Science.gov

Sample records for energy spectrum adjustment

  1. Energy spectrum of sputtered uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, R. A.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fission track technique for detecting uranium 235 was used in conjunction with a mechanical time-of-flight spectrometer to measure the energy spectrum in the region 1 eV to 1 keV of material sputtered from a 93% enriched U-235 foil by 80 keV Ar-40(+) ions. The spectrum was found to exhibit a peak in the region 2-4 eV and to decrease approximately as E to the -1.77 power for E is approximately greater than 100 eV. The design, construction and resolution of the mechanical spectrometer are discussed and comparisons are made between the data and the predictions of the ramdom collision cascade model of sputtering.

  2. Factors Influencing Adjustment in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katherine A.; Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be at an increased risk of adjustment problems. To examine possible predictors of adjustment difficulties in siblings, 70 mothers with at least one child with ASD and one typical child completed surveys of symptom severity in the child with ASD, impact of the child with ASD on the…

  3. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…

  4. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This brochure describes the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, which includes analysis and decision support, fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. Through deep technical expertise and an unmatched breadth of capabilities, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leads an integrated approach across the spectrum of renewable energy innovation. From scientific discovery to accelerating market deployment, NREL works in partnership with private industry to drive the transformation of our nation's energy systems. NREL integrates the entire spectrum of innovation, including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization, and deployment. Our world-class analysis and decision support informs every point on the spectrum. The innovation process at NREL is inter-dependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies may come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  5. Ultra high energy cosmic ray spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cady, R.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, P. R.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Salamon, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays have been observed by means of atmospheric fluorescence with the Fly's Eye since 1981. The differential energy spectrum above 0.1 EeV is well fitted by a power law with slope 2.94 + or - 0.02. Some evidence of flattening of the spectrum is observed or energies greater than 10 EeV, however only one event is observed with energy greater than 50 EeV and a spectral cutoff is indicated above 70 EeV.

  6. New calorimetric all-particle energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Both the maximum size N sub m and the sea level muon size N sub mu have been used separately to find the all-particle energy spectrum in the air shower domain. However the conversion required, whether from N sub m to E or from N sub mu to E, has customarily been carried out by means of calculations based on an assumed cascase model. It is shown here that by combining present data on N sub m and N sub mu spectra with data on: (1); the energy spectrum of air shower muons and (2) the average width of the electron profile, one can obtain empirical values of the N sub m to E and N sub mu to E conversion factors, and an empirical calorimetric all-particle spectrum, in the energy range 2 x 10 to the 6th power E 2 x 10 to the 9th power GeV.

  7. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code. PMID:27389881

  8. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code.

  9. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-06-15

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to {+-}21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than {+-}3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  10. Reference data file for neutron spectrum adjustment and related radiation damage calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zsolnay, E.M. ); Nolthenius, H.J.; Greenwood, L.R.; Szondi, E.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The REAL-88 interlaboratory exercise organized by IAEA resulted in a neutron metrology file. (NMF-90) comprising problem dependent data for benchmark neutron fields, furthermore, nuclear data and computer programs for neutron spectrum adjustment and radiation damage parameter calculations for the service life assessment of nuclear facilities. Calculation results of some experienced laboratories are also present. This paper describes and analyses the content of the neutron metrology file and outlines the most important problems and tasks to be solved in the field of radiation damage parameter calculations. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. On the high energy proton spectrum measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, R. W.; Ito, A.; Macfall, J.; Siohan, F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Tonwar, S. C.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Yodh, G. B.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1977-01-01

    The steepening of the proton spectrum beyond 1000 GeV and the rise in inelastic cross sections between 20 and 600 GeV observed by the PROTON-1-2-3 satellite experiments were explained by systematic effects of energy dependent albedo (backscatter) from the calorimeter.

  12. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  13. The energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuzayyad, Tareq Ziad

    2000-11-01

    The Energy Spectrum of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays is measured by the first of two High Resolution Fly's Eye detectors in the monocular mode. The data set collected in the period of May 1997 to June 1999 was used for the measurement. A new reconstruction procedure (profile constrained geometry fit) was developed to analyze the data. This procedure gives reasonably good energy resolution, but poor xmax resolution. Resolution and systematics are discussed in the thesis. The spectrum measurement results are consistent with previous measurements in normalization and general shape. The spectrum appears to continue beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min cutoff.

  14. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  15. Universal energy spectrum from point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomozawa, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    The suggestion is made that the energy spectrum from point sources such as galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) is universal on the average, irrespective of the species of the emitted particles, photons, nucleons, or others. The similarity between the observed energy spectra of cosmic rays, gamma-rays, and X-rays is discussed. In other words, the existing data for gamma-rays and X-rays seem to support the prediction. The expected data from the Gamma Ray Observatory are to provide a further test.

  16. Compact range reflector analysis using the plane wave spectrum approach with an adjustable sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, James P.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1991-06-01

    An improved method for determining the test zone field of compact range reflectors is presented. The plane wave spectrum (PWS) approach is used to obtain the test zone field from knowledge of the reflector aperture field distribution. The method is particularly well suited to the analysis of reflectors with a linearly serrated rim for reduced edge diffraction. Computation of the PWS of the reflector aperture field is facilitated by a closed-form expression for the Fourier transform of a polygonal window function. Inverse transformation in the test zone region is accomplished using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with a properly adjusted sampling rate (which is a function of both the reflector size and the distance from the reflector). The method is validated by comparison with results obtained using surface current and aperture field integration techniques. The performance of several serrated reflectors is evaluated in order to observe the effects of edge diffraction on the test zone fields.

  17. The fractal energy measurement and the singularity energy spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gang; Zhang, Shuning; Yang, Xiaoniu

    2012-12-01

    The singularity exponent (SE) is the characteristic parameter of fractal and multifractal signals. Based on SE, the fractal dimension reflecting the global self-similar character, the instantaneous SE reflecting the local self-similar character, the multifractal spectrum (MFS) reflecting the distribution of SE, and the time-varying MFS reflecting pointwise multifractal spectrum were proposed. However, all the studies were based on the depiction of spatial or differentiability characters of fractal signals. Taking the SE as the independent dimension, this paper investigates the fractal energy measurement (FEM) and the singularity energy spectrum (SES) theory. Firstly, we study the energy measurement and the energy spectrum of a fractal signal in the singularity domain, propose the conception of FEM and SES of multifractal signals, and investigate the Hausdorff measure and the local direction angle of the fractal energy element. Then, we prove the compatibility between FEM and traditional energy, and point out that SES can be measured in the fractal space. Finally, we study the algorithm of SES under the condition of a continuous signal and a discrete signal, and give the approximation algorithm of the latter, and the estimations of FEM and SES of the Gaussian white noise, Fractal Brownian motion and the multifractal Brownian motion show the theoretical significance and application value of FEM and SES.

  18. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  19. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  20. Interface Circuit for Vibration Energy Harvesting with Adjustable Bias Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Lefeuvre, E.; Mathias, H.; Costa, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new interface circuit for electrostatic vibration energy harvesting with adjustable bias voltage. An electronic switch is used to modify the circuit configuration so that the harvested energy increases the voltage across a biasing capacitor. Decrease of this biasing capacitor voltage occurs naturally due to the circuit imperfections. Such a control of the bias voltage enables to adjust the amount of energy converted by the variable capacitor on each cycle. This feature can be used to optimize the mechanical damping induced by the energy conversion process in order to maximize the harvested power. Another feature of this interface circuit is that it is capable to get high bias voltage whatever the battery voltage with low energy loss.

  1. On muon energy spectrum in muon groups underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which was used to measure muon energy spectrum characteristics in muon groups underground using mu-e decays recording. The Baksan Telescope's experimental data on mu-e decays intensity in muon groups of various multiplicities are analyzed. The experimental data indicating very flat spectrum does not however represent the total spectrum in muon groups. Obviously the muon energy spectrum depends strongly on a distance from the group axis. The core attraction effect makes a significant distortion, making the spectrum flatter. After taking this into account and making corrections for this effect the integral total spectrum index in groups has a very small depencence on muon multiplicity and agrees well with expected one: beta=beta (sub expected) = 1.75.

  2. Adjustment, Sibling Problems and Coping Strategies of Brothers and Sisters of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Penelope; Cuskelly, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) express more problem behaviours and experience more difficulties in their relationships than do children in families where all children are developing typically. We know little about what contributes to these difficulties. Method: Mothers of a child with ASD completed the…

  3. The Cosmic Rays Energy Spectrum observed by the TALE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuzayyad, Tareq; Telescope Array Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report on a cosmic ray energy spectrum measurement by the Telescope Array Low-Energy extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE FD is an air fluorescence detector which is also sensitive to the Cerenkov light produced by shower particles. Low energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as ``Cerenkov Events''. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of 4 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Starting at around 100 PeV, TALE also observes showers by their fluorescence light; and above this energy fluorescence becomes the dominant light production mechanism by which most showers are observed. The event processing and reconstruction procedures are identical for both low and high energy regions. This allows for treating the Cherenkov events and Fluorescence events as a single data set and thus calculating a single cosmic rays energy spectrum based on this data set, which extends from an energy of 4 PeV to above 1 EeV. In this talk, we will describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from the measurement of the spectrum in this energy range by the Telescope Array experiment.

  4. Spectrum and energy transfer in steady Burgers turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum, energy transfer, and spectral interactions in steady Burgers turbulence are studied using numerically generated data. The velocity field is initially random and the turbulence is maintained steady by forcing the amplitude of a band of low wavenumbers to be invariant in time, while permitting the phase to change as dictated by the equation. The spectrum, as expected, is very different from that of Navier-Stokes turbulence. It is demonstrated that the far range of the spectrum scales as predicted by Burgers. Despite the difference in their spectra, in matters of the spectral energy transfer and triadic interactions Burgers turbulence is similar to Navier-Stokes turbulence.

  5. Feeling Good, Feeling Bad: Influences of Maternal Perceptions of the Child and Marital Adjustment on Well-Being in Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (n = 49) participated in a 30-day diary study which examined associations between mothers' positive and negative perceptions of their children, marital adjustment, and maternal well-being. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that marital adjustment mediated associations between…

  6. The High Energy Spectrum of NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Gehrels, N.; Shrader, C.; Soldi, S.; Lubinski, P.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Malzac, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present first INTEGRAL observations of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Combining several INTEGRAL observations performed during 2003, totaling approximately 400 ksec of exposure time, allow us to study the spectrum in the 3 - 300 keV range. The measurements presented here reveal an overall spectrum from X-rays up to the soft gamma-rays that can be described by an absorbed (N(sub H) approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter) and non-variable thermal component, plus a Fe Kalpha line, and an exponential cutoff occurs at 110 keV, consistent with earlier claims. The Galactic hydrogen column density in the line of sight is N(sub H), Gal approximately equal to 2.1 x 10 (exp 20) per square centimeter. The time resolved analysis shows little variation of the spectral parameters. The comparison with CGRO/OSSE data shows that the same spectral model can be applied over a time span of 15 years, while the flux varied by a factor of 2. Applying a Compton reflection component improves the model fit to the INTEGRAL data. Nonetheless the data available to date cannot significantly confirm or exclude the existence of reflection, nor is a high iron overabundance in the absorber, as had been previously suggested, clearly detectable.

  7. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  8. On the Linearly-Balanced Kinetic Energy Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Huei,-Iin; Robertson, F. R.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that the earth's atmospheric motion can generally be characterized by the two dimensional quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which the constraints on global integrals of kinetic energy, entrophy and potential vorticity play very important roles in redistributing the wave energy among different scales of motion. Assuming the hypothesis of Kolmogrov's local isotropy, derived a -3 power law of the equilibrium two-dimensional kinetic energy spectrum that entails constant vorticity and zero energy flows from the energy-containing wave number up to the viscous cutoff. In his three dimensional quasi-geostrophic theory, showed that the spectrum function of the vertical scale turbulence - expressible in terms of the available potential energy - possesses the same power law as the two dimensional kinetic energy spectrum. As the slope of kinetic energy spectrum in the inertial range is theoretically related to the predictability of the synoptic scales (Lorenz, 1969), many general circulation models includes a horizontal diffusion to provide reasonable kinetic energy spectra, although the actual power law exhibited in the atmospheric general circulation is controversial. Note that in either the atmospheric modeling or the observational analyses, the proper choice of wave number Index to represent the turbulence scale Is the degree of the Legendre polynomial.

  9. DSM-5 PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum in Italian emergency personnel: correlations with work and social adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Carmassi, Claudia; Gesi, Camilla; Simoncini, Marly; Favilla, Luca; Massimetti, Gabriele; Olivieri, Maria Cristina; Conversano, Ciro; Santini, Massimo; Dell’Osso, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has recently recognized a particular risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among first responders (criterion A4), acknowledging emergency units as stressful places of employment. Little data is yet available on DSM-5 among emergency health operators. The aim of this study was to assess DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD and posttraumatic stress spectrum, as well as their impact on work and social functioning, in the emergency staff of a major university hospital in Italy. One hundred and ten subjects (doctors, nurses, and health-care assistants) were recruited at the Emergency Unit of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (Italy) and assessed by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). A 15.7% DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD prevalence rate was found. Nongraduated persons reported significantly higher TALS-SR Domain IV (reaction to loss or traumatic events) scores and a significantly higher proportion of individuals presenting at least one maladaptive behavior (TALS-SR Domain VII), with respect to graduate ones. Women reported significantly higher WSAS scores. Significant correlations emerged between PTSD symptoms and WSAS total scores among health-care assistants, nongraduates and women. Our results showed emergency workers to be at risk for posttraumatic stress spectrum and related work and social impairment, particularly among women and nongraduated subjects. PMID:26937192

  10. Teager Energy Spectrum for Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Wang, Tianjin; Zuo, Ming J.; Chu, Fulei; Yan, Shaoze

    2011-07-01

    Localized damage of rolling element bearings generates periodic impulses during running. The repeating frequency of impulses is a key indicator for diagnosing the localized damage of bearings. A new method, called Teager energy spectrum, is proposed to diagnose the faults of rolling element bearings. It exploits the unique advantages of Teager energy operator in detecting transient components in signals to extract periodic impulses of bearing faults, and uses the Fourier spectrum of Teager energy to identify the characteristic frequency of bearing faults. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by analyzing the experimental bearing vibration signals.

  11. Kolmogorov's hypotheses and global energy spectrum of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zi-Ju; Su, Wei-Dong

    2015-04-01

    We relate the justification of Kolmogorov's hypotheses on the local isotropy and small-scale universality in real turbulent flows to an observed universality of basis independence for the global energy spectrum and energy flux of small-scale turbulence. To readily examine the small-scale universality, an approach is suggested that investigates the global energy spectrum in a general spectral space for which the nonlinear interscale interaction may not be Fourier-triadic. Specific verifications are performed based on direct numerical simulations of turbulence in a spherical geometry and reexaminations of several existing results for turbulent channel flows.

  12. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation: Issue 3 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation.

  13. Hadron intensity and energy spectrum at 4380 m above level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cananov, S. D.; Chadranyan, E. K.; Khizanishvili, L. A.; Ladaria, N. K.; Roinishvili, N. N.

    1985-01-01

    The flux value of hadrons with E (sup gamma) h or = 5 TeV, where E (sup gamma) h or = is the energy transferred into electromagnetic component is presented. It is shown that the energy spectrum slope beta of hadrons with E h or = 20 TeV is equal to 1.9.

  14. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Energy spectrum and superfluidity of spin-2 ultracold bosons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Jun; Liu, Xian-Feng; Han, Jiu-Rong

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies the superfluidity of ultracold spin-2 Bose atoms with weak interactions in optical lattices by calculating the excitation energy spectrum using the Bogoliubov approach. The energy spectra exhibit the characteristics of the superfluid-phase explicitly and it finds the nonvanishing critical speeds of superfluid. The obtained results display that the critical speeds of superfluid are different for five spin components and can be controlled by adjusting the lattice parameters in experiments. Finally it discusses the feasibilities of implementing and measuring superfluid.

  15. 18 CFR 381.304 - Review of Department of Energy denial of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Energy denial of adjustment. 381.304 Section 381.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES FEES Fees Applicable to General Activities § 381.304 Review of Department of Energy denial of adjustment. Link to an amendment published...

  16. Spectrum tailoring of the neutron energy spectrum in the context of delayed neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, William E; Tobin, Steve J; Sandoval, Nathan P; Fensin, Mike L

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of measuring plutonium mass in spent fuel, a delayed neutron instrument is of particular interest since, if properly designed, the delayed neutron signal from {sup 235}U is significantly stronger than the signature from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Pu. A key factor in properly designing a delayed neutron instrument is to minimize the fission of {sup 238}U. This minimization is achieved by keeping the interrogating neutron spectrum below {approx} 1 MeV. In the context of spent fuel measurements it is desirable to use a 14 MeV (deuterium and tritium) neutron generator for economic reasons. Spectrum tailoring is the term used to describe the inclusion of material between the 14 MeV neutrons and the interrogated object that lower the neutron energy through nuclear reactions and moderation. This report quantifies the utility of different material combination for spectrum tailoring.

  17. Parameterizations of Pion Energy Spectrum in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Franics A.; Wilson, John W.; Norbury, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pion (PI) production are expected to play an important role in radiation exposures in the upper atmosphere or on the Martian surface. Nuclear databases for describing pion production are developed for radiation transport codes to support these studies. We analyze the secondary energy spectrum of pions produced in nucleon-nucleon (NN) collisions in the relativistic one-pion exchange model. Parametric formulas of the isospin cross sections for one-pion production channels are discussed and are used to renormalize the model spectrum. Energy spectra for the deuteron related channels (NN yields dPi) are also described.

  18. Energy Spectrum in the Dissipation Range of Fluid Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. O.; Chen, S.; Doolen, G. D.; Kraichnan, R. H.; Wang, L.-P.; Zhou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution, direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are carried out to study the energy spectrum in the dissipation range. An energy spectrum of the form A(k/k( sub d))(sup alpha) exp[- betak/k(sub d) is confirmed. The possible values of the parameters alpha and beta, as well as their dependence on Revnolds numbers and length scales, are investigated, showing good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. A "bottleneck'-type effect is reported at k/k(sub d) approximately 4, exhibiting a possible transition from near-dissipation to far- dissipation.

  19. High Energy Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes From a Realistic Primary Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Penha, Felipe; Dembinski, Hans; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric neutrino fluxes depend on the energy spectrum of primary nucleons entering the top of the atmosphere. Before the advent of AMANDA and the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, measurements of the neutrino fluxes were generally below ~ 1TeV , a regime in which a simple energy power law sufficed to describe the primary spectrum. Now, IceCube's muon neutrino data extends beyond 1PeV , including a combination of neutrinos from astrophysical sources with background from atmospheric neutrinos. At such high energies, the steepening at the knee of the primary spectrum must be accounted for. Here, we describe a semi-analytical approach for calculating the atmospheric differential neutrino fluxes at high energies. The input is a realistic primary spectrum consisting of 4 populations with distinct energy cutoffs, each with up to 7 representative nuclei, where the parameters were extracted from a global fit. We show the effect of each component on the atmospheric neutrino spectra, above 10TeV . The resulting features follow directly from recent air shower measurements included in the fit. Felipe Campos Penha gratefully acknowledges financial support from CAPES (Processo BEX 5348/14-5), CNPq (Processo 142180/2012-2), and the Bartol Research Institute.

  20. Feeling good, feeling bad: influences of maternal perceptions of the child and marital adjustment on well-being in mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lickenbrock, Diane M; Ekas, Naomi V; Whitman, Thomas L

    2011-07-01

    Mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (n = 49) participated in a 30-day diary study which examined associations between mothers' positive and negative perceptions of their children, marital adjustment, and maternal well-being. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that marital adjustment mediated associations between positive perceptions and maternal well-being. Mothers who reported higher levels of positive perceptions of the child were higher in marital adjustment and well-being. Results also revealed that marital adjustment moderated the relation between negative perceptions and negative maternal affect. Mothers low in marital adjustment had a positive association between negative maternal perceptions of the child and negative maternal affect. These findings highlight the dynamic roles that mothers' perceptions and marital adjustment play in determining maternal psychological outcomes.

  1. Wavelet Spatial Energy Spectrums Studies on Drag Reduction by Micro-bubble Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Zhen; Yassin Hassan

    2006-07-01

    In this study, continuous wavelet transforms and spatial correlation techniques are employed to determine the space-localized wavenumber energy spectrum of the velocity signals in turbulent channel flow. The flow conditions correspond to single phase flow and micro-bubbles injected two phase flow. The wavelet energy spectrums demonstrate that the wavenumber (eddy size) content of the velocity signals is not only space-dependent but also micro-bubbles can impact the eddy size content. Visual observations of the wavelet energy spectrum spatial distribution was realized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique. The two phase flow condition corresponds to a drag reduction of 38.4% with void fraction of 4.9%. The present results provide evidence that micro-bubbles in the boundary layer of a turbulent channel flow can help adjust the eddy size distributions near the wall. This can assist in explaining that micro-bubbles are performing as buffers to keep the energy of fluid particles going in stream-wise direction and reducing the energy of fluid particles going in normal direction. (authors)

  2. High energy primary electron spectrum observed by the emulsion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Aizu, H.; Hiraiwa, N.; Taira, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Niu, K.; Koss, T. A.; Lord, J. J.; Golden, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector of the emulsion chamber type is used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons. Two large emulsion chambers, each having an area of 40 by 50 sq cm, are exposed for about 25.5 hr at an average pressure altitude of 3.9 mbar. About 500 high-energy cascades (no less than about 600 GeV) are detected by searching for dark spots on the X-ray films. A power-law energy dependence formula is derived for the spectrum of primary cosmic-ray electrons in the energy region over 100 GeV. The results are in good agreement with the transition curves obtained previously by theoretical and Monte Carlo calculations.

  3. ENERGY SPECTRUM AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS FROM SEMI-RELATIVISTIC HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Ruoyu; Wang Xiangyu

    2012-02-10

    It has been suggested that hypernova remnants, with a substantial amount of energy in semi-relativistic ejecta, can accelerate intermediate mass or heavy nuclei to ultrahigh energies and provide a sufficient amount of energy in cosmic rays to account for the observed flux. We here calculate the expected energy spectrum and chemical composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from such semi-relativistic hypernovae. With a chemical composition equal to that of the hypernova ejecta and a flat or hard spectrum for cosmic rays at the sources, the spectrum and composition of the propagated cosmic rays observed at the Earth can be compatible with the measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  4. Energy Spectrum of Cosmic-Ray Electrons at TeV Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Sahakian, V.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Chadwick, P. M.; Cheesebrough, A.; Dickinson, H. J.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Keogh, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Nolan, S. J.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Rayner, S. M.; Rulten, C. B.; Spangler, D.; Ward, M.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Olive, J-F.

    2008-12-31

    The very large collection area of ground-based {gamma}-ray telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon or satellite based instruments in the detection of very-high-energy (>600 GeV) cosmic-ray electrons. Here we present the electron spectrum derived from data taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In this measurement, the first of this type, we are able to extend the measurement of the electron spectrum beyond the range accessible to direct measurements. We find evidence for a substantial steepening in the energy spectrum above 600 GeV compared to lower energies.

  5. Sibling Adjustment and Maternal Well-Being: An Examination of Families with and without a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Nicole; McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2010-01-01

    Differences in sibling social, behavioral, and academic adjustment and maternal well-being in families with (n = 20) and without (n = 23) a preschooler with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were explored. Results are interpreted to suggest that mothers of children with autism report more daily hassles, life stress, and depression than mothers…

  6. Exact ultra cold neutrons' energy spectrum in gravitational quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, Pouria

    2013-10-01

    We find exact energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the quantum bouncer in the presence of the minimal length uncertainty and the maximal momentum. This form of Generalized (Gravitational) Uncertainty Principle (GUP) agrees with various theories of quantum gravity and predicts a minimal length uncertainty proportional to and a maximal momentum proportional to , where β is the deformation parameter. We also find the semiclassical energy spectrum and discuss the effects of this GUP on the transition rate of the ultra cold neutrons in gravitational spectrometers. Then, based on Nesvizhevsky's famous experiment, we obtain an upper bound on the dimensionless GUP parameter.

  7. The energy spectrum and the optical absorption spectrum of C{sub 60} fullerene within the Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Silant’ev, A. V.

    2015-10-15

    Anticommutator Green’s functions and the energy spectrum of C{sub 60} fullerene are calculated in the approximation of static fluctuations within the Hubbard model. On the basis of this spectrum, an interpretation is proposed for the experimentally observed optical absorption bands of C{sub 60} fullerene. The parameters of C{sub 60} fullerene that characterize it within the Hubbard model are calculated by the optical absorption spectrum.

  8. XTE Proposal #20102--"SS 433's High Energy Spectrum"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Kawai, N.; Kotani, T.; Oka, T.; Wagner, R. M.; Hjellming, R.; Rupen, M.; Brinkmann, W.

    1999-01-01

    We observed the jet-producing compact binary system SS 433 with RXTE during three multiwavelength campaigns, the first in conjunction with ASCA observations, the second simultaneous with a VLA-VLBA-MERLIN campaign, and the third associated with a Nobeyama millimeter-band campaign. All these campaigns included optical observations. Occurring at different jet precession and binary phases, the observations also monitored the system during a radio flare. The data provide SS 433's X-ray spectrum over more than an energy decade, and track the spectral variations as the X-ray source was partially eclipsed. The continuum can be modeled as a power law with an exponential cutoff, which can be detected to approximately 50 keV. Strong line emission is evident in the 5-10 keV range which can be modeled as a broad line whose energy is precession independent and a narrow line whose energy does vary with jet precession phase; this line model is clearly an over simplification since the PCA does not have sufficient energy resolution to detect the lines ASCA observed. The eclipses are deeper at high energy and at jet precession phases when the jets are more inclined towards and away from us. A large radio flare occurred between two sets of X-ray monitoring observations; an X-ray observation at the peak of the flare found a softer spectrum with a flux approximately 1/3 that of the quiescent level.

  9. Spin-orbit-coupled BEC in a double-well potential: Quantum energy spectrum and flat band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Yuan; Cao, Hui; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin

    2015-09-01

    Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) provide a powerful platform for studies on physical problems in various fields. Here we study the energy spectrum of a tunable spin-orbit-coupled BEC in a double-well potential with adjustable Raman laser intensity. We find in the single-particle spectrum there is a highly degenerate flat band in the ground state of the BEC, which remains stable against changes of the Raman strength. Many-body interactions between atoms remove this high degeneracy. Analytical results for particular cases are obtained by using the perturbation theory, which are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  10. Energy spectrum of sputtered uranium - A new technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, R. A.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    The fission track technique for detecting U-235 has been used in conjunction with a mechanical time-of-flight spectrometer in order to measure the energy spectrum in the region 1 eV to 1 keV of material sputtered from a 93% enriched U-235 foil by 80 keV Ar-40(+) ions. The spectrum was found to exhibit a peak in the region 2-4 eV and to decrease approximately as E exp -1.77 for E not less than 100 eV. The design, construction and resolution of the mechanical spectrometer are discussed and comparisons are made between the data and the predictions of the random collision cascade model of sputtering.

  11. 18 CFR 381.304 - Review of Department of Energy denial of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Review of Department of Energy denial of adjustment. 381.304 Section 381.304 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... adjustment request under subpart J of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR part...

  12. Influence of Neutron Energy Spectrum on Primary Damage Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E. , Greenwood, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    Displacement cascade formation in iron has been investigated by the method of molecular dynamics (MD) for cascade energies up to 40 keV. The results of these simulations have been used to obtain effective, energy-dependent cross sections for two measures of primary damage production: (1) the number of surviving point defects expressed as a fraction of the those predicted by the standard secondary displacement model by Norgett, Robinson, and Torrens (NRT),and (2) the fraction of the surviving interstitials contained in clusters that formed during the cascade event. The primary knockon atom spectra for iron obtained from the SPECTER code have been used to weight these MD-based damage production cross sections in order to obtain spectrally-averaged values for several locations in commercial fission reactors, materials test reactors, a DT fusion reactor first wall, and a pulsed spallation neutron source. An evaluation of these results indicates that neutron energy spectrum differences between the various environments do not lead to significant differences between the average primary damage formation parameters. This conclusion implies that the displacement damage component of radiation damage produced in a high energy spallation neutron source should be well simulated by irradiation in a fission reactor neutron spectrum, and that differences in nuclear transmutation production may be a greater source of uncertainty in the prediction of material performance in the planned National Spallation Neutron Source.

  13. Sharp knee phenomenon of primary cosmic ray energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel

    2014-06-01

    Primary energy spectral models are tested in the energy range of 1-200 PeV using standardized extensive air shower responses from BASJE-MAS, Tibet, GAMMA and KASCADE scintillation shower arrays. Results point toward the two-component origin of observed cosmic ray energy spectra in the knee region consisting of a pulsar component superimposed upon rigidity-dependent power law diffuse Galactic flux. The two-component energy spectral model accounts for both the sharp knee shower spectral phenomenon and observed irregularity of all-particle energy spectrum in the region of 50-100 PeV. Alternatively, tested multipopulation primary energy spectra predicted by nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration models describe observed shower spectra in the knee region provided that the cutoff magnetic rigidities of accelerating particles are 6±0.3 and 45±2 PV for the first two populations, respectively. Both tested spectral models confirm the predominant H-He primary nuclei origin of observed shower spectral knee. The parameters of tested energy spectra are evaluated using solutions of the inverse problem on the basis of the corresponding parameterizations of energy spectra for primary H, He, O-like and Fe-like nuclei, standardized shower size spectral responses in the 550-1085 g/cm2 atmospheric slant depth range and near vertical muon truncated size spectra detected by the GAMMA array.

  14. Search for the end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Linsley, John

    1998-06-15

    The title I was asked to speak about expresses an idea that occurred rather recently in the history of cosmic ray studies. I argue that the idea of a possible end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum came into being after a sequence of three rapid advances in knowledge which I describe, calling them 'breakthroughs'. I suggest that the present workshop be regarded as a step toward a fourth breakthrough. I argue that this may occur through application of the Space Airwatch concept--the earth atmosphere as target and signal generator--as embodied in the NASA OWL project.

  15. Energy spectrum and flux of fast neutrons in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Onge, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The neutron energy spectrum and flux in the atmosphere at the Pfotzer maximum (about 100 g per cm squared) were measured at geomagnetic latitude 42 deg N, using a system capable of detecting a small flux of fast (5 to 20 MeV) neutrons in a much larger background flux of gamma rays and charged particles. The detector consisted of a cylindrical cell of organic liquid scintillator coupled to a high-resolution two-parameter multiparticle pulse shape discriminator with a two-parameter logarithmic pulse-height analyzer. The spectral parameter for the differential neutron energy spectrum was found to decrease from 4.4 plus or minus 0.8 between 3.5 and 6.0 MeV to 1.5 plus or minus 1.0 in the interval 11 to 20 MeV; a value of 0.36 plus or minus 0.10 neutrons per cm squared was calculated for neutron flux between 3.5 and 10 MeV. The importance of these results for evaluating the role of albedo neutron leakage as a source of the energetic proton flux in the radiation belts is also considered.

  16. Cosmic-ray positron energy spectrum measured by PAMELA.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Bianco, A; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S A; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Pizzolotto, C; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Rossetto, L; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stochaj, S J; Stockton, J C; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2013-08-23

    Precision measurements of the positron component in the cosmic radiation provide important information about the propagation of cosmic rays and the nature of particle sources in our Galaxy. The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make a new measurement of the cosmic-ray positron flux and fraction that extends previously published measurements up to 300 GeV in kinetic energy. The combined measurements of the cosmic-ray positron energy spectrum and fraction provide a unique tool to constrain interpretation models. During the recent solar minimum activity period from July 2006 to December 2009, approximately 24,500 positrons were observed. The results cannot be easily reconciled with purely secondary production, and additional sources of either astrophysical or exotic origin may be required.

  17. Energy-consistent pseudopotentials for group 11 and 12 atoms: adjustment to multi-configuration Dirac Hartree Fock data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgen, Detlev; Rauhut, Guntram; Dolg, Michael; Stoll, Hermann

    2005-04-01

    Two-component relativistic pseudopotentials (i.e., scalar-relativistic and spin-orbit (SO) potentials) of the energy-consistent variety have been adjusted for the group 11 and 12 atoms Cu, Zn; Ag, Cd; Au, Hg, replacing the 1 s-2 p; 1 s-3 d; and 1 s-4 f cores, respectively. The adjustment has been done for the valence-energy spectrum of (near-)neutral atoms, to reference data from numerical all-electron four-component multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations, including the two-electron Breit interaction. For use in molecular calculations, the potentials have been supplemented by energy-optimized (12 s12 p9 d3 f2 g)/[6 s6 p4 d3 f2 g] valence basis sets. First benchmark applications of the potentials and basis sets are presented for atomic excitation energies and SO splittings at a correlated level, and for ground and excited state spectroscopic properties of group 11 monohalides and group 12 dimers.

  18. Spectrum of Quantized Energy for a Lengthening Pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Song, Ji Nny; Hong, Seong Ju

    2010-09-30

    We considered a quantum system of simple pendulum whose length of string is increasing at a steady rate. Since the string length is represented as a time function, this system is described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The invariant operator method is very useful in solving the quantum solutions of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems like this. The invariant operator of the system is represented in terms of the lowering operator a(t) and the raising operator a{sup {dagger}}(t). The Schroedinger solutions {psi}{sub n}({theta}, t) whose spectrum is discrete are obtained by means of the invariant operator. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the {psi}{sub n}({theta}, t) state is the same as the quantum energy. At first, we considered only {theta}{sup 2} term in the Hamiltonian in order to evaluate the quantized energy. The numerical study for quantum energy correction is also made by considering the angle variable not only up to {theta}{sup 4} term but also up to {theta}{sup 6} term in the Hamiltonian, using the perturbation theory.

  19. Application of adjusted data in calculating fission-product decay energies and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. C.; Labauve, R. J.; England, T. R.

    1982-06-01

    The code ADENA, which approximately calculates fussion-product beta and gamma decay energies and spectra in 19 or fewer energy groups from a mixture of U235 and Pu239 fuels, is described. The calculation uses aggregate, adjusted data derived from a combination of several experiments and summation results based on the ENDF/B-V fission product file. The method used to obtain these adjusted data and the method used by ADENA to calculate fission-product decay energy with an absorption correction are described, and an estimate of the uncertainty of the ADENA results is given. Comparisons of this approximate method are made to experimental measurements, to the ANSI/ANS 5.1-1979 standard, and to other calculational methods. A listing of the complete computer code (ADENA) is contained in an appendix. Included in the listing are data statements containing the adjusted data in the form of parameters to be used in simple analytic functions.

  20. Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of AE Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2009-11-01

    The nova-like cataclysmic binary AE Aqr, which is currently understood to be a former supersoft X-ray binary and current magnetic propeller, was observed for over two binary orbits (78 ks) in 2005 August with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The long, uninterrupted Chandra observation provides a wealth of details concerning the X-ray emission of AE Aqr, many of which are new and unique to the HETG. First, the X-ray spectrum is that of an optically thin multi-temperature thermal plasma; the X-ray emission lines are broad, with widths that increase with the line energy from σ ≈ 1 eV (510 km s-1) for O VIII to σ ≈ 5.5 eV (820 km s-1) for Si XIV; the X-ray spectrum is reasonably well fit by a plasma model with a Gaussian emission measure distribution that peaks at log T(K) = 7.16, has a width σ = 0.48, an Fe abundance equal to 0.44 times solar, and other metal (primarily Ne, Mg, and Si) abundances equal to 0.76 times solar; and for a distance d = 100 pc, the total emission measure EM = 8.0 × 1053 cm-3 and the 0.5-10 keV luminosity L X = 1.1 × 1031 erg s-1. Second, based on the f/(i + r) flux ratios of the forbidden (f), intercombination (i), and recombination (r) lines of the Heα triplets of N VI, O VII, and Ne IX measured by Itoh et al. in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum and those of O VII, Ne IX, Mg XI, and Si XIII in the Chandra HETG spectrum, either the electron density of the plasma increases with temperature by over three orders of magnitude, from n e ≈ 6 × 1010 cm-3 for N VI [log T(K) ≈ 6] to n e ≈ 1 × 1014 cm-3 for Si XIII [log T(K) ≈ 7], and/or the plasma is significantly affected by photoexcitation. Third, the radial velocity of the X-ray emission lines varies on the white dwarf spin phase, with two oscillations per spin cycle and an amplitude K ≈ 160 km s-1. These results appear to be inconsistent with the recent models of Itoh et al., Ikhsanov, and Venter

  1. CHANDRA HIGH-ENERGY TRANSMISSION GRATING SPECTRUM OF AE AQUARII

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2009-11-20

    The nova-like cataclysmic binary AE Aqr, which is currently understood to be a former supersoft X-ray binary and current magnetic propeller, was observed for over two binary orbits (78 ks) in 2005 August with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The long, uninterrupted Chandra observation provides a wealth of details concerning the X-ray emission of AE Aqr, many of which are new and unique to the HETG. First, the X-ray spectrum is that of an optically thin multi-temperature thermal plasma; the X-ray emission lines are broad, with widths that increase with the line energy from sigma approx 1 eV (510 km s{sup -1}) for O VIII to sigma approx 5.5 eV (820 km s{sup -1}) for Si XIV; the X-ray spectrum is reasonably well fit by a plasma model with a Gaussian emission measure distribution that peaks at log T(K) = 7.16, has a width sigma = 0.48, an Fe abundance equal to 0.44 times solar, and other metal (primarily Ne, Mg, and Si) abundances equal to 0.76 times solar; and for a distance d = 100 pc, the total emission measure EM = 8.0 x 10{sup 53} cm{sup -3} and the 0.5-10 keV luminosity L{sub X} = 1.1 x 10{sup 31} erg s{sup -1}. Second, based on the f/(i + r) flux ratios of the forbidden (f), intercombination (i), and recombination (r) lines of the Healpha triplets of N VI, O VII, and Ne IX measured by Itoh et al. in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum and those of O VII, Ne IX, Mg XI, and Si XIII in the Chandra HETG spectrum, either the electron density of the plasma increases with temperature by over three orders of magnitude, from n {sub e} approx 6 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} for N VI [log T(K) approx 6] to n {sub e} approx 1 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} for Si XIII [log T(K) approx 7], and/or the plasma is significantly affected by photoexcitation. Third, the radial velocity of the X-ray emission lines varies on the white dwarf spin phase, with two oscillations per spin cycle and an amplitude K approx 160 km s

  2. Psychological Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Environmental Stressors and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…

  3. Time-resolved electron beam energy spectrum diagnostics for Vanderbilt FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bibo; Kozub, John A.; Gabella, William E.

    2002-06-01

    A fast electron energy spectrometer has been built using a photodiode array measuring the backward optical transition radiation from a thin film of aluminum. The resolution of the electron energy spectrometer is about 0.2% with a time resolution of 50 ns. The maximum energy spread that can be measured is 6.4%. We present the measurements of the time-resolved electron beam energy spectrum on the Mark III linear accelerator at Vanderbilt University, while lasing at different wavelengths and while not lasing. We also discuss the effects of different parameters, such as cathode heating, alpha magnet strength and RF phase, on the electron energy spectrum and optical spectrum. The diagnostics of time-resolved electron energy spectrum and time-resolved laser spectrum provide the technology to understand the physical process of the FEL interaction. Based on these diagnostics, the FEL facility can realize some special modes of operation, such as macropulse chirping and macropulse two color lasing.

  4. Energy spectrum measured by the telescope array surface detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dmitri

    2012-05-01

    Two conflicting measurements of the ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been reported by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments. HiRes observes a ˜5sigma suppression at E = 1019.75 eV, which is in agreement with the prediction of Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) theory. AGASA, in contrast, sees the flux extended well beyond E = 1020 eV with no visible break, suggesting that the flux is limited only by the rate at which the sources can produce the UHECR and not by interaction of energetic particles with the cosmic microwave background, thus challenging the relativistic invariance principle. In response to this discrepancy, a new experiment named the Telescope Array (TA) has been deployed, which combines the detection elements used separately by HiRes and AGASA. We describe the TA surface detector (SD) analysis using a technique new to the field, which consists of a detailed Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation of the SD response to the natural cosmic rays, validating the MC by comparing its distributions with the data, and calculation of the SD aperture from the MC. We will also describe our reconstruction procedure, based solely upon the data, and its application to both data and the MC. Finally, we will describe the energy spectrum resulting from this analysis, which is found to be in excellent agreement with the HiRes result, and as such, is the first confirmation of the GZK effect by a ground array of scintillation counters.

  5. Possible dark energy imprints in the gravitational wave spectrum of mixed neutron-dark-energy stars

    SciTech Connect

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D. E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de

    2012-03-01

    In the present paper we study the oscillation spectrum of neutron stars containing both ordinary matter and dark energy in different proportions. Within the model we consider, the equilibrium configurations are numerically constructed and the results show that the properties of the mixed neuron-dark-energy star can differ significantly when the amount of dark energy in the stars is varied. The oscillations of the mixed neuron-dark-energy stars are studied in the Cowling approximation. As a result we find that the frequencies of the fundamental mode and the higher overtones are strongly affected by the dark energy content. This can be used in the future to detect the presence of dark energy in the neutron stars and to constrain the dark-energy models.

  6. Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi-photon beamstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoya, Kaoru; Chen, Pisin

    1989-03-01

    The final electron energy spectrum under multi-photon beamstrahlung process is derived analytically in the classical and the intermediate regimes. The maximum disruption angle from the low energy tail of the spectrum is also estimated. The results are then applied to the TLC and the CLIC parameters. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Ultra high energy events in ECHOS series and primary energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capdevielle, J. N.; Iwai, J.; Ogata, T.

    1985-01-01

    The compilation of ultra high energy jets suggests at present the existence of a bump in primary energy spectrum (with the standard concept of high energy collisions). The pseudo-rapidity distribution exhibits some typical anomalies, more than the (P sub t) behavior, which are (may be) the fingerprints of quark gluon plasma transition. The next results of Emulsion Chamber on Supersonic (ECHOS) will be in both cases determinant to confirm those tendancies, as well as an important effort of the cosmic ray community to develop in that sense a flying emulsion chamber experiment.

  8. Measurement of the Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzi, Valerio

    The energy spectrum of high-energy cosmic rays measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. The measurement is based on data collected until 31 December 2012 and extends over three orders of magnitude in energy from 3 × 1017 eV up to the very end of the spectrum. The spectral features are presented together with a detailed description of the recent improvements in determination of the energy scale.

  9. Energy spectrum and mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haungs, Andreas; Rebel, Heinigerd; Roth, Markus

    2003-07-01

    Primary cosmic rays above energies of about 100 TeV are investigated by observations of extensive air showers (EAS) using large area ground based detector installations for registering various components of the EAS cascade development. By such indirect studies of the primary cosmic rays a steepening of the power-law spectrum at around 3-5 PeV, known as the knee, has been identified. At higher energies around 5 EeV there appears a further change of the spectral index towards a flattening of the spectrum, called the ankle. The energy region above ca 50 EeV, where a cut-off of the cosmic ray spectrum (Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) cut-off) is theoretically predicted, is of particular current interest and provides an astrophysical enigma, since obviously trans-GZK events have been observed. Any explanation of these features of the cosmic ray spectrum needs sufficiently detailed knowledge of the shape of the spectrum and of the variation of the mass composition of cosmic rays. In this paper different experimental approaches deducing mass and energy sensitive information from the EAS experiments and their results are discussed. The experiments involve measurements of secondary particle distributions at various observation levels and of muons by deep underground detectors, as well as measurements of air Cherenkov light and, in particular at higher energies, of air fluorescence light emitted during the EAS development. Recently, methods for analysing multi-dimensional EAS parameter distributions have been favoured. They take into account correlations of different EAS parameters and, in particular by non-parametric techniques, also the influence of the intrinsic fluctuation of the air shower development. This paper illustrates the application of such methods in a coherent view of recent results. The advanced analysing methods are corroborated by hybrid experimental set-ups registering a larger set of different EAS observables simultaneously in an event-by-event mode. In

  10. Simulation of energy absorption spectrum in NaI crystal detector for multiple gamma energy using Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect

    Wirawan, Rahadi; Waris, Abdul; Djamal, Mitra; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-16

    The spectrum of gamma energy absorption in the NaI crystal (scintillation detector) is the interaction result of gamma photon with NaI crystal, and it’s associated with the photon gamma energy incoming to the detector. Through a simulation approach, we can perform an early observation of gamma energy absorption spectrum in a scintillator crystal detector (NaI) before the experiment conducted. In this paper, we present a simulation model result of gamma energy absorption spectrum for energy 100-700 keV (i.e. 297 keV, 400 keV and 662 keV). This simulation developed based on the concept of photon beam point source distribution and photon cross section interaction with the Monte Carlo method. Our computational code has been successfully predicting the multiple energy peaks absorption spectrum, which derived from multiple photon energy sources.

