades. We also demonstrate that trade in Asian elephants has not substantially altered the species's mtDNA population genetic structure.

  5. Range-wide mtDNA phylogeography yields insights into the origins of Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vidya, T.N.C.; Sukumar, Raman; Melnick, Don J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies of the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) reveal two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, an elucidation of which is central to understanding the species's evolution. Previous explanations for the divergent clades include introgression of mtDNA haplotypes between ancestral species, allopatric divergence of the clades between Sri Lanka or the Sunda region and the mainland, historical trade of elephants, and retention of divergent lineages due to large population sizes. However, these studies lacked data from India and Myanmar, which host approximately 70 per cent of all extant Asian elephants. In this paper, we analyse mtDNA sequence data from 534 Asian elephants across the species's range to explain the current distribution of the two divergent clades. Based on phylogenetic reconstructions, estimates of times of origin of clades, probable ancestral areas of origin inferred from dispersal–vicariance analyses and the available fossil record, we believe both clades originated from Elephas hysudricus. This probably occurred allopatrically in different glacial refugia, the α clade in the Myanmar region and the β clade possibly in southern India–Sri Lanka, 1.6–2.1 Myr ago. Results from nested clade and dispersal–vicariance analyses indicate a subsequent isolation and independent diversification of the β clade in both Sri Lanka and the Sunda region, followed by northward expansion of the clade. We also find more recent population expansions in both clades based on mismatch distributions. We therefore suggest a contraction–expansion scenario during severe climatic oscillations of the Quaternary, with range expansions from different refugia during warmer interglacials leading to the varying geographical overlaps of the two mtDNA clades. We also demonstrate that trade in Asian elephants has not substantially altered the species's mtDNA population genetic structure. PMID:19019786

  6. Mapping the water balance over a wide range of European catchments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannemans, B.; Laguardia, G.

    2009-04-01

    Getting the water balance correct is one of the major problems of hydrological modeling: inputs (precipitation) and outputs (evaporation and runoff) should be in reasonable balance before calibration can even start. Often errors on the water balance can have a bigger influence on results than model calibration. Lisflood is a distributed hydrological model used in the European Flood Alert System and in the European Droughts Observatory of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC). It comprises a module for calculating PET; moreover, a major effort in preparing the static input for the model, such as land use, vegetation, Leaf Area Index, river networks maps, has been carried out in the last years. The challenge to use the same model over a wide region, covering the entire Europe makes it a good tool to explore the impact of different hydrological settings (Van der Knijff et al, 2008). As part of a new calibration exercise, we reran the model over Europe with standard calibration parameters for the period 1990-2007. The meteorological input was retrieved from the MARS database at JRC (about 6000 stations). We compared mean annual simulated discharge with observed discharge for over 400 catchments. Preliminary results show that the water balance is offset in most regions. In lowlands there is an excess in simulated runoff production, probably attributable to underestimated drainage to deeper groundwater and to underestimation of actual evapotranspiration. In most mountainous regions and in the middle-european massifs there is a shortage in runoff production, which is probably related to precipitation underestimation. Calibrating on parameters that increase evapotranspiration or infiltration to deeper groundwater layers could improve the results in the lowlands. Using other high-resolution data sets or improved interpolation techniques can solve only partly the problems related to the mountainous areas: we compared three precipitation sources and found that

  7. Diagnostic value of a "wide-range" quantitative nested real-time PCR assay for varicella zoster virus myelitis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Tamura, Masato; Takasu, Toshiaki

    2013-11-01

    Myelitis is one of the rarest neurological complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. In this study, the authors remodeled the "wide-range" quantitative nested real-time (QNRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantitatively detect a small amount of VZV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). For use as a specific internal control "calibrator," an original mutation-VZV (MZ) plasmid was developed. The initial copy number of VZV-DNA in CSF specimens was measured by the amplification rate of the MZ-plasmid. For 17 consecutive CSF specimens collected from three elderly patients with VZV myelitis, the diagnostic value of the wide-range QNRT-PCR assay was evaluated and compared with other conventional PCR assays and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The MZ-plasmid demonstrated statistically uniform amplifications (F=1.016) against a wide range (1-100,000) of copy numbers of mimic VZV-DNA. The wide-range QNRT-PCR assay quantitatively and rapidly (within 48 hr) detected 5,863, 3,052, 958, and 6,721 copies/ml of VZV-DNA in the CSF specimens collected from all patients in the acute phase. Additionally, there was a significant difference (*P=0.023) in the copy number of VZV-DNA between before and after acyclovir treatment. Other conventional single PCR assays all revealed negative results, but were nevertheless time-consuming (7 days). The IgG EIA-value for VZV was continually elevated throughout the clinical course of all patients. The MZ-plasmid was thus regarded as an appropriate "calibrator" in the wide-range QNRT-PCR assay. This assay is a novel, rapid, accurate, quantitative, and highly sensitive technique, and will contribute as a reliable and useful clinical examination for the rapid diagnosis of VZV infection to central nervous system. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Remotely sensed wind speed predicts soaring behaviour in a wide-ranging pelagic seabird.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Rory; Shoji, Akiko; Fayet, Annette L; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2017-07-01

    Global wind patterns affect flight strategies in many birds, including pelagic seabirds, many of which use wind-powered soaring to reduce energy costs during at-sea foraging trips and migration. Such long-distance movement patterns are underpinned by local interactions between wind conditions and flight behaviour, but these fine-scale relationships are far less well understood. Here we show that remotely sensed ocean wind speed and direction are highly significant predictors of soaring behaviour in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). We used high-frequency GPS tracking data (10 Hz) and statistical behaviour state classification to identify two energetic modes in at-sea flight, corresponding to flap-like and soar-like flight. We show that soaring is significantly more likely to occur in tailwinds and crosswinds above a wind speed threshold of around 8 m s(-1), suggesting that these conditions enable birds to reduce metabolic costs by preferentially soaring over flapping. Our results suggest a behavioural mechanism by which wind conditions may shape foraging and migration ecology in pelagic seabirds, and thus indicate that shifts in wind patterns driven by climate change could impact this and other species. They also emphasize the emerging potential of high-frequency GPS biologgers to provide detailed quantitative insights into fine-scale flight behaviour in free-living animals. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208

  10. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.

  11. Comparison of impact results for several polymeric composites over a wide range of low impact velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Portanova, M. A.; Masters, J. E.; Sankar, B. V.; Jackson, Wade C.

    1991-01-01

    Static indentation, falling weight, and ballistic impact tests were conducted in clamped plates made of AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7 prepreg tape. The transversely isotropic plates were nominally 7-mm thick. Pendulum and ballistic tests were also conducted on simply supported plates braided with Celion 12000 fibers and 3501-6 epoxy. The 20 degree braided plates were about 5-mm thick. The impactors had spherical or hemispherical shapes with a 12.7 mm diameter. Residual compression strength and damage size were measured. For a given kinetic energy, damage size was least for IM7/8551-7 and greatest for the braided material. Strengths varied inversely with damage size. For a given damage size, strength loss as a fraction of original strength was least for the braided material and greatest for AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7. Strength loss for IM7/8551-7 and AS4/3501-6 was nearly equal. No significant differences were noticed between damage sizes and residual compression strengths for the static indentation, falling weight, and ballistic tests of AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7. For the braided material, sizes of damage were significantly less and compression strengths were significantly more for the falling weight tests than for the ballistic tests.

  12. Electrochemical behaviour of aluminium in non-aqueous electrolytes over a wide potential range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, P.; Shukla, A. K.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Munichandraiah, N.

    The electrochemical behaviour of aluminium in LiClO 4-propylene carbonate electrolyte is studied by cyclic voltammetry, steady-state polarisation, and ac impedance spectroscopy in the potential range -0.4-4.2 V versus Li/Li +. The open-circuit potential of Al is 1.57 V versus Li/Li +, which is about 0.2 V above the thermodynamic value of Al due to the presence of a surface passive film. In the positive potential region, Al is fairly stable between 1.57 and 3.5 V versus Li/Li + owing to the presence of the surface film. Nevertheless, the oxidation of Al occurs at potentials >3.5 V versus Li/Li +. The ac impedance data are analysed by using a non-linear least-squares fitting procedure, and the surface film resistance is found to be between 498 and 1032 kΩ cm -2. In the potential range 3.6-4.2 V versus Li/Li +, there is a breakdown of the passive film as demonstrated by a decrease in its resistance to 1.2-4.8 kΩ cm -2. This breakdown accompanies anodic oxidation of Al. Thus, there is a possibility of anodic degradation of the Al substrate that is usually used as the current-collector of positive electrodes of Li-ion batteries, if Al is exposed to the electrolyte. In the negative potential region, the deposition of uniform and non-dendritic Li occurs, which can be anodically stripped in a quasi-reversible process with high coulombic efficiency. Diffusion of Li into Al results in the formation of a surface layer of Li-Al alloy, as suggested by X-ray diffraction patterns. The quasi-reversible cathodic deposition and anodic stripping of Li with an exchange current density of 0.16 mA cm -2 indicates that Al is useful as a negative electrode in Li-batteries.