  11. Spectrum and ionization rate of low-energy Galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Biman B.; Gupta, Nayantara; Biermann, Peter L.

    2012-09-01

    We consider the rate of ionization of diffuse and molecular clouds in the interstellar medium by Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in order to constrain its low-energy spectrum. We extrapolate the GCR spectrum obtained from PAMELA at high energies (≥200 GeV nucleon-1) and a recently derived GCR proton flux at 1-200 GeV from observations of gamma-rays from molecular clouds, and find that the observed average Galactic ionization rate can be reconciled with this GCR spectrum if there is a low-energy cut-off for protons at 10-100 MeV. We also identify the flattening below a few GeV as being due to (a) decrease of the diffusion coefficient and dominance of convective loss at low energy and (b) the expected break in energy spectrum for a constant spectral index in momentum. We show that the inferred CR proton spectrum of ? for Ekin≤ few GeV is consistent with a power-law spectrum in momentum p-2.45± 0.4, which we identify as the spectrum at source. Diffusion loss at higher energies then introduces a steepening by E-α with α˜ 1/3, making it consistent with high-energy measurements.

  12. The FiR 1 photon beam model adjustment according to in-air spectrum measurements with the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Koivunoro, H; Schmitz, T; Hippeläinen, E; Liu, Y-H; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2014-06-01

    The mixed neutron-photon beam of FiR 1 reactor is used for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland. A beam model has been defined for patient treatment planning and dosimetric calculations. The neutron beam model has been validated with an activation foil measurements. The photon beam model has not been thoroughly validated against measurements, due to the fact that the beam photon dose rate is low, at most only 2% of the total weighted patient dose at FiR 1. However, improvement of the photon dose detection accuracy is worthwhile, since the beam photon dose is of concern in the beam dosimetry. In this study, we have performed ionization chamber measurements with multiple build-up caps of different thickness to adjust the calculated photon spectrum of a FiR 1 beam model.

  13. Energy spectrum of cascades generated by muons in Baksan underground scintillation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Achkasov, V. M.; Semenov, A. M.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectrum of cascades generated by cosmic ray muons underground is presented. The mean zenith angle of the muon arrival is theta=35 deg the depth approx. 1000 hg/sq cm. In cascades energy range 700 GeV the measured spectrum is in agreement with the sea-level integral muon spectrum index gamma=3.0. Some decrease of this exponent has been found in the range 4000 Gev.

  14. Low-energy break in the spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Neronov, A; Semikoz, D V; Taylor, A M

    2012-02-01

    Measurements of the low-energy spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) by detectors on or near Earth are affected by solar modulation. To overcome this difficulty, we consider nearby molecular clouds as GCR detectors outside the Solar System. Using γ-ray observations of the clouds by the Fermi telescope, we derive the spectrum of GCRs in the clouds from the observed γ-ray emission spectrum. We find that the GCR spectrum has a low-energy break with the spectral slope hardening by ΔΓ=1.1±0.3 at an energy of E=9±3  GeV. Detection of a low-energy break enables a measurement of GCR energy density in the interstellar space U=0.9±0.3  eV/cm{3}.

  15. The high energy X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula observed from OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, L. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Maurer, G. S.; Frost, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula was measured with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite. The total emission of the X-ray source shows no long term variability. The spectrum itself can be described by a single power law out to energies of at least 500 keV.

  16. Interfacial free energy adjustable phase field crystal model for homogeneous nucleation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Huang, Yunhao

    2016-05-18

    To describe the homogeneous nucleation process, an interfacial free energy adjustable phase-field crystal model (IPFC) was proposed by reconstructing the energy functional of the original phase field crystal (PFC) methodology. Compared with the original PFC model, the additional interface term in the IPFC model effectively can adjust the magnitude of the interfacial free energy, but does not affect the equilibrium phase diagram and the interfacial energy anisotropy. The IPFC model overcame the limitation that the interfacial free energy of the original PFC model is much less than the theoretical results. Using the IPFC model, we investigated some basic issues in homogeneous nucleation. From the viewpoint of simulation, we proceeded with an in situ observation of the process of cluster fluctuation and obtained quite similar snapshots to colloidal crystallization experiments. We also counted the size distribution of crystal-like clusters and the nucleation rate. Our simulations show that the size distribution is independent of the evolution time, and the nucleation rate remains constant after a period of relaxation, which are consistent with experimental observations. The linear relation between logarithmic nucleation rate and reciprocal driving force also conforms to the steady state nucleation theory.

  17. Energy spectrum of the recurrent cosmic rays variation during the solar minimum 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Alania, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We study temporal changes of the power-law energy/ rigidity spectrum of the first three harmonics of the recurrent variation of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity during the unusual solar minimum 23/24 and compare with four previous minima. We show that the energy spectrum of the amplitudes of the recurrent variation is soft in the minimum 23/24. Moreover, while the energy spectrum of the amplitudes of the first harmonic of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity practically behaves as during earlier four minima, the energy spectrum of the amplitudes of the second and the third harmonics demonstrate a valuable softening. We attribute this phenomenon to the decrease of an extension of heliosphere caused by the drop of the solar wind dynamic pressure during the solar minimum 23/24.

  18. Energy spectrum analysis of blast waves based on an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, F.; Shang, F.; Jia, Y.; Zhao, C.; Kong, D.

    2016-07-01

    Using the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), this paper investigates the problems of analysis and interpretation of the energy spectrum of a blast wave. It has been previously established that the energy spectrum is an effective feature by which to characterize a blast wave. In fact, the higher the energy spectra in a frequency band of a blast wave, the greater the damage to a target in the same frequency band. However, most current research focuses on analyzing wave signals in the time domain or frequency domain rather than considering the energy spectrum. We propose here an improved HHT method combined with a wavelet packet to extract the energy spectrum feature of a blast wave. When applying the HHT, the signal is first roughly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition. The wavelet packet method is then performed on each IMF to eliminate noise on the energy spectrum. Second, a coefficient is introduced to remove unrelated IMFs. The energy of each instantaneous frequency can be derived through the Hilbert transform. The energy spectrum can then be obtained by adding up all the components after the wavelet packet filters and screens them through a coefficient to obtain the effective IMFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by 12 groups of experimental data, and an energy attenuation model is established based on the experimental data. The improved HHT is a precise method for blast wave signal analysis. For other shock wave signals from blasting experiments, an energy frequency time distribution and energy spectrum can also be obtained through this method, allowing for more practical applications.

  19. Energy spectrum and transport in narrow HgTe quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Germanenko, A. V.; Minkov, G. M.; Rut, O. E.; Sherstobitov, A. A.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.

    2015-01-15

    The results of an experimental study of the transport phenomena and the hole energy spectrum of two-dimensional systems in the quantum well of HgTe zero-gap semiconductor with normal arrangement of quantum-confinement subbands are presented. An analysis of the experimental data allows us to reconstruct the carrier energy spectrum near the hole subband extrema. The results are interpreted using the standard kP model.

  20. Sewerage force adjustment technology for energy conservation in vacuum sanitation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhonghua; Li, Xiaoning; Kagawa, Toshiharu

    2013-03-01

    The vacuum sanitation is the safe and sound disposal approach of human excreta under the specific environments like flights, high speed trains and submarines. However, the propulsive force of current systems is not adjustable and the energy consumption does not adapt to the real time sewerage requirement. Therefore, it is important to study the sewerage force adjustment to improve the energy efficiency. This paper proposes an energy conservation design in vacuum sanitation systems with pneumatic ejector circuits. The sewerage force is controlled by changing the systematic vacuum degree according to the amount of the excreta. In particular, the amount of the excreta is tested by liquid level sensor and mass sensor. According to the amount of the excreta, the relationship between the excreta amount and the sewerage force is studied to provide proper propulsive force. In the other aspect, to provide variable vacuum degrees for different sanitation requirements, the suction and discharge system is designed with pneumatic vacuum ejector. On the basis of the static flow-rate characteristics and the vacuum generation model, the pressure response in the ejector circuit is studied by using the static flow rate characteristics of the ejector and air status equation. The relationship is obtained between supplied compressed air and systematic vacuum degree. When the compressed air is supplied to the ejector continuously, the systematic vacuum degree increases until the vacuum degree reaches the extreme value. Therefore, the variable systematic vacuum degree is obtained by controlling the compressed air supply of the ejector. To verify the effect of energy conservation, experiments are carried out in the artificial excreta collection, and the variable vacuum-degree design saves more than 30% of the energy supply. The energy conservation is realized effectively in the new vacuum sanitation systems with good application prospect. The proposed technology provides technological

  1. The cosmic ray energy spectrum between 10 14 and 10 16 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmacher, M. A. K.; Catanese, M. A.; Chantell, M. C.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J. W.; Fick, B. E.; Fortson, L. F.; Fowler, J. W.; Green, K. D.; Kieda, D. B.; Matthews, J.; Newport, B. J.; Nitz, D. F.; Ong, R. A.; Oser, S.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J. C.

    1999-05-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays with primary energies between 10 14 eV and 10 16 eV has been studied with the CASA-MIA air shower array. The measured differential energy spectrum is a power law ( dj/dE ∝ E -y) with spectral indices γ of 2.66±0.02 below approximately 10 15 eV and 3.00±0.05 above. A new method is used for measuring primary energy derived from ground-based data in a compositionally insensitive way. In contrast with some previous reports, the "knee" of the energy spectrum does not appear sharp, but rather a smooth transition over energies from 10 15 eV to 3.0 × 10 15 eV.

  2. PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido

    2012-10-20

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates {mu}- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k {approx}< 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup -1}. Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of {mu} and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  3. ENERGY SPECTRUM OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES ACCELERATED BY SHOCK WAVES: FROM FOCUSED TRANSPORT TO DIFFUSIVE ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Pingbing; Zhang Ming; Gamayunov, Konstantin; Rassoul, Hamid; Luo Xi

    2011-09-10

    The focused transport equation (FTE) includes all the necessary physics for modeling the shock acceleration of energetic particles with a unified description of first-order Fermi acceleration, shock drift acceleration, and shock surfing acceleration. It can treat the acceleration and transport of particles with an anisotropic distribution. In this study, the energy spectrum of pickup ions accelerated at shocks of various obliquities is investigated based on the FTE. We solve the FTE by using a stochastic approach. The shock acceleration leads to a two-component energy spectrum. The low-energy component of the spectrum is made up of particles that interact with shock one to a few times. For these particles, the pitch angle distribution is highly anisotropic, and the energy spectrum is variable depending on the momentum and pitch angle of injected particles. At high energies, the spectrum approaches a power law consistent with the standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory. For a parallel shock, the high-energy component of the power-law spectrum, with the spectral index being the same as the prediction of DSA theory, starts just a few times the injection speed. For an oblique or quasi-perpendicular shock, the high-energy component of the spectrum exhibits a double power-law distribution: a harder power-law spectrum followed by another power-law spectrum with a slope the same as the spectral index of DSA. The shock acceleration will eventually go into the DSA regime at higher energies even if the anisotropy is not small. The intensity of the energy spectrum given by the FTE, in the high-energy range where particles get efficient acceleration in the DSA regime, is different from that given by the standard DSA theory for the same injection source. We define the injection efficiency {eta} as the ratio between them. For a parallel shock, the injection efficiency is less than 1, but for an oblique shock or a quasi-perpendicular shock it could be greater.

  4. Energy spectrum transfer equations of solar wind turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, C.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    The recent studies of transfer equations for solar wind magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are reviewed with emphasis on the comparison with the statistical observational results. Helios and Voyager missions provide an opportunity to study the the radial evolution of the power spectrum. the cross-helicity the Alfven ratio and the minimum variance direction. Spectrum transfer equations are considered as a tool to explore the nature of this radial evolution of the fluctuations. The transfer equations are derived from incompressible MHD equations. Generally one needs to make assumptions about the nature of the fluctuations and the nature of the turbulent non-linear interactions to obtain numerical results which can be compared with the observations. Some special model results for several simple cases SUCH as for structures or strong mixing. for Alfven waves with weak turbulent interactions. and for a superposition of structures and Alfven waves. are discussed. The difference between the various approaches to derive and handle the transfer equations are also addressed. Finally some theoretical description of the compressible fluctuations are also briefly reviewed.

  5. EFTEM spectrum imaging at high-energy resolution.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bernhard; Kothleitner, Gerald; Grogger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of high-energy resolution EFTEM image series and the corrections needed for reliable data interpretation. The detail of spectral information gained from an image series is largely determined by the intrinsic energy resolution. In this work we show that energy resolution values of as low as 0.8 eV in spectra extracted from EFTEM image series can be obtained with a small energy-selecting slit. At this resolution level aberrations of the energy filter, in particular the non-isochromaticity, can no longer be neglected. We show that the four most prominent factors for EFTEM image series data correction--spatial drift, non-isochromaticity, energy drift and image distortion--must not be treated independently but have to be corrected in unison. We present an efficient algorithm for this correction, and demonstrate the applied correction for the case of a GaN/AlN multilayer sample. PMID:16872748

  6. Recent results of the energy spectrum and mass composition from Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    The Telescope Array experiment is the largest hybrid detector to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in the northern hemisphere. The observation started in November 2007 for Fluorescence Detector (FD) and in March 2008 for Surface Detectors (SD). Here, we present the preliminary results of the energy spectrum and mass composition of the UHECRs measured by the FD and hybrid technique from the Telescope Array three year observations. The energy spectrum measured by the Middle Drum FD station, which is the refurbished HiRes-I detector is consistent with the results from HiRes. The energy spectrum with the two newly constructed FDs and SD is also in good agreement with the result from HiRes, especially for the energy scale. The mass composition study with the slant depth of the maximum shower development (Xmax) is obtained by using the stereo and hybrid analysis. The result of the mass composition is consistent with the proton prediction.

  7. Influence of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability on the kinetic energy spectrum.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Christopher R.

    2010-09-01

    The fluctuating kinetic energy spectrum in the region near the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity field is measured at a high spatial resolution in the light gas to observe the effects of turbulence production and dissipation. It is found that the RMI acts as a source of turbulence production near the unstable interface, where energy is transferred from the scales of the perturbation to smaller scales until dissipation. The interface also has an effect on the kinetic energy spectrum farther away by means of the distorted reflected shock wave. The energy spectrum far from the interface initially has a higher energy content than that of similar experiments with a flat interface. These differences are quick to disappear as dissipation dominates the flow far from the interface.

  8. Is the Smagorinsky coefficient sensitive to uncertainty in the form of the energy spectrum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldi, M.; Lucor, D.; Sagaut, P.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the influence of uncertainties in the shape of the energy spectrum over the Smagorinsky ["General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. I: The basic experiment," Mon. Weather Rev. 91(3), 99 (1963)] subgrid scale model constant CS: the analysis is carried out by a stochastic approach based on generalized polynomial chaos. The free parameters in the considered energy spectrum functional forms are modeled as random variables over bounded supports: two models of the energy spectrum are investigated, namely, the functional form proposed by Pope [Turbulent Flows (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000)] and by Meyers and Meneveau ["A functional form for the energy spectrum parametrizing bottleneck and intermittency effects," Phys. Fluids 20(6), 065109 (2008)]. The Smagorinsky model coefficient, computed from the algebraic relation presented in a recent work by Meyers and Sagaut ["On the model coefficients for the standard and the variational multi-scale Smagorinsky model," J. Fluid Mech. 569, 287 (2006)], is considered as a stochastic process and is described by numerical tools streaming from the probability theory. The uncertainties are introduced in the free parameters shaping the energy spectrum in correspondence to the large and the small scales, respectively. The predicted model constant is weakly sensitive to the shape of the energy spectrum when large scales uncertainty is considered: if the large-eddy simulation (LES) filter cut is performed in the inertial range, a significant probability to recover values lower in magnitude than the asymptotic Lilly-Smagorinsky model constant is recovered. Furthermore, the predicted model constant occurrences cluster in a compact range of values: the correspondent probability density function rapidly drops to zero approaching the extremes values of the range, which show a significant sensitivity to the LES filter width. The sensitivity of the model constant to uncertainties propagated in the

  9. Evolving Concepts on Adjusting Human Resting Energy Expenditure Measurements for Body Size

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Shen, Wei; Peterson, Courtney M.; Müller, Manfred J.

    2012-01-01

    Establishing if an adult’s resting energy expenditure (REE) is high or low for their body size is a pervasive question in nutrition research. Early workers applied body mass and height as size measures and formulated the Surface Law and Kleiber’s Law, although each has limitations when adjusting REE. Body composition methods introduced during the mid-twentieth century provided a new opportunity to identify metabolically homogeneous “active” compartments. These compartments all show improved correlations with REE estimates over body mass-height approaches, but collectively share a common limitation: REE-body composition ratios are not “constant” but vary across men and women and with race, age, and body size. The now-accepted alternative to ratio-based norms is to adjust for predictors by applying regression models to calculate “residuals” that establish if a REE is relatively high or low. The distinguishing feature of statistical REE-body composition models is a “non-zero” intercept of unknown origin. The recent introduction of imaging methods has allowed development of physiological tissue-organ based REE prediction models. Herein we apply these imaging methods to provide a mechanistic explanation, supported by experimental data, for the non-zero intercept phenomenon and in that context propose future research directions for establishing between subject differences in relative energy metabolism. PMID:22863371

  10. [Application of the racial algorithm in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence overlapped spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Luo, Yao-Yao; Ge, Liang-Quan; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-02-01

    In the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis, scintillation detector such as NaI (Tl) detector usually has a low energy resolution at around 8%. The low energy resolution causes problems in spectral data analysis especially in the high background and low counts condition, it is very limited to strip the overlapped spectrum, and the more overlapping the peaks are, the more difficult to peel the peaks, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis can't be carried out because we can't recognize the peak address and peak area. Based on genetic algorithm and immune algorithm, we build a new racial algorithm which uses the Euclidean distance as the judgment of evolution, the maximum relative error as the iterative criterion to be put into overlapped spectrum analysis, then we use the Gaussian function to simulate different overlapping degrees of the spectrum, and the racial algorithm is used in overlapped peak separation and full spectrum simulation, the peak address deviation is in +/- 3 channels, the peak area deviation is no more than 5%, and it is proven that this method has a good effect in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence overlapped spectrum analysis.

  11. Adjustable spectrum LED solar simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Neal, William R.; Serreze, Harvey B.

    2014-02-01

    An LED solar simulator containing LEDs emitting at 23 different wavelengths is described. Taking into account the natural spectral width of each of the LED wavelengths, a reasonably well-behaved and spike-free spectral continuum is demonstrated. The LED light source is based on a modular design that facilitates fabrication of arbitrarily large area simulators for both single solar cell and multi-cell module test and evaluation. The spectral tunability of this simulator makes it an attractive instrument for use in evaluating the performance of both conventional solar cells and tandem solar cells. The basic modular building block is a 10 cm x 10 cm "tile" consisting of the LED emitter platform with reflecting side mirrors and driver electronics conveniently located directly underneath the emitter platform in a compact yet flexible configuration. Combinations of tiles facilitate manufacture of solar simulators of arbitrarily large size and shape, with the advantages of high reliability, spectral tunability, lighter weight, no water cooling requirements and absence of high voltages. Excellent spectral mixing and intensity uniformity is obtained on the measurement plane, resulting in a simulator that meets Class AAA specifications according to ASTM and IEC standards.

  12. Particle Energy Spectrum, Revisited from a Counting Statistics Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-28

    In nuclear science, gamma and neutron spectra are counted energy by energy, and then particle by particle. Until recently, few studies have been performed on how exactly those energy spectra are counted, or how those counts are correlated. Because of lack of investigation, cross section covariance and correlation matrices are usually estimated using perturbation method. We will discuss a statistical counting scheme that shall mimic the gamma and neutron counting process used in nuclear science. From this counting scheme, the cross section covariance and correlation can be statistically derived.

  13. Adjustable Nonlinear Mechanism System for Wideband Energy Harvesting in Rotational Circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Nakano, K.; Zheng, R.; Cartmell, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters have already been exhibited to draw energy from ambient vibration owing to their particular dynamic characteristics, and are feasible to desirable responses for broadband excitations of bistable and monostable systems. This study proposes an energy harvester for rotational applications, in which a cantilever beam pasted piezoelectric film and magnets with the same polarity are comprised as a nonlinear vibrating system. As the rotationally angular velocity gradually increases, the tensile stress to the cantilever beam is also self-adjusted with the increscent centrifugal force, causing the potential barriers of bistable type become shallow, so that the cantilever beam has the ability to maintain the high energy orbit motion from bistable hardening type to monostable hardening behavior. From the implemented results, the valid bandwidth of angular frequency can be improved from 26 rad/s - 132 rad/s to 15 rad/s - 215 rad/s, under the case of the effect of centrifugal force on nonlinear vibrating behavior. It demonstrates that the centrifugal force can significantly promote the performance of nonlinear energy harvesters.

  14. Material grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhou, Tong; Song, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    A grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression (SVR) is proposed. First, the spectra of the first and second back-wall echoes are cut into several frequency bands to calculate the energy attenuation coefficient spectrum. Second, the frequency band that is sensitive to grain size variation is determined. Finally, a statistical model between the energy attenuation coefficient in the sensitive frequency band and average grain size is established through SVR. Experimental verification is conducted on austenitic stainless steel. The average relative error of the predicted grain size is 5.65%, which is better than that of conventional methods.

  15. Primary electron spectrometer, 18:63 UE: Electrostatic analyzer description and energy spectrum determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The primary electron spectrometer used to detect auroral electrons on sounding rocket 18:63 UE is described. The spectrometer used exponentially decaying positive and negative voltages applied to spherical deflection plates for energy analysis. A method for determining the analyzer response which does not require the assumptions that the ratio of plate separation to mean radius, the entrance or the exit apertures are small is described. By comparison with experiment it is shown that the effect of neither entrance nor exit collimation can be ignored. The experimental and calculated values of the limiting orbits agree well. A non-iterative technique of unfolding the electron differential energy spectrum is described. This method does not require the usual assumption of a flat or histogram-type energy spectrum. The unfolded spectra using both this technique and one which assumes a flat spectrum are compared to actual input spectra. This technique is especially useful in analyzing peaked auroral electron energy spectra.

  16. Excitation energy dependent Raman spectrum of MoSe2

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Dahyun; Lee, Jae-Ung; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2015-01-01

    Raman investigation of MoSe2 was carried out with eight different excitation energies. Seven peaks, including E1g, A1g, E2g1, and A2u2 peaks are observed in the range of 100–400 cm−1. The phonon modes are assigned by comparing the peak positions with theoretical calculations. The intensities of the peaks are enhanced at different excitation energies through resonance with different optical transitions. The A1g mode is enhanced at 1.58 and 3.82 eV, which are near the A exciton energy and the band-to-band transition between higher energy bands, respectively. The E2g1 mode is strongly enhanced with respect to the A1g mode for the 2.71- and 2.81-eV excitations, which are close to the C exciton energy. The different enhancements of the A1g and E2g1 modes are explained in terms of the symmetries of the exciton states and the exciton-phonon coupling. Other smaller peaks including E1g and A2u2 are forbidden but appear due to the resonance effect near optical transition energies. PMID:26601614

  17. Energy spectrum of the low-lying gluon excitations in the Coulomb gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Krupinski, Pawel

    2006-06-01

    We compute the energy spectrum of low-lying gluonic excitations in the presence of static quark-antiquark sources using Coulomb gauge and the quasiparticle representation. Within the valence sector of the Fock space we reproduce both, the overall normalization and the ordering of the spin-parity multiplets. We discus how the interactions induced by the nonabelian Coulomb kernel are central in to fine structure of the spectrum.

  18. Effects of target charging and ion emission on the energy spectrum of emitted electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Link, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Schumacher, D. W.; Van Woerkom, L. D.

    2011-05-15

    We present numerical simulations of the energy spectrum of electrons escaping from a target struck by an ultra-intense laser pulse using 2D implicit hybrid particle in cell code LSP (large scale plasma) [D. R. Welch et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 063105 (2006)] and simple 1D capacitor model. The simulated energy spectrum as recorded by an electron spectrometer is found to differ significantly from the spectrum computed within the target. Analysis of the LSP simulations suggests two major mechanisms are responsible for this phenomenon: (1) The emitted electron energy spectrum is heavily influenced by the self-consistent electric fields generated along the target surface as the electrons escape and (2) these fields are themselves substantially modified by the simultaneous departure of accelerated surface ions. For electrons with internal energy greater than 4 MeV, both models predict a good correlation between the slope temperature of the input electron spectrum and that measured in a vacuum. We discuss the application of the inversion problem of obtaining internal electron energy distributions from experimental data.

  19. Energy spectrum, dissipation, and spatial structures in reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Gomez, D. O.

    2012-05-15

    We analyze the effect of the Hall term in the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence under a strong externally supported magnetic field, seeing how this changes the energy cascade, the characteristic scales of the flow, and the dynamics of global magnitudes, with particular interest in the dissipation. Numerical simulations of freely evolving three-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics are performed, for different values of the Hall parameter (the ratio of the ion skin depth to the macroscopic scale of the turbulence) controlling the impact of the Hall term. The Hall effect modifies the transfer of energy across scales, slowing down the transfer of energy from the large scales up to the Hall scale (ion skin depth) and carrying faster the energy from the Hall scale to smaller scales. The final outcome is an effective shift of the dissipation scale to larger scales but also a development of smaller scales. Current sheets (fundamental structures for energy dissipation) are affected in two ways by increasing the Hall effect, with a widening but at the same time generating an internal structure within them. In the case where the Hall term is sufficiently intense, the current sheet is fully delocalized. The effect appears to reduce impulsive effects in the flow, making it less intermittent.

  20. Communally breeding bats use physiological and behavioural adjustments to optimise daily energy expenditure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretzlaff, Iris; Kerth, Gerald; Dausmann, Kathrin H.

    2010-04-01

    Small endotherms must change roosting and thermoregulatory behaviour in response to changes in ambient conditions if they are to achieve positive energy balance. In social species, for example many bats, energy expenditure is influenced by environmental conditions, such as ambient temperature, and also by social thermoregulation. Direct measurements of daily fluctuations in metabolic rates in response to ambient and behavioural variables in the field have not been technologically feasible until recently. During different reproductive periods, we investigated the relationships between ambient temperature, group size and energy expenditure in wild maternity colonies of Bechstein’s bats ( Myotis bechsteinii). Bats used behavioural and physiological adjustments to regulate energy expenditure. Whether bats maintained normothermia or used torpor, the number of bats in the roosts as well changed with reproductive status and ambient temperature. During pregnancy and lactation, bats remained mostly normothermic and daily group sizes were relatively large, presumably to participate in the energetic benefits of social thermoregulation. In contrast, smaller groups were formed on days when bats used torpor, which occurred mostly during the post-lactation period. Thus, we were able to demonstrate on wild animals under natural conditions the significance of behavioural and physiological flexibility for optimal thermoregulatory behaviour in small endotherms.

  1. Energy spectrum and wavefunction of electrons in hybrid superconducting nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruchinin, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    Recent experiments have fabricated structured arrays. We study hybrid nanowires, in which normal and superconducting regions are in close proximity, by using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for superconductivity in a cylindrical nanowire. We succeed to obtain the quantum energy levels and wavefunctions of a superconducting nanowire. The obtained spectra of electrons remind Hofstadter’s butterfly.

  2. Energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed with the Telescope Array using a hybrid technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-02-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than 1018.2 eV with the fluorescence detectors (FDs) and the surface detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27, 2008 to September 7, 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  3. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnejad, M; Pestehe, S J; Mohammadi, M A

    2013-07-01

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy. PMID:23902061

  4. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadnejad, M.; Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2013-07-15

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy.

  5. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadnejad, M.; Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy.

  6. Impact evaluation of adjustable speed drives installed at Hewlett- Packard Company under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Spanner, G.E.

    1993-09-01

    This impact evaluation of adjustable speed drives (ASDS) that were recently installed at Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy savings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation projects in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at HP as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (HP`s Proposal and Completion Report). The project consisted of installing 24 ASDs on 24 variable air volume system supply- and return-fans at HP`s Vancouver, Washington manufacturing facility. A secondary benefit to adding the ASDs was the ability to program in a night-setback feature. This feature was always present in the existing central computer system but was not used because of the lack of ASDs. Based on this impact evaluation, energy savings from this project are expected to be 2,582,900 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr), or 0.30 average megawatts. The project cost $252,068 to install, and HP received payment of $201,654 (1992 dollars) from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. The real levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville is 7.0 mills/kwh (in 1992 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region is 10.8 mills/kwh in 1992 dollars, not including transmission and distribution effects. This project would not have been implemented without the acquisition payment from Bonneville.

  7. ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY SPECTRUM OF THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chkheidze, N.; Machabeli, G.; Osmanov, Z.

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, we construct a self-consistent theory interpreting the observations from the MAGIC Cherenkov Telescope of the very high energy (VHE) pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar. In particular, on the basis of Vlasov's kinetic equation, we study the process of quasi-linear diffusion (QLD) developed by means of the cyclotron instability. This mechanism provides simultaneous generation of low (radio) and VHE (0.01-25 GeV) emission on light cylinder scales in one location of the pulsar magnetosphere. A different approach to the synchrotron emission is considered, giving the spectral index of the VHE emission ({beta} = 2) and the exponential cutoff energy (23 GeV) in good agreement with the observational data.

  8. A New Method of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum Unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-11-25

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. The goal was to find out the reasons of a long time existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments (FF). On the one hand the {sup 252}Cf(sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data, on the other hand the understanding of PFN emission mechanism is very important for nuclear fission theory. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 10{sup 7} fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  9. Changes in the energy spectrum of anomalous oxygen and helium during 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Webber, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Data was used from the cosmic ray experiment on the Voyager spacecraft to measure the energy spectrum of anomalous O and He during the period 1977 to 1985. These spectra are found to change dramatically after the middle of 1980, with the peak of plateau region of the differential spectrum shifting to a higher energy. This change appears to be related to the reversal of the solar magnetic field and could imply that particle drifts are important to the acceleration of propagation of these particles.

  10. Energy spectrum of cosmic-ray iron nucleus observed with emulsion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Y.; Shimada, E.; Ohta, I.; Tasaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Sugimoto, H.; Taira, K.; Tateyama, N.

    1985-01-01

    Energy spectrum of cosmic-ray Fe-nucleus has been measured from 4 GeV per nucleon to beyond 100 GeV per nucleon. The data were obtained using emulsion chambers on a balloon from Sanriku, Japan. The energies were estimated by the opening angle method after calibrated using 1.88 GeV per nucleon Fe collisions. The spectrum of Fe is approximately E-2.5 in the range from 10 to 200 GeV per nucleon. This result is in good agreement with those of other experiments.

  11. Measurement of electron-positron spectrum in high-energy cosmic rays in the PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A. V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S. A.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A. A.; Mayorov, A. G.; Malakhov, V. V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Menn, W.; Merge, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Rossetto, L.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-08-01

    At present the existing data on the cosmic ray electron energy spectra in the high energy range are fragmented, and the situation is exacerbated by their small number. In the satellite PAMELA experiment measurements at high energies are carried out by the calorimeter. The experimental data accumulated for more than 8 years of measurements, with the information of the calorimeter, the neutron detector and the scintillation counters made it possible to obtain the total spectrum of high-energy electrons and positrons in energy range 0.3-3 TeV.

  12. Holographic lens spectrum splitting photovoltaic system for increased diffuse collection and annual energy yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Yuechen; Ayala, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating and spectrum splitting photovoltaic (PV) modules have a limited acceptance angle and thus suffer from optical loss under off-axis illumination. This loss manifests itself as a substantial reduction in energy yield in locations where a significant portion of insulation is diffuse. In this work, a spectrum splitting PV system is designed to efficiently collect and convert light in a range of illumination conditions. The system uses a holographic lens to concentrate shortwavelength light onto a smaller, more expensive indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV cell. The high efficiency PV cell near the axis is surrounded with silicon (Si), a less expensive material that collects a broader portion of the solar spectrum. Under direct illumination, the device achieves increased conversion efficiency from spectrum splitting. Under diffuse illumination, the device collects light with efficiency comparable to a flat-panel Si module. Design of the holographic lens is discussed. Optical efficiency and power output of the module under a range of illumination conditions from direct to diffuse are simulated with non-sequential raytracing software. Using direct and diffuse Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) irradiance measurements, annual energy yield of the module is calculated for several installation sites. Energy yield of the spectrum splitting module is compared to that of a full flat-panel Si reference module.

  13. All-Particle Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum Measured with 26 Icetop Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Stamatikos, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, thesurface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysiswere taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 square kilometers.The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three different zenithangle ranges between 0 and 46. Because of the isotropy of cosmic rays in this energy range the spectrafrom all zenith angle intervals have to agree. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum was determined under differentassumptions on the primary mass composition. Good agreement of spectra in the three zenithangle ranges was found for the assumption of pure proton and a simple two-component model. Forzenith angles theta less than 30 deg., where the mass dependence is smallest, the knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrumwas observed at about 4 PeV, with a spectral index above the knee of about -3.1. Moreover, an indicationof a flattening of the spectrum above 22 PeV was observed.

  14. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  15. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead. PMID:27376290

  16. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead. PMID:27376290

  17. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-06-30

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.

  18. Long-term differential energy spectrum for solar-flare iron-group particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Fruland, R. M.; Morrison, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A long-term solar-flare differential energy spectrum for iron-group nuclei from approximately 0.1 to approximately 600 MeV/amu is derived from track density profile measurements in sample 64455 and sample 68815. Measurements from uneroded surfaces were obtained from quench crystals of plagioclase in 64455, and a Kr-81/Kr method indicates that the exposure age of this sample is 2,010,000 yrs. The power laws which best fit the normalized track density data are reported; the energy spectrum consists of two power law curves smoothly joined together which in turn are smoothly connected to a modulated galactic cosmic-ray spectrum. Standard track production versus depth profiles can be used to determine solar-flare track exposure ages and erosion rates for lunar samples.

  19. Energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of Monte Carlo electron photon cascade calculations for propagation of gamma rays through regions of extragalactic space containing no magnetic field are given. These calculations then provide upper limits to the expected flux from extragalactic sources. Since gamma rays in the 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 17th power eV energy range are of interest, interactions of electrons and photons with the 3 K microwave background radiation are considered. To obtain an upper limit to the expected gamma ray flux from sources, the intergalactic field is assumed to be so low that it can be ignored. Interactions with photons of the near-infrared background radiation are not considered here although these will have important implications for gamma rays below 10 to the 14th power eV if the near infrared background radiation is universal. Interaction lengths of electrons and photons in the microwave background radiation at a temperature of 2.96 K were calculated and are given.

  20. Spectrum measurement with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) fluorescence detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary James

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is the largest Ultra High Energy cosmic ray observatory in the northern hemisphere and is designed to be sensitive to cosmic ray air showers above 1018eV. Despite the substantial measurements made by TA and AUGER (the largest cosmic ray observatory in the southern hemisphere), there remains uncertainty about whether the highest energy cosmic rays are galactic or extragalactic in origin. Locating features in the cosmic ray energy spectrum below 1018eV that indicate a transition from galactic to extragalactic sources would clarify the interpretation of measurements made at the highest energies. The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) is designed to extend the energy threshold of the TA observatory down to 1016.5eV in order to make such measurements. This dissertation details the construction, calibration, and operation of the TALE flu- orescence detector. A measurement of the flux of cosmic rays in the energy range of 1016.5 -- 1018.5eV is made using the monocular data set taken between September 2013 and January 2014. The TALE fluorescence detector observes evidence for a softening of the cosmic spectrum at 1017.25+/-0.5eV. The evidence of a change in the spectrum motivates continued study of 1016.5 -- 1018.5eV cosmic rays.

  1. Measurement of the excitation spectrum of a Bose condensate, and direct observation of the phonon energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeri, Roee; Steinhauer, Jeff; Katz, Nadav; Davidson, Nir

    2002-05-01

    The excitation spectrum gives the energy, hw(k), of each excitation in the Bose condensate (BEC) as a function of its wave vector k. We report the first measurement of the excitation spectrum [1]. The excitation spectrum is measured by Bragg spectroscopy [2]. The response of the condensate to the two-photon Bragg pulse is extracted from time of flight (TOF) images. The resonance frequency of the excitation for momentum hk is taken as w(k). The measured w(k) agrees with the Bogoliubov spectrum predictions. A linear phonon regime is seen for low k. The superfluid critical velocity is bounded by w(k)/k of this regime. In addition, the energy and momentum of the atoms are measured directly from the TOF image, computerized tomography is used to reconstruct the cylindrical density distribution, from a single absorption picture [3]. The excitation energies measured this way are in agreement with the value measured using Bragg spectroscopy. Our measurements also indicate that all of the excitation energy is carried by the atoms in the released-phonon cloud. [1] J. Steinhauer et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. in press (Cond. Mat. 0111438). [2] J. Stenger, et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4569-4573 (1999). [3] R. Ozeri, et. al. Cond. Mat. 0112496.

  2. Balloon measurements of the energy spectrum of cosmic electrons between 1 and 25 GeV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, J. A.; Neely, D. E.; Rygg, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    During three balloon flights made in 1966 and 1967, cosmic electrons were investigated with the aid of a hodoscope detector that provided extensive and detailed information on each cosmic-ray event triggering the apparatus. Similar information obtained during calibration exposures to protons and pions as well as to electrons was used to provide identification of cosmic electrons and to determine their energies. Differential primary electron intensities measured in the range from 1 to 25 GeV were substantially larger than some earlier measurements. In conjunction with existing measurements at energies above 100 GeV, this finding indicates that the energy spectrum of cosmic electrons is steeper than that of cosmic-ray nuclei and consequently suggests that Compton/synchrotron energy loss plays a significant role in shaping the electron spectrum.

  3. Semiclassical analysis of the Efimov energy spectrum in the unitary limit

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Rajat K.; Brack, Matthias; Murthy, M. V. N.

    2011-06-15

    We demonstrate that the (s-wave) geometric spectrum of the Efimov energy levels in the unitary limit is generated by the radial motion of a primitive periodic orbit (and its harmonics) of the corresponding classical system. The action of the primitive orbit depends logarithmically on the energy. It is shown to be consistent with an inverse-squared radial potential with a lower cutoff radius. The lowest-order WKB quantization, including the Langer correction, is shown to reproduce the geometric scaling of the energy spectrum. The (WKB) mean-squared radii of the Efimov states scale geometrically like the inverse of their energies. The WKB wave functions, regularized near the classical turning point by Langer's generalized connection formula, are practically indistinguishable from the exact wave functions even for the lowest (n=0) state, apart from a tiny shift of its zeros that remains constant for large n.

  4. Power Versus Spectrum 2-D Sensing in Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Han, Weijia; Li, Di; Zhang, Ping; Cui, Shuguang

    2015-12-01

    Energy harvester based cognitive radio is a promising solution to address the shortage of both spectrum and energy. Since the spectrum access and power consumption patterns are interdependent, and the power value harvested from certain environmental sources are spatially correlated, the new power dimension could provide additional information to enhance the spectrum sensing accuracy. In this paper, the Markovian behavior of the primary users is considered, based on which we adopt a hidden input Markov model to specify the primary vs. secondary dynamics in the system. Accordingly, we propose a 2-D spectrum and power (harvested) sensing scheme to improve the primary user detection performance, which is also capable of estimating the primary transmit power level. Theoretical and simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, in term of the performance gain achieved by considering the new power dimension. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to jointly consider the spectrum and power dimensions for the cognitive primary user detection problem.

  5. The effect of stochastic re-acceleration on the energy spectrum of shock-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Vainio, Rami; Kocharov, Leon

    2014-07-20

    The energy spectra of particles in gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events do not always have a power-law form attributed to the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In particular, the observed spectra in major SEP events can take the form of a broken (double) power law. In this paper, we study the effect of a process that can modify the power-law spectral form produced by the diffusive shock acceleration: the stochastic re-acceleration of energetic protons by enhanced Alfvénic turbulence in the downstream region of a shock wave. There are arguments suggesting that this process can be important when the shock propagates in the corona. We consider a coronal magnetic loop traversed by a shock and perform Monte Carlo simulations of interactions of shock-accelerated protons with Alfvén waves in the loop. The wave-particle interactions are treated self-consistently, so the finiteness of the available turbulent energy is taken into account. The initial energy spectrum of particles is taken to be a power law. The simulations reveal that the stochastic re-acceleration leads either to the formation of a spectrum that is described in a wide energy range by a power law (although the resulting power-law index is different from the initial one) or to a broken power-law spectrum. The resulting spectral form is determined by the ratio of the energy density of shock-accelerated protons to the wave energy density in the shock's downstream region.

  6. Energy expenditure adjusted for body composition differentiates constitutional thinness from both normal subjects and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bossu, Cécile; Galusca, Bogdan; Normand, Sylvie; Germain, Natacha; Collet, Philippe; Frere, Delphine; Lang, François; Laville, Martine; Estour, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Constitutional thinness (CT) is characterized by a low and stable body mass index (BMI) without any hormonal abnormality. To understand the weight steadiness, energetic metabolism was evaluated. Seven CT, seven controls, and six anorexia nervosa (AN) young women were compared. CT and AN had a BMI <16.5 kg/m(2). Four criteria were evaluated: 1) energy balance including diet record, resting metabolic rate (RMR) (indirect calorimetry), total energy expenditure (TEE) (doubly labeled water), physical activity; 2) body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); 3) biological markers (leptin, IGF-I, free T3); 4) psychological profile of eating behavior. The normality of free T3 (3.7 +/- 0.5 pmol/l), IGF-I (225 +/- 93 ng/ml), and leptin (8.3 +/- 3.4 ng/ml) confirmed the absence of undernutrition in CT. Their psychological profiles revealed a weight gain desire. TEE (kJ/day) in CT (8,382 +/- 988) was not found significantly different from that of controls (8,793 +/- 845) and AN (8,001 +/- 2,152). CT food intake (7,565 +/- 908 kJ/day) was found similar to that of controls (7,961 +/- 1,452 kJ/day) and higher than in AN (4,894 +/- 703 kJ/day), thus explaining the energy metabolism balance. Fat-free mass (FFM) (kg) was similar in CT and AN (32.5 +/- 2.9 vs. 34.1 +/- 1.9) and higher in controls (37.8 +/- 1.6). While RMR absolute values (kJ/day) were lower in CT (4,839 +/- 473) than in controls (5,576 +/- 209), RMR values adjusted for FFM were the highest in CT. TEE-to-FFM ratio was also higher in CT than in controls. Energetic metabolism balance maintains a stable low weight in CT. An increased energy expenditure-to-FFM ratio differentiates CT from controls and could account for the resistance to weight gain observed in CT.

  7. Additions to the spectrum and energy levels and critical compilation of doubly ionized boron, B III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, A. E.; Ryabtsev, A. N.; Ekberg, J. O.; Kink, I.; Mannervik, S.; Martinson, I.

    2008-08-01

    We have undertaken the study of the Li-like spectrum of doubly ionized boron, B III. The spectroscopic data have been obtained with beam-foil spectroscopy and high-resolution spark spectroscopy. The experimental work was combined with theoretical calculations using ab initio and semi-empirical techniques. About 50 new transitions have been observed, and most of the previously known lines have been measured with improved accuracy. We have also critically evaluated all previous and recent data for this spectrum. Complete data on wavelengths and energy levels based on this analysis are tabulated.

  8. Testing oscillating primordial spectrum and oscillating dark energy with astronomical observations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Li, Hong; Zhang, Xinmin; Xia, Jun-Qing E-mail: hongli@ihep.ac.cn E-mail: xmzhang@ihep.ac.cn

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we revisit the issue of determining the oscillating primordial scalar power spectrum and oscillating equation of state of dark energy from the astronomical observations. By performing a global analysis with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we find that the current observations from five-year WMAP and SDSS-LRG matter power spectrum, as well as the ''union'' supernovae sample, constrain the oscillating index of primordial spectrum and oscillating equation of state of dark energy with the amplitude less than |n{sub amp}| < 0.116 and |w{sub amp}| < 0.232 at 95% confidence level, respectively. This result shows that the oscillatory structures on the primordial scalar spectrum and the equation of state of dark energy are still allowed by the current data. Furthermore, we point out that these kinds of modulation effects will be detectable (or gotten a stronger constraint) in the near future astronomical observations, such as the PLANCK satellite, LAMOST telescope and the currently ongoing supernovae projects SNLS.

  9. Lorentz Invariance Violation and the Observed Spectrum of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, S. T.; Stecker, F. W.

    2009-01-01

    There has been much interest in possible violations of Lorentz invariance, particularly motivated by quantum gravity theories. It has been suggested that a small amount of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) could turn of photomeson interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with photons of the cosmic background radiation and thereby eliminate the resulting sharp steepening in the spectrum of the highest energy CRs predicted by Greisen Zatsepin and Kuzmin (GZK). Recent measurements of the UHECR spectrum reported by the HiRes and Auger collaborations, however, indicate the presence of the GZK effect. We present the results of a detailed calculation of the modification of the UHECR spectrum caused by LIV using the formalism of Coleman and Glashow. We then compare these results with the experimental UHECR data from Auger and HiRes. Based on these data, we find a best fit amount of LIV of 4.5+1:5 ..4:5 x 10(exp -23),consistent with an upper limit of 6 x 10(exp -23). This possible amount of LIV can lead to a recovery of the cosmic ray spectrum at higher energies than presently observed. Such an LIV recovery effect can be tested observationally using future detectors.

  10. Mars Energy Spectrum studies from Assimilated MCS data using the UK MGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeanu, Alexandru; Read, Peter; Wang, Yixiong; Lewis, Stephen; Montabone, Luca; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin

    2015-04-01

    Introduction The energy spectrum (ES) analysis is a renowned tool for understanding the driving mechanisms behind atmospheric turbulence (Lindborg, 1998). We aim to investigate whether energy and enstrophy inertial ranges exist in the kinetic energy spectrum (KES), and to quantify the corresponding cascades (with their ranges), and relationship with the atmospheric forcing and energy dissipation scales. The calculation of the ES from observational data is known to be highly non-trivial due to the lack of global coverage in space and time. Gage and Nastrom (1984) were the first to overcome this problem for Earth but this has not so far been attempted for Mars. Our approach is to take the sparse observational data and assimilate it using a global numerical model. We present preliminary results using the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) retrievals and the LMD-UK Mars GCM (MGCM). This was pioneered by Lewis and Read (1999). Methodology The equations we used to calculate the Eddy and Zonal Mean kinetic energies are derived from total KES formula presented in Lindborg and Augier (2013). Hence, adding the two spectra together, we obtain the full KES spectrum as presented in their paper. For the Available Potential Energy Spectrum (APES), we have used a preliminary simplified version of the approach presented in Lindborg and Augier (2013). The Energy Spectra To date we have assimilated the MCS data at the resolution of T31 (triangular truncation), hence the ES only spans up to total wavenumber 31. This encompasses a portion of the energy inertial range, which might be expected to manifest the -3 exponential law by analogy with the Earth (Gage & Nastrom, 1984). Features: - velocities and corresponding KEs are higher with increasing height compared to Earth, - "-3" slope is restricted to ~30 km altitude, suggesting an early departure from the enstrophy inertial range, - boundary layer velocities are similar to Earth References 1. Gage and Nastrom, A Climatology of Atmospheric

  11. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion.

  12. Measurements of the spectrum and energy dependence of X-ray transition radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of experiments designed to test the theory of X-ray transition radiation and to verify the predicted dependence of the characteristic features of the radiation on the radiator dimensions are presented. The X-ray frequency spectrum produced by 5- to 9-GeV electrons over the range 4 to 30 keV was measured with a calibrated single-crystal Bragg spectrometer, and at frequencies up to 100 keV with an NaI scintillator. The interference pattern in the spectrum and the hardening of the radiation with increasing foil thickness are clearly observed. The energy dependence of the total transition-radiation intensity was studied using a radiator with large dimensions designed to yield energy-dependent signals at very high particle energies, up to E/mc-squared approximately equal to 100,000. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  13. Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized zirconium (Zr VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph; Lindsay, Mark D.

    2016-02-01

    We carried out a new analysis of the spectrum of five-times-ionized zirconium Zr VI. For this we used sliding-spark discharges together with normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs to observe the spectrum from 160 to 2000 Å. These observations showed that the analysis of this spectrum by Khan et al (1985 Phys. Scr. 31 837) contained a significant number of incorrect energy levels. We have now classified ˜420 lines as transitions between 23 even-parity levels 73 odd-parity levels. The 4s24p5, 4s4p6, 4s24p44d, 5s, 5d, 6s configurations are now complete, although a few levels of 4s24p45d are tentative. We determined Ritz-type wavelengths for ˜135 lines from the optimized energy levels. The uncertainties range from 0.0003 to 0.0020 Å. Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels were used to interpret the observed configurations. Oscillator strengths for all classified lines were calculated with the fitted parameters. The results are compared with values for the level energies, percentage compositions, and transition probabilities from recent ab initio theoretical calculations. The ionization energy was revised to 777 380 ± 300 cm-1 (96.38 ± 0.04 eV).

  14. Corrections on energy spectrum and scatterings for fast neutron radiography at NECTAR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-Quan; Bücherl, Thomas; Li, Hang; Zou, Yu-Bin; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Guo, Zhi-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Distortions caused by the neutron spectrum and scattered neutrons are major problems in fast neutron radiography and should be considered for improving the image quality. This paper puts emphasis on the removal of these image distortions and deviations for fast neutron radiography performed at the NECTAR facility of the research reactor FRM- II in Technische Universität München (TUM), Germany. The NECTAR energy spectrum is analyzed and established to modify the influence caused by the neutron spectrum, and the Point Scattered Function (PScF) simulated by the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX is used to evaluate scattering effects from the object and improve image quality. Good analysis results prove the sound effects of the above two corrections.

  15. The puzzle of the ankle in the Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum, and composition indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Glennys

    2015-08-01

    The sharp change in slope of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum around 10^18.6 eV (the ankle), combined with evidence of a light but extragalactic component near and below the ankle and intermediate composition above, has proved exceedingly challenging to understand theoretically. In this talk I discuss two possible solutions to the puzzle and how they can be (in)validated.First, I present a new mechanism whereby photo-disintegration of ultra-high energy nuclei in the region surrounding a UHECR accelerator naturally accounts for the observed spectrum and inferred composition (using LHC-tuned models extrapolated to UHE) at Earth. We discuss the conditions required to reproduce the spectrum above 10^17.5 eV and the composition, which -- in our model -- consists below the ankle of extragalactic protons and the high energy tail of Galactic Cosmic Rays, and above the ankle of surviving nuclei from the extended source. Predictions for the spectrum and flavors of neutrinos resulting from this process will be presented, and also implications for candidate sources.The other possible explanation is that in actuality UHECRs are entirely or almost entirely protons, and the cross-section for p-Air scattering increases more rapidly above center-of-mass energy of 70 TeV (10 times the current LHC cm energy) than predicted in conventional models. This gives an equally good fit to the depth-of-shower maximum behavior obverved by Auger, while being an intriguing sign of new state in QCD at extremely high energy density.

  16. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  17. The knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum from the simultaneous EAS charged particles and muon density spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijay, Biplab; Banik, Prabir; Bhadra, Arunava

    2016-09-01

    In this work we examine with the help of Monte Carlo simulation whether a consistent primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays emerges from both the experimentally observed total charged particles and muon size spectra of cosmic ray extensive air showers considering primary composition may or may not change beyond the knee of the energy spectrum. It is found that EAS-TOP observations consistently infer a knee in the primary energy spectrum provided the primary is pure unchanging iron whereas no consistent primary spectrum emerges from simultaneous use of the KASCADE observed total charged particle and muon spectra. However, it is also found that when primary composition changes across the knee the estimation of spectral index of total charged particle spectrum is quite tricky, depends on the choice of selection of points near the knee in the size spectrum.

  18. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    DOE PAGES

    Fukuda, Makoto; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Garrison, Lauren M.; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Hasegawa, Akira

    2016-07-02

    We performed a neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In order to investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ~90–~800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02–9.00 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the hardness and microstructure changes exhibitedmore » a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Finally, irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten.« less

  19. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Garrison, Lauren M.; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Hasegawa, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten was performed in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). To investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ∼90-∼800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02-9.00 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and microstructure changes exhibited a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten.

  20. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥ 10 GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  1. Diffuse gamma radiation. [intensity, energy spectrum and spatial distribution from SAS 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for an investigation of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma radiation detected by SAS 2 away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV. The gamma-ray data are compared with relevant data obtained at other wavelengths, including 21-cm emission, radio continuum radiation, and the limited UV and radio information on local molecular hydrogen. It is found that there are two quite distinct components to the diffuse radiation, one of which shows a good correlation with the galactic matter distribution and continuum radiation, while the other has a much steeper energy spectrum and appears to be isotropic at least on a coarse scale. The galactic component is interpreted in terms of its implications for both local and more distant regions of the Galaxy. The apparently isotropic radiation is discussed partly with regard to the constraints placed on possible models by the steep energy spectrum, the observed intensity, and an upper limit on the anisotropy.

  2. Energy Spectrum and Composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers Using Hybrid Analysis from Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jui, Charles; Allen, Monica; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Stokes, Benjamin; Ivanov, Dmitri

    2013-04-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) consists of 38 fluorescence telescopes spread over three detector sites. The three sites at located the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters, covering 700 square km, with a spacing of 1.2 km. TA is designed to study the energy spectrum, composition, and arrival direction anisotropy of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR). A unique feature of TA is that one of three fluorescence detector (FD) sites, Middle Drum (MD), is instrumented with 14 refurbished telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. This commonality provides TA with a direct link back to the HiRes experiment and data. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the MD data improves the geometrical reconstruction and hence provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle and shower profile. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum composition results will be presented.

  3. Cosmic ray energy spectrum around the knee obtained by the Tibet Experiment and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayose, Yusaku

    The measurement of the energy spectrum and the chemical composition of cosmic rays at the 'Knee' energy region have been made in the Tibet-AS experiment since 1990. The 1st phase of the Tibet hybrid experiment(1996-1999) consisted of Tibet II air-shower array(AS), Emulsion Chamber(EC) and burst detector(BD). The EC was used to detect high energy-gamma-families of the energy greater than 20 TeV at the core of ASs of which more than 80% are induced by light nuclei like protons or helium. Due to the high spatial resolution of the EC, proton and helium events were separated from others and we obtained the energy spectrum of each of them using 177 family events. We also obtained all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 1014 eV to 1017 eV by the Tibet-III air-shower array. The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. These results strongly indicated that the fraction of the light component to the all particle spectrum is decreasing around the knee.The observation of the AS core has been continued with upgraded Tibet III array and burst detectors without using X-ray films, which still works as the selector for the air showers induced by light component (pHe). This second phase experiment shows that the dominance of the heavy elements at the knee reported by the first phase experiment is confirmed with higher statistics by one order.Our results suggest that the main component at the knee is heavy elements (heavier than helium) because of the low intensities of observed proton and helium fluxes, whose summed flux are less than 30% of all particles. A new air-shower-core detector(YAC) will be added to the Tibet AS array to explicitly measure the heavy elements around the knee and beyond. In this paper, the results of composition study with the Tibet experiment are summarized and the prospects for the next phase experiment are described.

  4. Energy spectrum of the Dirac equation for the Scharzschild and Kerr fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ternov, I.M.; Gaina, A.B.

    1988-08-01

    We consider the effect of relativistic corrections and rotation of the central body on the structure of the energy spectrum of a particle with spin in the Schwarzchild and Kerr fields. A splitting of levels is obtained, which corresponds to the classical shift of the perihelion of the orbit and precession of the plane of the gravitational spin-orbit interaction and several nonlinear spin effects are calculated.

  5. Magnetic diffusion effects on the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban E-mail: roulet@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the effects of diffusion of high energy cosmic rays in turbulent extra-galactic magnetic fields. We find an approximate expression for the low energy suppression of the spectrum of the different mass components (with charge Z) in the case in which this suppression happens at energies below ∼ Z EeV, so that energy losses are dominated by the adiabatic ones. The low energy suppression appears when cosmic rays from the closest sources take a time comparable to the age of the Universe to reach the Earth. This occurs for energies E < Z EeV (B/nG)√(l{sub c}/Mpc)(d{sub s}/70Mpc) in terms of the magnetic field RMS strength B, its coherence length l{sub c} and the typical separation between sources d{sub s}. We apply this to scenarios in which the sources produce a mixed composition and have a relatively low maximum rigidity (E{sub max} ∼ (2–10)Z EeV), finding that diffusion has a significant effect on the resulting spectrum, the average mass and on its spread, in particular reducing this last one. For reasonable values of B and l{sub c} these effects can help to reproduce the composition trends observed by the Auger Collaboration for source spectra compatible with Fermi acceleration.

  6. The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and surface array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M. G.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.

  7. Peculiarities of the electron energy spectrum in the Coulomb field of a superheavy nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, B. L.; Gitman, D. M.; Levin, A. D.; Ferreira, R.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the peculiarities of the electron energy spectrum in the Coulomb field of a superheavy nucleus and discuss the long history of an incorrect interpretation of this problem in the case of a pointlike nucleus and its current correct solution. We consider the spectral problem in the case of a regularized Coulomb potential. For some special regularizations, we derive an exact equation for the point spectrum in the energy interval (-m,m) and find some of its solutions numerically. We also derive an exact equation for charges yielding bound states with the energy E = -m; some call them supercritical charges. We show the existence of an infinite number of such charges. Their existence does not mean that the oneparticle relativistic quantum mechanics based on the Dirac Hamiltonian with the Coulomb field of such charges is mathematically inconsistent, although it is physically unacceptable because the spectrum of the Hamiltonian is unbounded from below. The question of constructing a consistent nonperturbative second-quantized theory remains open, and the consequences of the existence of supercritical charges from the standpoint of the possibility of constructing such a theory also remain unclear.

  8. The Spectrum of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2008-01-01

    There has been much interest in possible violations of Lorentz invariance, particularly motivated by quantum gravity theories. It has been suggested that a small amount of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) could turn off photomeson interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with photons of the cosmic background radiation and thereby eliminate the resulting sharp steepening in the spectrum of the highest energy CRs predicted by Greisen Zatsepin and Kuzmin (GZK). Recent measurements of the UHECR spectrum reported by the HiRes and Auger collaborations, however, indicate the presence of the GZK effect. We present the results of a detailed calculation of the modification of the UHECR spectrum caused by LIV using the formalism of Coleman and Glashow. We then use a chi-squared analysis to compare our results with the experimental UHECR data and thereby place limits on the amount of LIV. We also discuss how a small amount of LIV that is consistent with the experimental data can still lead to a recovery of the cosmic ray flux at higher energies than presently observed.

  9. Energy spectrum of superfluid turbulence with no normal-fluid component.

    PubMed

    Araki, Tsunehiko; Tsubota, Makoto; Nemirovskii, Sergey K

    2002-09-30

    The energy of superfluid turbulence without the normal fluid is studied numerically under the vortex filament model. Time evolution of the Taylor-Green vortex is calculated under the full nonlocal Biot-Savart law. It is shown that for k<2pi/l the energy spectrum is very similar to the Kolmogorov's -5/3 law which is the most important statistical property of the conventional turbulence, where k is the wave number of the Fourier component of the velocity field and l is the average intervortex spacing. The vortex length distribution converges to a scaling property reflecting the self-similarity of the tangle. PMID:12366052

  10. High-energy electron-positron photoproduction cross section close to the end of the spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piazza, A.; Milstein, A. I.

    2010-10-15

    We consider the cross section of electron-positron pair production by a high-energy photon in a strong Coulomb field close to the end of the electron or positron spectrum. We show that the cross section essentially differs from the result obtained in the Born approximation as well as from the result which takes into account the Coulomb corrections under the assumption that both electron and positron are ultrarelativistic. The cross section of bremsstrahlung in a strong Coulomb field by a high-energy electron is also obtained in the region where the final electron is not ultrarelativistic.

  11. VERIFICATION OF THE INL/COMBINE7 NEUTRON ENERGY SPECTRUM CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Barry D. Ganapol; Woo Y. Yoon; David W. Nigg

    2008-09-01

    We construct semi-analytic benchmarks for the neutron slowing down equations in the thermal, resonance and fast energy regimes through mathematical embedding. The method features a fictitious time-dependent slowing down equations solved via Taylor series expansion over discrete “time” intervals. Two classes of benchmarks are considered- the first treats methods of solution and the second the multigroup approximation itself. We present several meaningful benchmark methods comparisons with the COMBINE7 energy spectrum code and a simple demonstration of convergence of the multigroup approximation.

  12. Measurements of the energy spectrum of electrons emanating from solid materials irradiated by a picosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, C. A. Kuranz, C. C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Rasmus, A. M.; Wan, W. C.; Joglekar, A. S.; McKelvey, A.; Zhao, Z.; Klein, S. R.; Seely, J. F.; Williams, G. J.; Park, J.; Chen, H.; Kemp, G. E.; MacDonald, M. J.; Pereira, N. R.; Jarrott, L. C.; Peebles, J.; and others

    2015-04-15

    In this work, we present the results of experiments observing the properties of the electron stream generated laterally when a laser irradiates a metal. We find that the directionality of the electrons is dependent upon their energies, with the higher-energy tail of the spectrum (∼1 MeV and higher) being more narrowly focused. This behavior is likely due to the coupling of the electrons to the electric field of the laser. The experiments are performed by using the Titan laser to irradiate a metal wire, creating the electron stream of interest. These electrons propagate to nearby spectator wires of differing metals, causing them to fluoresce at their characteristic K-shell energies. This fluorescence is recorded by a crystal spectrometer. By varying the distances between the wires, we are able to probe the divergence of the electron stream, while by varying the medium through which the electrons propagate (and hence the energy-dependence of electron attenuation), we are able to probe the energy spectrum of the stream.

  13. A Monte Carlo study of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy spectrum of a carbon contaminated surface

    SciTech Connect

    Da, B.; Li, Z. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.

    2014-09-28

    It has been experimentally found that the carbon surface contamination influences strongly the spectrum signals in reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) especially at low primary electron energy. However, there is still little theoretical work dealing with the carbon contamination effect in REELS. Such a work is required to predict REELS spectrum for layered structural sample, providing an understanding of the experimental phenomena observed. In this study, we present a numerical calculation result on the spatially varying differential inelastic mean free path for a sample made of a carbon contamination layer of varied thickness on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. A Monte Carlo simulation model for electron interaction with a layered structural sample is built by combining this inelastic scattering cross-section with the Mott's cross-section for electron elastic scattering. The simulation results have clearly shown that the contribution of the electron energy loss from carbon surface contamination increases with decreasing primary energy due to increased individual scattering processes along trajectory parts carbon contamination layer. Comparison of the simulated spectra for different thicknesses of the carbon contamination layer and for different primary electron energies with experimental spectra clearly identifies that the carbon contamination in the measured sample was in the form of discontinuous islands other than the uniform film.

  14. Resting energy expenditure measured longitudinally following hip fracture compared to predictive equations: is an injury adjustment required?

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle D; Daniels, Lynne A; Bannerman, Elaine; Crotty, Maria

    2005-12-01

    The present study measuring resting energy expenditure (REE; kJ/d) longitudinally using indirect calorimetry in six elderly women aged > or =70 years following surgery for hip fracture, describes changes over time (days 10, 42 and 84 post-injury) and compares measured values to those calculated from routinely applied predictive equations. REE was compared to REE predicted using the Harris Benedict and Schofield equations, with and without accounting for the theoretical increase in energy expenditure of 35 % secondary to physiological stress of injury and surgery. Mean (95 % CI) measured REE (kJ/d) was 4704 (4354, 5054), 4090 (3719, 4461) and 4145 (3908, 4382) for days 10, 42 and 84, respectively. A time effect was observed for measured REE, P=0.003. Without adjusting for stress the mean difference and 95 % limits of agreement for measured and predicted REE (kJ/kg per d) for the Harris Benedict equation were 1 (-9, 12), 10 (2, 18) and 9 (1, 17) for days 10, 42 and 84, respectively. The mean difference and 95 % limits of agreement for measured and predicted REE (kJ/kg per d) for the Schofield equation without adjusting for stress were 8 (-3, 19), 16 (6, 26) and 16 (10, 22) for days 10, 42 and 84, respectively. After adjusting for stress, REE predicted from the Harris Benedict or Schofield equations overestimated measured REE by between 38 and 69 %. Energy expenditure following fracture is poorly understood. Our data suggest REE was relatively elevated early in recovery but declined during the first 6 weeks. Using the Harris Benedict or Schofield equations adjusted for stress may lead to overestimation of REE in the clinical setting. Further work is required to evaluate total energy expenditure before recommendations can be made to alter current practice for calculating theoretical total energy requirements of hip fracture patients.

  15. Measurement of the UHECR Energy Spectrum by the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, Thomas; Bergman, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), subatomic charged particles of extraterrestrial origin and with kinetic energies near or exceeding 10^18 eV, are very rare. The Telescope Array (TA) experiment in western Utah is the northern hemisphere's largest UHECR detector, and consists of three atmospheric fluorescence detectors (FDs) and a ground array of 507 scintillator detectors. In stand-alone ``monocular'' operation, the FDs can observe the widest range in primary UHECR energies. One FD employs refurbished hardware from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye experiment; the remaining two FDs were designed for TA and employ new hardware and analysis. We will present the UHECR energy spectrum measured by the FDs in monocular mode using data collected during the first four years of operation.

  16. LDEF (Flight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experi ments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment tray in the D03 and D09 tray loca tions. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with with no visible damage. A brown discoloration is visible on the Trapped Proton Energy experiment detector housings and along the upper surfaces of the experiment sup port structure. The discoloration around the outer edges of the experiment mounting plate appears to be a much lighter tan color. The sub-experiments are intact and secure with no visible dam age.

  17. A multiple-time-scale turbulence model based on variable partitioning of turbulent kinetic energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.

    1987-01-01

    A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.

  18. Advantages of Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers in High-Energy Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Louis

    2004-11-10

    Typically, particles are injected into the ring at low energy levels and then 'ramped up' to higher levels. During ramping, it is important that the horizontal and vertical tune frequencies do not shift, lest they hit upon a resonant combination that causes beam instability or sudden total loss of ring beam current (beam blow up). Beam instabilities can be caused by a number of factors. Non-linearities and/or different response times of independent controls such as beam position monitor (BPM) cables and circuits, magnets for guidance and focusing of the beam, Klystrons or Tetrodes (which provide power to RF cavities that transmit energy to the beam), and vacuum pumps and monitors can all cause beam instabilities. Vibrations and lack of proper shielding are other factors. The challenge for operators and researchers is to correctly identify the factors causing beam instabilities and blow up so that costly accelerator time is not interrupted and experimental results are not compromised. The instrument often used to identify problems in particle accelerator applications is the spectrum analyzer. This paper will discuss the advantages of real time spectrum analyzers (RSA) versus swept frequency spectrum analyzers in HEP applications. The main focus will be on monitoring beam position and stability, especially during ramp-up. Also covered will be use of RSA for chromaticity measurements, Phase Locked Loop (PLL) diagnostics, and vibration analysis.

  19. Advantages of Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers in High-Energy Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Louis

    2004-11-01

    Typically, particles are injected into the ring at low energy levels and then "ramped up" to higher levels. During ramping, it is important that the horizontal and vertical tune frequencies do not shift, lest they hit upon a resonant combination that causes beam instability or sudden total loss of ring beam current (beam blow up). Beam instabilities can be caused by a number of factors. Non-linearities and/or different response times of independent controls such as beam position monitor (BPM) cables and circuits, magnets for guidance and focusing of the beam, Klystrons or Tetrodes (which provide power to RF cavities that transmit energy to the beam), and vacuum pumps and monitors can all cause beam instabilities. Vibrations and lack of proper shielding are other factors. The challenge for operators and researchers is to correctly identify the factors causing beam instabilities and blow up so that costly accelerator time is not interrupted and experimental results are not compromised. The instrument often used to identify problems in particle accelerator applications is the spectrum analyzer. This paper will discuss the advantages of real time spectrum analyzers (RSA) versus swept frequency spectrum analyzers in HEP applications. The main focus will be on monitoring beam position and stability, especially during ramp-up. Also covered will be use of RSA for chromaticity measurements, Phase Locked Loop (PLL) diagnostics, and vibration analysis.

  20. Nonlinear processes in cosmic-ray precursor of strong supernova shock: Maximum energy and average energy spectrum of accelerated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptuskin, V. S.; Zirakashvili, V. N.

    The instability in the cosmic-ray precursor of a supernova shock is studied. The level of turbulence in this region determines the maximum energy of accelerated particles. The consideration is not limited by the case of weak turbulence. It is assumed that the Kolmogorov type nonlinear wave interactions together with the ion-neutral collisions restrict the amplitude of random magnetic field. As a result, the maximum energy of accelerated particles strongly depends on the age of a SNR. The average spectrum of cosmic rays injected in the interstellar medium in the course of adiabatic SNR evolution takes the approximate form E-2 at energies larger than 10 30 GeV/nucleon with the maximum energy that is close to the position of the knee in cosmic-ray spectrum at 4 × 1015 eV. At an earlier stage of SNR evolution the ejecta-dominated stage, the particles are accelerated to higher energies and have a rather steep power-law distribution. These results suggest that the knee may mark the transition from the ejecta-dominated to the adiabatic evolution of SNR shocks which accelerate cosmic rays.

  1. Neutron field produced by 25 MeV deuteron on thick beryllium for radiobiological study; energy spectrum.

    PubMed

    Takada, Masashi; Mihara, Erika; Sasaki, Michiya; Nakamura, Takashi; Honma, Toshihiko; Kono, Koji; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2004-01-01

    Biological data is necessary for estimation of protection from neutrons, but there is a lack of data on biological effects of neutrons for radiation protection. Radiological study on fast neutrons has been done at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. An intense neutron source has been produced by 25 MeV deuterons on a thick beryllium target. The neutron energy spectrum, which is essential for neutron energy deposition calculation, was measured from thermal to maximum energy range by using an organic liquid scintillator and multi-sphere moderated 3He proportional counters. The spectrum of the gamma rays accompanying the neutron beam was measured simultaneously with the neutron spectrum using the organic liquid scintillator. The transmission by the shield of the spurious neutrons originating from the target was measured to be less than 1% by using the organic liquid scintillator placed behind the collimator. The measured neutron energy spectrum is useful in dose calculations for radiobiology studies.

  2. Hydromorphological adjustments and re-adjustments of low energy rivers in a sub-urban catchment following historical engineering and recent urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugie, Marion; Gob, Frédéric; Slawson, Deborah; Le-Coeur, Charles

    2014-05-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, October 2000) mandated that the Member States of the European Union achieve the general objective of protection of aquatic ecology by 2015. European rivers and streams have to attain "good ecological status" through the preservation and restoration of aquatic environments. Member will have to ensure environmental continuity through "the adequate distribution of fish species and transport of sediments". In France, more than 61,000 transverse structures - mill dams, weirs, diversion gates - have been identified on rivers as being obstacles to ecological and sedimentary continuity. Because of their historical occupation by societies, rivers flowing in the Paris area have long been anthropized and artificialized. River courses, channel shape, sediment transport and hydrological regime modifications have tremendously transformed the hydrosystems surrounding the city of Paris. The Merantaise's catchment is one of this low energy river watershed, near Paris, that have been modified by historical engineering, especially during medieval-modern times and by the building of the Versailles Castle (XVIIth century). The hydraulic infrastructures are still there and impact the hydromorphogical conditions of the river (incision, lateral erosion, …). In addition to these ancient pressures a rapid and massive urbanization of the suburban areas has applied a new type of constraint to the hydrosystems in recent decades. This undermines the balance that was established following ancient engineering and disturbs the current functioning of the valley. These new types of land occupation have significantly altered the ecological circumstances and transformed the hydrological responses of rivers. In this study, we therefore seek to understand these processes of successive adjustments (ancient and recent) of a small river from the urban margins of the Orge watershed (to the south of Paris). We use a multi-scalar spatial and temporal approach to

  3. Energy spectrum of iron nuclei measured inside the MIR space craft using CR-39 track detectors.

    PubMed

    Gunther, W; Leugner, D; Becker, E; Flesch, F; Heinrich, W; Huntrup, G; Reitz, G; Rocher, H; Streibel, T

    1999-06-01

    We have exposed stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors inside the MIR space craft during the EUROMIR95 space mission for almost 6 months. Over this long period a large number of tracks of high LET events was accumulated in the detector foils. The etching and measuring conditions for this experiment were optimized to detect tracks of stopping iron nuclei. We found 185 stopping iron nuclei inside the stack and identified their trajectories through the material of the experiment. Based on the energy-range relation the energy at the surface of the stack was determined. These particles allow the determination of the low energy part of the spectrum of iron nuclei behind shielding material inside the MIR station.

  4. LDEF (Postflight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in periph eral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The brown discoloration appears to be much lighter in this photograph than in the flight photograph, however, the postflight photograph of the individual experiment verifies the darker discoloration in the flight photograph. The light ing angle and intensity appear to have washed out the colors in the upper half of the integrated tray. The sub experiments appear to be intact and secure.

  5. The energy spectrum of X-rays from rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Grove, J. E.; Gwon, C.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Lucia, R. J.; Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Uman, M. A.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-10-01

    Although the production of X-rays from natural and rocket-triggered lightning leaders have been studied in detail over the last 10 years, the energy spectrum of the X-rays has never been well measured because the X-rays are emitted in very short but intense bursts that result in pulse pileup in the detectors. The energy spectrum is important because it provides information about the source mechanism for producing the energetic runaway electrons and about the electric fields that they traverse. We have recently developed and operated the first spectrometer for the energetic radiation from lightning. The instrument is part of the Atmospheric Radiation Imagery and Spectroscopy (ARIS) project and will be referred to as ARIS-S (ARIS Spectrometer). It consists of seven 3'' NaI(Tl)/photomultiplier tube scintillation detectors with different thicknesses of attenuators, ranging from no attenuator to more than 1'' of lead placed over the detector (all the detectors are in a 1/8'' thick aluminum box). Using X-ray pulses preceding 48 return strokes in 8 rocket-triggered lightnings, we found that the spectrum of X-rays from leaders is too soft to be consistent with Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche. It has a power law dependence on the energies of the photons, and the power index, λ, is between 2.5 and 3.5. We present the details of the design of the instrument and the results of the analysis of the lightning data acquired during the summer of 2012.

  6. Reconstruction of a energy wave spectrum using a non-intrusive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Diana; Lugo, Adolfo; Mendoza, Edgar; Silva, Rodolfo

    2014-11-01

    For studies taken in a wave flume, it is frequent to use wave gauges to measure directly the free surface fluctuations. Sometimes these gauges can interfere the measures because this probes act as obstacles to water. Therefore we designed a non intrusive technique using a bubble curtain. In this work we pretend to reconstruct the energy wave spectrum of regular and irregular waves, generated in a wave flume, assuming linear and non linear wave theory by analyzing the time series of the bubbles velocity field given with the aid of PIV.

  7. Quantum control of isomerization by robust navigation in the energy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Murgida, G. E.; Arranz, F. J.; Borondo, F.

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we present a detailed study on the application of the quantum control technique of navigation in the energy spectrum to chemical isomerization processes, namely, CN–Li⇆ Li–CN. This technique is based on the controlled time variation of a Hamiltonian parameter, an external uniform electric field in our case. The main result of our work establishes that the navigation involved in the method is robust, in the sense that quite sizable deviations from a pre-established control parameter time profile can be introduced and still get good final results. This is specially relevant thinking of a experimental implementation of the method.

  8. Calculation of quasiparticle energy spectrum of silicon using the correlated Hartree-Fock method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Takamitsu; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Kazuya; Yasuhara, Hiroshi

    1999-06-01

    We present quasiparticle energy spectrum calculations of silicon using the correlated Hartree-Fock method proposed by Yasuhara and Takada [Phys. Rev. B 43, 7200 (1991)], in which the information on the effective mass of an electron liquid is included in the form of a nonlocal spin-parallel potential in addition to a local potential. The calculated band gaps of silicon are much improved, compared with the local density approximation values. The minimum indirect band gap is evaluated to be 1.37 eV.

  9. Comparative characteristics of electron energy spectrum in PIG and arc type discharge plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanyuk, L. I.; Suavilnyy, N. Y.

    1978-01-01

    The electron distribution functions relative to the velocity component directed along the magnetic field are compared for PIG and arc type discharges. The identity of these functions for the plasma region pierced by the primary electron beam and their difference in the peripheral part of the discharge are shown. It is concluded that the electron distribution function in the PIG type discharge is formed during one transit of the primary electron through the discharge gap. The mechanisms of electron energy spectrum formation in both the axis region and the peripheral region of the discharge are discussed.

  10. Fractal energy spectrum of a polariton gas in a Fibonacci quasiperiodic potential.

    PubMed

    Tanese, D; Gurevich, E; Baboux, F; Jacqmin, T; Lemaître, A; Galopin, E; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Akkermans, E

    2014-04-11

    We report on the study of a polariton gas confined in a quasiperiodic one-dimensional cavity, described by a Fibonacci sequence. Imaging the polariton modes both in real and reciprocal space, we observe features characteristic of their fractal energy spectrum such as the opening of minigaps obeying the gap labeling theorem and log-periodic oscillations of the integrated density of states. These observations are accurately reproduced solving an effective 1D Schrödinger equation, illustrating the potential of cavity polaritons as a quantum simulator in complex topological geometries. PMID:24765996

  11. COMPREHENSIVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND IMPROVED ENERGY LEVELS FOR SINGLY IONIZED CHROMIUM (Cr II)

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph; Kerber, Florian

    2012-10-15

    We report new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 1142-3954 A. The spectra were recorded with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph and FT700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 3600 lines are classified as transitions among 283 even and 368 odd levels. The new spectral data are used to re-optimize the energy levels, reducing their uncertainties by a typical factor of 20.

  12. The energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays measured by the Telescope Array FADC fluorescence detectors in monocular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Myers, I.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Sonley, T. J.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2013-08-01

    We present a measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays performed by the Telescope Array experiment using monocular observations from its two new FADC-based fluorescence detectors. After a short description of the experiment, we describe the data analysis and event reconstruction procedures. Since the aperture of the experiment must be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, we describe this calculation and the comparisons of simulated and real data used to verify the validity of the aperture calculation. Finally, we present the energy spectrum calculated from the merged monocular data sets of the two FADC-based detectors, and also the combination of this merged spectrum with an independent, previously published monocular spectrum measurement performed by Telescope Array's third fluorescence detector [T. Abu-Zayyad et al., The energy spectrum of Telescope Array's middle drum detector and the direct comparison to the high resolution fly's eye experiment, Astroparticle Physics 39 (2012) 109-119, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.05.012, Available from: ]. This combined spectrum corroborates the recently published Telescope Array surface detector spectrum [T. Abu-Zayyad, et al., The cosmic-ray energy spectrum observed with the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment, ApJ 768 (2013) L1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/768/1/L1, Available from: ] with independent systematic uncertainties.

  13. High energy emission from flat-spectrum radio sources with ˜ kpc-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, Pedro

    Active Galactic Nuclei emit a substantial portion of their bolometric luminosities in X-rays. For example, the knots in radio jets are prominent sources of synchrotron X-rays while the hotspots of the brightest FRIIs emit self-synchrotron or Inverse Compton radiation. Most high-energy studies on flat-spectrum radio sources have been conducted for blazars which are dominant at γ-rays.Augusto et al. (1998) have built a sample of 55 flat-spectrum radio sources dominated by structures (knots, hotspots, etc.) ˜0.1-2 kpc away from the nucleus. Seventeen (31%) of these are detected in X-rays (they tend to be the radio strongest) evenly splitting, morphologically, both at optical (radio) bands: nine QSO/BLLac (core-jets) on one-side; eight Galaxy/Sy2 (CSO/MSO/FRII) on the other. We have identified five confirmed compact/medium symmetric objects (CSO/MSOs) as X-ray emitters. A comparable type of source to CSO/MSOs is the physically similar (1-15 kpc) compact steep spectrum source (CSS), 28/129 (22%) of which are detected in X-rays, from a literature-selected sample (the percentage is smaller than for the 55-source sample due to a lower ). A 95% conf. level relation is found for CSSs: S_X ∝ (S4.85)0.6 and we found undistinguishable radio/X-ray properties for both the 55-source and CSS samples: clearly, their similar morphologies (e.g. knots in jets) stand up stronger than their radical radio spectrum differences.Only two sources among the 55 (4%) have γ-ray detections and they seem quite abnormal (in αxγ values, at least)-one of them is in a Sy2, not in a blazar.

  14. Spectrum and energy levels of quadruply-ionized molybdenum (Mo V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph; Tauheed, Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    The spectrum of quadruply-ionized molybdenum Mo V was observed from 200 to 4700 Å with sliding spark discharges on 10.7 m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs. The existing analyses of this spectrum (Tauheed et al 1985 Phys. Scr. 31 369; Cabeza et al 1986 Phys. Scr. 34 223) were extended to include the 5s2, 5p2, 5s5d, 5s6s, 4d5f, and 4d5g configurations as well as the missing 3H6 level of 4d4f and about 75 levels of the core-excited configuration 4p54d3. The values of the 4d5d 1S0, 5s5p 1P1, and 4d6p 3P0 levels were revised. There are now about 900 lines classified as transitions between 66 even parity and 191 odd parity energy levels. Of these, about 600 lines and 130 levels are new. From the optimized energy level values, Ritz-type wavelengths were determined for about 380 lines, with uncertainties varying from 0.0003 to 0.002 Å. The observed configurations were theoretically interpreted by means of Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels. The fitted parameters were used to calculate oscillator strengths for all classified lines. A few unclassified lines and undesignated levels are also given. An improved value for the ionization energy was obtained by combining the observed energy of the 4d5g configuration with an ab initio calculation of its term value. The adopted value is 438 900 ± 150 cm-1 (54.417 ± 0.019 eV).

  15. Origin of the ankle in the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum, and of the extragalactic protons below it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Michael; Farrar, Glennys R.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    The sharp change in slope of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum around 1 018.6 eV (the ankle), combined with evidence of a light but extragalactic component near and below the ankle and intermediate composition above, has proved exceedingly challenging to understand theoretically, without fine-tuning. We propose a mechanism whereby photo-disintegration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in the region surrounding a UHECR accelerator accounts for the observed spectrum and inferred composition at Earth. For suitable source conditions, the model reproduces the spectrum and the composition over the entire extragalactic cosmic ray energy range, i.e. above 1 017.5 eV . Predictions for the spectrum and flavors of neutrinos resulting from this process are also presented.

  16. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Background Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Results Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Conclusions Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27247558

  17. Galactic antiproton spectrum at high energies: Background expectation versus exotic contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bringmann, Torsten; Salati, Pierre

    2007-04-15

    A new generation of upcoming space-based experiments will soon start to probe the spectrum of cosmic-ray antiparticles with an unprecedented accuracy and, in particular, will open up a window to energies much higher than those accessible so far. It is thus timely to carefully investigate the expected antiparticle fluxes at high energies. Here, we perform such an analysis for the case of antiprotons. We consider both standard sources as the collision of other cosmic rays with interstellar matter, as well as exotic contributions from dark matter annihilations in the galactic halo. Up to energies well above 100 GeV, we find that the background flux in antiprotons is almost uniquely determined by the existing low-energy data on various cosmic-ray species; for even higher energies, however, the uncertainties in the parameters of the underlying propagation model eventually become significant. We also show that if the dark matter is composed of particles with masses at the TeV scale, which is naturally expected in extra-dimensional models as well as in certain parameter regions of supersymmetric models, the annihilation flux can become comparable to--or even dominate--the antiproton background at the high energies considered here.

  18. Neutron dosimetry, moderated energy spectrum, and neutron capture therapy for californium-252 medical sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, Mark Joseph

    Examination of neutron dosimetry for 252Cf has been conducted using calculative and experimental means. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used in a distributed computing environment as a parallel virtual machine (PVM) to determine the absorbed neutron dose and neutron energy spectrum from 252Cf in a variety of clinically relevant materials. Herein, a Maxwellian spectrum was used to model the 252Cf neutron emissions within these materials. 252Cf mixed-field dosimetry of Applicator Tube (AT) type sources was measured using 1.0 and 0.05 cm3 tissue-equivalent ion chambers and a miniature GM counter. A dosimetry protocol was formulated similar that of ICRU 45. The 252Cf AT neutron dosimetry was determined in the cylindrical coordinate system formalism recommended by the AAPM Task Group 43. These results demonstrated the overwhelming dependence of dosimetry on the source geometry factor as there was no significant neutron attenuation within the source or encapsulation. Gold foils and TLDs were used to measure the thermal flux in the vicinity of 252Cf AT sources to compare with the results calculated using MCNP. As the fast neutron energy spectrum did not markedly changed at increasing distances from the AT source, neutron dosimetry results obtained with paired ion chambers using fixed sensitivity factors agreed well with MCNP results and those in the literature. Calculations of moderated 252Cf neutron energy spectrum with various loadings of 10B and 157Gd were performed, in addition to analysis of neutron capture therapy dosimetry with these isotopes. Radiological concerns such as personnel exposure and shielding of 252Cf emissions were examined. Feasibility of a high specific-activity 252Cf HDR source was investigated through radiochemical and metallurgical studies using stand-ins such as Tb, Gd and 249Cf. Issues such as capsule burst strength due to helium production for a variety of proposed HDR sources were addressed. A recommended 252Cf source

  19. Variability in fluence and spectrum of high-energy photon bursts produced by lightning leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Xu, Wei; Pasko, Victor P.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we model the production and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons during negative corona flash stages of stepping lightning leaders and the corresponding terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) or negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning-produced X-ray bursts in a unified fashion. We show how the source photon spectrum and fluence depend on the potential drop formed in the lightning leader tip region during corona flash and how the X-ray burst spectrum progressively converges toward typical TGF spectrum as the potential drop increases. Additionally, we show that the number of streamers produced in a negative corona flash, the source electron energy distribution function, the corresponding number of photons, and the photon energy distribution and transport through the atmosphere up to low-orbit satellite altitudes exhibit a very strong dependence on this potential drop. This leads to a threshold effect causing X-rays produced by leaders with potentials lower than those producing typical TGFs extremely unlikely to be detected by low-orbit satellites. Moreover, from the number of photons in X-ray bursts produced by -CGs estimated from ground observations, we show that the proportionality between the number of thermal runaway electrons and the square of the potential drop in the leader tip region during negative corona flash proposed earlier leads to typical photon fluences on the order of 1 ph/cm2 at an altitude of 500 km and a radial distance of 200 km for intracloud lightning discharges producing 300 MV potential drops, which is consistent with observations of TGF fluences and spectra from satellites.

  20. Height-adjustable desks: Energy expenditure, liking, and preference of sitting and standing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sedentary occupations likely promote weight gain. Standing may be a passive means of increasing energy expenditure throughout the workday. The purpose was to determine the energy expenditure and liking of word processing while sitting and standing. Methods: Energy expenditure was measu...

  1. Observation of variations in the T +T neutron spectrum with varying center-of-mass energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Zylstra, A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Forrest, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, T.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Shmayda, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Sayre, D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Hatarik, R.; McNabb, D. P.; Pino, J. E.; Bacher, A.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y.; Bourgade, J.-. L.; Landoas, O.; Rosse, B.

    2014-10-01

    C. BRUNE, Ohio University - The T +T fusion reaction, which produces two neutrons and an alpha particle in a 3-body final state, has been studied in a series of direct-drive, T2-gas-filled thin (~3 μm) glass-capsule implosions at OMEGA. The shapes of the reaction product spectra are dictated by the final-state interactions between n- α (5He in the ground- and excited states) and n-n (di-neutron interaction). The theory behind final-state interactions is not well understood and detailed study of the reaction product spectra can teach us about the intricacies of the nuclear theory involved. In this presentation, measured neutron spectra are interpreted in terms of the sequential decay through 5He in the ground- and excited states. A clear energy dependence in relative reaction-channel strength at low center-of-mass energy (18-55 keV) is observed in the data. The role of the di-neutron interaction could be more clearly deduced through study of the alpha particle spectrum. In the presentation, we also identify steps required to successfully measure the T +T alpha spectrum in future experiments. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, NLUF, LLNL and LLE.

  2. Spectrum and energy levels of the Yb4+ free ion (Yb V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, Ali; Wyart, Jean-François; Tchang-Brillet, Wan-Ü. Lydia; Blaess, Christophe; Champion, Norbert

    2013-10-01

    The spectrum of ionized ytterbium produced by a sliding spark source was recorded on the 10 m high resolution vacuum ultraviolet normal-incidence spectrograph of the Meudon Observatory. About 1080 lines attributed to Yb V, hitherto unknown, have been identified. The analysis of this spectrum established all the energy levels of the ground configuration 4f12 and, respectively 174, 12 and 43 levels of the excited configurations 4f115d,4f116s and 4f116p. The theoretical calculations by means of the Cowan codes included a least-squares optimization of the relevant radial parameters by minimizing the differences between calculated and experimental level energies, which led to mean errors of 55 cm-1 for the 56 even parity levels and 51 cm-1 for the 186 odd parity ones. Interactions with the unknown core-excited configurations 5p54f13, 5p54f126p, 5p54f125d and 5p54f126s were taken into account.