  13. Integrated arrays of air-dielectric graphene transistors as transparent active-matrix pressure sensors for wide pressure ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Ji, Sangyoon; Choi, Seiho; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Wan An, Byeong; Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Jang-Ung

    2017-03-01

    Integrated electronic circuitries with pressure sensors have been extensively researched as a key component for emerging electronics applications such as electronic skins and health-monitoring devices. Although existing pressure sensors display high sensitivities, they can only be used for specific purposes due to the narrow range of detectable pressure (under tens of kPa) and the difficulty of forming highly integrated arrays. However, it is essential to develop tactile pressure sensors with a wide pressure range in order to use them for diverse application areas including medical diagnosis, robotics or automotive electronics. Here we report an unconventional approach for fabricating fully integrated active-matrix arrays of pressure-sensitive graphene transistors with air-dielectric layers simply formed by folding two opposing panels. Furthermore, this realizes a wide tactile pressure sensing range from 250 Pa to ~3 MPa. Additionally, fabrication of pressure sensor arrays and transparent pressure sensors are demonstrated, suggesting their substantial promise as next-generation electronics.

  14. Irradiation of a wide range of water ice samples in laboratory with electrons and heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, André; Vorburger, Audrey; Pommerol, Antoine; Poch, Olivier; Wurz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Airless bodies in space are subject to a continuous bombardment of charged particles from the plasma environment. This bombardment triggers chemical reactions in the surface and also acts as an atmospheric release process. The O2 atmosphere around Europa, e.g., probably is the result of magnetospheric O+ and S+ ions sputtering the surface ice. We experimentally investigate the interaction of charged particles with water ice by irradiating samples with electrons (0.1 - 10 keV) and ions (1 - 100 keV). The water ice samples are prepared with various techniques, resulting in 100 nm ice films or centimeter-thick icy regolith with a range of grain sizes. In this presentation, we summarize our results of all electron irradiation experiments. The results allow us to assess if sputtering due to electrons plays a role for the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn compared to the better studied sputtering due to ions. We also will show our most recent results of multiply charged Ar+ ions and ionized molecules (O2+ for instance) impacting water ice. Finally, we compare the results from thin and compact ice films with those from more realistic deep and porous samples and their respective relevance for the study of water ice sputtering in the laboratory.

  15. A fully integrated VCO with a wide tuning range for DVB-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemchandani, S. L.; Betancort, G.; del Pino Suarez, Javier; Alvarado, Unai; Goni-Iturri, Amaya; Hernandez, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    European standard DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) has already proven its exceptional features, including the possibility to receive broadcast services also with portable devices and even in receivers with a limited mobility such as cars. This paper presents a fully integrated LC voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in a low cost 0.35 μm SiGe technology for DVB-H standard. To obtain VCO specifications system simulations have been done. The designed VCO is suitable to operate with ZERO and LOW IF receiver architectures. To integrate all the VCO components, it oscillates at double of the frequency band, from 940 to 1724 MHz. In order to sweep the whole frequency range, the tank is composed of an array of switched capacitors together with the varactors. The integrated inductors have been designed by electromagnetic simulations using Momentum(C). Techniques like using a capacitor divider, biasing the transistor for minimum noise and emitter degeneration have been utilized to improve phase noise requirements. The obtained phase noise is -108 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset and the power consumption, including the output buffers, is 28 mW.

  16. Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and temperature responses to a wide range of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, D.; Lomas, K. J.; Stohrer, M.

    A mathematical model for predicting human thermal and regulatory responses in cold, cool, neutral, warm, and hot environments has been developed and validated. The multi-segmental passive system, which models the dynamic heat transport within the body and the heat exchange between body parts and the environment, is discussed elsewhere. This paper is concerned with the development of the active system, which simulates the regulatory responses of shivering, sweating, and peripheral vasomotion of unacclimatised subjects. Following a comprehensive literature review, 26 independent experiments were selected that were designed to provoke each of these responses in different circumstances. Regression analysis revealed that skin and head core temperature affect regulatory responses in a non-linear fashion. A further signal, i.e. the rate of change of the mean skin temperature weighted by the skin temperature error signal, was identified as governing the dynamics of thermoregulatory processes in the cold. Verification and validation work was carried out using experimental data obtained from 90 exposures covering a range of steady and transient ambient temperatures between 5°C and 50°C and exercise intensities between 46 W/m2 and 600 W/m2. Good general agreement with measured data was obtained for regulatory responses, internal temperatures, and the mean and local skin temperatures of unacclimatised humans for the whole spectrum of climatic conditions and for different activity levels.