  3. Possible Interpretations of the High Energy Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum Measured with the Fermi Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /NASA, Ames

    2012-04-25

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has provided the measurement of the high energy (20 GeV to 1 TeV) cosmic ray electrons and positrons spectrum with unprecedented accuracy. This measurement represents a unique probe for studying the origin and diffusive propagation of cosmic rays as well as for looking for possible evidences of Dark Matter. In this contribution we focus mainly on astrophysical sources of cosmic ray electrons and positrons which include the standard primary and secondary diffuse galactic contribution, as well as nearby point-sources which are expected to contribute more significantly to higher energies. In this framework, we discuss possible interpretations of Fermi results in relation with other recent experimental data on energetic electrons and positrons (specifically the most recent ones reported by PAMELA, ATIC, PPB-BETS and H.E.S.S.).

  4. Exclusive Measurements of the b to s gamma Transition Rate and Photon Energy Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; /more authors..

    2012-08-30

    We use 429 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector to measure the radiative transition rate of b {yields} s{gamma} with a sum of 38 exclusive final states. The inclusive branching fraction with a minimum photon energy of 1.9 GeV is found to be {Beta}({bar B} {yields} Xs{gamma}) = (3.29 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.48) x 10{sup -4} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum and extract the best fit values for the heavy-quark parameters, m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}, in the kinetic and shape function models.

  5. Vertical transition energies vs. absorption maxima: illustration with the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Lasorne, Benjamin; Jornet-Somoza, Joaquim; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Robb, Michael A; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-02-01

    We revisit the validity of making a direct comparison between measured absorption maxima and computed vertical transition energies within 0.1 eV to calibrate an excited-state level of theory. This is illustrated on the UV absorption spectrum of ethylene for which the usual experimental values of 7.66 eV (V←N) and 7.11 eV (R(3s)←N) cannot be compared directly to the results of electronic structure calculations for two very different reasons. After validation of our level of theory against experimental data, a new experimental reference of 7.28 eV is suggested for benchmarking the Rydberg state, and the often-cited average transition energy (7.80 eV) is confirmed as a safer estimate for the valence state.

  6. On the flux and the energy spectrum of interstellar ions in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasyliunas, V. M.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The flux density of ions created by ionization of interstellar neutral particles in the solar system and picked up by the solar wind is calculated as a function of the neutral particles. For atomic hydrogen the flux density is estimated to exceed 10,000/sq cm/sec over the distance range from a few to nearly 100 AU. The velocity space distribution of the interstellar ions is calculated under the assumption of no significant energy diffusion but with inclusion of adiabatic effects as well as a possible strong pitch angle diffusion. The energy spectrum is highly nonthermal and much broader than that of the solar wind ions; interstellar protons are easily distinguishable from solar wind protons by their location in velocity space. If charge exchange is an important contributor to the ionization of hydrogen, the observed local intensity of interstellar protons should exhibit time variations correlated with the density changes of the solar wind stream structure.

  7. Analysis of the Zeeman effect on the energy spectrum in graphenes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Sze-Shiang; Mochena, Mogus

    2011-08-15

    An analysis of the Zeeman effect with a strong external magnetic field on the energy spectrum in graphene is presented. In general, the Hamiltonian of graphene in applied electric and magnetic fields is not of SO(1, 2) invariance even in the nearest-neighbor approximation because of the Zeeman coupling. But an approximate SO(1, 2) invariance can be obtained when the applied magnetic field is very strong. This approximate invariance can be used to relate the energy structure of graphene in the presence of both electric and magnetic fields to that when there is only magnetic field. Therefore, it can help explain the recently found quantum Hall conductance (4q{sup 2}/h)L for L = 0.1.

  8. Very heavy solar cosmic rays: Energy spectrum and implications for lunar erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.; Comstock, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Particle tracks were investigated in the glass plate of a neutral density (clear flint) optical filter housed in the Surveyor 3 TV camera but exposed directly to space. The track density vs depth curve was determined and descends sharply from approximately 2.6 million tracks/sq cm at a depth of 3.6 mg/sq cm to about 35/sq cm at 700 mg/sq cm. Several tracks were of V-shapes characteristic of high energy induced fission. The erosion rate on the moon due to solar wind ions was determined from the energy spectrum, and was found to be low (0 to 2 x 10 to the minus 8th power cm/yr).

  9. Wind cannot be Directed but Sails can be Adjusted for Malaysian Renewable Energy Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Nasir, Meseret; Veeramani, S.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy has been the promising energy technology since 1980s in terms of percentage of yearly growth of installed capacity. However the progress of wind energy has not been evenly distributed around the world. Particularly, in South East Asian countries like Malaysia and Singapore, though the Governments are keen on promoting wind energy technology, it is not well practiced due to the low wind speeds. Owing to the recent advancements in wind turbine designs, even Malaysia is well suited for wind energy by proper choice of wind turbines. As evidence, this paper presents successful wind turbines with simulated study outcomes to encourage wind power developments in Malaysia.

  10. The EAS size spectrum and the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the region 10^15-10^16 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EAS-Top Collaboration; Aglietta, M.; Alessandro, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Cini Castagnoli, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.

    1999-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range E_0 = 10^15-10^16 eV (including the region of the steepening, ``knee'') is studied by means of the EAS-TOP array (Campo Imperatore, Gran Sasso Laboratories, atmospheric depth 820 g cm^-2). Measurements of the electromagnetic size (N_e = total number of charged particles at the observation level) are performed as a function of zenith angle with statistical accuracies of a few percent. The change of slope of the spectrum is observed in each bin of zenith angle at size values decreasing with increasing atmospheric depth. Its attenuation is compatible with the one of shower particles (Lambda_e = 219+/-3 g cm^-2). This observation provides a consistency check, supporting a normal behaviour of showers at the break, that make plausible astrophysical interpretations based on an effect on primaries occurring at a given primary energy. The break has a ``sharp'' shape (i.e., within experimental errors is compatible with two intersecting power laws) that represents a constraint with which any interpretation has to match. The change of slope of the power law index reproducing the size spectrum is Deltagamma= 0.40 +/-0.09. The derived all particle energy spectrum is in good agreement with the extrapolation of the direct measurements at low energies and with other EAS data at and above the knee. Power laws fits to the energy spectrum below and above the knee give (in units of m^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 TeV^-1) S(E_0) = (3.48 +/-0.06)x10^-10 (E_0/2300)^-2.76+/-0.03 for 900 TeV < E_0 < 2300 TeV and S(E_0) = (3.77+/-0.08)x10^-11 (E_0/5000)^-3.19+/-0.06 for 5000 TeV < E_0 < 10^4 TeV. The systematic uncertainties connected to the interaction model and the primary composition are discussed.

  11. Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target

    SciTech Connect

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Sanami, Toshiya; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Saito, Kiwamu; Ishibashi, Kenji; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Lee, Hee-Seock; Ramberg, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, protoninduced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30{sup o} and 5 m 90{sup o} with respect to the proton beam axis. The neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique using timing difference between the NE213 and a plastic scintillator located just before the target. Neutron detection efficiency of NE213 was determined on basis of experimental data from the high energy neutron beam line at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum was compared with the results of multiparticle transport codes to validate the implemented theoretical models. The apparatus would be applied to future measurements to obtain a systematic data set for secondary particle production on various target materials.

  12. LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02 EL-1994-00193 LDEF (Postflight), P0006 : Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment, Tray F02 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment (P0006) is one of three passive experiments located in a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. The experiment consist of two types of detectors, thermal luminescence and track type, assembled in a sealed container and a silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. Two other experiments, the Seeds in Space Experiment (P0004-01) and the Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) P0004-02 were companion experiments in the tray. The experiment hardware was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Areas of the experiment tray flanges covered by the tray clamp blocks are unstained and clearly visible. The sealed Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Experiment container was machined from aluminum and assembled together with a Buna-N o-ring seal. The canister, approximately 6 inches in diameter and 4.5 inches high, was mounted on the top side of the experiment tray and painted white with Chemglaze II A-276. Thermal control was accomplished by placing the canister on fiberglass isolators and covering the experiment tray with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® specular cover secured with Velcro pads located on each of the P0004 canister domes and on clips attached to the tray sidewalls. The silvered TEFLON® thermal cover appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The surroundings reflected in the thermal covers specular surface provides an array of colors including white, browns, silver, red, and aqua.

  13. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  14. Prediction of background in low-energy spectrum of Phoswich detector.

    PubMed

    Arun, B; Manohari, M; Mathiyarasu, R; Rajagopal, V; Jose, M T

    2014-12-01

    In vivo monitoring of actinides in occupational workers is done using Phoswich detector by measuring the low-energy X ray and gamma rays. Quantification of actinides like plutonium and americium in the lungs is extremely difficult due to higher background in the low-energy regions, which is from ambient background as well as from the subject. In the latter case, it is mainly due to the Compton scattering of body potassium, which varies person-to-person. Hence, an accurate prediction of subject-specific background counts in the lower-energy regions is an essential element in the in vivo measurement of plutonium and americium. Empirical equations are established for the prediction of background count rate in (239)Pu and (241)Am lower-energy regions, called 'target regions', as a function of count rate in the monitoring region (97-130 keV)/(40)K region in the high-energy spectrum, weight-to-height ratio of the subject (scattering parameter) and the gender.

  15. The All Particle Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectrum Measured with HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel-Arias, Zigfried; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We present results of a measurement of the all-particle cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 10 TeV with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory. HAWC is a ground based air shower array deployed on the slopes of Volcán Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, México. It comprises 300 large light-tight water tanks covering an area of 20,000 square meters. Each tank is instrumented with four photomultipliers to detect particles from extensive air showers produced by gamma rays and cosmic rays upon entering the Earth's atmosphere. HAWC is optimized for the detection of gamma-ray induced air showers, yet the background flux of hadronic air showers is four orders of magnitude greater, allowing for a detailed study of the cosmic-ray flux in the TeV energy range. The primary cosmic-ray energy is determined with a maximum likelihood approach using the particle density as a function of distance to the shower core. Introducing quality cuts to isolate events with shower cores landing on the array, the reconstructed energy distribution is unfolded iteratively. We will report on the energy resolution of the technique and the results of the unfolding.

  16. The deep space galactic cosmic ray lineal energy spectrum at solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Spence, H. E.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Looper, M. D.; Golightly, M. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, J. B.; Iwata, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument is an energetic particle telescope on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. CRaTER measures energetic charged particles that have sufficient energy to penetrate the outer shielding of the instrument (about 12 MeV/nucleon). Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with these energies are the primary radiation concern for spacecraft and astronauts outside of the Earth's magnetosphere during times of minimal solar activity. These particles can easily penetrate typical shielding and damage electronics, causing increased electronics failure rates and single event upsets. When this radiation impacts biological cells, it causes an increased risk of cancer. The CRaTER instrument was built to characterize the radiation dose and lineal energy with unprecedented time and energy resolution and was fortuitously flown during a period of time that coincided with the highest GCR fluxes in the modern space age. We report here this worst-case GCR lineal energy spectrum. Observations are made behind a thin aluminum window and different thicknesses of tissue-equivalent plastic. These measurements provide important observational data points to compare with current model predictions of the dose deposited by energetic particles within a tissue-like material.

  17. The seismic spectrum, radiated energy, and the Savage and Wood inequality for complex earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kenneth D.; Brune, James N.; Priestley, Keith F.

    1991-03-01

    We have integrated velocity squared spectra in order to determine the seismic energy radiated during fault rupture. The high frequency spectral fall-off and the shape of the spectrum at the corner frequency are critical to the energy calculation. High frequency spectral fall-offs of ω-2 beyond the corner frequency, in a Brune (1970) source model, return radiated energies approximately equal to that of an Orowan (1960) type fault failure, where the final stress level is equal to the dynamic frictional stress. Any spectra with an extended intermediate slope of ω-1 would therefore result in higher radiated energies. Savage and Wood (1971) proposed a model in which the final stress level was less than the dynamic stress level and that this was the result of "overshoot". They based their model on the observation that the ratio of twice the apparent stress to the stress drop was typically around 0.3. We show that for such a ratio to exist high frequency spectral fall-offs of ≈ ω-3 would be required. Composite spectra have been constructed for several moderate to large earthquakes, these spectra have been compared to that predicted by the Haskell (1966) model and velocity squared spectra have been integrated to determine the radiated energy. In all cases this ratio, twice the apparent stress to the stress drop, is greater than or equal to one, violating the Savage and Wood (1971) inequality, and provides evidence against "overshoot" as a source model.

  18. Threshold conditions, energy spectrum and bands generated by locally periodic Dirac comb potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharani, M.; Shastry, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    We derive expressions for polynomials governing the threshold conditions for different types of locally periodic Dirac comb potentials comprising of attractive and combination of attractive and repulsive delta potential terms confined symmetrically inside a one dimensional box of fixed length. The roots of these polynomials specify the conditions on the potential parameters in order to generate threshold energy bound states. The mathematical and numerical methods used by us were first formulated in our earlier works and it is also very briefly summarized in this paper. We report a number of mathematical results pertaining to the threshold conditions and these are useful in controlling the number of negative energy states as desired. We further demonstrate the correlation between the distribution of roots of these polynomials and negative energy eigenvalues. Using these results as basis, we investigate the energy bands in the positive energy spectrum for the above specified Dirac comb potentials and also for the corresponding repulsive case. In the case of attractive Dirac comb the base energy of the each band excluding the first band coincides with specific eigenvalue of the confining box whereas in the repulsive case it coincides with the band top. We deduce systematic correlation between band gaps, band spreads and box eigenvalues and explain the physical reason for the vanishing of band pattern at higher energies. In the case of Dirac comb comprising of orderly arranged attractive and repulsive delta potentials, specific box eigenvalues occur in the middle of each band excluding the first band. From our study we find that by controlling the number and strength parameters of delta terms in the Dirac comb and the size of confining box it is possible to generate desired types of band formations. We believe the results from our systematic analysis are useful and relevant in the study of various one dimensional systems of physical interest in areas like nanoscience.

  19. 77 FR 24192 - Energy Spectrum, Inc. and Riverbay Corporation v. New York Independent System Operator; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ...) collectively filed a formal complaint against New York Independent System Operator (Respondent or NYISO... Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Spectrum, Inc. and Riverbay Corporation v. New York Independent System Operator; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on April 12, 2012, pursuant to section 205 of...

  20. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra

    PubMed Central

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail. PMID:24225900

  1. High-energy Electron Spectrum From PPB-BETS Experiment In Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Torii, S.; PPB-BETS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    Recent observations of cosmic ray electrons from several instruments such as ATIC, Fermi, and HESS have received considerable attention and many theoretical models have been proposed to explain their results. In January 2004, we have observed high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with PPB-BETS by a long duration balloon flight using Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) in Antarctica. The observation was carried out for 13 days at an average altitude of 35 km. The PPB-BETS detector is an imaging calorimeter composed of scintillating fiber belts and plastic scintillators inserted between lead plates with 9 radiation lengths. The performance of the detector has been confirmed by the CERN-SPS beam tests and also investigated by Monte-Carlo simulations. From the PPB-BETS experiment, we have derived the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons in the energy range from 100 GeV to 800 GeV with a pioneering work in the observation of electron arrival directions. In this talk, we present the results of high-energy electron observations with PPB-BETS.

  2. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra.

    PubMed

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-11-14

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail.

  3. Validity of physical activity indices for adjusting energy expenditure for body size: do the indices depend on body size?

    PubMed

    Taguri, Emiko; Tanaka, Shigeho; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Hikihara, Yuki; Miyake, Rieko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tabata, Izumi

    2010-01-01

    To express intensity of physical activity, energy expenditure is often divided by either body weight, resting metabolic rate, or fat-free mass. These calculations are used widely as the physical activity index. However, it is unclear how body size influences the valid estimation of intensity of various kinds of activities. In the present study, we investigated whether these indices are able to adjust for body size when calculating energy expenditure in various kinds of activities. In addition, we examined to what extent the error of index is introduced by differences in body size. Resting metabolic rates and energy expenditure during sitting light work, 4 lifestyle and 7 ambulant activities were measured in the postabsorptive state using indirect calorimetry in 71 healthy Japanese adults. We regarded an index as an inappropriate adjustment for body size when there was a significant correlation between it and body weight. Energy expenditure normalized by body weight correlated with body weight in all sedentary states; when normalized by lying resting metabolic rate it correlated with body weight in 3 ambulant activities; when normalized by sitting resting metabolic rate it correlated with body weight in 2 lifestyle and 5 ambulant activities; and when normalized by fat-free mass it correlated with only 1 ambulant activity. The indices caused errors in estimates of activity intensity of less than +/-10% when body weight was more than 10 kg above average. In conclusion, the body weight-normalized index was inappropriate for sedentary activities and the other three indices were inappropriate for ambulant activities. However, the use of any of these indices introduces an error in the estimate of total energy expenditure of considerably less than +/-10% for body weights within the normal range. PMID:20558969

  4. Energy spectrum of cascade showers induced by cosmic ray muons in the range from 50 GeV to 5 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashitkov, V. D.; Kirina, T. M.; Klimakov, A. P.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Yumatov, V. I.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cascade showers induced by electromagnetic interactions of high energy muons of horizontal cosmic ray flux in iron absorber was measured. The total observation time exceeded 22,000 hours. Both the energy spectrum and angular distributions of cascade showers are fairly described in terms of the usual muon generation processes, with a single power index of the parent meson spectrum over the muon energy range from 150 GeV to 5 TeV.

  5. Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of SS Cygni in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2004-07-01

    We have fitted the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) spectrum of SS Cygni in outburst with a single-temperature blackbody suffering the photoelectric opacity of a neutral column density and the scattering opacity of an outflowing wind. We find that this simple model is capable of reproducing the essential features of the observed spectrum with the blackbody temperature Tbl~250+/-50 kK, hydrogen column density NH~5.0+2.9-1.5×1019cm-2, fractional emitting area f~5.6+60-4.5×10-3, boundary layer luminosity Lbl~5+18-3×1033ergss-1, wind velocity v~2500kms-1, wind mass-loss rate Mw~1.1×1016gs-1, and arbitrary values of the wind ionization fractions of 20 ions of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. Given that in outburst the accretion disk luminosity Ldisk~1×1035ergss-1, Lbl/Ldisk~0.05+0.18-0.03, which can be explained if the white dwarf (or an equatorial belt thereon) is rotating with an angular velocity Ωwd~0.7+0.1-0.2 Hz, hence Vrotsini~2300kms-1. This paper is dedicated to the memory and accomplishments of my colleague and friend Janet Akyüz Mattei, who died on 2004 March 22 after a long battle with acute myelogenous leukemia. Her passing is a great loss to the astronomical community, both amateur and professional.

  6. THE {gamma}-RAY SPECTRUM OF GEMINGA AND THE INVERSE COMPTON MODEL OF PULSAR HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-09-20

    We reanalyze the Fermi spectra of the Geminga and Vela pulsars. We find that the spectrum of Geminga above the break is well approximated by a simple power law without the exponential cutoff, making Geminga's spectrum similar to that of Crab. Vela's broadband {gamma}-ray spectrum is equally well fit with both the exponential cutoff and the double power-law shapes. In the broadband double power-law fits, for a typical Fermi spectrum of a bright {gamma}-ray pulsar, most of the errors accumulate due to the arbitrary parameterization of the spectral roll-off. In addition, a power law with an exponential cutoff gives an acceptable fit for the underlying double power-law spectrum for a very broad range of parameters, making such fitting procedures insensitive to the underlying Fermi photon spectrum. Our results have important implications for the mechanism of pulsar high-energy emission. A number of observed properties of {gamma}-ray pulsars-i.e., the broken power-law spectra without exponential cutoffs and stretching in the case of Crab beyond the maximal curvature limit, spectral breaks close to or exceeding the maximal breaks due to curvature emission, patterns of the relative intensities of the leading and trailing pulses in the Crab repeated in the X-ray and {gamma}-ray regions, presence of profile peaks at lower energies aligned with {gamma}-ray peaks-all point to the inverse Compton origin of the high-energy emission from majority of pulsars.

  7. Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Multiple Antennas Using Adaptive Double-Threshold Based Energy Detector in Cognitive Radio Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwari, A.; Tomar, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    In Cognitive radio networks, spectrum sensing is used to sense the unused spectrum in an opportunistic manner. In this paper, multiple antennas based energy detector utilizing adaptive double-threshold for spectrum sensing is proposed, which enhances detection performance and overcomes sensing failure problem as well. The detection threshold is made adaptive to the fluctuation of the received signal power in each local detector of cognitive radio (CR) user. Numerical results show that by using multiple antennas at the CRs, it is possible to significantly improve detection performance at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Further, the scheme was analyzed in conjunction with cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS), where CRs utilize selection combining of the decision statistics obtained by an adaptive double-threshold energy detector for making a binary decision of the presence or absence of a primary user. The decision of each CR is forwarded over error free orthogonal channels to the fusion centre, which takes the final decision of a spectrum hole. It is further found that CSS with multiple antenna-based energy detector with adaptive double-threshold improves detection performance around 26.8 % as compared to hierarchical with quantization method at -12 dB SNR, under the condition that a small number of sensing nodes are used in spectrum sensing.

  8. Cathodoluminescence Spectrum Imaging Software

    2011-04-07

    The software developed for spectrum imaging is applied to the analysis of the spectrum series generated by our cathodoluminescence instrumentation. This software provides advanced processing capabilities s such: reconstruction of photon intensity (resolved in energy) and photon energy maps, extraction of the spectrum from selected areas, quantitative imaging mode, pixel-to-pixel correlation spectrum line scans, ASCII, output, filling routines, drift correction, etc.

  9. High-energy x-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, B. R.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Chen, S.; Chen, C.; Kimminau, G.; Ali, Z.; Haugh, M. J.; Ma, Q.

    2011-02-01

    The x-ray spectrum between 18 and 88 keV generated by a petawatt laser driven x-ray backlighter target was measured using a 12-channel differential filter pair spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of a series of filter pairs on a Ta mask coupled with an x-ray sensitive image plate. A calibration of Fuji™ MS and SR image plates was conducted using a tungsten anode x-ray source and the resulting calibration applied to the design of the Ross pair spectrometer. Additionally, the fade rate and resolution of the image plate system were measured for quantitative radiographic applications. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into silver Kα x rays from a petawatt laser target was measured using the differential filter pair spectrometer and compared to measurements using a single photon counting charge coupled device.

  10. Interaction of a single mode field cavity with the 1D XY model: Energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, H.; Donkov, A. A.; Chamati, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we use the fundamental in quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model to study the response of spin 1/2chain to a single mode of a laser light falling on one of the spins, a focused interaction model between the light and the spin chain. For the spin-spin interaction along the chain we use the XY model. We report here the exact analytical results, obtained with the help of a computer algebra system, for the energy spectrum in this model for chains of up to 4 spins with nearest neighbors interactions, either for open or cyclic chain configurations. Varying the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange coupling relative to the light-spin interaction we have investigated both cases of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin chains.

  11. High-energy x-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, B.R.; Park, H.S.; Remington, B.A.; Izumi, N.; Chen, S.; Chen, C.; Kimminau, G.; Ali, Z.; Haugh, M.J.; Ma, Q.

    2012-10-10

    The x-ray spectrum between 18 and 88 keV generated by a petawatt laser driven x-ray backlighter target was measured using a 12-channel differential filter pair spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of a series of filter pairs on a Ta mask coupled with an x-ray sensitive image plate. A calibration of Fuji{trademark} MS and SR image plates was conducted using a tungsten anode x-ray source and the resulting calibration applied to the design of the Ross pair spectrometer. Additionally, the fade rate and resolution of the image plate system were measured for quantitative radiographic applications. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into silver K{alpha} x rays from a petawatt laser target was measured using the differential filter pair spectrometer and compared to measurements using a single photon counting charge coupled device.

  12. Energy space entanglement spectrum of pairing models with s-wave and p-wave symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Berganza, Miguel Ibáñez; Sierra, Germán

    2014-07-01

    We study the entanglement between blocks of energy levels in 1D models for s-wave and p-wave superconductivity. The ground state entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum (ES) of a block of ℓ levels around the Fermi point is obtained and related to its physical properties. In the superconducting phase at large coupling, the maximal entropy grows with the number of levels L as 1/2ln(L). The number of levels presenting maximal entanglement is shown to estimate the number of Cooper pairs involved in pairing correlations. Moreover, the properties of the ES signal the presence of the Read-Green quantum phase transition in the p +ip model, and of the Moore-Read line, which is difficult to characterize. This work establishes a link between physical properties of superconducting phases and quantum entanglement.

  13. Comparison of observed and theoretical absolute energy distributions in the spectrum of Vega

    SciTech Connect

    Merezhin, V.P.; Ruban, E.V.

    1988-11-01

    The absolute energy distribution observed in the spectrum of Vega in the range 3100-10800 /angstrom/ at the Principal Astronomical Observatory of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1986 by comparing the radiation of Vega with the radiation of a laboratory source calibrated by means of the Soviet State Standard is compared with the data of models of stellar atmospheres. It is shown that the observed distribution is best described by a model with T/sub eff/ = 9850/degree/K. It is noted that there is an excess of radiation in the interval 7500-10800 /angstrom/ by 7-10% compared with the model data. An attempt is made to explain the observed excess. Vega is probably a rapid rotator (v /approx equal/ 230 km/sec) with angle of inclination of the rotation axis to the line of sight of i = 4/degree/-7/degree/.

  14. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four (4) experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The identifica tion plate on the lower right corner of the experiment mounting plate identifies the experiments location and orientation in the experiment tray. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, consist of a primary experiment and three (3) sub experiments mounted on an aluminum mount ing plate. The primary experiment components include six (6) stacks of CR-39 passive detectors in individual aluminum housings and an aluminum mounting structure, configured to provide the desired exposure for the detector stacks. The secondary experiments consist of the Neutron and Proton Activation experiment that expose metal samples to the ambient flux throughout the mis sion, the Microsphere Dosimetry experiment housed in a cylindrical aluminum container and the Flux Measurement by Ion Trapping experiment consisting of a variety of sample materials that are exposed to the space environment for the total mission. The exterior surfaces of the mounting plate, the experiment housings and the support structure are coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint.The experiment is assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners and safety wire.

  15. High time resolution electron measurement by Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer (FESA)

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Shinohara, Iku; Tsuda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Shintaro; Kojima, Hirotsugu

    2009-06-16

    We have newly developed an electron energy analyzer FESA (Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer) for a future magnetospheric satellite mission SCOPE. The SCOPE mission is designed in order that observational studies from the cross-scale coupling viewpoint are enabled. One of the key observations necessary for the SCOPE mission is high-time resolution electron measurement. Eight FESAs on a spinning spacecraft are capable of measuring three dimensional electron distribution function with time resolution of 8 msec. FESA consists of two electrostatic analyzers that are composed of three nested hemispherical deflectors. Single FESA functions as four top-hat type electrostatic analyzers that can measure electrons with four different energies simultaneously. By measuring the characteristics of the test model FESA, we proved the validity of the design concept of FESA. Based on the measured characteristics, we designed FESA optimized for the SCOPE mission. This optimized analyzer has good enough performance to measure three dimensional electron distribution functions around the magnetic reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail.

  16. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Anwar; Naqvi, Husnain; Sher, Muhammad; Khan, Muazzam Ali; Khan, Imran; Irshad, Azeem

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network's life time.

  17. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Anwar; Naqvi, Husnain; Sher, Muhammad; Khan, Muazzam Ali; Khan, Imran; Irshad, Azeem

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network's life time. PMID:27447489

  18. Spread Spectrum Based Energy Efficient Collaborative Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of resource limited devices. Most crucial of these resources is battery life, as in most applications like battle field or volcanic area monitoring, it is often impossible to replace or recharge the power source. This article presents an energy efficient collaborative communication system based on spread spectrum to achieve energy efficiency as well as immunity against jamming, natural interference, noise suppression and universal frequency reuse. Performance of the proposed system is evaluated using the received signal power, bit error rate (BER) and energy consumption. The results show a direct proportionality between the power gain and the number of collaborative nodes as well as BER and signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0). The analytical and simulation results of the proposed system are compared with SISO system. The comparison reveals that SISO perform better than collaborative communication in case of small distances whereas collaborative communication performs better than SISO in case of long distances. On the basis of these results it is safe to conclude that collaborative communication in wireless sensor networks using wideband systems improves the life time of nodes in the networks thereby prolonging the network’s life time. PMID:27447489

  19. Measurement of low energy neutron spectrum below 10 keV with the slowing down time method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, F.; Oyama, Y.

    1996-02-01

    No general-purpose method of neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region around eV has been established so far. Neutron spectrum measurement in this energy region was attempted by applying the slowing down time (SDT) method, for the first time, inside two types of shield for fusion reactors, type 316 stainless steel (SS316) and SS316/water layered assemblies, incorporating with pulsed neutrons. In the SS316 assembly, neutron spectra below 1 keV were measured with an accuracy less than 10%. Although application of the SDT method was expected very difficult for SS316/water assembly since it contained lightest atoms of hydrogen, the measurement demonstrated that the SDT method was still effective for such shield assembly. The SDT method was also extended to thermal flux measurement in the SS316/water assembly. The present study demonstrated that the SDT method was effective for neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region around eV.

  20. Fat or lean: adjustment of endogenous energy stores to predictable and unpredictable changes in allostatic load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultner, Jannik; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Welcker, Jorg; Hatch, Scott

    2013-01-01

    6. Overall, results of this study support the ‘lean and fit’ hypothesis. We conclude that increased energy stores may not necessarily reflect better environmental conditions experienced by individuals or predict their higher fitness. A major advantage of adopting a lean physique when environmental conditions allow may be the avoidance of additional energetic costs for moving a heavy body. In breeding seabirds, this advantage may be more important during chick-rearing. In the focal species, the secretion of glucocorticoids might be involved in regulation of energy stores within a life history stage but does not appear to mediate an adaptive shift in energy stores between the incubating and chick-rearing stages of reproduction.

  1. Long-term channel adjustment and geomorphic feature creation by vegetation in a lowland, low energy river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Robert; Gurnell, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Physical habitat restoration is increasingly being used to improve the ecological status of rivers. This is particularly true for lowland streams which are perceived to lack sufficient energy to create new features or to flush out fine sediment derived from agricultural and urban sources. However, this study has found that even in low-energy, base-flow dominated chalk streams, physical habitat improvement can happen naturally without direct human intervention. Furthermore this positive change is achieved by components of the river that are often regarded as management problems: in-stream macrophytes (i.e. weed), riparian trees, woody debris, and most importantly fine sediment. This project investigated the long-term changes in channel planform for the River Frome (Dorset, UK) over the last 120 years and the role of aquatic and riparian vegetation in driving this change. Agricultural census data, historical maps, recent aerial images and field observations were analysed within a process-based, hierarchical framework for hydromorphological assessment, developed in the EU FP7 REFORM project, to investigate the source and timing of fine sediment production in the catchment, to quantify the reach-scale geomorphic response, and to identify vegetation-related bedforms that could be responsible for the adjustment. The analysis reveals that the channel has narrowed and become more sinuous in the last 50-60 years. The timing of this planform adjustment correlates with substantial changes in land use and agricultural practices (post-World War II) that are known to increase soil erosion and sediment connectivity. The field observations and recent aerial images suggest that the increased delivery of fine sediment to the channel has been translated into geomorphic adjustment and diversification though the interactions between vegetation, water flow and sediment. Emergent aquatic macrophytes are retaining fine sediment, leading to the development of submerged shelves that aggrade

  2. Hydrolyzed protein supplementation improves protein content and peroxidation of skeletal muscle by adjusting the plasma amino acid spectrums in rats after exhaustive swimming exercise: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydrolyzed protein supplementation upon skeletal muscle total protein and peroxidation in rats following exhaustive swimming exercise. Methods Twenty-four rats were randomized to 4 experimental groups (n = 6 per group): control group fed standard diet without exercise (SD), exercise (EX), exercise plus standard diet for 72 hours (EX + SD), and exercise plus standard diet supplemented with hydrolyzed protein (2 g/kg/d) for 72 hours (EX + HP). Immediately following exercise, the EX group was euthanized for collecting plasma and skeletal muscle samples. The EX + SD and EX + HP groups were fed their respective diets for 72 hour still plasma and skeletal muscle collection. Skeletal muscle samples were used to measure levels of total protein (TP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC). Plasma samples were used to analyze the amino acids spectrum. Results Compared with the EX + SD, EX + HP presented the significantly increased TP (P = 0.02) and decreased MDA and PC levels (P = 0.035). MDA was negatively correlated with the methionine levels. Moreover, EX + HP maintained higher levels of plasmaleucine, isoleucine, and methionine than EX + SD, which may be associated with the increased skeletal muscle TP levels observed (P < 0.05). Conclusions These results collectively suggest that hydrolyzed protein supplementation can improve skeletal muscle TP and ameliorate peroxidation damage in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise stress, which may be, at least in part, related with the maintenance of plasma leucine, isoleucine, and methionine levels. PMID:24565110

  3. The Energy Spectrum of Atmospheric Neutrinos between 2 and 200 TeV with the AMANDA-II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.

    2010-05-11

    The muon and anti-muon neutrino energy spectrum is determined from 2000-2003 AMANDA telescope data using regularised unfolding. This is the first measurement of atmospheric neutrinos in the energy range 2-200 TeV. The result is compared to different atmospheric neutrino models and it is compatible with the atmospheric neutrinos from pion and kaon decays. No significant contribution from charm hadron decays or extraterrestrial neutrinos is detected. The capabilities to improve the measurement of the neutrino spectrum with the successor experiment IceCube are discussed.

  4. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  5. An intense monoenergetic positron beam with an adjustable energy between 0.5 and 3.0 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoka-kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. S.; Henderson, S. D.; Huomo, H.; Lubell, M. S.; Lynn, K. G.; Mayer, R.; McCorkle, S.; McDonough, J.; Palathingal, J. C.; Phlips, B. F.; Vehanen, A.; Weber, M.; Wu, X. Y.

    1993-12-01

    An adjustable 0.5 to 3.0 MeV monoenergetic positron beam has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Positrons leaving a 22Na β+ source with a ˜ 6000 Å thick W(100) transmission moderator are accelerated to higher energies in a 3.0 MeV Dynamitron. At a target position, located 12 m away from the exit of the accelerator, the beam has a maximum intensity of 5 × 10 5 e +/s inside a 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) spot and is characterized by an energy spread of < 1 keV FWHM and a high-energy contamination from the unmoderated positrons of < 1 e +/s. At an energy of 2.2 MeV the beam divergence half angle at the target is < 0.5°. This paper describes the positron beam generation, extraction, acceleration, and transport along with the tools employed for the beam diagnostics and the measured parameters. It also includes a brief description of possible applications and a summary of results from recent experiments.

  6. Energy and air emissions embodied in China-U.S. trade: eastbound assessment using adjusted bilateral trade data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Allenby, Braden; Chen, Weiqiang

    2009-05-01

    It is critical to understand environmental impacts embodied in the bilateral trade between China and the United States, given the political, economic, and geographical importance of the two countries and the fact that few studies have investigated this before. This article studies the environmental impacts, particularly energy consumption and air emissions, embodied in the eastbound (from China to the U.S.) trade from 2002 to 2007 using an environmental input-output analysis technique and the adjusted bilateral trade data. In general,trade volume increased until the panic of 2008, and shifting trade patterns cause fluctuating embodied energy and air emissions in trade in China. Results show that embodied energy ranges from 7 to 11 exajoule (EJ) and takes about 12-17% of China's energy consumption. Embodied CO2 ranges between 400 and 800 Mt and represents about 8-12% of China's CO2 emissions. SO2 and NOx embodied in the eastbound trade generally grow over this period, from 4.2 to 6.3 Mt and from 1.4 to 2.9 Mt and account for 10-15% and 8-12% of China's total emissions, respectively.

  7. On the Evolution of and High-Energy Emission from GHz-Peaked-Spectrum Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stawarz, L.; Ostorero, L.; Begelman, M.C.; Moderski, R.; Kataoka, J.; Wagner, S.

    2007-12-18

    Here we discuss evolution and broad-band emission of compact (< kpc) lobes in young radio sources. We propose a simple dynamical description for these objects, consisting of a relativistic jet propagating into a uniform gaseous medium in the central parts of an elliptical host. In the framework of the proposed model, we follow the evolution of ultrarelativistic electrons injected from a terminal hotspot of a jet to expanding lobes, taking into account their adiabatic energy losses as well as radiative cooling. This allows us to discuss the broad-band lobe emission of young radio sources. In particular, we argue that the observed spectral turnover in the radio synchrotron spectra of these objects cannot originate from the synchrotron self-absorption process but is most likely due to free-free absorption effects connected with neutral clouds of interstellar medium engulfed by the expanding lobes and photoionized by active centers. We also find a relatively strong and complex high-energy emission component produced by inverse-Compton up-scattering of various surrounding photon fields by the lobes electrons. We argue that such high energy radiation is strong enough to account for several observed properties of GHz-peaked-spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies at UV and X-ray frequencies. In addition, this emission is expected to extend up to GeV (or possibly even TeV) photon energies and can thus be probed by several modern {gamma}-ray instruments. In particular, we suggest that GPS radio galaxies should constitute a relatively numerous class of extragalactic sources detected by GLAST.

  8. On the cross-helicity dependence of the energy spectrum in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, J. J.

    2011-01-15

    Phenomenological theories of strong incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence derived by Goldreich and Sridhar (GS) in 1995 and by Boldyrev in 2006 are only applicable to turbulence with vanishing cross-helicity. In this study, these two theories are generalized to treat turbulence with nonvanishing cross-helicity in such a way that the relation (w{sup +}/w{sup -}){sup 2}=({epsilon}{sup +}/{epsilon}{sup -}){sup 2} observed in numerical simulations is satisfied. The average energy (second order structure function) in the generalized GS theory is E(r{sub perpendicular})={phi}{sub 1}({sigma}{sub c})({epsilon}r{sub perpendicular}){sup 2/3} and that in the generalized Boldyrev theory is E(r{sub perpendicular})={phi}{sub 2}({sigma}{sub c})(v{sub A{epsilon}}r{sub perpendicular}){sup 1/2}, where the function {phi}({sigma}{sub c}) describes the dependence on the normalized cross-helicity {sigma}{sub c}. The form of the function {phi}({sigma}{sub c}) is derived through a renormalization of the variable {sigma}{sub c} that yields a one parameter family of solutions. The theory derived by Lithwick, Goldreich, and Sridhar (LGS) in 2007 is a special case of the generalized GS theory derived here; however, other generalizations of the GS theory are obtained that have a different cross-helicity dependence than the LGS theory. This new class of solutions and similar generalizations of Boldyrev's theory are investigated to see how the energy cascade rate {epsilon} changes as a function of {sigma}{sub c} when the energy at a given scale is held fixed. The generalization of Boldyrev's theory derived here is applicable to homogeneous MHD turbulence in the solar wind, for example, and can be used to obtain the turbulent dissipation rate {epsilon} from measurements of the energy spectrum and the normalized cross-helicity.

  9. An Evaluation of Neutron Energy Spectrum Effects in Iron Based on Molecular Dynamics Displacement Cascade Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1998-06-16

    The results of molecular dynamics (MD) displacement cascade simulations in bcc iron have been used to obtain effective cross sections for two measures of primary damage production: (1) the number of surviving point defects expressed as a fraction of the displacements calculated using the standard secondary displacement model of Norgett, Robinson, and Torrens (NRT), and (2) the fraction of the surviving interstitials contained in clusters that formed during the cascade event. Primary knockon atom spectra for iron obtained from the SPECTER code have been used to weight these MD-based damage production cross sections in order to obtain spectrally-averaged values for several locations in commercial fission reactors and materials test reactors. An evaluation of these results indicates that neutron energy spectrum differences between the various enviromnents do not lead to significant differences between the average primary damage formation parameters. In particular, the defect production cross sections obtained for PWR and BWR neutron spectra were not significantly different. The variation of the defect production cross sections as a function of depth into the reactor pressure vessel wall is used as a sample application of the cross sections. A slight difference between the attenuation behavior of the PWR and BWR was noted; this difference could be explained by a subtle difference in the energy dependence of the neutron spectra. Overall, the simulations support the continued use of dpa as a damage correlation parameter.

  10. Heisenberg antiferromagnet on Cayley trees: Low-energy spectrum and even/odd site imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changlani, Hitesh J.; Ghosh, Shivam; Henley, Christopher L.; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2013-02-01

    To understand the role of local sublattice imbalance in low-energy spectra of s=(1)/(2) quantum antiferromagnets, we study the s=(1)/(2) quantum nearest neighbor Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the coordination 3 Cayley tree. We perform many-body calculations using an implementation of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique for generic tree graphs. We discover that the bond-centered Cayley tree has a quasidegenerate set of a low-lying tower of states and an “anomalous” singlet-triplet finite-size gap scaling. For understanding the construction of the first excited state from the many-body ground state, we consider a wave function ansatz given by the single-mode approximation, which yields a high overlap with the DMRG wave function. Observing the ground-state entanglement spectrum leads us to a picture of the low-energy degrees of freedom being “giant spins” arising out of sublattice imbalance, which helps us analytically understand the scaling of the finite-size spin gap. The Schwinger-boson mean-field theory has been generalized to nonuniform lattices, and ground states have been found which are spatially inhomogeneous in the mean-field parameters.

  11. THE SPECTRUM OF THORIUM FROM 250 nm TO 5500 nm: RITZ WAVELENGTHS AND OPTIMIZED ENERGY LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, Stephen L.; Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J.

    2014-03-01

    We have made precise observations of a thorium-argon hollow cathode lamp emission spectrum in the region between 350 nm and 1175 nm using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Our measurements are combined with results from seven previously published thorium line lists to re-optimize the energy levels of neutral, singly, and doubly ionized thorium (Th I, Th II, and Th III). Using the optimized level values, we calculate accurate Ritz wavelengths for 19, 874 thorium lines between 250 nm and 5500 nm (40, 000 cm{sup –1} to 1800 cm{sup –1}). We have also found 102 new thorium energy levels. A systematic analysis of previous measurements in light of our new results allows us to identify and propose corrections for systematic errors in Palmer and Engleman and typographical errors and incorrect classifications in Kerber et al. We also found a large scatter with respect to the thorium line list of Lovis and Pepe. We anticipate that our Ritz wavelengths will lead to improved measurement accuracy for current and future spectrographs that make use of thorium-argon or thorium-neon lamps as calibration standards.

  12. Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of SS Cygni in Outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W

    2004-02-20

    We have fitted the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating spectrum of SS Cygni in outburst with a single temperature blackbody suffering the photoelectric opacity of a neutral column density and the scattering opacity of an outflowing wind. We find that this simple model is capable of reproducing the essential features of the observed spectrum with the blackbody temperature T{sub bl} {approx} 250{+-}50 kK, hydrogen column density N{sub H} {approx} 5.0{sup +2.9}{sub -1.5}x10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}, fractional emitting area f {approx} 5.6{sup +60}{sub -4.5} x10{sup -3}, boundary layer luminosity Lbl {approx} 5{sup +18}{sub -3} x10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}, wind velocity v {approx} 2500 km s{sup -1}, wind mass-loss rate w {approx} 1.1x10{sup 16} g s{sup -1}, and arbitrary values of the wind ionization fractions of 20 ions of O, Ne,Mg, Si, S, and Fe. Given that in outburst the accretion disk luminosity L{sub disk} {approx}1x10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}, L{sub bl}/L{sub disk} {approx} 0.05{sup +0.18}{sub -0.03}, which can be explained if the white dwarf (or an equatorial belt thereon) is rotating with an angular velocity {Omega}{sub wd} {approx} 0.7{sup +0.1}{sub -0.2}Hz, hence V{sub rot}sini {approx} 2300 km s{sup -1}.

  13. The sup 252 Cf(sf) neutron spectrum in the 5- to 20-MeV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, H.; Richter, D.; Seeliger, D. ); Fromm, W.D. ); Bottger, R.; Klein, H. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the {sup 252}Cf neutron spectrum measured at high energies with a miniature ionization chamber and two different NE-213 neutron detectors. The gamma-ray background and the main cosmic background caused by muons were suppressed by applying efficient pulse-shape discrimination. On the basis of two-dimensional spectroscopy of the neutron time-of-flight and scintillation pulse height, the sliding bias method is used to minimize experimental uncertainties. The experimental data, corrected for several systematic influences, confirm earlier results that show negative deviations from a reference Maxwellian distribution with a 1.42-MeV spectrum temperature for neutron energies above 6 MeV. Experimental results of this work are compared with various statistical model approaches to the {sup 252}Cf(sf) neutron spectrum.

  14. Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays in the Knee Region and Studies of Different Components of Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. V.; Fomin, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, N.N.; Kalmykov, V.N.; Kulikov, G.V.; Solovjeva, V.I.; Sulakov, V.P.; Vishnevskaya, E.A.

    2003-07-01

    The energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays is presented. The spectrum was derived from the electron and muon (with energies above 10 GeV) size spectra obtained with the MSU EAS array and using the contemporary QGSJET model for hadron interactions. The existence of the knee at energy ˜ 3 × 1015 eV in the primary energy spectrum is confirmed. The change of the spectral index before and after the knee amounts ˜ 0.4-0.5. Study of the EAS electron and muon components is being continued with the MSU array. In parallel with the traditional study of the EAS size spectrum considerable attention was paid to investigation of the EAS muon number spectrum. The description of the MSU EAS array is given in [9]. The array covers an area of approximately 0.5 km2 and includes 77 detectors (Geiger counters) of particle density ρ used for determination of the EAS size Ne . For determination of the total number of charged particles in a shower at the observation level it is necessary to know in detail their lateral distribution function (LDF). Our analysis showed that experimental data are described rather well by the function proposed by Greisen [3] and having the form ρ ˜ xs-2 (1 + x)s-4.5 (1 + β x), where s is an age parameter, x = r /r0 , r0 = 80 m at sea level and β ˜ 0.2-0.4. However the best agreement can be achieved for the empirical LDF having more complex form ρ ˜ xs-2 (1 + x)s-4.5 [x(1 + x)]α , where a parameter α depends on the shower axis distance (Fig. 1). Further we used namely this LDF for determining of the particle number Ne . To construct the EAS size spectrum all showers were divided on narrow intervals on Ne (Δ lg Ne = 0.1). In each interval the effective collecting area

  15. Magnetotransport in double quantum well with inverted energy spectrum: HgTe/CdHgTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakunin, M. V.; Suslov, A. V.; Popov, M. R.; Novik, E. G.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present an experimental study of the double-quantum-well (DQW) system made of two-dimensional layers with inverted energy band spectrum: HgTe. The magnetotransport reveals a considerably larger overlap of the conduction and valence subbands than in known HgTe single quantum wells (QW), which may be regulated here by an applied gate voltage Vg. This large overlap manifests itself in a much higher critical field Bc separating the range above it with a plain behavior of the Hall magnetoresistance ρx y(B ) , where the quantum peculiarities shift linearly with Vg, and the range below with a complicated behavior. In the latter case, specific structures in ρx y(B ) are formed like a double-N -shaped ρx y(B ) , reentrant sign-alternating quantum Hall effect with transitions into a zero-filling-factor state, etc., which are clearly manifested here due to better magnetic quantization at high fields, as compared to the features seen earlier in a single HgTe QW. The coexisting electrons and holes were found in the whole investigated range of positive and negative Vg as revealed (i) from fits to the low-field N -shaped ρx y(B ) , (ii) from the Fourier analysis of oscillations in ρx x(B ) , and (iii) from a specific behavior of ρx y(B ) at high positive Vg. A peculiar feature here is that the found electron density n remains almost constant in the whole range of investigated Vg while the hole density p drops down from the value a factor of 6 larger than n at extreme negative Vg to almost zero at extreme positive Vg passing through the charge-neutrality point. We show that this difference between n and p stems from an order of magnitude larger density of states for holes in the lateral valence subband maxima than for electrons in the conduction subband minimum. We analyze our observations on the basis of a calculated picture of magnetic levels in a DQW and suggest that their specificity is due to (i) a nonmonotonic course of the valence subband magnetic levels and an

  16. Energy Spectrum of the Recurrent Variation of Galactic Cosmic Rays During the Solar Minimum of Cycles 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Alania, Michael V.

    2016-08-01

    The Sun during the recent epoch of solar activity operated in a different way than during the last 60 years, being less active. We study temporal changes of the energy spectrum of the first three harmonics of the 27-day variation of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity during the unusual, recent solar minimum, between Solar Cycles 23 and 24 (SC 23/24) and compare with four previous minima. We show that the energy spectrum of the amplitudes of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity is hard in the maximum epochs and is soft in the minimum epochs during Solar Cycles 20 - 24, but with peculiarities during the Solar Minimum 23/24. In particular, while the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the first harmonic of the recurrent variation of the GCR intensity behaves practically the same as for previous epochs, the energy/rigidity spectrum of the amplitudes of the second and the third harmonics demonstrates a pronounced softening. We attribute this phenomenon to the decrease of the extension of the heliosphere caused by the decrease of the solar-wind dynamic pressure during the unusual Solar Minimum 23/24.

  17. On the effect of an error in a standard D2O-moderated 252Cf energy spectrum.

    PubMed

    Cummings, F M

    2009-12-01

    There appears to be an error in the neutron fluence for neutrons with energies between 9 and 10 MeV for the tabulated D2O-moderated Cf source in ISO 8529-1. If the referenced spectrum is used as tabulated, the error contributes a total error to neutron dose values from this source of approximately 3%.

  18. A rigorous description of the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule taking into account the internal rotation of hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Using the methods of a group chain, a rigorous algebraic model is constructed to describe the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule (CH3)2CHOH with an allowance for the internal rotation of hydroxyl. The model is rigorous in the sense that its correctness is limited only by the correctness of a chosen symmetry of internal dynamics of the molecule.

  19. Kolmogorov constants for the second-order structure function and the energy spectrum.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2013-02-01

    We examine the behavior of the Kolmogorov constants C(2), C(k), and C(k1), which are, respectively, the prefactors of the second-order longitudinal structure function and the three-dimensional and one-dimensional longitudinal energy spectrum in the inertial range. We show that their ratios, C(2)/C(k1) and C(k)/C(k1), exhibit clear dependence on the microscale Reynolds number R(λ), implying that they cannot all be independent of R(λ). In particular, it is found that (C(k1)/C(2)-0.25)=1.95R(λ)(-0.68). The study further reveals that the widely used relation C(2)=4.02C(k1) holds only asymptotically when R(λ)>/~10(5). It is also found that C(2) has much stronger R(λ) dependence than either C(k) or C(k1) if the latter indeed has a systematic dependence on R(λ). We further show that the varying dependence on R(λ) of these three numbers can be attributed to the difference of the inertial range in real- and wave-number space, with the inertial range in real-space known to be much shorter than that in wave-number space.

  20. Infrared properties of the energy spectrum in freely decaying isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    McComb, W D

    2016-01-01

    The low wave number expansion of the energy spectrum takes the well known form E(k,t)=E_{2}(t)k^{2}+E_{4}(t)k^{4}+⋯, where the coefficients are weighted integrals against the correlation function C(r,t). We show that expressing E(k,t) in terms of the longitudinal correlation function f(r,t) immediately yields E_{2}(t)=0 by cancellation. We verify that the same result is obtained using the correlation function C(r,t), provided only that f(r,t) falls off faster than r^{-3} at large values of r. As power-law forms are widely studied for the purpose of establishing bounds, we consider the family of model correlations f(r,t)=α_{n}(t)r^{-n}, for positive integer n, at large values of the separation r. We find that for the special case n=3, the relationship connecting f(r,t) and C(r,t) becomes indeterminate, and (exceptionally) E_{2}≠0, but that this solution is unphysical in that the viscous term in the Kármán-Howarth equation vanishes. Lastly, we show that E_{4}(t) is independent of time, without needing to assume the exponential decrease of correlation functions at large distances. PMID:26871151

  1. Infrared properties of the energy spectrum in freely decaying isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    McComb, W D

    2016-01-01

    The low wave number expansion of the energy spectrum takes the well known form E(k,t)=E_{2}(t)k^{2}+E_{4}(t)k^{4}+⋯, where the coefficients are weighted integrals against the correlation function C(r,t). We show that expressing E(k,t) in terms of the longitudinal correlation function f(r,t) immediately yields E_{2}(t)=0 by cancellation. We verify that the same result is obtained using the correlation function C(r,t), provided only that f(r,t) falls off faster than r^{-3} at large values of r. As power-law forms are widely studied for the purpose of establishing bounds, we consider the family of model correlations f(r,t)=α_{n}(t)r^{-n}, for positive integer n, at large values of the separation r. We find that for the special case n=3, the relationship connecting f(r,t) and C(r,t) becomes indeterminate, and (exceptionally) E_{2}≠0, but that this solution is unphysical in that the viscous term in the Kármán-Howarth equation vanishes. Lastly, we show that E_{4}(t) is independent of time, without needing to assume the exponential decrease of correlation functions at large distances.

  2. The Energy Spectrum of Fronts: Time Evolution of Shocks in Burgers[lsquor] Equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Andrews and Hoskins used semigeostrophic theory to argue that the energy spectrum of a front should decay like the 8/3 power of the wavenumber. They note, however, that their inviscid analysis is restricted to the very moment of breaking; that is, to the instant t = t when the vorticity first becomes infinite. In this paper, Burgers' equation is used to investigate the postbreaking behavior of fronts. We find that for t > t, the front rapidly evolves to a jump discontinuity. Combining our analysis with the Eady wave/Burgers[ldquor] study of Blumen, we find that the energy spectrum is more accurately approximated by the 8/3 power of the wavenumber, rather than by the k2 energy spectrum of a discontinuity, for less than two hours after the time of breaking.We also offer two corrections. Cai et al. improve a pseudospectral algorithm by fitting the spectrum of a jump discontinuity. This is not legitimate at t = t because the front initially forms with a cube root singularity and its spectral coefficients decay at a different rate. Whitham claims that for t > t, the characteristic equation has two roots. We show by explicit solution that there are actually three.

  3. Energy spectrum and specific heat of two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit interaction in a magnetic field parallel to the conducting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.

  4. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,i of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,i-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,i-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,i ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,i are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,i. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  5. Cosmic ray energy spectrum measurement with the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkin, Dmitry Aleksandrovich

    AMANDA-II is a neutrino telescope composed of 677 optical sensors organized along 19 strings buried deep in the Antarctic ice cap. It is designed to detect Cherenkov light produced by cosmic-ray- and neutrino-induced charged leptons. The majority of events recorded by AMANDA-II are caused by muons which are produced in the atmosphere by high-energy cosmic rays. The leading uncertainties in simulating such events come from the choice of the high-energy model used to describe the first interaction of the cosmic rays, uncertainties in our knowledge and implementation of the ice properties at the depth of the detector, and individual optical module sensitivities. Contributions from uncertainties in the atmospheric conditions and muon cross sections in ice are smaller. The downgoing muon simulation was substantially improved by using the extensive air shower generator CORSIKA to describe the shower development in the atmosphere, and by writing a new software package for the muon propagation (MMC), which reduced computational and algorithm errors below the level of uncertainties of the muon cross sections in ice. A method was developed that resulted in a flux measurement of cosmic rays with energies 1.5--200 TeV per nucleon (95% of primaries causing low-multiplicity events in AMANDA-II have energies in this range) independent of ice model and optical module sensitivities. Predictions of six commonly used high-energy interaction models (QGSJET, VENUS, NEXUS, DPMJET, HDPM, and SIBYLL) are compared to data. The best agreement with direct measurements is achieved with QGSJET, VENUS, and NEXUS. Assuming a power-law energy spectrum (phi0,i · E -gammai) for cosmic-ray components from hydrogen to iron (i = H,..., Fe) and their mass distribution according to Wiebel-South (Wiebel-South & Biermann, 1999), phi 0,i and gammai were corrected to achieve the best description of the data. For the hydrogen component, values of phi0,H = 0.106 +/- 0.007 m-2 sr-1s-1TeV-1 , gammaH = 2

  6. Statistical and evaporation models for the neutron emission energy spectrum in the center-of-mass system from fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, T.; Talou, P.; Stetcu, I.; Chadwick, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    The neutron emission energy spectra in the CMS (center-of-mass) frame from two compound nuclei produced by fission are studied. The neutron spectra calculated with the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model are compared with the evaporation theory, and the definition of the temperature is revisited. Using the Monte Carlo technique we average the CMS neutron spectra from many fission fragments to construct the representative CMS spectrum from both the light and heavy fragments. The CMS spectra for each fission fragment pair are also converted into the laboratory frame to calculate the total prompt fission neutron spectrum that can be observed experimentally. This is compared to measured laboratory data for thermal neutron induced fission on 235U. We show that the Hauser-Feshbach calculation gives a different spectrum shape than the Madland-Nix model calculation.

  7. An accurate method for energy spectrum reconstruction of Linac beams based on EPID measurements of scatter radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juste, B.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Santos, A.

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a methodology to reconstruct a Linac high energy photon spectrum beam. The method is based on EPID scatter images generated when the incident photon beam impinges onto a plastic block. The distribution of scatter radiation produced by this scattering object placed on the external EPID surface and centered at the beam field size was measured. The scatter distribution was also simulated for a series of monoenergetic identical geometry photon beams. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the scattered photons for monoenergetic photon beams at 92 different locations, with 0.5 cm increments and at 8.5 cm from the centre of the scattering material. Measurements were performed with the same geometry using a 6 MeV photon beam produced by the linear accelerator. A system of linear equations was generated to combine the polyenergetic EPID measurements with the monoenergetic simulation results. Regularization techniques were applied to solve the system for the incident photon spectrum. A linear matrix system, A×S=E, was developed to describe the scattering interactions and their relationship to the primary spectrum (S). A is the monoenergetic scatter matrix determined from the Monte Carlo simulations, S is the incident photon spectrum, and E represents the scatter distribution characterized by EPID measurement. Direct matrix inversion methods produce results that are not physically consistent due to errors inherent in the system, therefore Tikhonov regularization methods were applied to address the effects of these errors and to solve the system for obtaining a consistent bremsstrahlung spectrum.

  8. Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) I. Energy intake.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Regina; Kubalek, Christina; Ruf, Thomas; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter

    2006-11-01

    Large ruminants respond to changing plant phenology during winter by decreasing voluntary food intake, increasing gut passage time and utilizing body fat reserves. It is uncertain, however, how other large mammals with a non-ruminant digestive physiology cope with winter forage conditions. Therefore, we investigated seasonality of energy intake in a large herbivorous wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii). Throughout all seasons we used the n-alkane method to measure daily dry matter intake (DMI), diet composition and digestion, and determined an index of gut passage time in horses living under close to natural conditions. DMI correlated positively with its content of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract. Independent of these effects, DMI further varied seasonally with a peak in autumn and a nadir in late winter. Fluctuations of DMI corresponded to the annual change in body condition, which decreased during winter while energy reserves were depleted, and increased during the fattening period. Gut passage time varied in the course of the year and was longer during winter when the diet was high in crude fibre. Nevertheless, changes in gut passage time occurred rather independently of changes in forage composition and DMI, suggesting endogenous control for timely adaption of the digestive strategy to meet predictable changes in forage quality.

  9. Application of the BINS superheated drop detector spectrometer to the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) neutron energy spectrum determination

    SciTech Connect

    Di Fulvio, A.; Ciolini, R.; Mirzajani, N.; Romei, C.; D'Errico, F.; Bedogni, R.; Esposito, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Colautti, P.

    2013-07-18

    In the framework of TRASCO-BNCT project, a Bubble Interactive Neutron Spectrometer (BINS) device was applied to the characterization of the angle-and energy-differential neutron spectra generated by the {sup 9}Be(p,xn)reaction. The BINS spectrometer uses two superheated emulsion detectors, sequentially operated at different temperatures and thus provides a series of six sharp threshold responses, covering the 0.1-10 MeV neutron energy range. Spectrum unfolding of the data was performed by means of MAXED code. The obtained angle, energy-differential spectra were compared with those measured with a Bonner sphere spectrometer, a silicon telescope spectrometer and literature data.

  10. Application of the BINS superheated drop detector spectrometer to the 9Be(p,xn) neutron energy spectrum determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fulvio, A.; Ciolini, R.; Mirzajani, N.; Romei, C.; d'Errico, F.; Bedogni, R.; Esposito, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Colautti, P.

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of TRASCO-BNCT project, a Bubble Interactive Neutron Spectrometer (BINS) device was applied to the characterization of the angle-and energy-differential neutron spectra generated by the 9Be(p,xn)reaction. The BINS spectrometer uses two superheated emulsion detectors, sequentially operated at different temperatures and thus provides a series of six sharp threshold responses, covering the 0.1-10 MeV neutron energy range. Spectrum unfolding of the data was performed by means of MAXED code. The obtained angle, energy-differential spectra were compared with those measured with a Bonner sphere spectrometer, a silicon telescope spectrometer and literature data.

  11. Two-dimensional angular energy spectrum of electrons accelerated by the ultra-short relativistic laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Borovskiy, A. V.; Galkin, A. L.; Kalashnikov, M. P.

    2015-04-15

    The new method of calculating energy spectra of accelerated electrons, based on the parameterization by their initial coordinates, is proposed. The energy spectra of electrons accelerated by Gaussian ultra-short relativistic laser pulse at a selected angle to the axis of the optical system focusing the laser pulse in a low density gas are theoretically calculated. The two-peak structure of the electron energy spectrum is obtained. Discussed are the reasons for its appearance as well as an applicability of other models of the laser field.

  12. Analysis of Energy Spectrum with Low Photon Counts via Bayesian Posterior Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyk, David A.; Protassov, Rostislav; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Connors, Alanna

    1999-04-01

    Recently Bayesian methods have grown rapidly in popularity in many scientific disciplines as several computationally intensive statistical algorithms have become feasible with modern computer power. In this paper, we demonstrate how we have employed these state-of-the-art techniques (e.g., Gibbs sampler and Metropolis-Hastings) to fit today's high-quality, high resolution astrophysical spectral data. These algorithms are very flexible and can be used to fit models that account for the highly hierarchical structure in the collection of high-quality spectra and thus can keep pace with the accelerating progress of new telescope designs. We explicitly model photon arrivals as a Poisson process and, thus, have no difficulty with high resolution low count X-ray and gamma-ray data. These methods will be useful not only for the soon-to-be-launched Chandra X-ray observatory but also such new generation telescopes as XMM, Constellation X, and GLAST. We also explicitly incorporate the instrument response (e.g. via a response matrix and effective area vector), plus background contamination of the data. In particular, we appropriately model the background as the realization of a second Poisson process, thereby eliminating the need to directly subtract off the background counts and the rather embarrassing problem of negative photon counts. The source energy spectrum is modeled as a mixture of a Generalized Linear Model which accounts for the continuum plus absorption and several (Gaussian) line profiles. Generalized Linear Models are the standard method for incorporating covariate information (as in regression) into non-Gaussian models and are thus an obvious but innovative choice in this setting. Using several examples, we illustrate how Bayesian posterior sampling can be used to compute point (i.e., ``best'') estimates of the various model parameters as well as compute error bars on these estimates and construct statistical tests.

  13. Measurement of the neutron energy spectrum on the Godiva IV fast burst assembly for application to neutron dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Hsu, H.H.; Paternoster, R.R.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1996-06-01

    In June, 1995, Los Alamos National Laboratory hosted the 23rd U.S. Department of Energy sponsored Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Study at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The participants tested their facilities accident dosimeters under a variety of neutrons fields produced by the Solution High Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) and the Godiva IV fast burst assembly. To provide useful information for the evaluation of the results, the neutron energy Spectrum was determined and the delivered absorbed dose to tissue. The measurement of the neutron energy spectrum on Godiva provides a unique problem in that the burst, which is nearly Gaussian in time, has a full width at half maximum of around 50 microseconds. The neutron spectrum was first determined at low-power while running at delayed critical using a standard set of Bonner spheres. At the same time, the response of a set of TLD dosimeters were measured. After that, measurements were conducted during a burst with another set of TLDs and with sulfur pellets.

  14. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach. PMID:26287191

  15. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A.; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach. PMID:26287191

  16. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-08-13

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach.

  17. Experimental determination of the energy response of alanine pellets in the high dose rate 192Ir spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeken, B.; Cuypers, R.; Goossens, J.; Van den Weyngaert, D.; Verellen, D.

    2011-10-01

    An experimental determination of the energy correction factor for alanine/paraffin pellets in the 192Ir spectrum at varying distances from the source is presented. Alanine dosimeters were irradiated in water under full scatter conditions with a high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source (Flexisource), using a dedicated holder. Up to six line sources (catheters) fit in a regular pattern at fixed radial distances from the holder axis, the alanine detector being placed at the centre of the holder. The HDR source was stepping every 0.5 cm within a trocar needle within ± 3.0 cm around the medial plane through the detector in order to achieve dose homogeneity within the detector volume. The energy correction factor of alanine/paraffin pellets in 192Ir relative to 60Co was experimentally determined as the inverse ratio of the dose to water measured in water around the 192Ir source to the dose to water calculated in water using the TG-43 formalism. The pellets were read out with a Bruker EMXmicro spectrometer (X-band). The amplitude of the central line in the alanine absorption spectrum from pellets irradiated within the 192Ir spectrum was directly compared with the amplitude from 60Co-irradiated pellets. The energy correction factors of Harwell pellets irradiated in the 192Ir spectrum are 1.029 ± 0.02, 1.027 ± 0.02 and 1.045 ± 0.02 at a mean weighted source-detector distance of 2.0, 2.9 and 5.3 cm, respectively. The experimentally obtained values for the energy response are 1.3% lower compared to the theoretical values for radial distances smaller than 3 cm.

  18. Rigorous description of an energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule taking into account the internal rotation of methyl tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    By using the group chain methods, a rigorous algebraic model is constructed to describe the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule (CH3)2CHOH with an allowance for the internal motion of hydroxil and two identical methyl tops. The model is rigorous in the sense that its correctness is limited only by the correctness of a symmetry chosen to describe internal dynamics of the molecule.

  19. Improvement of energy efficiency via spectrum optimization of excitation sequence for multichannel simultaneously triggered airborne sonar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yao, Zhen-Jing; Peng, Han-Yang

    2009-12-01

    Both the energy efficiency and correlation characteristics are important in airborne sonar systems to realize multichannel ultrasonic transducers working together. High energy efficiency can increase echo energy and measurement range, and sharp autocorrelation and flat cross correlation can help eliminate cross-talk among multichannel transducers. This paper addresses energy efficiency optimization under the premise that cross-talk between different sonar transducers can be avoided. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is applied to optimize both the spectrum and correlation characteristics of the excitation sequence. The central idea of the spectrum optimization is to distribute most of the energy of the excitation sequence within the frequency band of the sonar transducer; thus, less energy is filtered out by the transducers. Real experiments show that a sonar system consisting of eight-channel Polaroid 600 series electrostatic transducers excited with 2 ms optimized pulse-position-modulation sequences can work together without cross-talk and can measure distances up to 650 cm with maximal 1% relative error.

  20. Improvement of energy efficiency via spectrum optimization of excitation sequence for multichannel simultaneously triggered airborne sonar system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yao, Zhen-Jing; Peng, Han-Yang

    2009-12-01

    Both the energy efficiency and correlation characteristics are important in airborne sonar systems to realize multichannel ultrasonic transducers working together. High energy efficiency can increase echo energy and measurement range, and sharp autocorrelation and flat cross correlation can help eliminate cross-talk among multichannel transducers. This paper addresses energy efficiency optimization under the premise that cross-talk between different sonar transducers can be avoided. The nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is applied to optimize both the spectrum and correlation characteristics of the excitation sequence. The central idea of the spectrum optimization is to distribute most of the energy of the excitation sequence within the frequency band of the sonar transducer; thus, less energy is filtered out by the transducers. Real experiments show that a sonar system consisting of eight-channel Polaroid 600 series electrostatic transducers excited with 2 ms optimized pulse-position-modulation sequences can work together without cross-talk and can measure distances up to 650 cm with maximal 1% relative error.

  1. Parametrized energy spectrum of cosmic-ray protons with kinetic energies down to 1 GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    A new estimation of the interstellar proton spectrum is made in which the source term of primary protons is taken from shock acceleration theory and the cosmic ray propagation calculation is based on a proposed nonuniform galactic disk model.

  2. ENERGY-DEPENDENT GAMMA-RAY BURST PULSE WIDTH DUE TO THE CURVATURE EFFECT AND INTRINSIC BAND SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Z. Y.; Ma, L.; Zhao, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Bao, Y. Y.

    2012-06-20

    Previous studies have found that the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulse is energy dependent and that it decreases as a power-law function with increasing photon energy. In this work we have investigated the relation between the energy dependence of the pulse and the so-called Band spectrum by using a sample including 51 well-separated fast rise and exponential decay long-duration GRB pulses observed by BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory). We first decompose these pulses into rise and decay phases and find that the rise widths and the decay widths also behave as a power-law function with photon energy. Then we investigate statistically the relations between the three power-law indices of the rise, decay, and total width of the pulse (denoted as {delta}{sub r}, {delta}{sub d}, and {delta}{sub w}, respectively) and the three Band spectral parameters, high-energy index ({alpha}), low-energy index ({beta}), and peak energy (E{sub p} ). It is found that (1) {alpha} is strongly correlated with {delta}{sub w} and {delta}{sub d} but seems uncorrelated with {delta}{sub r}; (2) {beta} is weakly correlated with the three power-law indices, and (3) E{sub p} does not show evident correlations with the three power-law indices. We further investigate the origin of {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha}. We show that the curvature effect and the intrinsic Band spectrum could naturally lead to the energy dependence of the GRB pulse width and also the {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} and {delta}{sub w}-{alpha} correlations. Our results hold so long as the shell emitting gamma rays has a curved surface and the intrinsic spectrum is a Band spectrum or broken power law. The strong {delta}{sub d}-{alpha} correlation and inapparent correlations between {delta}{sub r} and the three Band spectral parameters also suggest that the rise and decay phases of the GRB pulses have different origins.

  3. Cosmic ray charge and energy spectrum measurements using a new large area Cerenkov x dE/dx telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Kish, J. C.; Schrier, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In September, 1981, a new 0.5 square meter ster cosmic ray telescope was flown to study the charge composition and energy spectrum of cosmic ray nuclei between 0.3 and 4 GeV/nuc. A high resolution Cerenkov counter, and three dE/dx measuring scintillation counters, including two position scintillators were contained in the telescope used for the charge and energy spectrum measurements. The analysis procedures did not require any large charge or energy dependent corrections, and absolute fluxes could be obtained to an accuracy approximately 5%. The spectral measurements made in 1981, at a time of extreme solar modulation, could be compared with measurements with a similar telescope made by our group in 1977, at a time of minimum modulation and can be used to derive absolute intensity values for the HEAO measurements made in 1979 to 80. Using both data sets precise energy spectra and abundance ratios can be derived over the entire energy range from 0.3 to greater than 15 GeV/nuc.

  4. Proton therapy monitoring by Compton imaging: influence of the large energy spectrum of the prompt-γ radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilaire, Estelle; Sarrut, David; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichiţa

    2016-04-01

    In proton therapy, the prompt-γ (PG) radiation produced by the interactions between protons and matter is related to the range of the beam in the patient. Tomographic Compton imaging is currently studied to establish a PG image and verify the treatment. However the quality of the reconstructed images depends on a number of factors such as the volume attenuation, the spatial and energy resolutions of the detectors, incomplete absorptions of high energy photons and noise from other particles reaching the camera. The impact of all these factors was not assessed in details. In this paper we investigate the influence of the PG energy spectrum on the reconstructed images. To this aim, we describe the process from the Monte Carlo simulation of the proton irradiation, through the Compton imaging of the PG distribution, up to the image reconstruction with a statistical MLEM method. We identify specific PG energy windows that are more relevant to detect discrepancies with the treatment plan. We find that for the simulated Compton device, the incomplete absorption of the photons with energy above about 2 MeV prevents the observation of the PG distributions at specific energies. It also leads to blurred images and smooths the distal slope of the 1D PG profiles obtained as projections on the central beam axis. We show that a selection of the events produced by γ photons having deposited almost all their energy in the camera allows to largely improve the images, a result that emphasizes the importance of the choice of the detector. However, this initial-energy-based selection is not accessible in practice. We then propose a method to estimate the range of the PG profile both for specific deposited-energy windows and for the full spectrum emission. The method relies on two parameters. We use a learning approach for their estimation and we show that it allows to detect few millimeter shifts of the PG profiles.

  5. Cosmic-ray energy spectrum and composition up to the ankle: the case for a second Galactic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoudam, S.; Rachen, J. P.; van Vliet, A.; Achterberg, A.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the recent high-precision measurements of cosmic rays by several new-generation experiments, we have carried out a detailed study to understand the observed energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays with energies up to about 1018 eV. Our study shows that a single Galactic component with subsequent energy cut-offs in the individual spectra of different elements, optimised to explain the observed elemental spectra below 1014 eV and the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum, cannot explain the observed all-particle spectrum above 2 × 1016 eV. We discuss two approaches for a second component of Galactic cosmic rays - re-acceleration at a Galactic wind termination shock, and supernova explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars, and show that the latter scenario can explain almost all observed features in the all-particle spectrum and the composition up to 1018 eV, when combined with a canonical extra-galactic spectrum expected from strong radio galaxies or a source population with similar cosmological evolution. In this two-component Galactic model, the knee at 3 × 1015 eV and the "second knee" at 1017 eV in the all-particle spectrum are due to the cut-offs in the first and second components, respectively. We also discuss several variations of the extra-galactic component, from a minimal contribution to scenarios with a significant component below the "ankle" (at 4 × 1018 eV), and find that extra-galactic contributions in excess of regular source evolution are neither indicated nor in conflict with the existing data. We also provide arguments that an extra-galactic contribution is unlikely to dominate at or below the second knee. Our main result is that the second Galactic component predicts a composition of Galactic cosmic rays at and above the second knee that largely consists of helium or a mixture of helium and CNO nuclei, with a weak or essentially vanishing iron fraction, in contrast to most common assumptions. This prediction is in agreement with new

  6. THz frequency spectrum of protein-solvent interaction energy using a recurrence plot-based Wiener-Khinchin method.

    PubMed

    Karain, Wael

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of a protein and the water surrounding it are coupled via nonbonded energy interactions. This coupling can exhibit a complex, nonlinear, and nonstationary nature. The THz frequency spectrum for this interaction energy characterizes both the vibration spectrum of the water hydrogen bond network, and the frequency range of large amplitude modes of proteins. We use a Recurrence Plot based Wiener-Khinchin method RPWK to calculate this spectrum, and the results are compared to those determined using the classical auto-covariance-based Wiener-Khinchin method WK. The frequency spectra for the total nonbonded interaction energy extracted from molecular dynamics simulations between the β-Lactamase Inhibitory Protein BLIP, and water molecules within a 10 Å distance from the protein surface, are calculated at 150, 200, 250, and 310 K, respectively. Similar calculations are also performed for the nonbonded interaction energy between the residues 49ASP, 53TYR, and 142PHE in BLIP, with water molecules within 10 Å from each residue respectively at 150, 200, 250, and 310 K. A comparison of the results shows that RPWK performs better than WK, and is able to detect some frequency data points that WK fails to detect. This points to the importance of using methods capable of taking the complex nature of the protein-solvent energy landscape into consideration, and not to rely on standard linear methods. In general, RPWK can be a valuable addition to the analysis tools for protein molecular dynamics simulations. Proteins 2016; 84:1549-1557. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A multiple-time-scale turbulence model based on variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.

  8. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  9. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  10. Measurement of the B to Xs gammaBranching Fraction and Photon Energy Spectrum usingthe Recoil Method

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2007-12-04

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction and photon energy spectrum for the decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} using data from the BABAR experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 210 fb{sup -1}, from which approximately 680,000 B{bar B} events are tagged by a fully reconstructed hadronic decay of one of the B mesons. In the decay of the second B meson, an isolated high-energy photon is identified. We measure {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}) = (3.66 {+-} 0.85{sub stat} {+-} 0.60{sub syst}) x 10{sup -4} for photon energies E{sub {gamma}} above 1.9 GeV in the B rest frame. From the measured spectrum we calculate the first and second moments for different minimum photon energies, which are used to extract the heavy-quark parameters m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}. In addition, measurements of the direct CP asymmetry and isospin asymmetry are presented.

  11. The Cosmic Ray p+He energy spectrum in the 3-3000 TeV energy range measured by ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, S. M.; Montini, P.

    2016-07-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage air shower detector operated at the Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory. The detector has been in stable data taking in its full configuration since November 2007 to February 2013. The high altitude and the high segmentation and spacetime resolution offer the possibility to explore the cosmic ray energy spectrum in a very wide range, from a few TeV up to the PeV region. The high segmentation allows a detailed measurement of the lateral distribution, which can be used in order to discriminate showers produced by light and heavy elements. In this work we present the measurement of the cosmic ray light component spectrum in the energy range 3-3000 TeV. The analysis has been carried out by using a two-dimensional unfolding method based on the Bayes' theorem.

  12. The inelastic neutron scattering spectrum of chromous acid at high energy transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkinson, J.; Taylor, A. D.; Howard, J.; Eckert, J.; Goldstone, J. A.

    1985-02-01

    The inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectrum of chromous acid, at 77 K, is presented. It is dominated by the intense bending mode at 1254 cm-1 with some modes at lower frequencies showing indications of dispersion. The antisymmetric stretch νas(OHS) {‖1>-‖2>} was assigned to a broad band centered at ˜2050 cm-1, significantly displaced for the IR assignment (1650 cm-1). The breadth of the band is due to the dispersion, and kinematic coupling, that is anticipated for this compound. These new data allows us to fit chromous acid more clearly into the general trend of hydrogen bonded compounds. Chromous acid compares very well in its overall INS spectrum with the isomorphous sodium bifluoride, except that the kinematic coupling between νas(OHO) and the symmetric stretch does not occur in this compound.

  13. A multiple-time-scale turbulence model based on variable partitioning of turbulent kinetic energy spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method. Consideration is given to a class of turbulent boundary layer flows and of separated and/or swirling elliptic turbulent flows. For the separated and/or swirling turbulent flows, the present turbulence model yielded significantly improved computational results over those obtained with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model.

  14. Development of a "First Principles" Water Potential with Flexible Monomers: Dimer Potential Energy Surface, VRT Spectrum, and Second Virial Coefficient.

    PubMed

    Babin, Volodymyr; Leforestier, Claude; Paesani, Francesco

    2013-12-10

    The development of a "first principles" water potential with flexible monomers (MB-pol) for molecular simulations of water systems from gas to condensed phases is described. MB-pol is built upon the many-body expansion of the intermolecular interactions, and the specific focus of this study is on the two-body term (V2B) representing the full-dimensional intermolecular part of the water dimer potential energy surface. V2B is constructed by fitting 40,000 dimer energies calculated at the CCSD(T)/CBS level of theory and imposing the correct asymptotic behavior at long-range as predicted from "first principles". The comparison of the calculated vibration-rotation tunneling (VRT) spectrum and second virial coefficient with the corresponding experimental results demonstrates the accuracy of the MB-pol dimer potential energy surface.

  15. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2004-08-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of small core or a large core polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the second generation (alpha) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of small-core fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility and commercial viability of this technology. (1) TRNSYS Modeling of a Hybrid Lighting System: Building Energy Loads and Chromaticity Analysis; (2) High Lumens Screening Test Setup for Optical Fibers; (3) Photo-Induced Heating in Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles; (4) Low-Cost Primary Mirror Development; (5) Potential Applications for Hybrid Solar Lighting; (6) Photobioreactor Population Experiments and Productivity Measurements; and (7) Development of a Microalgal CO2-Biofixation Photobioreactor.

  16. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons aboard an ER-2 high-altitude airplane.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, P; Reginatto, M; Kniss, T; Wilson, J W; Singleterry, R C; Jones, I W; Van Steveninck, W

    2002-01-01

    Crews working on present-day jet aircraft are a large occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose from galactic cosmic radiation. Crews of future high-speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. To help reduce the significant uncertainties in calculations of such exposures, the atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on five flights of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary AIR instrument was a highly sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer with lead and steel shells placed within the moderators of two of its 14 detectors to enhance response at high energies. Detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using MCNPX. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the measured count rates using the new MAXED code. We have measured the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron effective dose and dose equivalent rates and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cutoff. The measured cosmic-ray neutron spectra have almost no thermal neutrons, a large "evaporation" peak near 1 MeV and a second broad peak near 100 MeV which contributes about 69% of the neutron effective dose. At high altitude, geomagnetic latitude has very little effect on the shape of the spectrum, but it is the dominant variable affecting neutron fluence rate, which was eight times higher at the northernmost measurement location than it was at the southernmost. The shape of the spectrum varied only slightly with altitude from 21 km down to 12 km (56-201 g cm-2 atmospheric depth), but was significantly different on the ground. In all cases, ambient dose equivalent was greater than effective dose for cosmic-ray neutrons.

  17. Upgrades of DARWIN, a dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to various types of radiation over wide energy ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Fusao; Sakurai, Hiroki; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-05-01

    A dose and spectrum monitoring system applicable to neutrons, photons and muons over wide ranges of energy, designated as DARWIN, has been developed for radiological protection in high-energy accelerator facilities. DARWIN consists of a phoswitch-type scintillation detector, a data-acquisition (DAQ) module for digital waveform analysis, and a personal computer equipped with a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program for controlling the system. The system was recently upgraded by introducing an original DAQ module based on a field programmable gate array, FPGA, and also by adding a function for estimating neutron and photon spectra based on an unfolding technique without requiring any specific scientific background of the user. The performance of the upgraded DARWIN was examined in various radiation fields, including an operational field in J-PARC. The experiments revealed that the dose rates and spectra measured by the upgraded DARWIN are quite reasonable, even in radiation fields with peak structures in terms of both spectrum and time variation. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of DARWIN for improving radiation safety in high-energy accelerator facilities.

  18. Measurements of the neutron dose and energy spectrum on the International Space Station during expeditions ISS-16 to ISS-21.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Akatov, Yu; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Chernykh, I V; Ing, H; Khoshooniy, N; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Romanenko, R Y; Shurshakov, V; Thirsk, R B; Tomi, L

    2013-01-01

    As part of the international Matroshka-R and Radi-N experiments, bubble detectors have been used on board the ISS in order to characterise the neutron dose and the energy spectrum of neutrons. Experiments using bubble dosemeters inside a tissue-equivalent phantom were performed during the ISS-16, ISS-18 and ISS-19 expeditions. During the ISS-20 and ISS-21 missions, the bubble dosemeters were supplemented by a bubble-detector spectrometer, a set of six detectors that was used to determine the neutron energy spectrum at various locations inside the ISS. The temperature-compensated spectrometer set used is the first to be developed specifically for space applications and its development is described in this paper. Results of the dose measurements indicate that the dose received at two different depths inside the phantom is not significantly different, suggesting that bubble detectors worn by a person provide an accurate reading of the dose received inside the body. The energy spectra measured using the spectrometer are in good agreement with previous measurements and do not show a strong dependence on the precise location inside the station. To aid the understanding of the bubble-detector response to charged particles in the space environment, calculations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code, together with data collected on the ISS. These calculations indicate that charged particles contribute <2% to the bubble count on the ISS, and can therefore be considered as negligible for bubble-detector measurements in space.

  19. Vacuum and gravitons of relic gravitational waves and the regularization of the spectrum and energy-momentum tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Gang; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Jie-Wen

    2016-08-01

    The spectrum of a relic gravitational wave (RGW) contains high-frequency divergences, which should be removed. We present a systematic study of the issue, based on the exact RGW solution that covers the five stages, from inflation to the acceleration, each being a power law expansion. We show that the present RGW consists of vacuum dominating at f >1 011 Hz and graviton dominating at f <1 011 Hz , respectively. The gravitons are produced by the four cosmic transitions, mostly by the inflation-reheating one. We perform adiabatic regularization to remove vacuum divergences in three schemes: at present, at the end of inflation, and at horizon exit, to the second adiabatic order for the spectrum, and the fourth order for energy density and pressure. In the first scheme, a cutoff is needed to remove graviton divergences. We find that all three schemes yield the spectra of a similar profile, and the primordial spectrum defined far outside horizon during inflation is practically unaffected. We also regularize the gauge-invariant perturbed inflaton and the scalar curvature perturbation by the last two schemes, and find that the scalar spectra, the tensor-scalar ratio, and the consistency relation remain unchanged.

  20. Measurement of vibrational spectrum of liquid using monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Tomohiro; Fukuyama, Mao; Hibara, Akihide; Okunishi, Eiji; Mukai, Masaki; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2014-10-01

    Investigations on the dynamic behavior of molecules in liquids at high spatial resolution are greatly desired because localized regions, such as solid-liquid interfaces or sites of reacting molecules, have assumed increasing importance with respect to improving material performance. In application to liquids, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a promising analytical technique with the appropriate resolutions. In this study, we obtained EELS spectra from an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide (C2mim-TFSI), chosen as the sampled liquid, using monochromated scanning TEM (STEM). The molecular vibrational spectrum and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap of the liquid were investigated. The HOMO-LUMO gap measurement coincided with that obtained from the ultraviolet-visible spectrum. A shoulder in the spectrum observed ∼0.4 eV is believed to originate from the molecular vibration. From a separately performed infrared observation and first-principles calculations, we found that this shoulder coincided with the vibrational peak attributed to the C-H stretching vibration of the [C2mim(+)] cation. This study demonstrates that a vibrational peak for a liquid can be observed using monochromated STEM-EELS, and leads one to expect observations of chemical reactions or aids in the analysis of the dynamic behavior of molecules in liquid.

  1. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the γ-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong γ-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301 ± 36) × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5 ± 0.2) × 1050 erg s-1, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by a significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time-scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad-band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum (Γ1 ˜ 1) below the break energy, at E break = 2.5-3.0 keV, and Γ2 ˜ 1.4-1.5 above the break energy. The steepening of the spectrum below ˜3 keV may indicate that the soft X-ray emission is produced by the low-energy relativistic electrons. This is in agreement with the small variability amplitude and the lack of spectral changes in that part of the X-ray spectrum observed between the two NuSTAR and Swift joint observations. As for the other high-redshift FSRQ detected by both Fermi-LAT and Swift-BAT, the photon index of PKS 2149-306 in hard X-ray is 1.6 or lower and the average γ-ray luminosity higher than 2 × 1048 erg s-1.

  2. Separation of coexisting dynamical regimes in multistate intermittency based on wavelet spectrum energies in an erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Hramov, Alexander E; Koronovskii, Alexey A; Moskalenko, Olga I; Zhuravlev, Maksim O; Jaimes-Reategui, Rider; Pisarchik, Alexander N

    2016-05-01

    We propose a method for the detection and localization of different types of coexisting oscillatory regimes that alternate with each other leading to multistate intermittency. Our approach is based on consideration of wavelet spectrum energies. The proposed technique is tested in an erbium-doped fiber laser with four coexisting periodic orbits, where external noise induces intermittent switches between the coexisting states. Statistical characteristics of multistate intermittency, such as the mean duration of the phases for every oscillation type, are examined with the help of the developed method. We demonstrate strong advantages of the proposed technique over previously used amplitude methods. PMID:27300891

  3. Two-dimensional semimetal in wide HgTe quantum wells: Charge-carrier energy spectrum and magnetotransport

    SciTech Connect

    Germanenko, A. V.; Minkov, G. M.; Rut, O. E.; Sherstobitov, A. A.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.

    2013-12-15

    The magnetoresistivity and the Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas effects in heterostructures with a single 20.2-nm-wide quantum well made from the gapless semiconductor HgTe are studied experimentally. The measurements are performed on gated samples over a wide range of electron and hole densities. The data obtained are used to reconstruct the energy spectrum of electrons and holes in the vicinity of the extrema of the quantum-confinement subbands. It is shown that the charge-carrier dispersion relation in the investigated systems differs from that calculated within the framework of the conventional kp model.

  4. Energy spectrum for the solar neutron event of September 7 2005, derived from the SNT at Sierra Negra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, L.X.; Valdés-Galicia, J.F.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A.; Muraki, Y.; Sako, T.; Watanabe, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Shibata, S.; Sakai, T.; Tsujihara, H.

    The Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Mt. Sierra Negra in Mexico (19.0°N, 97.3°W) is taking data since June of 2004. A solar neutron event was registered by this SNT, associated with the flare of September 7 of 2005, at the minimum phase of solar cycle 23. In this work we calculate the energy spectrum for this solar neutron event, using the attenuation model by Dorman & Valdés-Galicia (J. Geophys. Res. 495. 1999), and the detector efficiency calculation of Valdés-Galicia (Nucl. Inst. Meth., A535, 656, 2004).

  5. Separation of coexisting dynamical regimes in multistate intermittency based on wavelet spectrum energies in an erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Hramov, Alexander E; Koronovskii, Alexey A; Moskalenko, Olga I; Zhuravlev, Maksim O; Jaimes-Reategui, Rider; Pisarchik, Alexander N

    2016-05-01

    We propose a method for the detection and localization of different types of coexisting oscillatory regimes that alternate with each other leading to multistate intermittency. Our approach is based on consideration of wavelet spectrum energies. The proposed technique is tested in an erbium-doped fiber laser with four coexisting periodic orbits, where external noise induces intermittent switches between the coexisting states. Statistical characteristics of multistate intermittency, such as the mean duration of the phases for every oscillation type, are examined with the help of the developed method. We demonstrate strong advantages of the proposed technique over previously used amplitude methods.

  6. Wide-spectrum energy harvesting out of colored Lévy-like fluctuations, by monostable piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deza, J. Ignacio; Deza, Roberto R.; Wio, Horacio S.