  17. Wide range photodetector based on catalyst free grown indium selenide microwires.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Mirza, Misbah; Cao, Chuanbao; Butt, Faheem K; Tanveer, M; Tahir, Muhammad; Aslam, Imran; Idrees, Faryal; Safdar, Muhammad

    2014-06-25

    We first report the catalyst free growth of indium selenide microwires through a facile approach in a horizontal tube furnace using indium and selenium elemental powders as precursors. The synthesized microwires are γ-phase, high quality, single crystalline and grown along the [112̅0] direction. The wires have a uniform diameter of ∼1 μm and lengths of several micrometers. Photodetectors fabricated from synthesized microwires show reliable and stable photoresponse exhibiting a photoresponsivity of 0.54 A/W, external quantum efficiency of 1.23 at 633 nm with 4 V bias. The photodetector has a reasonable response time of 0.11 s and specific detectivity of 3.94 × 10(10) Jones at 633 nm with a light detection range from 350 to 1050 nm, covering the UV-vis-NIR region. The photoresponse shown by single wire is attributed to direct band gap (Eg = 1.3 eV) and superior single crystalline quality. The photoresponsive studies of single microwires clearly suggest the use of this new and facile growth technique without using catalysts for fabrication of indium selenide microwires in next-generation sensors and detectors for commercial and military applications.

  18. A fast job scheduling system for a wide range of bioinformatic applications.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Angelo; Busiello, Gianluca; Milanesi, Luciano; Paolella, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    Bioinformatic tools are often used by researchers through interactive Web interfaces, resulting in a strong demand for computational resources. The tools are of different kind and range from simple, quick tasks, to complex analyses requiring minutes to hours of processing time and often longer than that. Batteries of computational nodes, such as those found in parallel clusters, provide a platform of choice for this application, especially when a relatively large number of concurrent requests is expected. Here, we describe a scheduling architecture operating at the application level, able to distribute jobs over a large number of hierarchically organized nodes. While not contrasting and peacefully living together with low-level scheduling software, the system takes advantage of tools, such as SQL servers, commonly used in Web applications, to produce low latency and performance which compares well and often surpasses that of more traditional, dedicated schedulers. The system provides the basic functionality necessary to node selection, task execution and service management and monitoring, and may combine loosely linked computational resources, such as those located in geographically distinct sites.

  19. Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Nathan A.; Beier, Kevin T.; Pan, Y. Albert; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Berezovskii, Vladimir K.; Wark, Abigail R.; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Bielecki, Jan; Born, Richard T.; Schier, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Current limitations in technology have prevented an extensive analysis of the connections among neurons, particularly within nonmammalian organisms. We developed a transsynaptic viral tracer originally for use in mice, and then tested its utility in a broader range of organisms. By engineering the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to encode a fluorophore and either the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV‐G) or its own glycoprotein (VSV‐G), we created viruses that can transsynaptically label neuronal circuits in either the retrograde or anterograde direction, respectively. The vectors were investigated for their utility as polysynaptic tracers of chicken and zebrafish visual pathways. They showed patterns of connectivity consistent with previously characterized visual system connections, and revealed several potentially novel connections. Further, these vectors were shown to infect neurons in several other vertebrates, including Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, axolotls, and Xenopus. They were also shown to infect two invertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster, and the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, a species previously intractable for gene transfer, although no clear evidence of transsynaptic spread was observed in these species. These vectors provide a starting point for transsynaptic tracing in most vertebrates, and are also excellent candidates for gene transfer in organisms that have been refractory to other methods. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1639–1663, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25688551

  20. MRI profiles over very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Dvinskikh, S V; Szutkowski, K; Furó, I

    2009-06-01

    In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly mobile water is detected, similarly to that in biological and medical samples. However, the spin relaxation properties of water in these materials and/or low water concentration may make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Despite these limitations, one can combine MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and use independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, to obtain true images of both water and material content. We present procedures for obtaining such true density maps and demonstrate their use for studying the swelling of bentonite clay by water. A constant time imaging protocol provides 1D mapping of the clay distribution in regions with clay concentration above 10 vol%. T(1) relaxation time imaging is employed to monitor the clay content down to 10(-3) vol%. Data provided by those two approaches are in good agreement in the overlapping range of concentrations. Covering five orders of magnitude of clay concentration, swelling of sodium-exchanged bentonite clays from pre-compacted pellets into a gel phase is followed in detail.