    2012-11-01

    This work aims to optimize the overall performance of a model oscillator, as an energy harvester of Lévy-like mesoscopic fluctuations through piezoelectric conversion. As a further step in the description of a realistic harvesting device we consider a monostable Woods-Saxon oscillator, which can interpolate between square well and harmonic-like behaviors. We study the interplay between the potential shape and the noise's spectrum and statistics. The dependence of the power output on the parameters determining those features indicates the directions in which the former can be increased.

  7. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device

    PubMed Central

    Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima. PMID:26273118

  8. Development of the MICROMEGAS detector for measuring the energy spectrum of alpha particles by using a 241Am source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Ham, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting a particles emitted from an 241Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of a particles from the 241Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the a particle from the 241Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the a particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for a particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that a particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGAS detector for a particles under the present conditions is found to be ~97.3%.

  9. Effects of velocity-dependent dark matter annihilation on the energy spectrum of the extragalactic gamma-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sheldon; Dutta, Bhaskar; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2010-11-01

    We calculate the effects of velocity-dependent dark matter annihilation cross sections on the intensity of the extragalactic gamma-ray background. Our formalism does not assume a locally thermal distribution of dark matter particles in phase space, and is valid for arbitrary velocity-dependent annihilation. Although the model of the dark matter distribution we use is simple and may not describe nature precisely, it is sufficient for quantifying the effects of velocity-dependent annihilations: different halo models would be expected to produce the same general features. As concrete examples, we calculate the effects of p-wave annihilation (with the v-weighted cross section of σv=a+bv2) on the mean intensity of extragalactic gamma rays produced in cosmological dark matter halos. This velocity variation makes the shape of the energy spectrum harder, but this change in the shape is too small to see unless b/a≳106. While we find no such models in the parameter space of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we show that it is possible to find b/a≳106 in the extension MSSM⊗U(1)B-L. However, we find that the most dominant effect of the p-wave annihilation is the suppression of the amplitude of the gamma-ray background. A nonzero b at the dark matter freeze-out epoch requires a smaller value of a in order for the relic density constraint to be satisfied, suppressing the amplitude by a factor as low as 10-6 for a thermal relic. Nonthermal relics will have weaker amplitude suppression. As another velocity-dependent effect, we calculate the spectrum for s-wave annihilation into fermions enhanced by the attractive Sommerfeld effect. Resonances associated with this effect result in significantly enhanced intensities, with a slightly softer energy spectrum.

  10. Quasi-energy spectrum and dynamical localizations of two charged particles in a one-dimensional lattice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Suqing, Duan; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2006-04-01

    The quasi-energy spectrum of two charged particles in a one-dimensional lattice system driven by an external field are theoretically studied with the help of numerical calculations. It is found that the quasi-energy spectrum splits into two regions. In the gourd-shaped region the Floquet states mainly contain the Wannier states |l,m> (l≠m), which describe the two particles occupy the different sites. The (avoid) crossing points in this region are corresponding to the dynamical localizations of the two particles which initially occupy on different sites when the distance between the initial sites is large. These conditions of dynamical localization are the same as that in single particle system. In the other region (electron electron or electron hole pair region), the Floquet states mainly contain the Wannier states |l,l>, which describe the two particles simultaneously occupy the lth site. The (avoid) crossing points in this region are corresponding to the dynamical localizations of the two particles happening which initially occupy on same site.

  11. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm. PMID:27661578

  12. Electrons in a relativistic-intensity laser field: generation of zeptosecond electromagnetic pulses and energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A A; Galkin, A L; Kalashnikov, M P; Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Shiryaev, O B

    2011-08-31

    We study the motion of an electron and emission of electromagnetic waves by an electron in the field of a relativistically intense laser pulse. The dynamics of the electron is described by the Newton equation with the Lorentz force in the right-hand side. It is shown that the electrons may be ejected from the interaction region with high energy. The energy spectrum of these electrons and the technique of using the spectrum to assess the maximal intensity in the focus are analysed. It is found that electromagnetic radiation of an electron moving in an intense laser field occurs within a small angle around the direction of the electron trajectory tangent. The tangent quickly changes its direction in space; therefore, electromagnetic radiation of the electron in the far-field zone in a certain direction in the vicinity of the tangent is a short pulse with a duration as short as zeptoseconds. The calculation of the temporary and spectral distribution of the radiation field is carried out. (superintense laser fields)

  13. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  14. The high energy X-ray spectrum of 4U 1700-37 observed from OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Maurer, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    The most intense hard X-ray source in the confused region in Scorpius has been identified as 4U 1700-37 (=HD 153919). Observations extending over three binary periods in 1978 September were carried out with the high-energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO 8. The 3.4 day modulation is seen above 20 keV with the intensity during eclipse being consistent with zero flux. The photonumber spectrum from 20 to 150 keV is well represented by a single power law with a photonumber spectral index of -2.77 + or - 0.35 or by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 27 (+15, -7)keV. The counting rate above 20 keV outside of eclipse shows no evidence for the 96.8 minute X-ray modulation previously reported at lower energies. Despite the difficulties that exist in reconciling both the lack of periodic modulation in the emitted X-radiation and the orbital dynamics of the system with our currently accepted theories of the evolution and physical properties of neutron stars, the observed properties of 4U 1700-37 are all consistent with the source being a spherically accreting neutron star rather than a black hole.

  15. The multicomponent doping of surface layers of materials under the influence of ion beams with a broad energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Yakutkina, T. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper discusses the various factors that influence the efficiency of ion mixing. It was found that in the base of penetration of atoms multilayer films in polycrystalline substrate is the process of energy transfer from ions and primary knocked-on atom (PKA) of films to subsequent displacement cascade. At the same time the penetration of implanted atoms to great depths determined by the density of defects, radiation-stimulated migration of interstitial atoms and their physico-chemical interaction with the atoms of the matrix, which can be described by the model of an isotropic mixing. It is shown that doping atoms of the multilayer films, possibly the formation of gradient layers, which are determined by radiation traces in the substrate implanted atoms and their migration under irradiation by the ion beam with a broad energy spectrum.

  16. Measurement of the atmospheric muon neutrino energy spectrum with IceCube in the 79- and 86-String configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhe, T.; Scheriau, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2016-04-01

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope with an instrumented volume of one cubic kilometer. A total of 5160 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) is deployed on 86 strings forming a three dimensional detector array. Although primarily designed for the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources, the detector can be used for spectral measurements of atmospheric neutrinos. These spectral measurements are hindered by a dominant background of atmospheric muons. State-of-the-art techniques from Machine Learning and Data Mining are required to select a high-purity sample of atmospheric neutrino candidates. The energy spectrum of muon neutrinos is obtained from energy-dependent input variables by utilizing regularized unfolding. The results obtained using IceCube in the 79- and 86-string configuration are presented in this paper.

  17. MULTIMODE quantum calculations of vibrational energies and IR spectrum of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster using accurate potential energy and dipole moment surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Homayoon, Zahra

    2014-09-28

    A new, full (nine)-dimensional potential energy surface and dipole moment surface to describe the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is reported. The PES is based on fitting of roughly 32 000 CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ electronic energies. The surface is a linear least-squares fit using a permutationally invariant basis with Morse-type variables. The PES is used in a Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) complexes. Using the calculated ZPE the dissociation energies of the clusters are reported. Vibrational configuration interaction calculations of NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) using the MULTIMODE program are performed. The fundamental, a number of overtone, and combination states of the clusters are reported. The IR spectrum of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is calculated using 4, 5, 7, and 8 modes VSCF/CI calculations. The anharmonic, coupled vibrational calculations, and IR spectrum show very good agreement with experiment. Mode coupling of the water “antisymmetric” stretching mode with the low-frequency intermolecular modes results in intensity borrowing.

  18. Dependence of Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (DMCPS) Dissociation on Ionized Energy by Using Quadrupole Mass Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Ye, Chao; Ning, Zhaoyuan

    2010-12-01

    Dependence of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (DMCPS) organosilicon dissociation on ionized energy in the energy range of 25 eV to 70 eV is investigated by using a quadrupole mass spectrometry At the ionized energy below 55 eV, the dissociation of DMCPS is dominant. As the ionized energy is above 55 eV, the DMCPS dissociation achieves the maximum cross section, while the fragments from the DMCPS dissociation can further dissociate, which leads to a different ingredient of fragments. At the lower ionized energy of 25 eV, the main fragments are SiOC2H5+, SiCH+, Si+, O2+ and CH3+ ions, which shows an important effect on the SiCOH low-k film deposition.

  19. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  20. Time-resolved energy spectrum measurement of a linear induction accelerator with the magnetic analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Yang, Guo-Jun; Chen, Si-Fu; Zhang, Zhuo; Wei, Tao; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We recently set up a time-resolved optical beam diagnostic system. Using this system, we measured the high current electron beam energy in the accelerator under construction. This paper introduces the principle of the diagnostic system, describes the setup, and shows the results. A bending beam line was designed using an existing magnetic analyzer with a 300 mm-bending radius and a 60° bending angle at hard-edge approximation. Calculations show that the magnitude of the beam energy is about 18 MeV, and the energy spread is within 2%. Our results agree well with the initial estimates deduced from the diode voltage approach.

  1. Laser diagnostics of the energy spectrum of Rydberg states of the lithium-7 atom

    SciTech Connect

    Zelener, B. B. Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E.

    2015-12-15

    The spectra of excited lithium-7 atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap are studied using a UV laser. The laser diagnostics of the energy of Rydberg atoms is developed based on measurements of the change in resonance fluorescence intensity of ultracold atoms as the exciting UV radiation frequency passes through the Rydberg transition frequency. The energies of various nS configurations are obtained in a broad range of the principal quantum number n from 38 to 165. The values of the quantum defect and ionization energy obtained in experiments and predicted theoretically are discussed.

  2. First Results on the High Energy Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum from Fermi Lat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses energy reconstruction, electron-hadron separation, validation of Monte Carlo with flight data and an assessment of systematic errors from the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  3. Reflection electron energy loss spectrum of single layer graphene measured on a graphite substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Bellissimo, Alessandra; Leber, Roland; Ashraf, Afshan; Segui, Silvina

    2015-05-01

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS) have been measured on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) sample. Two spectra were measured for different energies, 1600 eV, being more sensitive to the bulk and 500 eV being more sensitive to the surface. The energy loss distributions for a single surface and bulk excitation were extracted from the two spectra using a simple decomposition procedure. These single scattering loss distributions correspond to electron trajectories with significantly different penetration depths and agree with energy loss spectra measured on free standing single layer graphene and multilayer graphene (i.e. graphite). This result implies that for a layered electron gas (LEG) material, the number of layers which responds in a correlated fashion to an external perturbation is determined by the depth range penetrated by the external perturbation, and not by the number of layers actually present in the specimen.

  4. High energy pulses generation with giant spectrum bandwidth and submegahertz repetition rate from a passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser in all normal dispersion cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-H.; Wang, D.; Lin, K.-H.

    2011-01-01

    Robust passively mode-locked pulse generation with low pulse repetition rate and giant spectrum bandwidth in an all-fiber, all-normal-dispersion ytterbium-doped fiber laser has been experimentally demonstrated using nonlinear polarization evolution technique. The highest pulse energy over 20 nJ with spectrum bandwidth over 50 nm can be experimentally obtained at 175 mW pump power. The mode-locked pulses reveal broadened 3-dB pulsewidth about several nanosecond and widened pedestal in time trace that is resulted from enormous dispersion in laser cavity and gain dynamics. At certain mode-locking state, a spectrum gap around 1056 nm are observed between the three and four energy levels of Yb-doped fiber laser. By properly rotating the polarization controller, the gap can be eliminated due to four-wave mixing to produce more flattened spectrum output.

  5. The Number of High-Energy Bands in the Photoelectron Spectrum of Alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merris, Russell; Gutman, Ivan

    2000-12-01

    It was observed that within the Bieri-Dill-Heilbronner-Schmelzer model for the calculation of the ion-ization energies of alkanes CnH2n+2, there are exactly n C2s -electron energy levels lying below the degenerate α-ß manifold. We now show that, indeed, this regularity is obeyed by practically all alkane species. Exceptions do exist, but they must possess a (chemically infeasible) group of more than six mutually connected quaternary carbon atoms.

  6. Sensitivity of YAC to measure the light-component spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the ‘knee’ energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, L. M.; Huang, J.; Chen, D.; Shibata, M.; Katayose, Y.; Zhang, Ying; Liu, J. S.; Chen, Xu; Hu, X. B.; Lin, Y. H.

    2015-04-01

    A new air-shower core-detector array (YAC: Yangbajing air-shower Core-detector array) has been developed to measure the primary cosmic-ray composition at the ‘knee’ energies in Tibet, China, focusing mainly on the light components. The prototype experiment (YAC-I) consisting of 16 detectors has been constructed and operated at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since May 2009. YAC-I is installed in the Tibet-III AS array and operates together. In this paper, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation to check the sensitivity of the YAC-I+Tibet-III array to the cosmic-ray light component of cosmic rays around the knee energies, taking account of the observation conditions of the actual YAC-I+Tibet-III array. The selection of light component from others was made by use of an artificial neural network. The simulation shows that the light-component spectrum estimated by our methods can well reproduce the input ones within 10% error, and there will be about 30% systematic errors mostly induced by the primary and interaction models used. It is found that the full-scale YAC and the Tibet-III array is powerful to study the cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei around the knee energies.

  7. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  8. Pulmonary blood volume imaging with dual-energy computed tomography: spectrum of findings.

    PubMed

    Hagspiel, K D; Flors, L; Housseini, A M; Phull, A; Ali Ahmad, E; Bozlar, U; Norton, P T; Bonatti, H J R

    2012-01-01

    Dual-energy (DE) pulmonary blood volume (PBV) computed tomography (CT) has recently become available on clinical CT systems. The underlying physical principle of DECT is the fact that the photoelectric effect is strongly dependent on the CT energies resulting in different degrees of x-ray attenuation for different materials at different energy levels. DECT thus enables the characterization and quantification of iodine within tissues via imaging at different x-ray energies and analysis of attenuation differences. Technical approaches to DECT include dual-source scanners acquiring two scans with different energy levels simultaneously, and single-source CT scanners using sandwich detectors or rapid voltage switching. DE PBV CT enables the creation of iodine maps of the pulmonary parenchyma. Experience to date shows that these studies can provide additional physiological information in patients with acute or chronic pulmonary embolism beyond the pure morphological assessment a standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) provides. It appears also to be promising for the evaluation of patients with obstructive airways disease. This article reviews the physics and technical aspects of DE PBV CT as well as the appearance of normal and abnormal lung tissue on these studies. Special consideration is given to pitfalls and artefacts.

  9. THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM THE MEASUREMENTS OF THE ATTENUATION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha

    2013-07-20

    The attenuation of high-energy gamma-ray spectrum due to the electron-positron pair production against the extragalactic background light (EBL) provides an indirect method to measure the EBL of the universe. We use the measurements of the absorption features of the gamma-rays from blazars as seen by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to explore the EBL flux density and constrain the EBL spectrum, star formation rate density (SFRD), and photon escape fraction from galaxies out to z = 6. Our results are basically consistent with the existing determinations of the quantities. We find a larger photon escape fraction at high redshifts, especially at z = 3, compared to the result from recent Ly{alpha} measurements. Our SFRD result is consistent with the data from both gamma-ray burst and ultraviolet (UV) observations in the 1{sigma} level. However, the average SFRD we obtain at z {approx}> 3 matches the gamma-ray data better than the UV data. Thus our SFRD result at z {approx}> 6 favors the fact that star formation alone is sufficiently high enough to reionize the universe.

  10. The High Energy X-ray Spectrum of 4U1700-37 Observed from OSO-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Maurer, G. S.; Orwig, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The most intense hard X-ray source in the confused region in Scorpius is identified as 4U1700-37. The 3.4-day modulation is seen above 20 keV with the intensity during eclipse being consistent with zero flux. The photon-number spectrum from 20 to 150 keV is well represented by a single power law with a photo-number spectral index of -2.77 + or - 0.35 or by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 27 96.8-min X-ray modulation previously reported at lower energies. Despite the difficulties in reconciling both the lack of periodic modulation in the emitted X-radiation and the orbital dynamics of the system with theories of the evolution and physical properties of neutron stars, the observed properties of 4U1700-37 are all consistent with the source being a spherically accreting neutron star rather than a black hole.

  11. Ankle-like feature in the energy spectrum of light elements of cosmic rays observed with KASCADE-Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velàzquez, J. C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.

    2013-04-01

    Recent results of the KASCADE-Grande experiment provided evidence for a mild knee-like structure in the all-particle spectrum of cosmic rays at E=1016.92±0.10eV, which was found to be due to a steepening in the flux of heavy primary particles. The spectrum of the combined components of light and intermediate masses was found to be compatible with a single power law in the energy range from 1016.3 to 1018eV. In this paper, we present an update of this analysis by using data with increased statistics, originating both from a larger data set including more recent measurements and by using a larger fiducial area. In addition, optimized selection criteria for enhancing light primaries are applied. We find a spectral feature for light elements, namely, a hardening at E=1017.08±0.08eV with a change of the power law index from -3.25±0.05 to -2.79±0.08.

  12. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of cyanovinylacetylene leads to an upward revision of the ionization energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzmeier, Fabian; Lang, Melanie; Fischer, Ingo; Hemberger, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Cyanovinylacetylene C5H3N was investigated by threshold photoelectron spectroscopy. The ionization energy (IE) was determined to be 10.04 eV. This value constitutes an upward revision of the earlier value of 9.33 eV. For both stereoisomers (trans and cis) computations predict very similar IEs and spectra. At 11.08 eV and 11.17 eV excited cationic states are observed. For the precursor 3-bromopyridine an IE of 9.34 eV was obtained. The appearance energy AE0K (3-bromopyridine, 3-pyridyl+) was determined to be 11.71 eV and a bond dissociation energy of the Csbnd Br bond in the 3-bromopyridine cation of 229 kJ mol-1 was derived.

  13. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  14. Imprints of dark energy on cosmic structure formation - I. Realistic quintessence models and the non-linear matter power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimi, J.-M.; Füzfa, A.; Boucher, V.; Rasera, Y.; Courtin, J.; Corasaniti, P.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Quintessence has been proposed to account for dark energy (DE) in the Universe. This component causes a typical modification of the background cosmic expansion, which, in addition to its clustering properties, can leave a potentially distinctive signature on large-scale structures. Many previous studies have investigated this topic, particularly in relation to the non-linear regime of structure formation. However, no careful pre-selection of viable quintessence models with high precision cosmological data was performed. Here we show that this has led to a misinterpretation (and underestimation) of the imprint of quintessence on the distribution of large-scale structures. To this purpose, we perform a likelihood analysis of the combined Supernova Ia UNION data set and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-yr data to identify realistic quintessence models. These are specified by different model parameter values, but still statistically indistinguishable from the vanilla Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). Differences are especially manifest in the predicted amplitude and shape of the linear matter power spectrum though these remain within the uncertainties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. We use these models as a benchmark for studying the clustering properties of dark matter haloes by performing a series of high-resolution N-body simulations. In this first paper, we specifically focus on the non-linear matter power spectrum. We find that realistic quintessence models allow for relevant differences of the dark matter distribution with respect to the ΛCDM scenario well into the non-linear regime, with deviations of up to 40 per cent in the non-linear power spectrum. Such differences are shown to depend on the nature of DE, as well as the scale and epoch considered. At small scales (k ~ 1-5hMpc-1, depending on the redshift), the structure formation process is about 20 per cent more efficient than in ΛCDM. We show that these imprints are a specific record of the cosmic

  15. Energy spectrum of 50-250 MeV/nucleon iron nuclei inside the MIR space craft.

    PubMed

    Gunther, W; Leugner, D; Becker, E; Heinrich, W; Reitz, G

    2002-10-01

    Stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors were mounted inside the MIR spacecraft during the EUROMIR95 space mission for a period of 6 months. This long exposure time resulted in a large number of tracks of HZE-particles in the detector foils. All trajectories of stopping iron nuclei could be reconstructed by optimizing the etching conditions so that an automatic track measurement using image analysis techniques was possible. We found 185 stopping iron nuclei and used the énergy-range relation to calculate their energies at the stack surface. The measured spectrum of iron nuclei inside the MIR station is compared to results of model predictions considering the effect of the solar modulation for the mission period, the geomagnetic shielding effect for the MIR orbit and the shielding by material of the spacecraft walls and its instrumentation.

  16. Evolution Operator and Energy Spectrum of a Quasiclassical Particle Interacting with Bosons:. Application to Atom Surface Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumhalter, Branko; Kieron, Burke; Langreth, David C.

    We investigate the properties of the interaction of a particle with a boson field describing the response of a solid in the limit in which the interaction matrix elements may be considered as quasiclassical and the particle-boson coupling linear but not necessarily weak. We start by expressing the evolution operator of the system in a convenient form of an exponentiated nested commutator expansion in powers of the interaction potential. From this we are able to estimate under which conditions on the particle motion the contributions of the higher order expansion terms become small, irrespective of the coupling strength. Neglecting such small terms in the exponent of the evolution operator, we can calculate the energy excitation spectrum characteristic of the coupled system or of any of its constituents (particle or boson field). These spectra have the appearance of an exponentiated Born approximation (EBA) which contains and interpolates smoothly between the more frequently used distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and the trajectory approximation (TA), thereby covering a wide range of the parameter space for the description of the particle-boson interaction dynamics. The shape of the spectra and their characteristics (the weight of the elastic line or the Debye-Waller factor (DWF), the mean number of excited bosons, and the mean energy transfer in the course of the interaction) are discussed and shown to be very sensitive to the (non)adiabaticity of the switching of the interaction and the magnitude of the particle mass M. In the case of nonadiabatic switching on (as e.g. in photoemission) and linear bosonic density of states, we retrieve in the limit M→∞ the familiar infrared threshold divergences in the spectrum of the system. In the opposite case of adiabatic switching rates typical of scattering, the spectra exhibit a well-defined elastic line and a finite DWF. The case of surface scattering is discussed in more detail for the example of neutral atom

  17. Evolution of the energy-loss-spectrum profile with the projectile mass in impulsive ion-molecule collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Ichimura, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    Systematic analysis is made for illuminating the mechanism of rotational and vibrational excitations in an impulsive ion-molecule collision from the viewpoint of its sudden nature. Variation of the energy-loss spectrum with the projectile mass is examined in the collision system of an alkali-metal ion with a nitrogen molecule at a hyperthermal energy of 27 eV using a common interaction potential. The spectra are obtained by the classical trajectory calculation and compared with two sudden-limit models—the hard-shell model for rigid-rotor molecules and the hard-potential model for vibrating-rotor molecules [A. Ichimura and M. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022716 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.022716]. For a projectile much lighter than the target, the vibrational and rotational excitation occurs in such a way that the hard-potential model predicts, producing a spectral profile with double peaks. As the projectile mass increases, the vibrational suddenness is degraded so that the vibrational excitation becomes quenched, while the spectral profile still shows a double-peak structure explainable with the hard-shell model. Subsequently, as the projectile mass further increases, the rotational suddenness is also degraded so that the spectrum indicates a profile departing far from the prediction of the hard-shell model; the deeply inelastic peak is suppressed and the nearly elastic peak is enhanced. Such spectral deformation actually occurs in an experimental result reported for Na+-N2 collisions [M. Nakamura, S. Kita, and T. Hasegawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3161 (1987), 10.1143/JPSJ.56.3161]. Eventually, the deeply inelastic peak disappears due to temporary excitation during a collision.

  18. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 1017.2 eV measured by the fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array experiment in seven years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2016-07-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is the largest detector to observe ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere. The fluorescence detectors at two stations of TA are newly constructed and have now completed seven years of steady operation. One advantage of monocular analysis of the fluorescence detectors is a lower energy threshold for cosmic rays than that of other techniques like stereoscopic observations or coincidences with the surface detector array, allowing the measurement of an energy spectrum covering three orders of magnitude in energy. Analyzing data collected during those seven years, we report the energy spectrum of cosmic rays covering a broad range of energies above 1017.2eV measured by the fluorescence detectors and a comparison with previously published results.

  19. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top-quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Balali, Mahboobe

    2016-03-01

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width t(\\uparrow ) rightarrow bW^+, followed by brightarrow H_bX, for nonzero b-quark mass (m_bne 0) in the fixed-flavor-number scheme (FFNs). To make the predictions for the energy distribution of outgoing hadrons H_b, as a function of the normalized H_b-energy fraction x_H, we apply the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme (GM-VFNs) in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization of top quark is evaluated relative to the b-quark momentum. We also study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite hadron mass on the hadron energy spectrum so that hadron masses are responsible for the low-x_H threshold. In order to describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronizations in top decays we apply realistic and nonperturbative fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to the e^+e^- annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC by relying on their universality and scaling violations.

  20. Exposure dose reduction for the high energy spectrum in the photon counting mammography: simulation study based on Japanese breast glandularity and thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Naoko; Yamazaki, Misaki; Kodera, Yoshie; Yamamuro, Mika; Yamada, Kanako; Asai, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Koji

    2015-03-01

    Recently, digital mammography with a photon counting silicon detector has been developed. With the aim of reducing the exposure dose, we have proposed a new mammography system that uses a cadmium telluride series photon counting detector. In addition, we also propose to use a high energy X-ray spectrum with a tungsten anode. The purpose of this study was assessed that the effectiveness of the high X-ray energy spectrum in terms of image quality using a Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed photon counting system with the high energy X-ray is compared to a conventional flat panel detector system with a Mo/Rh spectrum. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is calculated from simulation images with the use of breast phantoms. The breast model phantoms differed by glandularity and thickness, which were determined from Japanese clinical mammograms. We found that the CNR values were higher in the proposed system than in the conventional system. The number of photons incident on the detector was larger in the proposed system, so that the noise values was lower in comparison with the conventional system. Therefore, the high energy spectrum yielded the same CNR as using the conventional spectrum while allowing a considerable dose reduction to the breast.

  1. Energy spectrum of layered semiconductors in a magnetic field parallel to the layers: Voigt geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, K. H.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.

    2010-11-01

    The electronic band structure of zinc-blende layered semiconductor heterostructures is investigated theoretically in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field, a configuration we label as the Voigt geometry. We use a Lagrangian formulation for modeling the band structure in the individual layers within the kṡP model. This approach has been shown by us to provide the correct ordering of the derivatives appearing in the multiband description of Schrödinger’s equations for the envelope functions through the application of the principle of stationary action. Finite element modeling of the action integral provides a natural and efficient approach to the inclusion of in-plane magnetic fields in the energy-level analysis. Calculations for quantum wells and superlattices are presented, and the complex energy-level structure obtained for the layered structures.

  2. Energy spectrum of D{sup 0} centre in a spherical Gaussian quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Boda, Aalu Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-05-15

    The properties of a neutral hydrogenic donor (D{sup 0}) centres have been studied for a GaAs semiconductor quantum dot with the Gaussian confinement potential. The energy levels of the ground state (n = 1) and the excited states of both the first excited (n = 2) and second excited (n = 3) configurations have been calculated by variational method. It has been shown that the excited states of the (D{sup 0}) centre in quantum dot are bound for sufficiently strong confinement potential. The conditions of binding for the ground state as well as excited states have been determined as functions of the potential strength and quantum dot radius. The ground state electron energy is compared with those available in the literature.

  3. Eigenvalue spectrum of the independent-fermion kinetic-energy kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, D.

    1996-09-01

    The constrained minimization independent-fermion kinetic-energy kernel, {delta}{sup 2}{ital T}{sub {ital s}}[{rho}]/{delta}{rho}({bold r}){delta}{rho}({bold r}{sup {prime}}), has a zero mode for all {rho}({bold r}), while it is non-negative for {rho}({bold r}) noninteracting {ital v} representable. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Advanced Condenser Boosts Geothermal Power Plant Output (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    When power production at The Geysers geothermal power complex began to falter, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) stepped in, developing advanced condensing technology that dramatically boosted production efficiency - and making a major contribution to the effective use of geothermal power. NREL developed advanced direct-contact condenser (ADCC) technology to condense spent steam more effectively, improving power production efficiency in Unit 11 by 5%.

  5. Evidence for cluster shape effects on the kinetic energy spectrum in thermionic emission.

    PubMed

    Calvo, F; Lépine, F; Baguenard, B; Pagliarulo, F; Concina, B; Bordas, C; Parneix, P

    2007-11-28

    Experimental kinetic energy release distributions obtained for the thermionic emission from C(n) (-) clusters, 10< or =n< or =20, exhibit significant non-Boltzmann variations. Using phase space theory, these different features are analyzed and interpreted as the consequence of contrasting shapes in the daughter clusters; linear and nonlinear isomers have clearly distinct signatures. These results provide a novel indirect structural probe for atomic clusters associated with their thermionic emission spectra.

  6. Components Makeover Gives Concentrating Solar Power a Boost (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    Parabolic trough technology is the most mature of the various concentrating solar power (CSP) options. But scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) continue to make advances on trough systems through innovative research on various components in industrial partnerships with Acciona Solar Power, SkyFuel, Schott Solar, and others. The results are leading to improved system efficiencies and lower costs for CSP plants.

  7. Effect of a phase transition on the electron energy spectrum in Ag{sub 2}S

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, F. F. Jafarov, M. B.; Tairov, B. A.; Pashaev, G. P.; Saddinova, A. A.; Kuliev, A. A.

    2008-10-15

    Temperature dependences of electrical conductivity {sigma}, Hall coefficient R, and thermopower {alpha}{sub 0} in Ag{sub 2}S are reported. It is established that at T {approx} 435 {+-} 5 K, all kinetic parameters vary drastically, which is associated with a change in parameters of the conduction band. It is shown that the dispersion law of electron energy in {beta}-Ag{sub 2}S corresponds to the Kane model.

  8. On the Energy Spectrum of Protons Produced in {sup 16}Op Collisions at a Momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Bazarov, E.Kh.

    2005-09-01

    New experimental data concerning the mechanisms of the production of protons originating as fragments from oxygen-nucleus interactions in a hydrogen bubble chamber at high energies are presented. It is shown that anomalies observed in the energy spectrum of protons at kinetic energies in the range T = 70 - 90 MeV are associated with the absorption of slow pions by a quasideuteron nucleon pair.

  9. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  10. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  11. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  12. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  13. Primary cosmic ray spectrum in the 10 to the 12th power - 10 to the 16th power eV energy range from the NUSEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.

    1985-01-01

    A primary cosmic ray spectrum was derived which fits both experimental multiple muon rates and the all-nucleon flux derived from the single muon intensities underground. In the frame of the interaction model developed by Gaisser, Elbert and Stanev, it is possible to reproduce NUSEX muon data with a primary composition in which the iron spectrum is only slightly flatter than the proton one. This result rules out the popular idea that the primary composition varies drastically with increasing energy, leading to the dominance of heavier nuclei at energies 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV.

  14. Accurate Energy Spectrum for the Quantum Yang-Mills Mechanics with Nonlinear Color Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Yang-Mills theory as the foundation for quantum chromodynamics is a non-Abelian gauge theory with self-interactions between vector particles. Here, we study the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian with nonlinear color oscillations in the absence of external sources corresponding to the group SU(2). In the quantum domain, we diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the optimized trigonometric basis expansion method and find accurate energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for one and two degrees of freedom. We also compare our results with the semiclassical solutions.

  15. Manipulating a neutrino spectrum to maximize the physics potential from a low-energy {beta} beam

    SciTech Connect

    Amanik, Philip S.; McLaughlin, Gail C.

    2007-06-15

    Proposed low-energy {beta}-beam facilities would be capable of producing intense beams of neutrinos (antineutrinos) with well-defined spectra. We present analytic expressions and numerical results that accurately show how the total neutrino flux reaching the detector depends on the geometry of the source and the detector. Several authors have proposed measurements which require using different flux shapes. We show that detectors of different sizes and shapes will receive neutrino fluxes with different spectral shapes and that the spectral shape will also be different in different regions of the same detector. Our findings also show that for certain measurements, systematic uncertainties and run time can be reduced.

  16. Spectrum sensitivity, energy yield, and revenue prediction of PV and CPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Geoffrey S.

    2015-09-01

    Impact on module performance of spectral irradiance variation has been determined for III-V multijunctions compared against the four most common flat-plate module types (cadmium telluride, multicrystalline silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, and monocrystalline silicon. Hour-by-hour representative spectra were generated using atmospheric variables for Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Convolution with published values for external quantum efficiency gave the predicted current output. When combined with specifications of commercial PV modules, energy yield and revenue were predicted. This approach provides a means for optimizing PV module design based on various site-specific temporal variables.

  17. Long-Range Order and Low-Energy Spectrum of Diluted 2D Quantum Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyshev, A. L.; Chen, Y. C.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2001-08-06

    The problem of a diluted two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet on a square lattice is studied using spin-wave theory. The influence of impurities on static and dynamic properties is investigated and a good agreement with experiments and Monte Carlo data is found. The hydrodynamic description of spin waves breaks down at characteristic wavelengths {Lambda}{approx}>exp(const/x) , x being an impurity concentration, while the order parameter is free from anomalies. We argue that this dichotomy originates from strong scattering of the low-energy excitations in two dimensions.

  18. Spectrum sensitivity, energy yield, and revenue prediction of PV and CPV modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, Geoffrey S.

    2015-09-28

    Impact on module performance of spectral irradiance variation has been determined for III-V multijunctions compared against the four most common flat-plate module types (cadmium telluride, multicrystalline silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, and monocrystalline silicon. Hour-by-hour representative spectra were generated using atmospheric variables for Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Convolution with published values for external quantum efficiency gave the predicted current output. When combined with specifications of commercial PV modules, energy yield and revenue were predicted. This approach provides a means for optimizing PV module design based on various site-specific temporal variables.

  19. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum.

    PubMed

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km.

  20. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum.

    PubMed

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349

  1. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia–gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth’s rotation and the atmosphere’s stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia–gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia–gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia–gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349

  2. A bi-directional charged particle telescope to observe flux, energy spectrum and angular distribution of relativistic and non-relativistic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. D.; Bhatnagar, S. P.; Kothari, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Charged Particle Telescope (CPT) was designed, fabricated and calibrated to make the following observations: (1) discrimination between various singly charged particles, e.g., electrons, muons and protons, in about 5 to 100 MeV energy range; (2) measurement of the flux and the energy of the charged particles incident to the telescope from two opposite directions and stopping in the telescope, thus obtaining flux and energy spectrum of downward and upward moving charged particles; and (3) measurement of the broad angular distribution of selected particles as a function of azimuthal angle. This telescope can be used to study low energy electron, muon and proton energy spectra. The experiment was flown in a high altitude balloon from Hyderabad, India, in December 1984. This same equipment is also useful in ground level electron, muon spectrum study.

  3. High-Resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Peña, I.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na35Cl and Na37Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted. PMID:27733778

  4. High-resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Peña, I.; Agundez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-07-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 lines of Na35Cl and Na37Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  5. Bio-hybrid integrated system for wide-spectrum solar energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Kathleen; Erdman, Matthew; Quintana, Hope; Shelnutt, John; Nogan, John; Swartzentruber, B.; Martinez, Julio; Lavrova, Olga; Busani, Tito

    2014-03-01

    An integrated hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system has been developed using multiple layers of organic photosensitizers on inorganic semiconductors in order to efficiently convert UV-visible and IR energy into electricity. The hot anode of n-type ZnO nanowires was fabricated using a thermal process on pre-seeded layer and results to be crystalline with a transmittance up to 92 % and a bandgap of 3.32 eV. The visible-UV light-active organic layer was deposited between the anode and cathode at room temperature using a layer-by-layer deposition onto ITO and ZnO and Bi2Te3 nanowires from aqueous solution. The organic layer, a cooperative binary ionic (CBI) solid is composed of oppositely charged porphyrin metal (Zn(II) and Sn(IV)(OH-)2) derivatives that are separately water soluble, but when combined form a virtually insoluble solid. The electron donor/acceptor properties (energy levels, band gaps) of the solid can be controlled by the choice of metals and the nature of the peripheral substituent groups of the porphyrin ring. The highly thermoelectric structure, which acts as a cold cathode, is composed of p-type Bi2Te3 nanowires with a thermoelectric efficiency (ZT) between ~0.7 to 1, values that are twice that expected for bulk Bi2Te3. Efficiency of the integrated device, was found to be 35 at 0.2 suns illumination and thermoelectric properties are enhanced by the charge transfer between the CBI and the Bi2Te3 is presented in terms of photo- and thermogenerated current and advantages of the low cost fabrication process is discussed.

  6. [BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF FISSION SPECTRUM NEUTRONS AND PROTONS WITH ENERGIES OF 60-126 MEV DURING ACUTE AND PROLONGED IRRADIATION].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons of the fission spectrum are characterized by relatively high values of linear energy transfer (LET). Data about their effects on biological objects are used to evaluate the risk of delayed effects of accelerated ions within the same LET range that serve as an experimental model of the nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Additionally, risks of delayed consequences to cosmonaut's health and average lifetime from certain GCR fluxes and secondary neutrons can be also prognosticated. The article deals with comparative analysis of the literature on reduction of average lifespan (ALS) of animals exposed to neutron reactor spectrum, 60-126 MeV protons, and X- and γ-rays in a broad range of radiation intensity and duration. It was shown that a minimal lifespan reduction by 5% occurs due to a brief exposure to neutrons with the absorbed dose of 5 cGy, whereas same lifespan reduction due to hard X- and γ-radiation occurs after absorption of a minimal dose of 100 cGy. Therefore, according to the estimated minimal ALS reduction in mice, neutron effectiveness is 20-fold higher. Biological effectiveness of protons as regards ALS reduction is virtually equal to that of standard types of radiation. Exposure to X- and γ-radiation with decreasing daily doses, and increasing number of fractions and duration gives rise to an apparent trend toward a less dramatic ALS reduction in mice; on the contrary, exposure to neutrons of varying duration had no effect on threshold doses for the specified ALS reductions. Factors of relative biological effectiveness of neutrons reached 40. PMID:26934784

  7. [BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF FISSION SPECTRUM NEUTRONS AND PROTONS WITH ENERGIES OF 60-126 MEV DURING ACUTE AND PROLONGED IRRADIATION].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons of the fission spectrum are characterized by relatively high values of linear energy transfer (LET). Data about their effects on biological objects are used to evaluate the risk of delayed effects of accelerated ions within the same LET range that serve as an experimental model of the nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Additionally, risks of delayed consequences to cosmonaut's health and average lifetime from certain GCR fluxes and secondary neutrons can be also prognosticated. The article deals with comparative analysis of the literature on reduction of average lifespan (ALS) of animals exposed to neutron reactor spectrum, 60-126 MeV protons, and X- and γ-rays in a broad range of radiation intensity and duration. It was shown that a minimal lifespan reduction by 5% occurs due to a brief exposure to neutrons with the absorbed dose of 5 cGy, whereas same lifespan reduction due to hard X- and γ-radiation occurs after absorption of a minimal dose of 100 cGy. Therefore, according to the estimated minimal ALS reduction in mice, neutron effectiveness is 20-fold higher. Biological effectiveness of protons as regards ALS reduction is virtually equal to that of standard types of radiation. Exposure to X- and γ-radiation with decreasing daily doses, and increasing number of fractions and duration gives rise to an apparent trend toward a less dramatic ALS reduction in mice; on the contrary, exposure to neutrons of varying duration had no effect on threshold doses for the specified ALS reductions. Factors of relative biological effectiveness of neutrons reached 40.

  8. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Zellweger spectrum result from defects in the assembly of a cellular structure called the peroxisome, and ... Zellweger spectrum are caused by defects in the assembly of the peroxisome. There are at least 12 ...

  9. Reconstruction of the energy spectrum of electrons accelerated in the April 15, 2002 solar flare based on IRIS X-ray spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motorina, G. G.; Kudryavtsev, I. V.; Lazutkov, V. P.; Savchenko, M. I.; Skorodumov, D. V.; Charikov, Yu. E.

    2016-04-01

    We reconstruct the energy distribution of electrons accelerated in the April 15, 2002 solar flare on the basis of the data from the IRIS X-ray spectrometer onboard the CORONAS-F satellite. We obtain the solution to the integral equations describing the transformation of the spectrum of X-ray photons during the recording and reconstruction of the spectrum of accelerated electrons in the bremsstrahlung source using the random search method and the Tikhonov regularization method. In this event, we detected a singularity in the electron spectrum associated with the existence of a local minimum in the energy range 40-60 keV, which cannot be detected by a direct method.

  10. Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for State-of-Health Assessment of Energy Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; Chester G. Motloch; William H. Morrison

    2012-04-01

    Harmonic compensated synchronous detection (HCSD) is a technique that can be used to measure wideband impedance spectra within seconds based on an input sum-of-sines signal having a frequency spread separated by harmonics. The battery (or other energy storage device) is excited with a sum-of-sines current signal that has a duration of at least one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured and synchronously detected at each frequency of interest to determine the impedance spectra. This technique was successfully simulated using a simplified battery model and then verified with commercially available Sanyo lithium-ion cells. Simulations revealed the presence of a start-up transient effect when only one period of the lowest frequency is included in the excitation signal. This transient effect appears to only influence the low-frequency impedance measurements and can be reduced when a longer input signal is used. Furthermore, lithium-ion cell testing has indicated that the transient effect does not seem to impact the charge transfer resistance in the mid-frequency region. The degradation rates for the charge transfer resistance measured from the HCSD technique were very similar to the changes observed from standardized impedance spectroscopy methods. Results from these studies, therefore, indicate that HCSD is a viable, rapid alternative approach to acquiring impedance spectra.

  11. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  12. Low-energy spectrum of iron-sulfur clusters directly from many-particle quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Neese, Frank; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-10-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters are a universal biological motif. They carry out electron transfer, redox chemistry and even oxygen sensing, in diverse processes including nitrogen fixation, respiration and photosynthesis. Their low-lying electronic states are key to their remarkable reactivity, but they cannot be directly observed. Here, we present the first ever quantum calculation of the electronic levels of [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters free from any model assumptions. Our results highlight the limitations of long-standing models of their electronic structure. In particular, we demonstrate that the widely used Heisenberg double exchange model underestimates the number of states by one to two orders of magnitude, which can conclusively be traced to the absence of Fe dd excitations, thought to be important in these clusters. Furthermore, the electronic energy levels of even the same spin are dense on the scale of vibrational fluctuations and this provides a natural explanation for the ubiquity of these clusters in catalysis in nature.

  13. Factor demand in Swedish manufacturing industry with special reference to the demand for energy. Instantaneous adjustment models; some results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoeholm, K. R.

    1981-02-01

    The dual approach to the theory of production is used to estimate factor demand functions of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Two approximations of the cost function, the translog and the generalized Leontief models, are used. The price elasticities of the factor demand do not seem to depend on the choice of model. This is at least true as to the sign pattern and as to the inputs capital, labor, total energy and other materials. Total energy is separated into solid fuels, gasoline, fuel oil, electricity and a residual. Fuel oil and electricity are found to be substitutes by both models. Capital and energy are shown to be substitutes. This implies that Swedish industry will save more energy if the capital cost can be reduced. Both models are, in the best versions, able to detect an inappropriate variable. The assumption of perfect competition on the product market, is shown to be inadequate by both models. When this assumption is relaxed, the normal substitution pattern among the inputs is resumed.

  14. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  15. Ab initio calculation of a global potential, vibrational energies, and wave functions for HCN/HNC, and a simulation of the (A-tilde)-(X-tilde) emission spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Joel M.; Gazdy, Bela; Bentley, Joseph A.; Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    A potential energy surface for the HCN/HNC system which is a fit to extensive, high-quality ab initio, coupled-cluster calculations is presented. All HCN and HNC states with energies below the energy of the first delocalized state are reported and characterized. Vibrational transition energies are compared with all available experimental data on HCN and HNC, including high CH-overtone states up to 23,063/cm. A simulation of the (A-tilde)-(X-tilde) stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectrum is also reported, and the results are compared to experiment. Franck-Condon factors are reported for odd bending states of HCN, with one quantum of vibrational angular momentum, in order to compare with the recent assignment by Jonas et al. (1992), on the basis of axis-switching arguments of a number of previously unassigned states in the SEP spectrum.

  16. The expected high-energy to ultra-high-energy gamma-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Jager, O. C.; Harding, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The inverse Compton scattering model for the unpulsed TeV emission from the Crab Nebula is reexamined using the magnetic field distribution derived from MHD flow models of the nebula. It is shown that the observed flux can be explained if the average nebular field is indeed about 0.0003, as is predicted by the spectral break between radio and optical. The brightness distribution of the TeV gamma-ray signal is expected to extend out to about 1.5 arcmin from the pulsar. The present estimates predict a steady flux of unpulsed ultrahigh-energy gamma-rays due to the inverse Compton scattering of soft photons by shock-accelerated electrons and/or positrons in the vicinity of the shock.

  17. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2002-09-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

  18. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-10-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report emphasizes the design of the thermophotovoltaic receiver and the whole system simulation model.

  19. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-01-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes several investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility of this technology.

  20. Adjusting rations for climate.

    PubMed

    Ames, D R

    1988-11-01

    Cold conditions resulting from a combination of temperature, wind, and wetness result in increased energy required for maintenance. Constant levels of intake reduce energy available for production. Direct effects of cold include reduced rate and efficiency of growth and milk production. Indirect effects on measures of reproductive efficiency are well documented. Impacts on health and longevity are perhaps less obvious but are no doubt affected. Energy supplementation is an obvious need for cold-stressed animals. For maximum effectiveness, efforts should incorporate a systems approach and integrate the expertise of many disciplines into a logical decision-making process. The entire spectrum of animal response, not just short-term acute response, must be included in environmental management.

  1. Observation of nue appearance from an off-axis nu mu beam utilizing the neutrino energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hignight, Joshua

    T2K (Tokai to Kamiokande) is a long baseline neutrino experiment located in Japan. It uses a 30 GeV proton beam at the J-PARC accelerator in Tokai to produce an intense off-axis muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km through the Earth to Super-Kamiokande. One of its primary goals is to measure neutrino oscillation parameters by directly detecting nue at Super-Kamiokande that have oscillated from the numu beam. The measurement of numu → nue oscillations are of a particular interest because this mode is sensitive to both mixing angle theta 13 and CP phase deltaCP of the PMNS matrix. Precise measurement of numu → nue allows us to explore the possibility of CP violation in the lepton sector. This dissertation will describe the recent 2013 nue appearance oscillation analysis using the reconstructed neutrino energy spectrum by means of a maximum likelihood fit. The data used for this analysis corresponds to 6.57 x 1020 POT. A total of 28 nu e candidate events were observed, corresponding to a 7.2 sigma significance of nue appearance by non-zero theta13. These results are then combined with the world average value of theta13 from reactor experiments and some values of deltaCP are disfavored at the 90% CL.

  2. ART-XC: A Medium-energy X-ray Telescope System for the Spectrum-R-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefiev, V.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.; Thachenko, A.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Semena, N.; Buntov,M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Gubarev, M.; ODell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Romaine, S.; Swartz. D/; Weisskopf, M.; Hasinger, G.; Predehl, P.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Meidinger, N.; Strueder, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ART-XC instrument is an X-ray grazing-incidence telescope system in an ABRIXAS-type optical configuration optimized for the survey observational mode of the Spectrum-RG astrophysical mission which is scheduled to be launched in 2011. ART-XC has two units, each equipped with four identical X-ray multi-shell mirror modules. The optical axes of the individual mirror modules are not parallel but are separated by several degrees to permit the four modules to share a single CCD focal plane detector, 1/4 of the area each. The 450-micron-thick pnCCD (similar to the adjacent eROSITA telescope detector) will allow detection of X-ray photons up to 15 keV. The field of view of the individual mirror module is about 18 x 18 arcminutes(exp 2) and the sensitivity of the ART-XC system for 4 years of survey will be better than 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over the 4-12 keV energy band. This will allow the ART-XC instrument to discover several thousand new AGNs.

  3. Effective dose of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as assessed by chromosomal effectiveness of spectrum energy photons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M S; Endo, S; Ejima, Y; Saito, I; Okamura, K; Oka, Y; Hoshi, M

    2006-07-01

    The effective dose of combined spectrum energy neutrons and high energy spectrum gamma-rays in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has long been a matter of discussion. The reason is largely due to the paucity of biological data for high energy photons, particularly for those with an energy of tens of MeV. To circumvent this problem, a mathematical formalism was developed for the photon energy dependency of chromosomal effectiveness by reviewing a large number of data sets published in the literature on dicentric chromosome formation in human lymphocytes. The chromosomal effectiveness was expressed by a simple multiparametric function of photon energy, which made it possible to estimate the effective dose of spectrum energy photons and differential evaluation in the field of mixed neutron and gamma-ray exposure with an internal reference radiation. The effective dose of reactor-produced spectrum energy neutrons was insensitive to the fine structure of the energy distribution and was accessible by a generalized formula applicable to the A-bomb neutrons. Energy spectra of all sources of A-bomb gamma-rays at different tissue depths were simulated by a Monte Carlo calculation applied on an ICRU sphere. Using kerma-weighted chromosomal effectiveness of A-bomb spectrum energy photons, the effective dose of A-bomb neutrons was determined, where the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was expressed by a dose-dependent variable RBE, RBE(gamma, D (n)), against A-bomb gamma-rays as an internal reference radiation. When the newly estimated variable RBE(gamma, D (n)) was applied to the chromosome data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the city difference was completely eliminated. The revised effective dose was about 35% larger in Hiroshima, 19% larger in Nagasaki and 26% larger for the combined cohort compared with that based on a constant RBE of 10. Since the differences are significantly large, the proposed effective dose might have an

  4. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Cross-Cutting R & D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Byard D. Wood; David L. Beshears

    2006-02-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the following investigations: Niche applications for HSL technology, Luminaire design characteristics for linear and point lighting fixtures, and Daylight affects on productivity.

  5. Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang

    2006-03-30

    This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

  6. Zero-energy modes and valley asymmetry in the Hofstadter spectrum of bilayer graphene van der Waals heterostructures with hBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Wallbank, J. R.; Mucha-Kruczyński, M.; McCann, E.; Fal'ko, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the magnetic minibands of a heterostructure consisting of bilayer graphene (BLG) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) by numerically diagonalizing a two-band Hamiltonian that describes electrons in BLG in the presence of a moiré potential. Due to inversion-symmetry breaking characteristic for the moiré potential, the valley symmetry of the spectrum is broken, but despite this, the zero-energy Landau level in BLG survives, albeit with reduced degeneracy. In addition, we derive effective models for the low-energy features in the magnetic minibands and demonstrate the appearance of secondary Dirac points in the valence band, which we confirm by numerical simulations. Then, we analyze how single-particle gaps in the fractal energy spectrum produce a sequence of incompressible states observable under a variation of carrier density and magnetic field.

  7. On a coherent investigation of the spectrum of cosmic rays in the energy range of 1014 - 1018 eV with KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoo, S.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Beck, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K. H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2015-08-01

    The KASCADE experiment and its extension KASCADE-Grande have significantly contributed to the current knowledge about the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies between the knee and the ankle. However, the data of both experiments were analysed separately, although Grande used the muon information of the KASCADE-array. A coherent analysis based on the combined data of both arrays is expected to profit from reconstructed shower observables with even higher accuracy compared to the stand-alone analyses. In addition, a significantly larger fiducial area is available. The aim of this analysis is to obtain the spectrum and composition of CRs in the range from 1014 to 1018 eV with a larger number of events and further reduced uncertainties using one unique reconstruction procedure for the entire energy range. This contribution will describe the motivation, the concept, and the current status of the combined analysis.

  8. Measurement and Interpretation of Moments of the Combined Hadronic Mass and Energy Spectrum in Inclusive Semileptonic B-Meson Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Klose, Verena

    2011-08-12

    This thesis presents first measurements of moments of the hadronic nX2 distribution measured in inclusive semileptonic decays of B mesons to final states containing a charm quark, B → Xcℓν. The variable nX2 is a combination of the invariant mass of the charmed meson mX, its energy in the B-meson rest-frame EX;BRF, and a constant ~Λ = 0.65 GeV, nX2 = mX2c4-2~ΛEX,BRF + ~Λ2. The moments Xk> with k = 2,4,6 are measured as proposed by theory to constrain assumptions made in the theoretical description of inclusive observables in semileptonic B-meson decays. This description uses Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), an effective QCD combined with an Operator Product Expansion. The measurement is based on a sample of 231.6 million e+e- → Υ(4S) {yields} B$\\bar{B}$ events recorded with the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e+e--storage rings at SLAC. We reconstruct the semileptonic decay by identifying a charged lepton in events tagged by a fully reconstructed hadronic decay of the second B meson. Correction procedures are derived from Monte Carlo simulations to ensure an unbiased measurement of the moments of the nX2 distribution. All moments are measured requiring minimum lepton momenta between 0.8 GeV/c and 1.9 GeV/c in the rest frame of the B meson. Performing a simultaneous fit to the measured moments Xk> up to order k = 6 combined with other measurements of moments of the lepton-energy spectrum in decays B → Xcℓν and moments of the photon-energy spectrum in decays B → Xsγ, we determine the quark-mixing parameter |Vcb|, the bottom and charm quark masses, the semileptonic branching fraction β(B → Xcℓν), and four non-perturbative heavy quark

  9. Precision measurement of the B → Xs γ photon energy spectrum, branching fraction, and direct CP asymmetry A(CP)((B → X(s+d)γ).

    PubMed

    Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Bondioli, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Winstrom, L; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Edwards, A J; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Lu, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paoloni, E; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Lund, P; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2012-11-01

    The photon spectrum in the inclusive electromagnetic radiative decays of the B meson, B → X(s)γ plus B → X(d)γ, is studied using a data sample of (382.8 ± 4.2) × 10(6)Υ(4S) → BB decays collected by the BABAR experiment at SLAC. The spectrum is used to extract the branching fraction B(B → X(s)γ) = (3.21 ± 0.33) × 10(-4) for E(γ) >1.8 GeV and the direct CP asymmetry A(CP) (B → X(s+d)γ) = 0.057 ± 0.063. The effects of detector resolution and Doppler smearing are unfolded to measure the photon energy spectrum in the B meson rest frame. PMID:23215373

  10. Precision measurement of the B → Xs γ photon energy spectrum, branching fraction, and direct CP asymmetry A(CP)((B → X(s+d)γ).

    PubMed

    Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Brown, D N; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Yushkov, A N; Bondioli, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; West, C A; Eisner, A M; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Winstrom, L; Chao, D S; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Flood, K T; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Rakitin, A Y; Andreassen, R; Huard, Z; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Sun, L; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Spaan, B; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Bhuyan, B; Prasad, V; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Edwards, A J; Adametz, A; Uwer, U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Dauncey, P D; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Griessinger, K; Hafner, A; Prencipe, E; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; Behn, E; Cenci, R; Hamilton, B; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Dallapiccola, C; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Sciolla, G; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Biassoni, P; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; De Nardo, G; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Martinelli, M; Raven, G; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Honscheid, K; Kass, R; Brau, J; Frey, R; Lu, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Feltresi, E; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Akar, S; Ben-Haim, E; Bomben, M; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Sitt, S; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Pacetti, S; Rossi, A; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paoloni, E; Perez, A; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Piredda, G; Bünger, C; Grünberg, O; Hartmann, T; Leddig, T; Schröder, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Cartaro, C; Convery, M R; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ebert, M; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Lewis, P; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Randle-Conde, A; Sekula, S J; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Miyashita, T S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Gorodeisky, R; Guttman, N; Peimer, D R; Soffer, A; Lund, P; Spanier, S M; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Zambito, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Ahmed, H; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bernlochner, F U; Choi, H H F; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Tasneem, N; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Wu, S L

    2012-11-01

    The photon spectrum in the inclusive electromagnetic radiative decays of the B meson, B → X(s)γ plus B → X(d)γ, is studied using a data sample of (382.8 ± 4.2) × 10(6)Υ(4S) → BB decays collected by the BABAR experiment at SLAC. The spectrum is used to extract the branching fraction B(B → X(s)γ) = (3.21 ± 0.33) × 10(-4) for E(γ) >1.8 GeV and the direct CP asymmetry A(CP) (B → X(s+d)γ) = 0.057 ± 0.063. The effects of detector resolution and Doppler smearing are unfolded to measure the photon energy spectrum in the B meson rest frame.

  11. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Poarch, Hunter J; Dolbow, David D; Castillo, Teodoro; Gater, David R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively]) on oxygen uptake (VO2), cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE) percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative VO2 or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.07), whereas recovery VO2 was 23% greater in P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.03). There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001) and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001) FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative VO2 or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery VO2 and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling.

  12. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Poarch, Hunter J; Dolbow, David D; Castillo, Teodoro; Gater, David R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively]) on oxygen uptake (VO2), cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE) percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative VO2 or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.07), whereas recovery VO2 was 23% greater in P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.03). There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001) and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001) FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative VO2 or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery VO2 and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling. PMID:25803753

  13. Power-law partition and entropy production of high-energy cosmic rays: Knee-ankle structure of the all-particle spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2013-10-01

    A statistical description of the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum is given in the 10^{14}\\ \\text{eV} to 10^{20}\\ \\text{eV} interval. The high-energy cosmic-ray flux is modeled as an ultra-relativistic multi-component plasma, whose components constitute a mixture of nearly ideal but nonthermal gases of low density and high temperature. Each plasma component is described by an ultra-relativistic power-law density manifested as spectral peak in the wideband fit. The “knee” and “ankle” features of the high- and ultra-high-energy spectrum turn out to be the global and local extrema of the double-logarithmic E3-scaled flux representation in which the spectral fit is performed. The all-particle spectrum is covered by recent data sets from several air shower arrays, and can be modeled as three-component plasma in the indicated energy range extending over six decades. The temperature, specific number density, internal energy and entropy of each plasma component are extracted from the partial fluxes in the broadband fit. The grand partition function and the extensive entropy functional of a non-equilibrated gas mixture with power-law components are derived in phase space by ensemble averaging.

  14. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  15. Possibility of adjusting photoluminescence spectra of Ca scheelites (CaMoO4: Eu3+ and CaWO4: Eu3+) to the emission spectrum of incandescent lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakovets, V. V.; Zolotova, E. S.; Antonova, O. V.; Korol'kov, I. V.; Yushina, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    The peculiarities of the photoluminescence of compounds CaMoO4: Eu3+ and CaWO4: Eu3+ with the scheelite structure associated with a change in the short- and long-range orders of the crystal lattice upon a change in the activator (Eu3+) of the photoluminescence range in the interval 1-4 mol %, in which the photoluminescence of the matrix is preserved in the range 484-557 nm, are investigated using X-ray phase analysis as well as photoluminescence, Raman, and diffuse reflection spectroscopies. The introduction of Eu3+ ions leads to the reconstruction of the lattice so that up to 10% of these ions stimulate the formation of centrosymmetric localization upon the substitution of Ca2+ ions in the noncentrosymmetric positions. It is found that the spectral radiant emittance of the more effective luminophore CaMoO4: Eu3+ can be adjusted to this parameter for an incandescent lamp for the Eu3+ concentration of 1-2 mol %.

  16. Cognitive wideband spectrum sensing using cosine-modulated filter banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan; Pu, Fangling; Xu, Xin; Chen, Nengcheng

    2015-11-01

    A multichannel joint spectrum sensing strategy based on cosine-modulated filter banks (CMFBs) was developed to improve sensing efficiency. The received wideband signal was split into several bands through the filters that are constructed by grouping continuous sub-band filters. Through flexibly designing prototype filter, not only the spectrum of non-uniform bandwidth can be estimated, but also the spectral leakage between adjacent channels can be adjusted. The probabilities of false alarm and detection for multichannel jointly spectrum sensing in the Rayleigh fading channel were deduced. The decision thresholds of different channels were obtained as regards the probability of false alarm. Simulation results show that compared with the traditional energy detector, the detection capability and sensing efficiency have been improved, especially at low signal-to-noise ratio. The CMFB-based multichannel joint sensing scheme not only increases the efficiency of detection, but also enhances the flexibility on the control of bandwidth and spectral leakage between neighbouring channels.

  17. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  18. Measurement of the atmospheric ν μ energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 200 TeV with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Al Samarai, I.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, F.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Michael, T.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Motz, H.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1-200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is ˜25 % higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index γ meas=3.58±0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established.

  19. DISENTANGLING HADRONIC AND LEPTONIC CASCADE SCENARIOS FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF DISTANT HARD-SPECTRUM BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D. E-mail: murase@ias.edu

    2013-07-10

    Recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; {approx}> 100 GeV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311-1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above {approx}500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z {approx}< 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311-1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.

  20. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, E. C. Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-15

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  1. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  2. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE PAGES

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  3. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  4. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  5. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  6. Energy spectrum of longitudinal ion losses in the GDT facility under development of Alfvén ion-cyclotron instability

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, A. V. Bagryansky, P. A.; Zaitsev, K. V.; Korobeinikova, O. A.; Murakhtin, S. V. Skovorodin, D. I.; Yurov, D. V.

    2015-10-15

    The influence of Alfvén ion cyclotron instability on the longitudinal losses of particles and energy from the GDT gas-dynamic trap was studied experimentally. To record the energy spectrum of ions escaping from the facility along magnetic field lines, a wide-range energy analyzer was attached to the expander. Processing of the experimental data made it possible to determine the time evolution of the ion energy distribution function and showed that the relative increase in the loss power during the development of instability did not exceed 1%. This result confirms the main conclusion of the theoretical model describing the interaction between an Alfvén wave and resonance particles and predicting that this microinstability insignificantly affects the confinement of hot ions in open magnetic traps.

  7. A range-based method to calibrate a magnetic spectrometer measuring the energy spectrum of the backward electron beam of a plasma focus.

    PubMed

    Ceccolini, E; Rocchi, F; Mostacci, D; Sumini, M; Tartari, A

    2011-08-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of plasma focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A plasma focus device is being developed for this purpose, and there is a need for characterizing its electron beam, particularly, insofar as the energy spectrum is concerned. The instrument used is a magnetic spectrometer. To calibrate this spectrometer, a procedure relying on the energy-range relation in Mylar® has been devised and applied. By measuring the transmission through increasing thicknesses of the material, electron energies could be assessed and compared to the spectrometer readings. Thus, the original calibration of the instrument has been extended to higher energies and also to better accuracy. Methods and results are presented. PMID:21895271

  8. A range-based method to calibrate a magnetic spectrometer measuring the energy spectrum of the backward electron beam of a plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.

    2011-08-15

    The electron beam emitted from the back of plasma focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A plasma focus device is being developed for this purpose, and there is a need for characterizing its electron beam, particularly, insofar as the energy spectrum is concerned. The instrument used is a magnetic spectrometer. To calibrate this spectrometer, a procedure relying on the energy-range relation in Mylar has been devised and applied. By measuring the transmission through increasing thicknesses of the material, electron energies could be assessed and compared to the spectrometer readings. Thus, the original calibration of the instrument has been extended to higher energies and also to better accuracy. Methods and results are presented.

  9. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  10. An Electromagnetic Spectrum for Millennial Students: Teaching Light, Color, Energy, and Frequency Using the Electronic Devices of Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen Kendrick

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a comparison of student learning outcomes is made in sophomore-level physical science classes using a "traditional" pedagogical approach versus a "modern" approach. Specifically, when students were taught the electromagnetic spectrum using diagrams and examples that incorporate technological advances and electronic devices of our…

  11. The Exact Formula for an Energy Band Spectrum Gradient within the New Completely Orthogonalized Plane Wave Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrotyuk, S. V.; Kynash, Yu. E.; Sobchuk, I. S.

    1997-03-01

    The formula for calculating the spectrum gradient gk = gradk E(k) at an arbitrary point k in the Brillouin zone has been derived on the basis of the new completely orthogonalized plane wave formalism (COPW). This important physical quantity has been obtained within the COPW basis for the first time. It displays a true plane wave basis limit.

  12. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  13. Constraints on axionlike particles with H.E.S.S. from the irregularity of the PKS 2155-304 energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Axionlike particles (ALPs) are hypothetical light (sub-eV) bosons predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. In astrophysical environments comprising high-energy gamma rays and turbulent magnetic fields, the existence of ALPs can modify the energy spectrum of the gamma rays for a sufficiently large coupling between ALPs and photons. This modification would take the form of an irregular behavior of the energy spectrum in a limited energy range. Data from the H.E.S.S. observations of the distant BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 (z=0.116) are used to derive upper limits at the 95% C.L. on the strength of the ALP coupling to photons, gγa<2.1×10-11GeV-1 for an ALP mass between 15 and 60 neV. The results depend on assumptions on the magnetic field around the source, which are chosen conservatively. The derived constraints apply to both light pseudoscalar and scalar bosons that couple to the electromagnetic field.

  14. Electron bunching from a dc-biased, single-surface multipactor with realistically broad energy spectrum and emission angle of secondary electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongwon; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Hur, Min Sup

    2012-02-01

    We studied the influences of wide energy spectrum and emission angle of secondary electrons on electron bunching from a dc-biased single surface multipactor. In our previous study of the same system, an ideally narrow energy spread of secondary electrons without emission angle was used in the analysis of the electron trajectory [M. S. Hur, J.-I. Kim, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, Phys. Plasmas 18, 033103 (2011) and S.-G. Jeon, J.-I. Kim, S.-T. Han, S.-S. Jung, and J. U. Kim, Phys. Plasmas 16, 073101 (2009)]. In this paper, we investigated the cases with realistic energy spectrum, which is featured by a wide energy spread and significant emission angle. To theoretically approach the matter of emission angle, we employed a concept of effective longitudinal velocity distribution. The theoretical results are verified by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We also studied the electron bunching from a copper by PIC simulations, where we observed stable electron bunches with bunch width of approximately 80 μm.

  15. Structures in the primary spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.; Knurenko, S. P.; Malecki, R.

    2009-12-01

    Structures in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' region and for energies higher than 1 EeV are obtained through studying extensive air showers (EAS). The main problem of the research is the fact that we work in the ranges of highly fluctuating parameters used to obtain the primary energy spectrum. In this paper the log-normal distribution for the error function has been used in convolution with the power spectrum to explain the Yakutsk experimental data. Similar results have been obtained for the gamma distribution as the error function. Using the power law primary spectrum in the energy region around 10 19 eV we will argue that the primary Yakutsk spectrum is overestimated. In the best case this overestimation is not less than 42%.

  16. A calibration means for spectrum analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, M. S.

    1967-01-01

    Spectrum analyzer calibration system is rapid and provides an accurate family of adjustable markers at any point in the spectrum. Pulse width controls determine the number of markers. The unit operates with a repetition rate from 300 cps to 40 kc at a center frequency from 10 kc to 2 Mc.

  17. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34...

  18. On Possible Interpretations of the High Energy Electron-Positron Spectrum Measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.

    2009-05-15

    The Fermi-LAT experiment recently reported high precision measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons-plus-positrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. The spectrum shows no prominent spectral features, and is significantly harder than that inferred from several previous experiments. Here we discuss several interpretations of the Fermi results based either on a single large scale Galactic CRE component or by invoking additional electron-positron primary sources, e.g. nearby pulsars or particle Dark Matter annihilation. We show that while the reported Fermi-LAT data alone can be interpreted in terms of a single component scenario, when combined with other complementary experimental results, specifically the CRE spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. and especially the positron fraction reported by PAMELA between 1 and 100 GeV, that class of models fails to provide a consistent interpretation. Rather, we find that several combinations of parameters, involving both the pulsar and dark matter scenarios, allow a consistent description of those results. We also briefly discuss the possibility of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter interpretations by looking for a possible anisotropy in the CRE flux.

  19. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return....

  20. Effect of Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions on the energy spectrum, chemical potential, addition energy and spin-splitting in a many-electron parabolic GaAs quantum dot in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-11-01

    The effect of electron-electron interaction and the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions on the electronic properties of a many-electron system in a parabolically confined quantum dot placed in an external magnetic field is studied. With a simple and physically reasonable model potential for electron-electron interaction term, the problem is solved exactly to second-order in the spin-orbit coupling constants to obtain the energy spectrum, the chemical potential, addition energy and the spin-splitting energy.

  1. Temperature scaling in the quantum-Hall-effect regime in a HgTe quantum well with an inverted energy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Arapov, Yu. G.; Gudina, S. V.; Neverov, V. N.; Podgornykh, S. M.; Popov, M. R. Harus, G. I.; Shelushinina, N. G.; Yakunin, M. V.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2015-12-15

    The longitudinal and Hall magnetoresistances of HgTe/HgCdTe heterostructures with an inverted energy spectrum (the HgTe quantum well width is d = 20.3 nm) are measured in the quantum-Hall-effect regime at T = 2–50 K in magnetic fields up to B = 9 T. Analysis of the temperature dependences of conductivity in the transition region between the first and second plateaus of the quantum Hall effect shows the feasibility of the scaling regime for a plateau–plateau quantum phase transition in 2D-structures on the basis of mercury telluride.

  2. The SCR Ne-21 and Ar-38 in lunar rock 68815: The solar proton energy spectrum over the past 2 MYR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Rao, M. N.; Bogard, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    We determined concentration profiles of Ne-21, Ne-22, and Ar-38 produced by solar protons as a function of depth in oriented lunar rock 68815. A comparison with model predictions indicate a solar proton flux J(4(pi)(r); E greater than 10 MeV) of 100-125 p/sq. cm/s and a rigidity, R sub 0, of 85-100 MV, assuming an erosion rate of 1-2 mm/Myr. These results for 68815 and similar results on 61016 define the integrated solar proton energy spectrum at the moon over the past approximately 2 Myr.

  3. Examining the Relationship between Autistic Traits and College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were…

  4. The kinetic energy spectrum of protons produced by the dissociative ionization of H2 by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetic energy spectra of protons resulting from the dissociative ionization of H2 by electron impact have been measured for electron impact energies from threshold (approximately 17 eV) to 160 eV at 90 deg and 30 deg detection angles, using a crossed-beam experimental arrangement. To check reliability, two separate proton energy analysis methods have been employed, i.e., a time-of-flight proton energy analysis and an electrostatic hemispherical energy analyzer. The present results are compared with previous measurements.

  5. An experiment to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray antiprotons from 100 to 1000 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salamon, M. H.; Price, P. B.; Barwick, S. W.; Lowder, D. M.; Ahlen, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Production models were developed and the confirmation of each one had significant astrophysical impact. These include radical modifications of propagation models, cosmic ray antiprotons injection from neighboring domains of antimatter, p production by evaporating primordial black holes, and cosmic ray p's as annihilation products of supersymmetry particles that might make up the dark dynamical mass of the Galaxy. It is that p's originating from supersymmetric parents might have distinct spectral features that would survive solar modulation; in one model, higgsino annihilation proceeds through the bb quark-antiquark channel, producing a spectral bump at approx. 0.3 GeV in the p spectrum.

  6. The X-ray spectrum and spectral energy distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL quasar with a probable polar outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrington, Robert C.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e. an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Γ = 1.7 or flatter at a >99 per cent confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 1023 cm-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providing good fits. We present several lines of argument that suggest the fraction of X-ray emissions associated with the radio jet is not large. We combine our Chandra data with observations from the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution of FIRST J1556+3517 from radio to X-ray energies. We make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio jet, optical dust reddening and X-ray absorption, in order to recover a probable intrinsic spectrum. The quasar FIRST J1556+3517 seems to be an intrinsically normal radio-quiet quasar with a reddened optical/UV spectrum, a Doppler-boosted but intrinsically weak radio jet and an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars.

  7. Multifractal spectrums for volumes of spatial forms on surface of ZnxCd1-xTe-Si (111) heterostructures and estimation of the fractal surface energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, Pavel; Kryzhanivskyy, Vyacheslav; Lytvyn, Petro; Rashkovetskyi, Liubomyr

    2016-09-01

    Multifractal (MF) analysis is used to describe volumes of spatial forms that are formed on the surface of thin layers of ZnxCd1-xTe solid solution grown on the Si (111) substrate. MF analysis is performed on the basis of AFM images of the solid solution surface. The parameters of the MF spectrums for the distribution of volumes of the spatial forms, which formed the surface relief, were found. On the basis of a formal approach and data on the multifractal parameters for the volume and the area of the surface spatial forms the mathematic expression which takes into account the contribution of the fractal surface structure in its surface energy were proposed. The behavior of the surface energy of the system depending on the fractal parameters that describe the volume and the area of the spatial forms on the fractal surface were discussed.

  8. Peculiar high energy cosmic ray stratospheric event reveals a heavy primary origin particle above the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kopenkin, V.; Fujimoto, Y.

    2005-01-15

    We wish to put forward an explanation for a peculiar cosmic ray event with energy {sigma}E{sub {gamma}}{>=}2x10{sup 15} eV detected in 1975 by the balloon borne emulsion chamber experiment performed in the stratosphere, at the altitude {>=}30 km above sea level. For almost 30 years the event has been described as unusual, invoking new exotic mechanisms or models. In our opinion there is no need for an extraordinary explanation. Contrary to the widespread belief, the event gives us an example of 'unrecognized standard physics'. At the same time this event revealed a variety of features which are of considerable interest for cosmic rays, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. Here we show that the observed family is most likely to be a result of a heavy nucleus interaction with an air nucleus. In this case a primary particle would originally have been in the energy region above 'the knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  9. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  10. Examining the relationship between autistic traits and college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina

    2016-08-01

    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were associated with poorer adjustment to college. One subscale of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire, pragmatic language difficulties, explained the most variance in adjustment. In addition, students who met the previously established cut-off scores for possessing the broad autism phenotype scored significantly lower on all Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire subscales. Finally, pragmatic language difficulties mediated the relationship between college major and academic adjustment. These findings underscore the need for future research to examine how pragmatic language difficulties may impede college success in students with autism spectrum disorder and in the typical population.

  11. An Application of the Direct Coulomb Electron Pair Production Process to the Energy Measurement of the "VH-Group" in the "Knee" Region of the "All-Particle" Energy Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Wu, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The "all-particle" cosmic ray energy spectrum appears to be exhibiting a significant change in the spectral index just above approximately 3000 TeV. This could indicate (1) a change in the propagation of the cosmic rays in the galactic medium, and/or (2) the upper limit of the supernova shock wave acceleration mechanism, and/or (3) a new source of high-energy cosmic rays. Air shower and JACEE data indicate the spectral change is associated with a composition change to a heavier element mixture whereas DICE does not indicate this. A detector concept will be presented that utilizes the energy dependence of the production of direct Coulomb electron-positron pairs by energetic heavy ions. Monte Carlo simulations of a direct electron pair detector consisting of Pb target foils interleaved with planes of 1-mm square scintillating optical fibers will be discussed. The goal is to design a large area, non-saturating instrument to measure the energy spectrum of the individual cosmic ray elements in the "VH-group" for energies greater than 10 TeV/nucleon.

  12. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  13. Least-Squares Neutron Spectral Adjustment with STAYSL PNNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, L. R.; Johnson, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    The STAYSL PNNL computer code, a descendant of the STAY'SL code [1], performs neutron spectral adjustment of a starting neutron spectrum, applying a least squares method to determine adjustments based on saturated activation rates, neutron cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries, and all associated covariances. STAYSL PNNL is provided as part of a comprehensive suite of programs [2], where additional tools in the suite are used for assembling a set of nuclear data libraries and determining all required corrections to the measured data to determine saturated activation rates. Neutron cross section and covariance data are taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) [3], which was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), though work is planned to update to data from the IAEA's International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF) [4]. The nuclear data and associated covariances are extracted from IRDF-2002 using the third-party NJOY99 computer code [5]. The NJpp translation code converts the extracted data into a library data array format suitable for use as input to STAYSL PNNL. The software suite also includes three utilities to calculate corrections to measured activation rates. Neutron self-shielding corrections are calculated as a function of neutron energy with the SHIELD code and are applied to the group cross sections prior to spectral adjustment, thus making the corrections independent of the neutron spectrum. The SigPhi Calculator is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet used for calculating saturated activation rates from raw gamma activities by applying corrections for gamma self-absorption, neutron burn-up, and the irradiation history. Gamma self-absorption and neutron burn-up corrections are calculated (iteratively in the case of the burn-up) within the SigPhi Calculator spreadsheet. The irradiation history corrections are calculated using the BCF computer code and are inserted into the SigPhi Calculator

  14. On the determination of the cosmic infrared background radiation from the high-energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Slavin, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper Stecker, De Jager, & Salamon have suggested using the observed approximately MeV to TeV spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources as probes of the local density of the cosmic infrared background radiation (CIBR) and have subsequently claimed a first possible measurement of the CIBR from the analysis of the gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 421 (De Jager, Stecker, & Salamon). The CIBR from normal galaxies consists of two components: a stellar emission component (CIBRs), and a thermal dust emission component (CIBRd). Photons with energies in the approximately 0.1-2 TeV range interact primarily with the CIBRs, whereas interactions with CIBRd dominate the absorption of photons in the approximately 2-100 TeV energy range. SDS 92 and DSS94 considered only the interaction of the gamma-rays with the dust emission component of the CIBR. We present here an improved analysis of the absorption of extragalactic TeV gamma rays by the CIBR, taking the dual nature of its origin into account. Applying the analysis to the observed gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 421, a BL Lac object at z = 0.031, we find agreement with DSS94 tentative evidence for absorption by the CINRs. Our analysis therefore limits the detection of the CIBR to the approximately 15-40 micron wavelength regime which, considering the uncertainties in the highest energy (greater than 4 TeV) data and ion the possibility of absorption inside the source, many turn out to be an upper limit on its energy density. At shorter wavelengths (lambda approximately = 1-15 microns), where the gamma-ray interactions are dominated by the CIBRs, our analysis definitely yields only an upper limit on the energy density of the CIBR. In contrast, DSS94 have claimed a possible first measurement of the CIBR over the entire 1-120 micron wavelength region. The upper limit on the CIBRs and tentative detection of the CIBRd are consistent with normal galaxies contributing most of the energy to the CIBR, and constrain the contribution of

  15. PsbS-specific zeaxanthin-independent changes in fluorescence emission spectrum as a signature of energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Dogsom, Bolormaa; Lee, Chung Yeol; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    The PsbS protein of photosystem II is necessary for the development of energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (qE), and PsbS-deficient Arabidopsis plant leaves failed to show qE-specific changes in the steady-state 77 K fluorescence emission spectra observed in wild-type leaves. The difference spectrum between the quenched and un-quenched states showed a negative peak at 682 nm. Although the level of qE development in the zeaxanthin-less npq1-2 mutant plants, which lacked violaxanthin de-epoxidase enzyme, was only half that of wild type, there were no noticeable changes in this qE-dependent difference spectrum. This zeaxanthin-independent DeltaF682 signal was not dependent on state transition, and the signal was not due to photobleaching of pigments either. These results suggest that DeltaF682 signal is formed due to PsbS-specific conformational changes in the quenching site of qE and is a new signature of qE generation in higher plants.

  16. Spectroscopic investigation (FTIR spectrum), NBO, HOMO-LUMO energies, NLO and thermodynamic properties of 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamideby DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherin Percy Prema Leela, J.; Hemamalini, R.; Muthu, S.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-07-01

    Capsicum a hill grown vegetable is also known as red pepper or chili pepper. Capsaicin(8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component in chili peppers, which is currently used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, psoriasis and cancer. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of Capsaicin in the solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and analyzed. The vibrational frequencies of the title compound were obtained theoretically by DFT/B3LYP calculations employing the standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and were compared with Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Complete vibrational assignment analysis and correlation of the fundamental modes for the title compound were carried out. The vibrational harmonic frequencies were scaled using scale factor, yielding a good agreement between the experimentally recorded and the theoretically calculated values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and intra molecular hydrogen bond-like weak interaction has been analyzed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ∗ and π∗ antibonding orbitals and second-order delocalization energies E (2) confirm the occurrence of intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and the hyperpolarizability (β) values of the molecule has been computed. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated.

  17. Spectroscopic investigation (FTIR spectrum), NBO, HOMO-LUMO energies, NLO and thermodynamic properties of 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamideby DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Leela, J Sherin Percy Prema; Hemamalini, R; Muthu, S; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A

    2015-07-01

    Capsicum a hill grown vegetable is also known as red pepper or chili pepper. Capsaicin(8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component in chili peppers, which is currently used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, psoriasis and cancer. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of Capsaicin in the solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and analyzed. The vibrational frequencies of the title compound were obtained theoretically by DFT/B3LYP calculations employing the standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and were compared with Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Complete vibrational assignment analysis and correlation of the fundamental modes for the title compound were carried out. The vibrational harmonic frequencies were scaled using scale factor, yielding a good agreement between the experimentally recorded and the theoretically calculated values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and intra molecular hydrogen bond-like weak interaction has been analyzed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ∗ and π∗ antibonding orbitals and second-order delocalization energies E (2) confirm the occurrence of intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and the hyperpolarizability (β) values of the molecule has been computed. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated.

  18. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  19. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  20. On the nonlinear mapping of an ocean wave spectrum into a synthetic aperture radar image spectrum and its inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselmann, Klaus; Hasselmann, Susanne

    1991-06-01

    . This difficulty is overcome by applying a two-step inversion procedure. In the first step the energy level of the wave spectrum is adjusted, and the wave number plane rotated and rescaled, without altering the shape of the spectrum. Using the resulting globally fitted spectrum as the new first-guess input spectrum, the original inversion method is then applied without further constraints in a second step to obtain a final fine-scale optimized spectrum. The forward mapping relation and inversion algorithms are illustrated for three Seasat cases representing different wave conditions corresponding to weakly, moderately, and strongly nonlinear imaging conditions.

  1. Angular distribution of energy spectrum in two-dimensional β-plane turbulence in the long-wave limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Izumi; Ishioka, Keiichi

    2013-07-01

    The time-evolution of two-dimensional decaying turbulence governed by the long-wave limit, in which LD/L → 0, of the quasi-geostrophic equation is investigated numerically. Here, LD is the Rossby radius of deformation, and L is the characteristic length scale of the flow. In this system, the ratio of the linear term that originates from the β-term to the nonlinear terms is estimated by a dimensionless number, γ =β L_D^2/U, where β is the latitudinal gradient of the Coriolis parameter, and U is the characteristic velocity scale. As the value of γ increases, the inverse energy cascade becomes more anisotropic. When γ ⩾ 1, the anisotropy becomes significant and energy accumulates in a wedge-shaped region where |l|>sqrt{3}|k| in the two-dimensional wavenumber space. Here, k and l are the longitudinal and latitudinal wavenumbers, respectively. When γ is increased further, the energy concentration on the lines of l=± sqrt{3}k is clearly observed. These results are interpreted based on the conservation of zonostrophy, which is an extra invariant other than energy and enstrophy and was determined in a previous study. Considerations concerning the appropriate form of zonostrophy for the long-wave limit and a discussion of the possible relevance to Rossby waves in the ocean are also presented.

  2. On the Effect of an Error in a Standard D2O-Moderated 252Cf Energy Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick Cummings

    2009-12-01

    There appears to be an error in the neutron fluence for neutrons with energies between 9 and 10 MeV for the tabulated D2O-moderated 252Cf source in ISO 8529-1. The error contributes a total error to neutron dose values from this source of approximately 3%.

  3. Reanalysis of the Apollo cosmic gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.3 to 10 MeV energy region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Dyer, C. S.; Evans, L. G.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Seltzer, S. M.; Metzger, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    Additional data obtained from the Apollo-16 and -17 missions, together with collateral calculations on background radiation effects, have enabled an improved subtraction of unwanted backgrounds from the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray data previously reported from Apollo-15. As a result, the 1- to 10-MeV spectrum is lowered significantly and connects smoothly with recent data at other energies. The inflection reported previously is much less pronounced and has no more than a 1.5-sigma significance. Sky occultation by the Apollo-16 spacecraft shows the bulk of the 0.3- to 1-MeV radiation to be diffuse. The analysis of spurious backgrounds points to important improvements for future experiments designed for this spectral region.

  4. Reanalysis of the Apollo cosmic gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.3 to 10 MeV energy region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Dyer, C. S.; Evans, L. G.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Seltzer, S. M.; Metzger, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Additional data obtained from the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions, together with collateral calculations on background radiation effects, have made possible an improved subtraction of unwanted backgrounds from the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray data previously reported from Apollo 15. As a result, the 1- to 10-MeV spectrum is lowered significantly and connects smoothly with recent data at other energies. The inflection reported previously is much less pronounced and has no more than a 1.5-sigma significance. Sky occultation by the Apollo 16 spacecraft shows the bulk of the 0.3- to 1-MeV radiation to be diffuse. The analysis of spurious backgrounds points to important improvements for future experiments designed for this spectral region.

  5. The effect of energy spectrum change on DNA damage in and out of field in 10-MV clinical photon beams.

    PubMed

    Ezzati, A O; Xiao, Y; Sohrabpour, M; Studenski, M T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the DNA damage induced in a clinical megavoltage photon beam at various depths in and out of the field. MCNPX was used to simulate 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm(2) 10-MV photon beams from a clinical linear accelerator. Photon and electron spectra were collected in a water phantom at depths of 2.5, 12.5 and 22.5 cm on the central axis and at off-axis points out to 10 cm. These spectra were used as an input to a validated microdosimetric Monte Carlo code, MCDS, to calculate the RBE of induced DSB in DNA at points in and out of the primary radiation field at three depths. There was an observable difference in the energy spectra for photons and electrons for points in the primary radiation field and those points out of field. In the out-of-field region, the mean energy for the photon and electron spectra decreased by a factor of about six and three from the in-field mean energy, respectively. Despite the differences in spectra and mean energy, the change in RBE was <1 % from the in-field region to the out-of-field region at any depth. There was no significant change in RBE regardless of the location in the phantom. Although there are differences in both the photon and electron spectra, these changes do not correlate with a change in RBE in a clinical MV photon beam as the electron spectra are dominated by electrons with energies >20 keV.

  6. The energy spectrum of scattered particles in the K-shell ionization of medium heavy atoms by relativistic electrons and positrons with exchange effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, S.

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of scattered particles in the K-shell ionization of medium to heavy atoms by relativistic electrons and positrons with exchange effects has been calculated for various kinematic conditions. In this calculation, the final state is described by a non-relativistic multiple-scattering wavefunction of Das and Seal (1993a Phys. Rev. A 47 2978; 1998 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 2355) multiplied by suitable spinors. Exchange effects in the atomic K-shell ionization of 47Ag atoms by relativistic electrons show better agreement with the available experimental data. The peaks are very similar to those observed in the relativistic K-shell ionization of 47Ag atoms by electrons at 500 keV energy (Schule and Nakel 1982 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 15 L639). Some other theoretical computational results are also presented here for comparison. Experimental verification of the present results for higher incident energies and other theoretical calculations by similar wavefunction theories will be interesting.

  7. Irradiation of Escherichia coli in the Visible Spectrum with a Tunable Organic-Dye Laser Energy Source

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Patrick K.; Toups, Harold J.; Greenberg, David B.; Dimopoullos, George T.; Rusoff, Louis L.

    1975-01-01

    Pulsed laser energy was shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. The irradiation source was derived from a tunable organic-dye laser utilizing rhodamine 6G (590 ± 5 nm) solutions as lasing media. The organisms, suspended in nutrient broth, were irradiated both with and without an exogenous photosensitizer. One photosensitizer (toluidine blue) did not appreciably alter the inhibitory effect observed. In the presence of acridine orange, however, some additional growth occurred. PMID:1089163

  8. Energy reallocation during and after periods of nutritional stress in Steller sea lions: low-quality diet reduces capacity for physiological adjustments.

    PubMed

    Jeanniard du Dot, Tiphaine; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2009-01-01

    Two groups of female Steller sea lions (groups H and P) were subjected to periods of energy restriction and subsequent refeeding during winter and summer to determine changes in energy partitioning among principal physiological functions and the potential consequences to their fitness. Both sea lion groups consumed high-quality fish (herring) before and after the energy restrictions. During restrictions, group H was fed a lower quantity of herring and group P a caloric equivalent of low-quality fish (pollock). Quantitative estimates of maintenance and production energies and qualitative estimates of thermoregulation, activity, and basal metabolic rate were measured. During summer, all animals compensated for the imposed energy deficit by releasing stored energy (production energy). Group H also optimized the energy allocation to seasonal conditions by increasing activity during summer, when fish are naturally abundant (foraging effort), and by decreasing thermoregulation capacity when waters are warmer. During winter, both groups decreased the energy allocated to overall maintenance functions (basal metabolic rate, thermoregulation, and activity together) in addition to releasing stored energy, but they preserved thermoregulatory capacity. Group H also decreased activity levels in winter, when foraging in the wild is less efficient, unlike group P. Overall, sea lions fed pollock did not change energy allocation to suit environmental conditions as readily as those fed herring. This implies that a low energy-density diet may further reduce fitness of animals in the wild during periods of nutritional stress. PMID:19637969

  9. 78 FR 56868 - Adjustment of Indemnification for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Adjustment of Indemnification for Inflation AGENCY: Office of General Counsel, U.S Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of adjusted indemnification amount. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is...

  10. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations §...

  11. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  12. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  13. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  14. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  15. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  16. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-08-18

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) technologies have the ability to precisely control motor sytems output and produce a numbr of benefits including energy and demand savings. This report examines the performance and cost effectiveness of a specific class of ASDs called magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drives (MC-ASD) which use the strength of a magnetic field to control the amount of torque transferred between motor and drive shaft. The MagnaDrive Adjustable Speed Coupling System uses fixed rare-earth magnets and varies the distance between rotating plates in the assembly. the PAYBACK Variable Speed Drive uses an electromagnet to control the speed of the drive

  17. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Sascha

    2014-08-01

    In environmental radiation monitoring, the time-variable natural gamma radiation background complicates the nuclide identification and analysis of a gamma spectrum. A full spectrum analysis based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method for the description of the time-variable background and adjustment calculations is a possible analysis method, which may provide advantages compared with a peak-based analysis, if applied to a time series of gamma spectra. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental radiation monitoring.

  18. The MIRTE Experimental Program: An Opportunity to Test Structural Materials in Various Configurations in Thermal Energy Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Nicolas; Le Dauphin, Francois-Xavier; Duhamel, Isabelle; Briggs, Blair; Piot, Jerome; Rennesson, Malvina; Laville, Arnaud

    2014-11-04

    The MIRTE (Materials in Interacting and Reflecting configurations, all Thicknesses) program was established to answer the needs of criticality safety practitioners in terms of experimental validation of structural materials and to possibly contribute to nuclear data improvement, which ultimately supports reactor safety analysis as well. MIRTE took the shape of a collaboration between the AREVA and ANDRA French industrialists and a noncommercial international funding partner such as the U.S. Department of Energy. The aim of this paper is to present the configurations of the MIRTE 1 and MIRTE 2 programs and to highlight the results of the titanium experiments recently published in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments.

  19. Preliminary On-Orbit Neutron Dose Equivalent and Energy Spectrum Results from the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector (FND)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semones, Edward; Leitgab, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ISS-RAD instrument was activated on ISS on February 1st, 2016. Integrated in ISS-RAD, the Fast Neutron Detector (FND) performs, for the first time on ISS, routine and precise direct neutron measurements between 0.5 and 8 MeV. Preliminary results for neutron dose equivalent and neutron flux energy distributions from online/on-board algorithms and offline ground analyses will be shown, along with comparisons to simulated data and previously measured neutron spectral data. On-orbit data quality and pre-launch analysis validation results will be discussed as well.

  20. Self-consistent Calculation of the Quasi-particle Energy Spectrum of Sodium using the Correlated Hartree Fock Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Takamitsu; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Yasuhara, Hiroshi

    2001-12-01

    Self-consistent band calculation of sodium is performed in the correlated Hartree Fock scheme proposed by Yasuhara and Takada [Phys. Rev. B 43 (1991) 7200], which contains information on the effective mass of the electron liquid in the form of a nonlocal spin-parallel potential, and the remaining information of the self-energy operator in the form of a local potential. The bandwidth of occupied states is somewhat increased under the influence of the non-local spin-parallel potential, compared with the free electron value. No significant difference can be found in the distortion of the Fermi surface between the present theory and the LDA.

  1. TAILORING X-RAY BEAM ENERGY SPECTRUM TO ENHANCE IMAGE QUALITY OF NEW RADIOGRAPHY CONTRAST AGENTS BASED ON GD OR OTHER LANTHANIDES.

    SciTech Connect

    DILMANIAN,F.A.; WEINMANN,H.J.; ZHONG,Z.; BACARIAN,T.; RIGON,L.; BUTTON,T.M.; REN,B.; WU,X.Y.; ZHONG,N.; ATKINS,H.L.

    2001-02-17

    Gadovist, a 1.0-molar Gd contrast agent from Schering AG, Berlin Germany, in use in clinical MPI in Europe, was evaluated as a radiography contrast agent. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Schering AG is developing several such lanthanide-based contrast agents, while BNL evaluates them using different x-my beam energy spectra. These energy spectra include a ''truly'' monochromatic beam (0.2 keV energy bandwidth) from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), BNL, tuned above the Gd K-edge, and x-ray-tube beams from different kVp settings and beam filtrations. Radiographs of rabbits' kidneys were obtained with Gadovist at the NSLS. Furthermore, a clinical radiography system was used for imaging rabbits' kidneys comparing Gadovist and Conray, an iodinated contrast agent. The study, using 74 kVp and standard Al beam filter for Conray and 66 kVp and an additional 1.5 mm Cu beam filter for Gadovist, produced comparable images for Gadovist and Conray; the injection volumes were the same, while the radiation absorbed dose for Gadovist was slightly smaller. A bent-crystal silicon monochromator operating in the Laue diffraction mode was developed and tested with a conventional x-ray tube beam; it narrows the energy spectrum to about 4 keV around the anode tungsten's Ku line. Preliminary beam-flux results indicate that the method could be implemented in clinical CT if x-ray tubes with {approximately} twice higher output become available.

  2. A reexamination of the cosmic-ray helium spectrum and the He-3/He-4 ratio at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Golden, R. L.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Cosmic ray He spectral data collected by satellites in earth orbit were used to examine a recent measurement of He-3 of about 6 GeV/nucleon, an overabundance compared to predictions made with a leaky box approach. The spectral rigidity index at the time of the measurement was no more than 2.55, indicating a near-earth He-3/He-4 ratio of 0.17, although an index in the range 10-20 GV and a ratio of close to 0.24 is the usual value. New magnetic spectrometer data, however, show that a single spectral rigidity value for the near-earth He-3/He-4 ratio cannot be correct. The Fokker-Planck equation is used to demonstrate that solar modulation of the He flux yields an energy/abundance distribution close to observational data.

  3. The telescope array middle drum monocular energy spectrum and a search for coincident showers using high resolution fly's eye hires-1 monocular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Douglas Chase

    The transition from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment to the Telescope Array (TA) experiment has been completed. The TA Middle Drum fluorescence detector was built using refurbished telescopes from the HiRes-1 site so that a direct comparison could be made between the energy scales of the two experiments. I have made a comparison between the published HiRes spectrum [3] and a preliminary energy spectrum using data collected with the Middle Drum telescopes. Both sets of data represent measurements made via the monocular observation technique and were analyzed using the HiRes-1 profile-constrained geometry reconstruction technique. The HiRes-1 data represents almost nine years of exposure and was collected between May 29, 1997 and May 26, 2006. The Middle Drum data were collected over a three-year period between December 16, 2007 and December 16, 2010. The Middle Drum exposure is about one third of the HiRes-1 total exposure. I have demonstrated that the Middle Drum detector has the same energy scale as HiRes-1. The published HiRes-1 and Middle Drum spectra presented in this dissertation were measured using average calibrations. A study was preformed on the HiRes-1 data to determine the systematic effects of using the nightly atmospheric and electronic-calibration databases instead of average values. The difference between using the average values and using the detailed nightly databases was less than 1%, indicating the spectral results are robust to these differences. Finally, a search was made for the interaction between cosmic rays and ions in the heliosphere. This interaction could result in a unique signature of parallel, simultaneous photon showers. The HiRes-1 data were chosen for this search due to its large exposure and resulting data set. Unfortunately, detector limitations restricted the potential observations. No double-shower events were detected; however, if observed, this would be suggestive of new physics. Monte Carlo simulated events

  4. Lyapunov spectrum of granular gases

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Sean; Mareschal, Michel

    2001-06-01

    We calculate and study the Lyapunov spectrum of a granular gas maintained in a steady state by an isokinetic thermostat. Considering restitution coefficients greater than unity allows us to show that the spectra change smoothly and continuously at equilibrium. The shearing instability of the granular gas, however, provokes an abrupt change in the structure of the spectrum. The relationship between various physically relevant quantities and the energy dissipation rate differs from previously studied nonequilibrium steady states.

  5. A spectral-timing analysis of the kHz QPOs in 4U 1636-53: the frequency-energy resolved RMS spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Evandro M.; Mendez, Mariano; Zhang, Guo-Bao; De Avellar, Márcio G. B.

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) has been further advanced in the last few years by the use of combined spectral and timing techniques, and it is now clear that QPO properties are closely related to the spectral state of the source in which they appear. In this work we used all the available RXTE observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U~1636-53 to study the properties of the kilohertz QPO as a function of energy and frequency. By following the frequency evolution of the kHz QPOs we created frequency-resolved fractional RMS spectra. We also studied the connection between the frequency of the kHz QPOs and the parameters of the model that fits the X-ray energy spectrum. We show the dependence of the QPO properties in a multi-parameter space, and we discuss the implication of our results to the mechanism that produces the QPOs. Our results provide input to the next generation of spectral-timing models, which will help us understand the variability and the environment around the neutron star in these systems.

  6. Magnetic Resonant Mode in the Low-Energy Spin-Excitation Spectrum of Superconducting Rb2Fe4Se5 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. T.; Friemel, G.; Li, Yuan; Kim, J.-H.; Tsurkan, V.; Deisenhofer, J.; Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Loidl, A.; Ivanov, A.; Keimer, B.; Inosov, D. S.

    2011-10-01

    We have studied the low-energy spin-excitation spectrum of the single-crystalline Rb2Fe4Se5 superconductor (Tc=32K) by means of inelastic neutron scattering. In the superconducting state, we observe a magnetic resonant mode centered at an energy of ℏωres=14meV and at the (0.5 0.25 0.5) wave vector (unfolded Fe-sublattice notation), which differs from the ones characterizing magnetic resonant modes in other iron-based superconductors. Our finding suggests that the 245-iron selenides are unconventional superconductors with a sign-changing order parameter, in which bulk superconductivity coexists with the 5×5 magnetic superstructure. The estimated ratios of ℏωres/kBTc≈5.1±0.4 and ℏωres/2Δ≈0.7±0.1, where Δ is the superconducting gap, indicate moderate pairing strength in this compound, similar to that in optimally doped 1111 and 122 pnictides.

  7. Magneto-optical spectrum and the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wen; Chen, Wensuo

    2013-12-21

    The electronic structure of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are calculated based on the six-band k·p effective-mass theory. Through the calculation, it is found that the splitting energies of the degenerate hole states in Mn-doped CdSe nanowires are larger than that in Co-doped CdSe nanowires when the concentration of these two kinds of magnetic ions is the same. In order to analysis the magneto-optical spectrum of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires, the four lowest electron states and the four highest hole states are sorted when the magnetic field is applied, and the 10 lowest optical transitions between the conduction subbands and the valence subbands at the Γ point in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are shown in the paper, it is found that the order of the optical transitions at the Γ point almost do not change although two different kinds of magnetic ions are doped in CdSe nanowires. Finally, the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies at the Γ point are found to increase almost linearly with the increase of the concentration of the magnetic ions and the magnetic field; meanwhile, the giant positive effective excitonic g factors in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are predicted based on our theoretical calculation.

  8. Recent results form measurements of the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons aboard an ER-2 airplane and on the ground.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, P; Clem, J M; Wilson, J W

    2003-01-01

    Crews of future high-altitude commercial aircraft may be significantly exposed to atmospheric cosmic radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR). To help determine such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary instrument was a sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer, which was also used to make measurements on the ground. Its detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using the radiation transport code MCNPX. We have now recalculated the detector responses including the effects of the airplane structure. We are also using new FLUKA calculations of GCR-induced hadron spectra in the atmosphere to correct for spectrometer counts produced by charged hadrons. Neutron spectra are unfolded from the corrected measured count rates using the MAXED code. Results for the measured cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron dose equivalent and effective dose rates, and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cutoff generally agree well with results from recent calculations of GCR-induced neutron spectra.

  9. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons measured on an airplane over a wide range of altitude and latitude.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, P; Clem, J M; Wilson, J W

    2004-01-01

    Crews of high-altitude aircraft are exposed to radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). To help determine such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude airplane. The primary instrument was a sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer. Its detector responses were calculated for energies up to 100 GeV using the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.5.d with improved nuclear models and including the effects of the airplane structure. New calculations of GCR-induced particle spectra in the atmosphere were used to correct for spectrometer counts produced by protons, pions and light nuclear ions. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the corrected measured count rates using the deconvolution code MAXED 3.1. The results for the measured cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron dose equivalent and effective dose rates, and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cut-off agree well with results from recent calculations of GCR-induced neutron spectra.

  10. Energy spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays between 0.3 and 10 PeV determined from the cherenkov-light and charged-particle distributions in air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HEGRA-Collaboration; Arqueros, F.; Barrio, J. A.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bojahr, H.; Calle, I.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Deckers, T.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Gebauer, J.; González, J. C.; Haustein, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hohl, H.; Horns, D.; Ibarra, A.; Kestel, M.; Kirstein, O.; Kornmayer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Prahl, J.; Rauterberg, G.; Rhode, W.; Röhring, A.; Samorski, M.; Schmele, D.; Schröder, F.; Stamm, W.; Wiebel-Sooth, B.; Willmer, M.; Wittek, W.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the lateral distribution of Cherenkov photons with the wide-angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and of the charged particle lateral distribution with the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air-shower detector complex in air showers are reported. They are used in conjunction to determine the energy spectrum and coarse chemical composition of charged cosmic rays in the energy interval from 0.3 PeV to 10 PeV. With the atmospheric shower-front sampling technique these detectors measure the electromagnetic component of an extensive air shower via the lateral density distribution of the shower particles and of the Cherenkov photons. The data are compared with events generated with the CORSIKA program package with the QGSJET hadronic-event generator. Consistency checks performed with primary energy-reconstruction methods based on different shower observables indicate satisfactory agreement between these extensive air shower simulations and the experimental data. This permits to derive results concerning the energy spectrum and composition of charged cosmic rays. The energy spectrum features a so called ``knee'' at an energy of E_knee=3.98+4.66-0.83 (stat) +/- 0.53 (syst) PeV. Power law fits to the differential energy spectrum yield indices of -2.72+0.02-0.03 (stat) +/- 0.07 (syst) below and -3.22+0.47-0.59 (stat) +/- 0.08 (syst) above the knee. The best-fit elongation rate for the whole energy range is determined to 78.3 +/- 1.0 (stat) +/- 6.2 (syst) g/cm2. At the highest energies it seems to decrease slightly. The best-fit fraction of light nuclei decreases from 37 +28-21% (combined statistical and systematic) to 8 +32-8% (combined statistical and systematic) \\ in the energy range discussed here. A detailed study of the systematic errors reveals that a non-changing composition cannot be excluded.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation (FTIR spectrum), NBO, HOMO-LUMO energies, NLO and thermodynamic properties of 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamideby DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Leela, J Sherin Percy Prema; Hemamalini, R; Muthu, S; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A

    2015-07-01

    Capsicum a hill grown vegetable is also known as red pepper or chili pepper. Capsaicin(8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component in chili peppers, which is currently used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, psoriasis and cancer. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of Capsaicin in the solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and analyzed. The vibrational frequencies of the title compound were obtained theoretically by DFT/B3LYP calculations employing the standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and were compared with Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Complete vibrational assignment analysis and correlation of the fundamental modes for the title compound were carried out. The vibrational harmonic frequencies were scaled using scale factor, yielding a good agreement between the experimentally recorded and the theoretically calculated values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and intra molecular hydrogen bond-like weak interaction has been analyzed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ∗ and π∗ antibonding orbitals and second-order delocalization energies E (2) confirm the occurrence of intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and the hyperpolarizability (β) values of the molecule has been computed. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated. PMID:25813174

  12. Finite-volume energy spectrum, fractionalized strings, and low-energy effective field theory for the quantum dimer model on the square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Bögli, M.; Hofmann, C. P.; Jiang, F.-J.; Widmer, P.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2016-09-01

    We present detailed analytic calculations of finite-volume energy spectra, mean-field theory, as well as a systematic low-energy effective field theory for the square lattice quantum dimer model. An emergent approximate spontaneously broken SO(2 ) symmetry gives rise to a pseudo-Goldstone boson. Remarkably, this soft phononlike excitation, which is massless at the Rokhsar-Kivelson (RK) point, exists far beyond this point. The Goldstone physics is captured by a systematic low-energy effective field theory. We determine its low-energy parameters by matching the analytic effective field theory with exact diagonalization results. This confirms that the model exists in the columnar (and not in a plaquette or mixed) phase all the way to the RK point.

  13. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  14. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  15. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  16. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  17. Spinor Structure and Matter Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Classification of relativistic wave equations is given on the ground of interlocking representations of the Lorentz group. A system of interlocking representations is associated with a system of eigenvector subspaces of the energy operator. Such a correspondence allows one to define matter spectrum, where the each level of this spectrum presents a some state of elementary particle. An elementary particle is understood as a superposition of state vectors in nonseparable Hilbert space. Classification of indecomposable systems of relativistic wave equations is produced for bosonic and fermionic fields on an equal footing (including Dirac and Maxwell equations). All these fields are equivalent levels of matter spectrum, which differ from each other by the value of mass and spin. It is shown that a spectrum of the energy operator, corresponding to a given matter level, is non-degenerate for the fields of type (l, 0) ⊕ (0, l), where l is a spin value, whereas for arbitrary spin chains we have degenerate spectrum. Energy spectra of the stability levels (electron and proton states) of the matter spectrum are studied in detail. It is shown that these stability levels have a nature of threshold scales of the fractal structure associated with the system of interlocking representations of the Lorentz group.

  18. Neutron spectrum measurements in the aluminum oxide filtered beam facility at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Becker, G K; Harker, Y D; Miller, L G; Anderl, R A; Wheeler, F J

    1990-01-01

    Neutron spectrum measurements were performed on the aluminum oxide filter installed in the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). For these measurements, activation foils were irradiated at the exit port of the beam facility. A technique based on dominant resonances in selected activation reactions was used to measure the epithermal neutron spectrum. The fast and intermediate-energy ranges of the neutron spectrum were measured by threshold reactions and 10B-shielded 235U fission reactions. Neutron spectral data were derived from the activation data by two approaches: (1) a short analysis which yields neutron flux values at the energies of the dominant or primary resonances in the epithermal activation reactions and integral flux data for neutrons above corresponding threshold or pseudo-threshold energies, and (2) the longer analysis which utilized all the activation data in a full-spectrum, unfolding process using the FERRET spectrum adjustment code. This paper gives a brief description of the measurement techniques, analysis methods, and the results obtained.

  19. Influence of the Nonlinearity Parameter on the Solar Wind Sub-ion Magnetic Energy Spectrum: FLR-Landau Fluid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulem, P. L.; Passot, T.; Laveder, D.; Borgogno, D.

    2016-02-01

    The cascade of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) at sub-ion scales in the solar wind is simulated numerically using a fluid approach that retains ion and electron Landau damping, together with ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections. Assuming initially equal and isotropic ion and electron temperatures, and an ion beta equal to unity, different simulations are performed by varying the propagation direction and the amplitude of KAWs that are randomly driven at a transverse wavenumber k0 such that {k}0{d}i=0.18 (where di is the proton inertial length), in order to maintain a prescribed level of turbulent fluctuations. The resulting turbulent regimes are characterized by the nonlinearity parameter, defined as the ratio of the characteristic times of Alfvén wave propagation and of the transverse nonlinear dynamics. The corresponding transverse magnetic energy spectra display power laws with exponents spanning a range of values consistent with spacecraft observations. The meandering of the magnetic field lines and the homogenization of ion temperature along these lines are shown to be related to the strength of the turbulence, measured by the nonlinearity parameter. The results are interpreted in terms of a recently proposed phenomenological model where the homogenization process along field lines induced by Landau damping plays a central role.

  20. Spectrum-splitting hybrid CSP-CPV solar energy system with standalone and parabolic trough plant retrofit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Matthew; Zweibaum, Nicolas; Lance, Tamir; Ruiz, Maritza; Morad, Ratson

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight to electricity efficiencies of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) plants are typically on the order of 15%, while commercial solar Photovoltaic (PV) technologies routinely achieve efficiencies of greater than 20%, albeit with much higher conversion efficiencies of photons at the band gap. Hybridizing concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies can lead to higher aggregate efficiencies due to the matching of photons to the appropriate converter based on wavelength. This can be accomplished through spectral filtering whereby photons unusable or poorly utilitized by PV (IR and UV) are passed through to a heat collection element, while useful photons (VIS) are reflected onto a concentrating PV (CPV) receiver. The mechanical design and experimental validation of spectral splitting optics is described in conjunction with system level modeling and economic analysis. The implications of this architecture include higher efficiency, lower cost hybrid CSP-PV power systems, as well as the potential to retrofit existing PTC plants to boost their output by ~ 10% at a projected investment cost of less than 1 per additional net Watt and an IRR of 18%, while preserving the dispatchability of the CSP plant's thermal energy storage.

  1. Mapping the energy spectrum of the spin states of mixed-valent [Fe8]n- via pulsed field magnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, Ross D; Singleton, John; Raptis, Raphel G

    2011-01-14

    The electronic structure of a family of octanuclear Fe{sup III}-complexes of the general formula [Fe{sub 8}({mu}{sub 4}-O)4({mu}-{sub r}-R-pz){sub 12}X{sub 4}] ([Fe{sub 8}]{sup 0}) and its redox-modified, mixed-valence [Fe{sub 8}]{sup n-} derivatives, where R = H, Me, Et, F, CI, Sr, I, etc. and X = F, CI, Sr, NCS, NCO, N{sub 3}, has recently been modeled by a an effective Hamiltonian consisting of two dominant exchange interactions [1]. The ground state properties (from S{sub tot} = 0 to 7) and magnetic energy level spacing of the Hamiltonian, and hence predicted magnetic properties, are widely tunable via choice of J's. The corresponding [Fe{sub 8}]{sup n-} anionic complexes with n = 1 - 4 are accessible electrochemically, allowing their in situ spectroelectrochemical characterization. The singly-reduced anions [Fe{sub 8}]{sup 1-} of the R = H, Cl and X = Cl species have also been prepared chemically via reduction with a stoichiometric amount of [BH{sub 4}]-, and characterized crystallographically; the structure of the Fe{sub 8}-cluster remains unaffected by the reduction, with most bond lengths differences within experimental error. Their Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis has pointed to the reduction taking place primarily within the Fe{sub 4}O{sub 4}-cubane, with charges delocalized over the four Fe{sub c} sites in the Moessbauer timescale. In contrast, the [Fe{sub 8}]{sup 1-} and [Fe{sub 8}]{sup 2-} species with R = Cl and X = NCS show a reduction at the outer, Fe{sub o}-sites, generating one or two localized Fe{sub o}-centers.

  2. Secondary Neutron Doses to Pediatric Patients During Intracranial Proton Therapy: Monte Carlo Simulation of the Neutron Energy Spectrum and its Organ Doses.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shinnosuke; Koba, Yusuke; Kohno, Ryosuke; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E; Kai, Michiaki

    2016-04-01

    Proton therapy has the physical advantage of a Bragg peak that can provide a better dose distribution than conventional x-ray therapy. However, radiation exposure of normal tissues cannot be ignored because it is likely to increase the risk of secondary cancer. Evaluating secondary neutrons generated by the interaction of the proton beam with the treatment beam-line structure is necessary; thus, performing the optimization of radiation protection in proton therapy is required. In this research, the organ dose and energy spectrum were calculated from secondary neutrons using Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo code known as the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was used to simulate the transport proton and its interaction with the treatment beam-line structure that modeled the double scattering body of the treatment nozzle at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. The doses of the organs in a hybrid computational phantom simulating a 5-y-old boy were calculated. In general, secondary neutron doses were found to decrease with increasing distance to the treatment field. Secondary neutron energy spectra were characterized by incident neutrons with three energy peaks: 1×10, 1, and 100 MeV. A block collimator and a patient collimator contributed significantly to organ doses. In particular, the secondary neutrons from the patient collimator were 30 times higher than those from the first scatter. These results suggested that proactive protection will be required in the design of the treatment beam-line structures and that organ doses from secondary neutrons may be able to be reduced. PMID:26910030

  3. On the Relationship of the Energy Spectrum Indexes of the 11-Year Variation of Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field Strength Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, M. V.; Iskra, K.; Modzelewska, R.; Siluszyk, M.

    2003-07-01

    Data of neutron super monitors and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been used to find a relationship between the temporal changes of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) isotropic intensity variations energy spectrum index γ (δ D/D(R) ∝ R-γ , where R is the rigidity of GCR particles) and the exponent ( of the power spectral density (PSD) of the IMF's strength fluctuations (PSD ∝ f-ν , where f is the frequency). INTRODUCTION. The 11-year variation of GCR is generally related with the similar variation of solar activity (SA) [1-5]. Up to present it is not well established which of parameters or group of parameters of SA and of the solar wind are responsible for the 11-year variation of GCR. To answer to this question it is necessary to estimate the separate contributions of each processes — convection, diffusion, drift and energy changes of GCR due to the interaction with the solar wind. However, all above mentioned processes are interconnected and an estimation of the roles of each separate processes contains some uncertainties. Regarding contributions of all above mentioned processes in the formation of the 11-year variation of GCR the special role is ascrib ed to the varying character of the diffusion from the minima to the maxima epochs of SA. It was noted [6-8] that the exponent γ of GCR isotropic intensity variations (δ D(R)/D (R) = AR-γ , where R is the GCR particle's rigidity and A is he power) could be considered as one of the important indices for the explanation of the 11-year variation of GCR for the energy more than 1 GeV.

  4. Secondary Neutron Doses to Pediatric Patients During Intracranial Proton Therapy: Monte Carlo Simulation of the Neutron Energy Spectrum and its Organ Doses.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shinnosuke; Koba, Yusuke; Kohno, Ryosuke; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E; Kai, Michiaki

    2016-04-01

    Proton therapy has the physical advantage of a Bragg peak that can provide a better dose distribution than conventional x-ray therapy. However, radiation exposure of normal tissues cannot be ignored because it is likely to increase the risk of secondary cancer. Evaluating secondary neutrons generated by the interaction of the proton beam with the treatment beam-line structure is necessary; thus, performing the optimization of radiation protection in proton therapy is required. In this research, the organ dose and energy spectrum were calculated from secondary neutrons using Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo code known as the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was used to simulate the transport proton and its interaction with the treatment beam-line structure that modeled the double scattering body of the treatment nozzle at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. The doses of the organs in a hybrid computational phantom simulating a 5-y-old boy were calculated. In general, secondary neutron doses were found to decrease with increasing distance to the treatment field. Secondary neutron energy spectra were characterized by incident neutrons with three energy peaks: 1×10, 1, and 100 MeV. A block collimator and a patient collimator contributed significantly to organ doses. In particular, the secondary neutrons from the patient collimator were 30 times higher than those from the first scatter. These results suggested that proactive protection will be required in the design of the treatment beam-line structures and that organ doses from secondary neutrons may be able to be reduced.

  5. Measurement of the total spectrum of electrons and positrons in the energy range of 300–1500 GeV in the PAMELA experiment with the aid of a sampling calorimeter and a neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Karelin, A. V. Voronov, S. A.; Galper, A. M.; Koldobskiy, S. A.; Collaboration: on behalf of the PAMELA Collaboration

    2015-03-15

    A method based on the use of a sampling calorimeter was developed for measuring the total energy spectrum of electrons and positrons from high-energy cosmic rays in the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment. This made it possible to extend the range of energies accessible to measurements by the magnetic system of the PAMELA spectrometer. Themethod involves a procedure for selecting electrons on the basis of features of a secondary-particle shower in the calorimeter. The results obtained by measuring the total spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range of 300–1500 GeV by the method in question are presented on the basis of data accumulated over a period spanning 2006 and 2013.

  6. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  7. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  8. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  9. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  10. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Autism Spectrum Disorder Information Page Condensed from Autism Spectrum ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or ...

  12. Impact of Complex-Valued Energy Function Singularities on the Behaviour of RAYLEIGH-SCHRöDINGER Perturbation Series. H_2CO Molecule Vibrational Energy Spectrum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchko, Andrey; Bykov, Alexandr

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays the task of spectra processing is as relevant as ever in molecular spectroscopy. Nevertheless, existing techniques of vibrational energy levels and wave functions computation often come to a dead-lock. Application of standard quantum-mechanical approaches often faces inextricable difficulties. Variational method requires unimaginable computational performance. On the other hand perturbational approaches beat against divergent series. That's why this problem faces an urgent need in application of specific resummation techniques. In this research Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory is applied to vibrational energy levels calculation of excited vibrational states of H_2CO. It is known that perturbation series diverge in the case of anharmonic resonance coupling between vibrational states [1]. Nevertheless, application of advanced divergent series summation techniques makes it possible to calculate the value of energy with high precision (more than 10 true digits) even for highly excited states of the molecule [2]. For this purposes we have applied several summation techniques based on high-order Pade-Hermite approximations. Our research shows that series behaviour completely depends on the singularities of complex energy function inside unit circle. That's why choosing an approximation function modelling this singularities allows to calculate the sum of divergent series. Our calculations for formaldehyde molecule show that the efficiency of each summation technique depends on the resonant type. REFERENCES 1. J. Cizek, V. Spirko, and O. Bludsky, ON THE USE OF DIVERGENT SERIES IN VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL OSCILLATORS, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7331 (1993). 2. A. V. Sergeev and D. Z. Goodson, SINGULARITY ANALYSIS OF FOURTH-ORDER MöLLER-PLESSET PERTURBATION THEORY, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 4111 (2006).

  13. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  14. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  15. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Periodic rate adjustments. 154.403 Section 154.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154.403 Periodic rate adjustments....

  16. Evidence of Spin and Energy Extraction in a Galactic Black Hole Candidate: The XMM-NEWTON/EPIC SPECTRUM of XTE 11650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Wunands, R.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ehle, M.; Freyberg, M. J.; VanDerKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 early in its fall of 2001 outburst with the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging pn Camera (EPIC-pn). The observed spectrum is consistent with the source having been in the very high state. We h d a broad, skewed Fe Kar emission line that suggests the primary in this system may be a Kerr black hole and that indicates a steep disk emissivity profile that is hard to explain in terms of a standard accretion disk model. These results are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy MCG -6-30-15. The steep emissivity in MCG -6-30-15 may be explained by the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a black hole with nearly maximal angular momentum or from material in the plunging region via magnetic connections to the inner accretion disk. If this process is at work in both sources, an exotic but fundamental general relativistic prediction may be confirmed across a factor of l0(exp 6) in black hole mass. We discuss these results in terms of the accretion flow geometry in stellar-mass black holes and the variety of enigmatic phenomena often observed in the very high state.

  17. Reanalysis of the Apollo cosmic gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.3 to 10 MeV energy region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Evans, L. G.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Selzer, S. M.; Metzger, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Additional data obtained from the Apollo 16 and 17 missions, together with collateral calculations on background radiation effects, have made possible an improved subtraction of unwanted backgrounds from the diffuse cosmic gamma ray data previously reported from Apollo 15. As a result, the 1 to 10 MeV spectrum is lowered significantly and connects smoothly with recent data at other energies. The inflection reported previously is much less pronounced and has no more than 1.5 sigma significance. Sky occultation by the Apollo 16 spacecraft shows the bulk of the 0.3 to 1 MeV radiation to be diffuse. The analysis of spurious backgrounds points to important improvements for future experiments designed for this spectral region. A light-weight satellite design can give a fourfold improvement in the signal to noise for such a measurement. Use of an anisotropic central crystal, which spins quickly compared with possible time variations in detector background, would enable sensitive limits to be set on galactic plane and point source contributions.

  18. Bioenergetic strategy of microalgae for the biodegradation of phenolic compounds: exogenously supplied energy and carbon sources adjust the level of biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2007-05-10

    The biodegradation of phenolic compounds by microalgae seems to be not a simple feature of a particular organism, but mostly a bioenergetic process depending on the growth conditions, especially on the exogenously supplied energy (carbon and light) sources. By using chlorophyll fluorescence induction measurements to estimate the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore the tolerance/sensitivity of microalgae incubated with phenols, it can be assumed that, at least in low concentrations, phenol have no toxic effects on the cultures and can be used as alternative carbon source in them. Halophenols (chlorophenols, bromophenols and iodophenols) are quite toxic for the microalgal cultures. In halophenols the first step of the biodegradation is the split of the halogen substituent (dehalogenation). This is strongly determined by the bond dissociation energy of the corresponding substituent and therefore the energetic requirement for the biodegradation of halophenols increases following the sequence: iodophenolenergy than the ortho- and the para-one. These are possible explanations of the fact that the biodegradation of halophenols needs additional energy sources that can be exogenously supplied as organic carbon (glucose) or inorganic carbon (CO(2)).

  19. Frequency spectrum analysis for spectrum stabilization in airborne gamma-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Ge, Liangquan; Zhang, Qingxian; Gu, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal multi-crystal spectral drifts often can be observed when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer. Currently, these spectral drifts of each crystal are generally eliminated through manual adjustment, which is time-consuming and labor-ineffective. To realize this quick automatic spectrum stabilization of multi-crystal, a frequency spectrum analysis method for natural gamma-ray background spectrum is put forward in this paper to replace traditional spectrum stabilization method used characteristic peak. Based on the polynomial fitting of high harmonics in frequency spectrum and gamma-ray spectral drift, it calculates overall spectral drift of natural gamma-ray spectrum and adjusts the gain of spectrometer by this spectral drift value, thus completing quick spectrum stabilization in the power on stage of spectrometer. This method requires no manual intervention and can obtain the overall spectral drift value automatically under no time-domain pre-processing to the natural gamma-ray spectra. The spectral drift value calculated by this method has an absolute error less than five channels (1024 resolution) and a relative error smaller than 0.80%, which can satisfy the quick automatic spectrum stabilization requirement when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer instead of manual operation.

  20. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  1. Morphological and metabolic adjustments in the small intestine to energy demands of growth, storage, and fasting in the first annual cycle of a hibernating lizard (Tupinambis merianae).

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Lucas Francisco R; da Silveira, Lilian Cristina; Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Colquhoun, Alison; Abe, Agusto S; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Silvia Cristina R

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal plasticity in the small intestine of neonatal tegu lizards was investigated using morphometry and analysis of enzymes involved in supplying energy to the intestinal tissue. In the autumn, the intestinal mass (Mi) was 1.0% of body mass and the scaling exponent b=0.92 indicated that Mi was larger in smaller neonates. During arousal from dormancy Mi was 23% smaller; later in spring, Mi increased 60% in relation to the autumn and the exponent b=0.14 indicated that the recovery was disproportionate in smaller tegus. During the autumn, the intestinal villi were greatly elongated; by midwinter, the Hv, SvEp, and VvEp were smaller than during the autumn (59%, 54%, 29%) and were restored to autumn levels during spring. In the active tegus, the maximum activity (Vmax) of enzymes indicated that the enterocytes can obtain energy from different sources, and possess gluconeogenic capacity. During winter, the Vmax of CS, HOAD, GDH, PEPCK was 40-50% lower in relation to the autumn and spring, while the Vmax of HK, PK, LDH, AST was unchanged. The hypoglycemia and the mucosal atrophy/ischemia during winter would prevent the enterocytes from using glucose, whereas they could slowly oxidize fatty acids released from body stores and amino acids from the tissue proteolysis to satisfy their needs of energy. Contrastingly, starvation during spring caused severe mass loss (50%); the tissue protein and the VvEp and VvLP did not change while the thickness of the muscular layer increased 51%, which suggested different effects along the length of the organ. In addition, the Vmax of the glycolytic enzymes was lower, indicating that a regulatory mechanism would spare blood glucose for vital organs during unanticipated food restriction. PMID:26872995

  2. From individuals to populations to communities: a dynamic energy budget model of marine ecosystem size-spectrum including life history diversity.

    PubMed

    Maury, Olivier; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Individual metabolism, predator-prey relationships, and the role of biodiversity are major factors underlying the dynamics of food webs and their response to environmental variability. Despite their crucial, complementary and interacting influences, they are usually not considered simultaneously in current marine ecosystem models. In an attempt to fill this gap and determine if these factors and their interaction are sufficient to allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge, we formulate a mathematical model of the size-structured dynamics of marine communities which integrates mechanistically individual, population and community levels. The model represents the transfer of energy generated in both time and size by an infinite number of interacting fish species spanning from very small to very large species. It is based on standard individual level assumptions of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) as well as important ecological processes such as opportunistic size-based predation and competition for food. Resting on the inter-specific body-size scaling relationships of the DEB theory, the diversity of life-history traits (i.e. biodiversity) is explicitly integrated. The stationary solutions of the model as well as the transient solutions arising when environmental signals (e.g. variability of primary production and temperature) propagate through the ecosystem are studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that in the absence of density-dependent feedback processes, the model exhibits unstable oscillations. Density-dependent schooling probability and schooling-dependent predatory and disease mortalities are proposed to be important stabilizing factors allowing stationary solutions to be reached. At the community level, the shape and slope of the obtained quasi-linear stationary spectrum matches well with empirical studies. When oscillations of primary production are simulated, the model predicts that the variability propagates along the

  3. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  4. The Spectrum and Laplacian Spectrum of the Dice Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuli; Yan, Weigen; Tian, Tao

    2016-07-01

    The dice lattice is the dual lattice of kagomé lattice. Many physical properties on the dice lattice have been studied by physicists, such as Ising model, Glassy dynamics of Josephson arrays, and Lattice Green's function. In this paper, we derive the spectrum and Laplacian spectrum of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition. In addition, we apply our results to obtain the formulae of the number of spanning trees, the Kirchhoff index, and the energy of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition.

  5. The X-ray Spectrum and Spectral Energy Distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: A Beamed Radio-Quiet Quasar with a Polar Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrington, Robert C.; Brotherton, M. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Ganguly, R.; Shang, Z.; Lacy, M.; Gregg, M. D.; Hall, P. B.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2007-12-01

    We report the results of a 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized "FeLoBAL" quasar FIRST J155633.8+351758. Our analyses of the 531 photon spectrum indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index Γ = 1.7 or flatter). No iron K-α line is detected, and the X-rays appear to be down by only an order of magnitude below their intrinsic unabsorbed levels. Absorption is present with both partially ionized models and neutral hydrogen models with partial covering providing good fits. The level of partial covering in the latter model is consistent with the rest-frame ultraviolet maximum polarization of 13%, in the sense that light scattered by electrons around the X-ray absorber could account for both results. We present the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIRST J155633.8+351758 from radio through X-ray energies, and make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio-quiet jet, optical dust reddening, and X-ray absorption. The corrected SED appears to be that of a luminous radio-quiet quasar deficient in the mid and far-infrared, suggesting that the dust covering fraction of the quasar is not large and that star formation is not excessive. FIRST J155633.8+351758 seems to be an intrinsically normal radio-quiet quasar with an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars studied in detail at X-ray wavelengths. We acknowledge support from Chandra Award No. GO6-7105X, from the US NSF (grant AST 05-07781), from NASA under the grant NNG05GD03G, and from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 10643001). This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the University of California, LLNL (Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48).

  6. A review on in situ stiffness adjustment methods in MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, M. L. C.; Pérez Garza, H. H.; Herder, J. L.; Ghatkesar, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    In situ stiffness adjustment in microelectromechanical systems is used in a variety of applications such as radio-frequency mechanical filters, energy harvesters, atomic force microscopy, vibration detection sensors. In this review we provide designers with an overview of existing stiffness adjustment methods, their working principle, and possible adjustment range. The concepts are categorized according to their physical working principle. It is concluded that the electrostatic adjustment principle is the most applied method, and narrow to wide ranges in stiffness can be achieved. But in order to obtain a wide range in stiffness change, large, complex devices were designed. Mechanical stiffness adjustment is found to be a space-effective way of obtaining wide changes in stiffness, but these methods are often discrete and require large tuning voltages. Stiffness adjustment through stressing effects or change in Young’s modulus was used only for narrow ranges. The change in second moment of inertia was used for stiffness adjustment in the intermediate range.

  7. Adjustable rheology of fumed silica dispersion in urethane prepolymers: Composition-dependent sol and gel behaviors and energy-mediated shear responses

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhong Song, Yihu Wang, Xiang Zheng, Qiang

    2015-07-15

    Variation of colloidal and interfacial interactions leads to a microstructural diversity in fumed silica dispersions exhibiting absolutely different sol- or gel-like rheological responses. In this study, fumed silicas with different surface areas (200–400 m{sup 2}/g) and surface characteristics (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) are dispersed into moisture-cured polyurethane. The microstructures investigated using transmission electron microscope are associated perfectly with three different rheological behaviors: (i) Sols with well-dispersed silica aggregates, (ii) weak gels with agglomerate-linked networks, and (iii) strong gels with concentrated networks of large agglomerates. Though sols and gels are well distinguished by shear thickening or sustained thinning response through steady shear flow test, it is interesting that the sols and weak gels exhibit a uniform modulus plateau-softening-hardening-softening response with increasing dynamic strain at frequency 10 rad s{sup −1} while the strong gels show a sustained softening beyond the linear regime. Furthermore, the onset of softening and hardening can be normalized: The two softening are isoenergetic at mechanical energies of 0.3 J m{sup −3} and 10 kJ m{sup −3}. On the other hand, the hardening is initiated by a critical strain of 60%. The mechanisms involved in the generation of the sol- and the gel-like dispersions and their structural evolutions during shear are thoroughly clarified in relation to the polyols, the characteristic and content of silica and the curing catalysts.

  8. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  9. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  10. Maximum pixel spectrum: a new tool for detecting and recovering rare, unanticipated features from spectrum image data cubes.

    PubMed

    Bright, D S; Newbury, D E

    2004-11-01

    A new software tool, the maximum pixel spectrum, detects rare events within a spectrum image data cube, such as that generated with electron-excited energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in a scanning electron microscope. The maximum pixel spectrum is a member of a class of 'derived spectra' that are constructed from the spectrum image data cube. Similar to a conventional spectrum, a derived spectrum is a linear array of intensity vs. channel index that corresponds to photon energy. A derived spectrum has the principal characteristics of a real spectrum so that X-ray peaks can be recognized. A common example of a derived spectrum is the summation spectrum, which is a linear array in which the summation of all pixels within each energy plane gives the intensity value for that channel. The summation spectrum is sensitive to the dominant features of the data cube. The maximum pixel spectrum is constructed by selecting the maximum pixel value within each X-ray energy plane, ignoring the remaining pixels. Peaks corresponding to highly localized trace constituents or foreign contaminants, even those that are confined to one pixel of the image, can be seen at a glance when the maximum pixel spectrum is compared with the summation spectrum. PMID:15516230

  11. Stochastic shock response spectrum decomposition method based on probabilistic definitions of temporal peak acceleration, spectral energy, and phase lag distributions of mechanical impact pyrotechnic shock test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Duran, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Most of the times pyrotechnic shock design and test requirements for space systems are provided in Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) without the input time history. Since the SRS does not describe the input or the environment, a decomposition method is used to obtain the source time history. The main objective of this paper is to develop a decomposition method producing input time histories that can satisfy the SRS requirement based on the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from a mechanical impact test apparatus. At the heart of this decomposition method is the statistical representation of the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) designed Universal Pyrotechnic Shock Simulator (UPSS). Each pyrotechnic shock test data measured at the interface of a test unit has been analyzed to produce the temporal peak acceleration, Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration, and the phase lag at each band center frequency. Maximum SRS of each filtered time history has been calculated to produce a relationship between the input and the response. Two new definitions are proposed as a result. The Peak Ratio (PR) is defined as the ratio between the maximum SRS and the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency. The ratio between the maximum SRS and the RMS acceleration is defined as the Energy Ratio (ER) at each band center frequency. Phase lag is estimated based on the time delay between the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency and the peak acceleration at the lowest band center frequency. This stochastic process has been applied to more than one hundred pyrotechnic shock test data to produce probabilistic definitions of the PR, ER, and the phase lag. The SRS is decomposed at each band center frequency using damped sinusoids with the PR and the decays obtained by matching the ER of the damped sinusoids to the ER of the test data. The final step in this stochastic SRS decomposition process is the Monte Carlo (MC

  12. Wideband digital spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. A., Jr.; Wilck, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Modular spectrum analyzer consisting of RF receiver, fast fourier transform spectrum analyzer, and data processor samples stochastic signals in 220 channels. Construction reduces design and fabrication costs of assembled unit.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral ... for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E-mail Your Friends "Children with autism ...

  14. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  15. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  16. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  17. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  18. Simplified Digital Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    Spectrum analyzer computes approximate cross-correlations between noisy input signal and reference signal of known frequency, yielding measure of amplitude of sinusoidal component of input. Complexity and power consumed less than other digital spectrum analyzers. Performs no multiplications, and because processes data on each frequency independently, focuses on narrow spectral range without processing data on rest of spectrum.

  19. Quantum theory of the mazer. III. Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Michael; Vogel, Karl; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Scully, Marlan O.; Walther, Herbert

    1997-11-01

    We calculate the spectrum of the micromaser with quantized motion of the pump atoms [M. O. Scully, G. M. Meyer, and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4144 (1996)] in different velocity regimes. We show that when the kinetic energy of the pump atoms is comparable to the atom-field interaction energy the spectrum of the cavity field is no longer centered at the cavity frequency. In the case of very slow atoms huge broadenings and shifts occur in the vicinity of the mazer resonances. We present approximate analytical results for the spectrum that allow a comparison with the exact numerical calculations.

  20. Self-adjusting mechanical snubbing link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    All-mechanical shock-absorber concept has several advantages over hydraulic devices. Snubbing link automatically adjusts length under light loads, locks at any position when onslaught exceeds design limits for which it is set, and will not leak oil or require periodic servicing. Concept can be incorporated as safety device on material handling systems or as energy absorption device or governor for machines or equipment.